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Meaning of Research • • • • It is a common phenomenon which is referred to a search for knowledge. One can define research as a scientific and systematic investigation. Another meaning of research is “a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for a new fact in any branch of knowledge”. It is an academic activity and it comprises defining and redefining problem.
Definition Simply research is defined as an organised, systematic, data-based, critical, objective, scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the purpose of finding answers or solutions to it. According to Clifford Woody, research comprises defining and redefining problem, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organising and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.” Objectives • • • • To achieve new insights into it (Studies with this object in view are termed as Exploratory or Formulative research studies). To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (Descriptive research) To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (Diagnostic research). To test hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables (Hypothesis- testing studies).
Motivation in Research
Types of Research
1). Descriptive Vs Analytical
Descriptive Research: It includes surveys and facts, finding enquiries of different kinds. The main purpose is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. Eg.: In social science and business research we quite often use the term “Ex post facto research” for descriptive research studies.
5). without due regard for systems and theory. 2). Analytical Research: The researcher has to use facts or information already available and analyse these to make critical evaluations of material.Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake. preferences of people. Other techniques of such research are word association. 4). attitude or opinion research. Applied Research – Finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industry / business organization. story completion. Identifying social. using in depth interviews for that purpose. It is data based research coming up with conclusions which are capable of verification by observations and experiment. adds to the already existing body of scientific knowledge. economical or political trends that may particular institution are copy research or marketing or evaluation research Fundamental Research – It is mainly concerned with generalisation and with the formulation of theory. that can be expressed in terms of quantity. He can only report what has happened or what is happening. Researcher also tries to discover causes even when they cannot control the variables. sentence completion test.why people think or do certain things. Eg.research aimed at certain conclusions. Facing a concrete social or business problem is an example of applied research. Applied Vs Fundamental Applied – action. Empirical – Experience or observation alone.• • The main character of this method is that researcher has no control over the variables.. Quantitative Vs Qualitative Quantitative research – Based on measurement of quantity or amount. Qualitative research – Relating to qualitative phenomena involving quality or kind. Fundamental – basic or pure. Most Ex post facto research projects are used for descriptive studies in which the researcher seeks to measure such items like frequency of shopping. Conceptual Vs Empirical Conceptual – related ideas or theories used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. Some other type of research:- . Eg. Eg. 3). When we talk of “motivation research”. Thus the central aim of applied research is to discover a solution for some practical problem. where as fundamental research is finding information that has a broad base of applications and thus. etc. Also it is concerning human behaviour carried on with a view to make generalisation of human behaviour. this research aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires. It is a research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics.
In addition . Experimental approach – Greater control over the research environment.• • • • • • • • • One time research – one time period. It helps in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry. has greatly increased in modern times. c. Significance of Research • • • • • The role of research in several fields of applied economics.operations research. It is important for social scientist in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems. Qualitative approach Subjective assessment of attitudes. It facilitates the decision of the policy maker.. Research Approaches Quantitative Approach a.g. Longitudinal research – Several time periods Field setting research or laboratory research or simulation research Clinical or Diagnostic research – case study and in depth approaches Exploratory research – development of hypothesis rather their testing Formalised research – substantial structure and specific objectives Historical research – based on records and past data Conclusion oriented – as researcher wish Decision oriented –e. b. Simulation approach – Construction of an artificial environment within which relevant information and data can be generated. It provides the basis for nearly all governmental policies in our economic system. Some variables are manipulated to observe their effect on other variables. Inferential approach – Form a database and infer characteristics or relationships of population from it (usually survey researches). opinions and behaviour. whether related to business or to the economy as a whole.
For professionals – it is a source of livelihood. Focus interview viii. Case study and Life history Survey technique for information Cross sectional collection of data for . interview. b. Library Research:Methods i. Participant observation iii. For literary men and women – it helps in development of new styles and creative work. Group interview Recording mass behaviour. Open and closed questions. For analysts and intellectuals – helps in generalisation of new theories. photographic tech. Field Research:Methods i.a. content analysis. ii. For students of masters or Ph. 2.D . iv. Mass Observation v. Attitude scale. tape and film listening and analysis. Opinionnaire vi. e. Personal interview vii. ii. Research Methods Vs Methodology Types 1. content analysis. For philosophers and thinkers – it is an outlet for new ideas and insights. Mail questionnaire Tape recorders. Focus on given experience Small groups of respondents are Interviewed simultaneously. ix.it is a careerism to attain a high position in the social structure. Identification of social and economic background of respondents. Techniques Observation behavioural scales. Analysis of historical records Techniques Recording of notes. use of score cards. Telephone survey x. c. d. abstract. statistics. projective tech. Non participation direct observation. Analysis of documents References.
