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CONTENT Chapter I II Description Purpose Steam Turbine Types 2.1. 2.2. III Impulse Turbine Reaction Turbine Page 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 5 6 7 7 7 10 10 10 10 13 15 17 17

Steam Turbine Operating Range 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. Curtis Rateau Reaction

IV. V. VI.

Symbols and Units Steam Process in Steam Turbine Exhaust Steam Conditions, Extraction and Admission 6.1. 6.2. Back Pressure and Condensing Turbine Steam Extraction and Admission of Turbine

VII.

Steam Consumption 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 7.4. Rotor Diameter Steam Temperature Blade Size, Speed and Degrees of Admission Other Losses

VIII. IX. X.

Calculation Formula Calculation Sheet Unit Conversion

Rateau turbine contain 1 row of nozzle for 1 row of impulse blades. Impulse Turbine Thermal energy of steam is converted to kinetic energy in turbine nozzle. Compact .1. STEAM TURBINE TYPES Steam turbine types based on blade geometry and energy conversion process are impulse turbine and reaction turbine. Enthalpy drop is high. higher than Reaction . 3. -1 Curtis + Rateau rows constructed in one rotor.STEAM TURBINE 2 I. Power is high ( up to 30. See fig. b. Reaction Turbine In reaction turbine. 1.Curtis turbine contain 1 row of nozzle for 2 row of impulse blades . 2. 1 and fig. Generally. 2. reaction turbine is not stand alone.Several rows of Rateau + Reaction rows III. Typical pairs of reaction and impulse turbines are. Power is relative small ( up to 2000 kW). See fig. Efficiency is higher than Curtis b. speed is higher than Curtis (up to15000 rpm) d. and fig. Curtis (Stand alone or Single Stage) a. except for special design up to 12000 rpm).1. Impulse blade applies in Curtis and Rateau turbines such as the following typical .1 Rateau + Reaction rows .000 kW) c. d. c.2. but works at behind impulse turbine whether constructed in one rotor or at separated rotor. Enthalpy drop for each row lower than Curtis but still high. Speed is relative low ( up to 6000 rpm. Rateau (Multi rows) a. Kinetic energy to be converted to blade become mechanical energy and transferred through rotor. 2. can be 1 pair up to several pair. Reaction turbine is just receiving steam condition from impulse blades. . PURPOSE This manual can be used for preliminary selection. In general. steam and cooling water planning for steam turbines in basic and detail engineering stages. This manual does not for designing steam turbine and the related parts. there is no nozzle to convert steam energy to mechanical energy. shaft and coupling to the load. 2. but still connected by coupling.1 Curtis + Several rows of Rateau + Reaction rows . The purpose of impulse turbine is to control speed and reduce steam enthalpy to specified level.2. STEAM TURBINE OPERATING RANGE The following criteria are used for selection steam turbine type 3. Moving blades work due to differential pressure of steam between front and at behind of moving blades. II. Enthalpy drop is high for each moving blades.

. Steam turbine blades arrangement of Impulse and Reaction blades.STEAM TURBINE 3 Figure 1.

STEAM TURBINE 4 Figure 2. Speed is high (up to15000 rpm) d. Pressure and velocity of steam across nozzle and blades in impulse and reaction blades 3. Power is high c. More efficient b. For low steam pressure.3 Reaction (Multi row reaction + 1 row impulse for control stage) a. Enthalpy drop each row is low e. .

3) Figure 3. coefficient and efficiency Vrat C μs FI Fε η Velocity ratio ( = U / C) Steam velocity = 44. Symbol Description Unit Power and speed P N Power Speed kW (kilowatt) RPM (rotary per minute) Blade and rotor geometry D U I S λ D/I Z Rotor diameter Peripheral velocity Blade height Blade length S/I ratio D/I ratio Number of row or number of stage mm m/s mm mm Factors.7 √ Δh m/s Head coefficient ( = 1000 Δh / U2 ) Degrees of admission Efficiency factor due to blade height Efficiency factor due to degrees of admission Efficiency non percent for calculation ε .STEAM TURBINE 5 Operating range of steam turbines can be shown in Speed – Power chart such as the following figure (Fig. SYMBOLS AND UNITS Unless otherwise noted. the following symbols and units are used in this manual. Operating Range of Steam Turbines IV.

