# Feature Construction

Introduction to Parametric Feature Based Solid Modeling (Lecture #7)

Traditional CAD modeler creates geometry a specified size (A). In a constraint-based modeler, the geometric relationships are coded directly into the model with parameters. (B & C)

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Feature Construction
Like dimensions, parameters can be associated with geometric features such as lines, curves, and planes. Unlike dimensions, parameters do not have to represent a single static value. It is important to remember that parameters are always related back to geometric features. Likewise, geometric relationships such as parallelism are made between features such as lines or planes.

Feature Construction
Modeling Process 1. 2-D skecth profile (A) 2. Assign enough parameters to fully define size & shape (B)

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Feature Construction
Modeling Process 3. Alter one or more of th parametric values (C) 4. Extrued or sweep the 2-D profile into 3-D part (D)

The part on the left intends to have the bole fixed at an offset of 10 from the left edge whereas the part on the right intends to have the hole centered. The differences in the design intent can be seen when the overall width of the part is altered.

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Like constraint-based modeling. The features available in the software are usually designed to relate to how engineers think in their design and manufacturing work. 4 .Feature ConstructionTechniques Computer-generated objects are typically made up of features. Most software packages such as Mechanical Desktop and Pro/E have predefined features that you use to build your objects. Feature-based Modelıng An important advancement in 3-D solids modeling is the introduction of feature-based modeling. feature-based modeling is an at-tempt to make modeling a more efficient process more in tune with how designers and engineers actually work. Most modern CAD software employs a methodology know as feature-based modeling.

Feature-based Modelıng Feature modeling interface higher level interface would permit specification of entities in terms of geometric and dimensional constraints permit definition of features directly by user. with appropriate geometric shape created within solid modeling engine – solid modeling engine: a toolkit of modeling subroutines called by software Relationship of Feature-Based Interface to Geometric Modeler User Input FeatureBased Interface Solid Modelling Engine : (B-rep or CSG) 5 .

Addresses the design concerns previously noted.Modeling Systems Feature-based Modelıng One of the newest developments in solid modeling. 6 . Represents an attempt to tighten the relationship between the model and the manufacturing processes required to produce the component.

Feature-based Modelıng Parts are represented in terms of higher level entities (features) that have engineering meaning. but also higher level information. For example: – work with holes as opposed to cylinders – cuts and extrusions rather than blocks and wedges. Models contain not just basic geometric and topological data (as all solid models will).Feature-based Modelıng Geometry is defined in terms of real world “features” as opposed to abstract geometric entities. 7 .

a “through” hole Features store non-graphic information for use in: – 2D drawing creation. CNC and kinematic analysis What is a variational profile? A variational profile is a set of plane curves and lines to which you can assign geometrical and dimensional constraints and which you can use to create solids or to add features to existing solids. Variational profiles are the basic components of parametric structure.Feature-based Modelıng Features capture “design intent” Included information defines how the features behaves in editing – for example. FEA. 8 .

9 .What is a variational profile? You can use profiles to create solids and features by applying a linear sweep or revolving the profile. but not islands within islands. Rules for building a profile You can create a profile from any set of curves that meet the following conditions: • The curves must be co-planar and be drawn on the Work Plane. In the case of a feature. • The curves can form an open or closed profile and may contain islands. the profile is used either to add material to or remove material from a solid.

etc.) •Profiles may defined as constrained sketch geometry (constraint-based systems) Type Passages Classifying Shape Features Description subtracted volumes that intersect the pre-existing shape at both ends subtracted volumes that intersect the pre-existing shape at one end subtracted volumes completely enclosed by material added volumes that intersect the pre-esixting shape at one end added volumes that intersect the pre-existing shape at both ends Depressions Voids Protrusions Connector 10 . cuts.Shape Features Created through: – sweeping and blending (lofting) of 2D profiles • features used to add material (protrusions) or remove (depressions.

Hard-coded features have a characteristic topology have a generic geometry user input for specific properties such as . fillets. slots.diameter. rounds Hard-coded features Examples of manufactured features created through special feature-based dialog boxes include the following: Blind holes Counterbores and countersinks Slots Bosses 11 . depth. entity reference (mounting face) examples – holes.

the location is defined. Reference features ▪Not geometric features ▪Used for orientation and location of features within model ▪Examples are: – datum planes – datum axes ▪Also include defined 2D “sketch planes” 12 .Hard-coded features The variables entered through the dialog box largely define the shape and size. Once these variables of the feature are defined. features usually don’t constitute an entire part. By convention.

Reference features The feature is typically located somewhere on a base part. Base feature First feature created is the “base feature” The base feature: – provides the initial reference for all subsequent features. A feature such as a blind hole is located by indicating its orientation to a face and distance from two edges. regardless of type – may be reference feature(s) – may be a stand-alone shape feature 13 .

14 . slots. or bosses rather than geometric terms such as circles or boxes.Relation to traditional design During the design process of a component. more attention is given to form and topology than dimensional precision in the conceptual phase. The designer specifies features in engineering terms such as holes. The Features of Feature-based Modeling Feature-based modeling refers to the construction of geometries as a combination of form features. profiles are sketched to capture this “design intent”. In a feature-based which supports constraints.

This information can be used in activities such as drafting.The Features of Feature-based Modeling Features can also store nongraphic information as well. NC. and kinematic analysis. feature-based packages frequently record the geometric construction and modification sequences used in building the model. Furthermore. finite-element analysis. 15 . no matter how the part changes. The problem: Lengthening the part geometry turns the slot into a blind hole. Feature method: Through-hole feature understands that it must pass through the part. The Features of Feature-based Modeling Old method: Define slot as Boolean difference between the part and space.

Simple and Hole Wizard Scale Shell Rib Dome Shape Pattern and Mirror Surfaces 16 . Revolve. Chamfer. fillets. Boss. slots. similar to CSG • Features are not limited to simple primitives. ribs. • Material can be added or subtracted. • A history tree is created. etc. and Cut Extrude. and Loft Fillet/Round.Feature-Based Modelling • Parts modelled by adding features to a base part • Features represent manufacturing “operations” – holes. etc. pockets. Sweep. sweeping. and can be created by extrusion. and Draft Hole . chamfers. similar to a CSG boolean tree Feature-Based Modelling Base. revolving.

Very high level. etc. blind slots. through slots. If a standard feature is used there will be a standard process plan to make that feature). Feature-Based Modelling Advantages. like a ridge in a car hood. • very intuitive and easy to use • can simplify other aspects of CIM (eg. but can complicate additions of unanticipated features. • emphasizes the use of standard components. such as chamfers.Feature-Based Modelling The designer would simply define a part in terms of fundamental manufacturing features. 17 .

Macro Features box External Features linear chamfer linear round linear v slot linear slot linear round slot linear t-slot Internal Features rectangular pocket linear fillet 18 .Disadvantages. • restrictive when dealing with nonstandard features • interaction of features can be hard to estimate • a complete set of all possible features would be very large There are two levels of features commonly used in these systems. • micro • macro Feature-Based Modelling Feature-Based Modelling A set of prismatic features might be.

Macro Features cylinder taper Internal Features internal taper internal slot internal tapered radial slot internal round slot countersink internal spline woodruff keyseat Feature Catalogs External Features rotational fillet thread square neck chamfer shoulder external radius key seat spline flat thread 19 .Feature-Based Modelling A set of standard features for rotational parts might be.

Feature Catalogs Using Feature Catalog 20 .

Part Families Features overview Extrude Boss/Cut solid 21 .

Combining Objects Basic Concepts of Combining Parts To combine two parts. a joining. ROTATE. or an intersecting operation combines objects. 22 . you first identify which one you want to use as the base part and make it active. Basically. Then you position the toolbody part on the base part using MOVE. they share a common volume. Notice that these two objects overlap each other.Combining Objects To learn how features are used to create objects. In other words. a cutting. or assembly constraints. it is important for you to first understand how two objects combine to form a third object.

or intersecting them. 23 . but the base part and toolbody must be instances of different pars. joining.Combining Objects Basic Concepts of Combining Parts You can combine as many toolbodies with a base part as you like. you need to establish relationships between the two parts being combined in order to simplify the modification of the part at a later date or to create parts to exact size or shape specifications. External parts cannot be used to create a complex part. Combining Objects Combining Objects with Relations When you are combining objects by cutting.

when you modify the object at a later point in time.Combining Objects Combining Objects with Relations These relationships are similar to constraints. Combining Objects Modifying the Features of an Object The major advantages of feature-based modeling is your ability to change the size of individual features on an object at any time. the relationships constrain the relative locations of the parts that make up the final object. 24 . You can define the basic shape that your final object will have and then modify the individual sizes of the features that make up the object.