4 for reaction turbine At first to n of stage or row At last stage or last row Alternative number Output. valve exhaust temperature Gov. exhaust.STEAM TURBINE 6 Steam condition pi pi ‘ po ti ti ‘ vi ‘ vo hi hos Steam inlet pressure to turbine Governor valve exhaust pressure Steam exhaust pressure Steam inlet temperature Gov. enthalpy of stages Δhe Turbine head (turbine enthalpy) Δhe’ Effective turbine head x Wetness of steam m Mass flow Subscript If there is subscript follows the symbol. There is enthalpy loss at this valve. Isentropic diff. STEAM PROCESS IN STEAM TURBINE Steam entrance to turbine through governor valve to control steam capacity and therefore to control turbine speed. enthalpy Δhs Isentropic diff. o Impulse or control stage Reaction Rateau Curtis Average of stages or each row Losses Mechanical Tip (for tip speed of blade) At 25 mm of nozzle height and 0. Figure 5 shows steam process of multi row of Rateau turbine. Following figures show steam process in steam turbine. valve exhaust specific volume Specific volume leaving last blade Inlet enthalpy Enthalpy in isentropic process from pi condition to po condition hos’ Enthalpy in isentropic process from pi’ (leaving governor valve) condition to po condition he Turbine diff. And figure 6 shows steam process of impulse as control stage and reaction turbine. .n z I. etc.5 of degrees of admission for impulse turbine At D/I = 10 and S/I = 0.. enthalpy of row Δhstg Average Isentropic diff. meaning as IMP R RAT CUR STG Loss m tip 25 05 10 1. exit bar A bar A bar A 0C 0C m3 / kg m3 / kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg ton/hr V. enthalpy from pi’ to po ( = hi – hes’ ) Δhs1-etc.25 of degrees of admission for impulse turbine At equal or more than 80 mm of nozzle height and more than 0. enthalpy ( = hi – hes ) Δhs’ Isentropic diff. Figure 4 shows steam process in enthalpy against entropy diagram of Curtis and single row Rateau turbine. II.

2. if required. steam also can be admitted to turbine before last stage. see figure 7. named back pressure turbine. In the other case. Back Pressure and Condensing Turbine. named extraction turbine. named condensing turbine.1 Curtis atau Rateau rows + Extraction/Admission + Reaction rows . The name "Condensing turbine" and "Back pressure turbine" expressed about steam condition exit the turbines. Steam Extraction and Admission of Turbine In applications. named admission turbine.STEAM TURBINE 7 VI. see figure 8. EXHAUST STEAM CONDITIONS.1.1 Curtis + Extraction/Admission + 1 Rateau + Reaction rows . Figure 4 Steam Process in Curtis and Single Row Rateau Turbine Typical steam admission and extraction arrangement . when required. EXTRACTION AND ADMISSION 6. If steam condition exit the turbine in wet steam or where steam condition at bellow saturated line of Mollier diagram. steam can be extracted from turbine before steam flowing through the last stage. If steam condition exit the turbine in dry or still in superheated condition or at upper of saturated line of Mollier diagram. 6.1 Curtis + Extraction/Admission + Rateau rows .

Steam Process in Multi Row of Rateau Turbine Figure 6.STEAM TURBINE 8 Figure 5. Steam Process in Impulse as Control Stage and Reaction Turbine .

Extraction and Admission Steam Turbine .STEAM TURBINE 9 Back pressure turbine Condensing turbine Figure 7. Back Pressure and Condensing Turbine Turbine Turbine Inlet Steam Exhaust Steam Inlet Steam Admitted steam Exhaust Steam Extracted Steam Figure 8.

Blade size. speed. degrees of admission and speed are influence to turbine efficiency. extreme condition of steam and other losses. Figure 9.STEAM TURBINE 10 VII. Output power. Lower speed and high enthalpy differential will reduce efficiency of turbine. Very high steam temperature will decrease strength of material of turbine blades and cause limitation of design speed. Each size has specific operating range even sometimes operating point required by Customer does not at highest efficiency.2. Efficiency will depend on turbine size or rotor diameter. Blade type. 7. 7. blade geometries. see figure 13 for impulse turbine and figure 14 for reaction turbine.1. Steam Temperature.3. see red dot line at figure 9. STEAM CONSUMPTION Steam consumption of steam turbine is depending to required output power and efficiency of the turbine. Typical model and size are shown in figure 9. 7. size. 10 and 11. 10 and 11. Rotor diameter Turbine Manufacturers have nominal rotor diameter for their products. Nominal size is required by Manufacturer because of competitive cost reasons. speed and enthalpy range for several design of Curtis Turbine . speed and degrees of admission.

Output power.000 kW Figure 10. speed and enthalpy range for several design of Reaction Turbine . Output power. speed and enthalpy range for several design of Rateau Turbine Example 6. 15. Figure 11.STEAM TURBINE 11 Typical III.