• Identify the most simple element to use as your base feature.Combining Objects Modifying the Features of an Object These modifications usually consist of modifying the order of construction for the features included in your object or deleting the features themselves from the object Basic Concepts of Creating Parts In general you may follow this process to developed a part design: • Look at the whole part & decide how it can be broken down into simple shapes. • As you adjust your design strategy. • As you build individual features. 25 . review & adjust your ideas about how the features work together. • Decide the order for creating additional features. you can revise the features you created earlier. • Determine the methods for creating the features.

Features overview Cut the solid Features overview Corner Fillets Sheet metal 26 .

Features overview Features overview Sweep Face Blend Fillet Loft Extrude with center line 27 .

Features Slot Hole History Tree Final Part Increasing part complexity Part2 Part1 Countersink Counterbore Part3 Hole Fillets Slot Shell Base Features added 28 .

deleted and reordered • Feature dimensions can be changed • Feature parameters can be changed – eg. From protrusion to cutout Modifying Parts Draft Chamfer 29 .Modifying Parts • The part is created from the history tree • Features can be added.

Modifying Parts Pattern Constraint-based systems Shell 30 .

There are two major types of constraint-based modeling systems available on the market today: variational geometry and parametric modeling. and as “relations” when parts are cut. joined. What are Constraints ? These rules are described as “constraints” on wireframe geometry used to extrude and revolve pans.What are Constraints ? The solid model stores more than just the final geometry— it stores the “design intent” rules that govern what will happen when geometry changes. 31 . This makes it easy to make flexible design changes to part models. or intersected.

Variational Geometry This concept is best described by a simple example. 1 through 4. defined by 4 points. A degree of freedom exists if there is currently no constraint applied to control a specific feature of the geometry of your sketch. constraints are applied to the 2-D shape in terms of degrees of freedom.Variational Geometry With variational geometry. Start with a simple 4-sided polygon. What do we want to happen if point 3 is translated to the right? 32 . as shown below.

It looks at the geometry. 33 . Uses of Variational Geometry What happens if fewer than this number are applied. The solver used to solve variational geometry is not just a simple simultaneous-equation solver. to solve a set of simultaneous equations. If you were using a general-purpose symbolic math package. and a change is made to a value? There could be more than one possible solution. the number of equations must equal the number of unknowns. and attempts to make the minimum change if more than one solution is possible. it might not let you try to solve a set of equations where there were more unknowns than there were equations. Normally.Uses of Variational Geometry How Many Constraints do You Need? Some mathematically-inclined readers may have a question at this point about how many constraints can be applied to a section.

Constraint-based systems • User constrains geometry based on Design Intent • Design variations can be generated by changing a few key dimensions • Geometry is automatically regenerated based on constraints 34 . In a constraint-based modeler. describing the relationship of geometric elements with equations and logical relationships creates a part.Constraint-based systems Constraint-based modeling is a technique that can help the CAD operator manage the model modification process.

Constraint-based systems Concept first developed in 1970’s First commercial system in 1988 Most current professional level feature-based modelers use constraint-based techniques to help define features. (through the creation of profiles) Constraint-based systems 2D profile geometry not explicitly defined. Constraints stored internally as equations. Equations are solved to resolve the sketch geometry. but rather driven by the constraints. 35 .

Equations may be solved sequentially – referred to as “parametric system” – results of each previous solution used in next Equations may be solved simultaneously – referred to as “variational system” Constraint-based systems Constraint-based systems may be – parametric (sequential evaluation of constraints) Variational (simultaneous evaluation of constraints) Many systems use a combination of both techniques 36 .Solving constraint equations Set of constraint equations solved to define a unique solution profile.

37 .Constraint-based systems Constraints also used to control: the relationships between features on the same component the relationships between features on the different components (in separate files) the relationships between components in an assembly Types of Constraint Constraints enable you to preserve the original design intent even as changes are made to the model you have created. Constraints allow for a great deal of flexibility in the design. but it is important that you apply the constraints properly so that the integrity of the design is maintained.

38 . Ground constraints are added to your sketch to define which of the pair of lines involved is the movable line. you establish relationships that must be maintained as modifications are made to its geometry.Types of Constraint Constraint Types • Ground constraints • Dimensional constraints • Geometric constraints Types of Constraint Ground constraints When you constrain your sketch.

Y) Location Angular 39 . radius. Geometric constraints force the profile to conform to a specific shape. (X. or rotation angle of the geometric ele-ments in your sketch. Dimensional constraints. You can change a dimension at any time and its new value will be immediately reflected in the design.Y Vertical Horizontal Types of Constraint Dimensional constraints Dimensional constraints specify the length. on the other hand. add the parametric characteristic to the profile.Types of Constraint Ground constraints • Vertical • Horizontal • Angular • X.

radial. angular. linear.g. diametric Dimensional constraints also stored as equations in database Types of Constraint Dimensional constraints • Horizontal dimension • Vertical dimension • Linear dimension • Angular dimension • Radial dimension 40 .Types of Constraint Dimensional constraints Specified as dimensions – e.

Types of Constraint
Dimensional constraints Linear This constraint is used to define – the linear distance between two lines between a line and a point, or between two points. Angular

Types of Constraint
Dimensional constraints Angular dimensions are used to define the angle between two lines on your sketch.

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Types of Constraint
Dimensional constraints Diametral & Radial Diametral constraints are used to control the diameter of any circles on your sketch. Radial dimensions control the radius of any arcs on your sketch.

Types of Constraint
Method of Entry & Display of Dimension Values Dimensions can be shown and entered as either numeric constants or as equations.
d1=2

Use numeric values when the size of an object is not related to another object and use an equation when the size of an object is directly related to another object.

d0=1

d4=4

d3=d4/2

d2=(d4-d3)/2

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Types of Constraint
Geometric constraints Size and position of specified 2D geometry controlled by geometric relationships with other entities. May be implied (system created) or applied (user created), depending upon software.

Types of Constraint
Geometric constraints Geometric constraints control the shape of the profile. When you profile your sketch, the sketch is analyzed and geometric constraints are added to suit the sketch. Geometric constraints are used to define the shape of your 2-D geometry.

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perpendicularity. tangent Types of Constraint Gemetric constraints • Parallel • Perpendicular • Collinear • Coincident • Tangent • Horizontal • Vertical • Project • Join • Xvalue • Yvalue • Radius Parallel Perpendicular Coincident Colinear Tangent 44 . horizontal..Types of Constraint Geometric constraints Examples of geometric constraints: – parallelism. parallel. co-linearity.. vertical. – concentric arcs/circles. equal length/angle.

remember to add the dimensions before extruding to cut-out or to protrude because constraints cannot be added as a portion of the definition of the 3-D part.Types of Constraint Constraint-based systems Applying Constraints to 3D Geometry It is possible sketch directly on a surface of a 3D object. When constraining 2-D geometry on 3-D objects. 45 .

splines) Sketch geometry used for feature construction – through sweeping and lofting techniques and in some hard-coded features Includes link to constraint engine 46 .Constraint-based systems A typical constraint-based system includes: • Sketcher • Constraint engine • Feature manager • Solid modeling system 2D input system Sketcher – creation of 2D entities (lines. arcs.

– allows creation of dimensional constraints – controls implied geometric constraints – may allow user control of geometric constraints (add or remove) Constraint Engine Provides for creation and modification of: – dimensional relationships in sketches – dimensional relationships between features – all geometric constraints Provides for resolution of constraint equations 47 ..Sketcher Sketch geometry constrained geometrically and dimensionally Sketcher..

etc. collinear. 48 . with unrelated geometry.) • types and level of geometric constraints (concentric. linear. etc.Constraint Engine (Factors related to its usefulness) • dimension types recognized (angular. with value. etc. parameter associated.) • freedom to postpone dimensioning – work with under constrained geometry Constraint Engine (Factors related to its usefulness) • dealing with “parent/child” relationships • external compatibility (importation/exportation) • configuration of variables – symbolic name associated.