STEAM TURBINE 12 Interpretation examples of figure 9. Therefore.200 RPM to 2975 RPM.955 x 0.65. Example 1.872 .5. Turbine has number of stages for approximately of 600/100 = 6 stages.200 RPM is the best choice. S/I = 0. typical no. efficiency ηR= 87. Rateau turbine has blade height. III is the nearest to requirement point.955 and by equation. 100 bar A and 650 oC for Curtis turbine.5 %. Example 8. To provide best efficiency. Typical no.000 kW of Rateau turbine. 700 oC for 15. Example 2.000 RPM and ΔhSTG = 135 kJ/kg.71. From equation (4) in chapter VIII.000 RPM of operating speed.2.000xΔh/U2 = 3. figure 10 and figure 11. Reaction turbine shall be used in the downstream of control stage that has been designed at 8. Figure 9 shows that at 750 kW . Available steam is Δh = 150 kJ/kg for turbine that shall give 400 kW of power and 2975 RPM for centrifugal pump. Fε = 0. Reaction turbine.2 and then from figure 12 can be read efficiency for I ≥ 80 mm and ε ≥ 0. Figure 9 shows that typical no.000 RPM vertical line will cross blue dot line and red dot line at diameter of rotor is at 500 mm area. I = 30 mm.000 kW. approximately average base diameter is 500 mm and approximately average pitch diameter is 600 mm for high temperature or 700 mm for low temperature. determine μS=1. Given Δh = 100 kJ/kg for Curtis turbine that shall operate for pump at 750 kW and 2975 RPM without reducing gear. This line cross with red dot line (ΔhSTG = 70 kJ/kg) at 600 mm pitch diameter and cross with blue dot line (ΔhSTG = 100 kJ/kg) at 700 mm of pitch diameter. in this example.2 % or 0.000 kW and at any speed. From figure 13 at I = 30 mm.96 = 71 % or 0. turbine shall be operated at speed higher than limited speed indicated by red dot line for high temperature. Curtis turbine. V is the nearest to requirement point. I may be acceptable but does not at best efficiency. Available steam is equal to example 3 above but for 5. Available steam is Δh = 650 kJ/kg. This typical is sufficient even if the size is bigger than required. From figure 10 shows that for 5. Efficiency of turbine can be determined from figure 14. Turbine efficiency than become ηIMP = 77. Δh=200 kJ/kg. Turbine can be operated at 8. Rateau turbine. Example 4. Available steam is Δh = 600 kJ/kg. Number of stage is approximately = 650/135 = 5 stages. 13 and 14 Example 7. Figure 9 shows that no typical design is available for this requirement. Turbine can be operated at 8. Reducing gear is acceptable. Number of stages is = 400/100 = 4 for low temperature and = 400/70 = 6 for high temperature.000 RPM and ΔhSTG = 100 kJ/kg. V at 7.96. U=250 m/s and ε = 0. 2975 RPM and Δh = 100 kJ/kg the nearest size is typical I and II where designed for 1000 kW. The diameter of 500 mm listed in this area is rotor base diameter. Turbine shall operate at 900 kW and at any speed.4 and D/I = 8. Interpretation examples of figure 12.5 x 0. Reaction turbine has Vrat = 0. Steam available for reaction turbine is ΔhR = 400 kJ/kg and inlet temperature at 250 C. factor due to nozzle height FI is 0. η05 = 77. Example 5. Example 6. Figure 11 shows that at 8. Gear is necessary for reducing speed from 7. Following the red lines. Figure 10 shows that typical no. 110 bar A. Example 3.

. . .Enthalpy drop at governor valve. .4.Peripheral losses at impulse blades.Wetness loss at reaction blades. see figure 15.5 Figure 13. Other Losses Other losses which reduce total turbine efficiency are: .Mechanical losses. Efficiency Factor Due To Nozzle Height and Due To Degrees of admission 7.STEAM TURBINE 13 Figure 12. Efficiency of Impulse Turbine (η05)at I ≥ 80 mm and ε ≥ 0.

Mechanical Efficiency .STEAM TURBINE 14 Figure 14. Efficiency of Reaction Turbine Figure 15.