Constraint Engine (Factors related to its usefulness) • User may choose whether implied constraint apply to all or part of the geometry • Incorrect constraints automatically flagged (in fully constrained approach) Constraint Engine (Factors related to its usefulness) • Ability to undo or abort constraint operation • Over or under constrained situation allowed temporarily • Implied constraints may be overridden 49 .

shape and reference features. Also special “user-defined” features – user-defined features may be created.Constraint Engine (Factors related to its usefulness) • Large number of hard-coded features • Feature editing which permits complete redefinition at later time • Feature re-ordering capability • Patterning and instancing of features Feature Manager Allows insertion of “hard-coded” . and inserted 50 . stored.

g. A blind hole becomes a through hole because of a transaction subsequent to its insertion 51 .Feature Manager Supports feature editing processes Typically supports: – feature suppression (from display and editing) – control of feature construction order – control of feature references (parent/child) Model creation order • order dependent process • parent/child relations based upon order of creation • only able to reference previously defined features • may be able to “re-order” model in feature manager Flags violation of feature intent – e.

– other features used to locate it – insertion features • mounting feature: surface or sketch plane – source features Parent/Child relationship Desired Characteristics of Modeler • examine what is: – desirable – useful • in feature-based.• dependency exists between created feature (child) and parent: e. constraint-based system • patterns and part families • dependency means process of editing parent feature requires considering child features of that parent 52 .g.

Example Constraint-based systems D5 Constraint-based systems Design Intent • The part should be twice as long as it is wide • The hole should be centred in both directions D1 D2 D4 D3 • The hole diameter should be 50mm 53 .

you are able to add constraints to your sketch to control how the geometry will behave as modifications are made. Parametric & Variational Modelling 54 . In general.Parametric Modelling Parametric modeling is a subset of variational geometry. That is. you need to have a fully constrained shape before you can use parametric modeling to create a 3-D solid. Parametric modeling allows for a flexible design in much the same way that variational modeling does.

other dimensions calculated sequentially D1 = x D2 = D1 / 2 D3 = 2 D1 D4 = D3 / 2 D5 = 50 55 .Parametric & Variational Modelling Parametric modelling – constraints defined sequentially – each constraint calculated based on previously defined constraints – order of constraint specification is important • Variational modelling – constraints solved simultaneously – order of constraint specification doesn’t matter Parametric & Variational Modelling Parametric definition User specifies dimension D1.

Parametric & Variational Modelling Variation definition Modelling Approach • Sketch approximate geometry • Generate solids and features • Add constraints and dimensions afterwards Solve system of simultaneous equations: D5 − 50 = 0 D1 − 2 D2 = 0 2 D1 − D3 = 0 D3 − 2 D4 = 0 D1 − x = 0 56 .

Smart Skectching • Most CAD systems use “smart” sketching tools • Design intent is inferred. and constraints added automatically • For example. with a constraint Assembly Modelling 57 . two lines that are nearly perpendicular “snap” perpendicular.

• Previous design procedure was to assembly the actual components or prototype later in the design cycle.Assembly Modelling • Many modelers have been used to create models of single components. Assembly Modelling • An assembly consists of two or more parts located relative to each other in space • Normally the relative motion is constrained • Most assemblies are fully constrained • Mechanisms are partially constrained 58 . • Physical distance between design teams in global corporations and the need for electronic transfer fueled the need for computer-based assemblies.

Structure permits: – identification of components – control of associated data (e.Assembly Modelling Automotive and aerospace industries among the first to make extensive used of assembly modeling. Assembly Modelling Provides a logical structure for grouping and organizing components into assemblies.g. BOM) – control of relationships between components and sub-assemblies 59 .

Assembly Modelling Most assembly modelers work by creating a file which includes only: – pointers to the individual components used – the constraints used to position the components with respect to one another – multiply occurrences of the same component are handled by instancing Assembly Modelling Relationship data includes – Constraint information • orientation and location of components with respect to one another • variational relationship between features of different parts 60 .

g. 61 . hole patterns) Provides a mechanism for propagating a design change though out all components of an assembly without modifying each component individually. – Instancing information • multiple occurrences of the same component – Tolerance and fit information • part interference and clearance Assembly Modelling Inter-part dimensions provide control when an assembly depends upon key dimensions (e..Assembly Modelling Relationship data includes ..

Assembly Modelling Most modern feature-based. In addition to the Sketcher.Assembly Model Use Creation of orthographic assembly drawings. they include an Assembly Manager 62 . Facilitate packaging Perform interference and clearance checks. Constraint Engine and Feature Manager. Creation of exploded assemblies. constraintbased systems have assembly capabilities.

edges – coincidence • points.Assembly Manager • Permits creation of: – sub-assemblies from parts – assemblies from sub-assemblies and parts • Controls relative placement of parts/subassemblies (constraints) • Controls regeneration of assemblies/subassemblies after modification Part/Sub-assembly Placement Examples of constraints applied to assemble components – alignment • surfaces. axes • with offset distances – mating • surfaces. edges 63 .

In these cases. Simplified Representation Another technique used is aggromeration. – complexities such as fillets/rounds removed – representation may simply be the “envelope” of the part with mating features. Many systems also support the use of simplified representations.Simplified Representation Large assembly models can serious stain the processor capabilities of the hardware system being used. 64 . many assembly modelers provide means for simplifying the assembly. – Grouping components and sub-assemblies into a single static definition. The use of instancing helps reduce complexity.

Applications of Assembly Models • Interference checking • Visualization – rendered – exploded • Animation • Mechanism analysis Assembly Example 65 .

Exploded Assembly Assembly Hierarchy • The assembly hierarchy defines relationships of parts to each other • There can be multiple levels of subassemblies 66 .

subassembly Multiple instances Another View Assembly Subassemblies Parts 67 .Assembly Hierarchy Example • Pump Assembly – Link assembly • offset link • offset link – Piping assembly • well casing • well seal •… – Handle assembly – ...

this has to be redone Example Assembly Position & orientation Subassemblies Parts 68 . knowledge of coordinate systems. and entry of numerical values • If position or dimensions of one part change.Positioning Parts in an Assembly • Parts can be positioned by translating and rotating them into the right locations • This requires careful measurement of relative locations.

Using Assembly Constraints • Constraints can be used to create permanent relationships between parts • In I-DEAS. Example Assembly Constraints Subassemblies Parts 69 . these use the same commands as 2D constraints • Typical constraints: – two faces meet – axes coincident – two faces parallel at fixed distance – etc.

Parallel 70 .Assembly Constraints Mating Coincidence Concentric Animations and Motion You then submit the mechanism to the embedded ADAMS simulation engine. You can view the results of the simulation as an animation showing the motion of your mechanism or as numeric output. so it can determine how the mechanism will perform and behave.

Motion Type • Constant Displacement • Constant Velocity • Constant Acceleration • Motion Expression Mechanism Design • A mechanism is an assembly that allows relative motion between parts • The mechanism consists of links connected by joints • Types of joints: – rotational – sliding – spherical – cylindrical – screw 71 .

Translational DOF 3 2 2 3 3 .Mechanism Joints Joint The following table shows the joints supported by Dynamic Designer (ADAMS) with the translational and rotational degrees of freedom that they constrain.5 2 3 0 0 5 5 4 3 4 1 3 6 2 2 Mechanism Joints Revolute Joint Translational Joint Revolute Translational Cylindrical Spherical Universal Screw Planar Fixed Contact Constraints: Point-curve Curve-curve Spherical Joint Cylindrical Joint 72 .5 1 3 2 2 Rotational Total DOF DOF Constrained 2 3 2 0 1 .

Mechanism Constraints and Joints Curve/Curve Constraint Mechanism Constraints and Joints Point/Curve Constraint Screw Joint Universal Joint Planar Joint Fixed Joint 73 .

User Interface of Dynamic Designer Browser Motion Menu The Browser Tree contains branches that will be called nodes. 74 .

Mechanism Analysis • I-DEAS allows the mechanism to be “driven” by defining an input motion for one of the links • The other links move based on the kinematics • I-DEAS can calculate reaction forces based on gravity and applied forces Dynamic Analysis • More advanced software can model and analyse complete dynamics • Applications: – vehicle dynamics – suspension analysis – biomechanics – robotics 75 .

A Simple Example: Pendulum Dynamic analysis software will generate the motion by solving the equations of motion Other Examples: Dynamic analysis software will generate the motion by solving the equations of motion Radial Piston Air Motor Motorcycle 76 .

List and describe five types of geometric contraints used during the sketch contructivr process of a parametric design package. 2. Describe feature-based modelling and contstraint-based modelling. Radial Piston Air Motor Piston rod 77 .Other Examples: Dynamic analysis software will generate the motion by solving the equations of motion Introduction to Parametric Feature Based Solid Modeling Questions : 1. 3. Explain what is meant by the parent-child relationship that exists between parametric features.