STEAM TURBINE 15 VIII. (5) (6) (7) ηTOTAL = ηTUR x ηWET x ηm ηWET = 1 – 0. ηTUR = 3. C = 44. “x” multiply. Head coefficient. Δhe = CO2 / 2000 (kJ/kg) (10) (11) Losses at governor valve. CALCULATION FORMULA All following formulas shall be used with unit where presented in chapter IV to minimize an error during calculation caused by inconsistence units.5 x (1-XO) x ΔhWET / Δhs’ = 1 when at superheated Mechanical efficiency (ηm). “-“ : minus. Δhs’ = 0.000 xΔh U2 PLOSS = {25 x D x 10-5 + 0.6 xP m x Δhs' 3.3 for each row) . If there is following calculation symbols. “/” divided by. subscript : power. Velocity ratio.147 xDxN 60.7 x (Δh)0. Peripheral power losses.5 Vrat = U / C (m/s) (2) (3) (4) μS = 1. Peripheral velocity.05 x I x (1-ε)} x (D x U3 x 10-9) / vo (kW) Total efficiency. valve (kJ/kg) = 0. see figure 15 Turbine efficiency. pressure ratio shall ≥ 0.6 x ( P + PLOSS ) m= η TOTAL x Δhs ' (8) (ton/hr) (9) Outlet losses for reaction turbine. valve Number of stages of Impulse or Rateau stages.000 (m/s) (1) Steam velocity. mening: “+” : plus. “=” : equal to.93 x Δhs for single gov. Steam mass flow. Wetness efficiency.97 x Δhs for multi gov. U= 3. ZI = 1.55 x Δhs' RAT x 1011 D2 x N 2 (integer value) (12) zII ≥ 2 x [ log (po / pi’)]ABS (integer value) (for convergen nozzle.

PSTG = P / z (13) (14) Nozzle height x degrees of admission. ε = 0.5 (mm) (15) For single stage. (16) Figure 16.9 εΜΙΝ = 0.1 ≤ vi’ ≤ 1 m3/kg = 43 if vi’ > 1 m3/kg Impulse blades efficiency.ηIMP = η05 x FI x Fε See figure 12 for η05 and figure 13 for FI and Fε Reaction blades efficiency (ηR ) can be determined with figure 14. Ixε= PSTG x vi' x 10 6 D x A xη xΔhstg 1. Welded Nozzle Degree of Admission of Rateau Turbine . ZR = 3.147 x 44.015 up to 0.1 m3 / kg = 39 if 0.8 x Δhs ' R x 1011 D2 x N 2 (integer value) (12a) Differential enthalpy of each stage. PSTG = P and ΔhSTG = Δhs’ For impulse turbine. ΔhSTG = Δhs’RAT / z for Rateau turbine (kJ/kg) ΔhSTG = Δhs’R / z for reaction turbine Turbine power of each stage.007 for reaming nozzle ε = 1 for reaction turbine A is nozzle area factor or entrance area factor = 3.STEAM TURBINE 16 Number of stages of reaction turbine.45 for welded nozzle εMAX is about 0.7 x sin α A = 34 if vi’ < 0.

admitted and extracted turbine. X.06243 1000 47880. Calculation sheets are presented in attachment B for stand alone impulse turbines.s/m2 lbf.1868 Unit to be used mm mm bar bar bar bar C C K m/s m/s m3/hr m3/hr kg kW m kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg.0185 0.3 Note : American Standard State condition is condition where pressure at 1.4536 0. In volume. Attachment A presents steam data in tables and charts for saturated and superheated conditions where taken from internet with some little modification on appearance.326 4. Typical calculation sheets presented in attachments of this manual are divided into two categories where is depending on the requirements. is common written as Nm3 . Pa (Pascal) F (Fahrenheit) K (Kelvin) R (Rankin) ft/s ft/min (fpm) GPM (US) CFM lb HP ft kcal/kg BTU/lb kcal/kg.699 0. UNIT CONVERSION Designation Length Pressure Unit to be converted ft inch psi kg/cm2 (at.R Factor 304.3048 4.4 0. In volume. impulse and reaction turbines.STEAM TURBINE 17 IX. Normal condition is at 1.981 1.013 bar A and temperature at 15.06897 0. structured and documented of the calculation.5 C.K kJ/kg.1868 4. To calculate steam flow where power and/or speed is as required condition b. extraction.8 25.7457 0.K kg/m3 m3/kg cP cP Temperature Velocity Volume flow Mass Power Head Enthalpy Gas constant Specific heat & Entropy Specific mass lb/ft3 or density Specific volume ft3 /lb Viscosity N. a.273 (5/9) 0.) atm.00508 0.K BTU/lb. admission steam turbine. To calculate power output where quantity and condition of steam is known All required variables for calculation are taken from formulas and charts presented in this manual and the attachments.0132 bar A and 0 C.s/ft2 16.227 1.013 10-5 (t-32) x (5/9) T .3048 0. CALCULATION SHEET Calculation sheet is necessary to make a simple. is common written as SCF.1868 2.

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