It utilizes relevant concepts 3. 5. It enables us to make intelligent decisions concerning problems facing us in practical life at different points of time. It relies on empirical evidence 2. It helps consumers to evaluate and enables to take rational decisions Research Process It consists of series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carryout research and the desired sequencing of these steps: . It presupposes ethical neutrality i. Play and role analysis Techniques Use of audio visual recording devices. It is committed to only objective considerations 4. iii. It aims at formulating most general axioms or what can be termed as scientific theories. Its methodology is made known to all concerned for critical scrutiny for use in testing the conclusions through replication 7. Research and Scientific Method Both the methods are based on certain basic postulates which can be stated as under: 1. Importance of knowing how research is done i. It will inculcate the ability to evaluate and use research results with reasonable confidence.e. 6.Intensive analysis 3. use of observers. ii. It provides good training. iv. It results into probabilistic predictions. it aims at nothing but making only adequate and correct statements about population objectives. Laboratory Research Methods Small group study of random behaviour.. etc.
Research Process in flow chart F F Define Research Problem Review concepts and theories Review previous research findings Formulate hypothesi s Design research (including sample design) F Analysis of data (test hypothesis if any) F Collect Data (executio n) Interpret and report F - Feedback ( controlling sub .system) F F - Feed Forward (criteria evaluation) Step1: Formulating the research problem There are two ways a) Which relate to states of nature? b) Which relate to relationship between variables? • • • • • Researcher must decide the general area of interest and subject matter that he would like to inquire into State the problem initially in broad general way Feasibility of particular solution be resolved General topic to research problem is the first step of scientific enquiry Two steps in research problem .
similar studies made earlier • After re-phrasing in an analytical and operational way put the problem in scientific terms as possible • Defining. writing synopsis. Reports. conference proceedings.Neiswanger – statement of the objective is important because it determines the data which are to be collected. Govt. Books must be tapped A good library will be a great help to the researcher at this stage Step 3 Development of working hypothesis It should clearly state the terms of working hypothesis Working hypothesis is tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences.• • • • understanding the problem thoroughly and rephrasing the same into meaningful terms Best way of understanding is discussing with colleagues and some experts. Step 2 Extensive literature survey • • • Writing down brief summary. undertake extensive literature survey connected with problem Academic journals. formulating a research problem is a step of greatest importance in the entire research process • According to Professor W. It guides the researcher to go in a right track. choice of technique etc. possible trends Review of similar studies . records. characteristics of data which are relevant. Guide is also one of the source Get all literature regarding problem – 2 types of literature a) Conceptual – concepts and theory b) Empirical . origin and objectives with colleagues and experts Examination of data. It also indicates types of data required and types of methods of data analysis to be used Hypothesis provide the focal point of view and also talks about how test should be conducted and quality of data Ways to develop hypothesis: • • • Discussion of problem.A.
• Exploratory personal investigation with interested parties and great insight in practical aspects. Step 4 preparing the research design Good design – maximum information and relevant evidence 4 categories a) Exploratory b) Description c) Diagnosis d) Experimentation Considerations for preparing research design: • • • • Means to obtain information Availability and skills of researcher Time availability Cost factor and finance available Step 5 determining the sample design Population or universe – complete items available Census inquiry – whole population Sample – items selected for test Census in inquiry is not possible under many circumstances eg.probability – elements do not have equal chance A brief mention to the sampling i) Deliberate sampling ii) Simple random sampling iii) Systematic sampling iv) Stratified sampling . Blood testing done through only sampling Sample design.decide the way of testing a sample Two types a) Probability – each element can be included in sample b) Non.
tabulation. It results in whether accepting or rejecting hypothesis Step 10 Generalisation and interpretation To build a theory. Non-securing problem may also occur. test of significance Step 9 Hypothesis testing Using various test like chisquare. Step 11 Preparation of the report or the thesis . f-test. tabulation are important Hypothesis. editing. t-test. drawing statistical inferences Coding. One way of dealing that is making list of them and make a small sub sample and with the help of respondents secure response Step 8 Analysis of data • • • Raw data through coding. This leads to further researches. explaining findings based on theory is known as interpretation.v) Quota sampling vi) Cluster or area sampling vii) Multi stage sampling viii) Sequential sampling Step 6 Collecting data Primary data – through experiment or survey In case of survey there are following ways i) By observation ii) Through personal interview – pre-conceived questions iii) Telephone interviews iv) By mailing of questionnaires v) Through schedules – relevant questions Step 7 Execution of the project • • • Should be in a systematic manner and time If structured questionnaire – data machine processed Careful watch on unanticipated to keep survey as much as realistic and possible.
“there may be” & the like iii) Chart should be used only if they have clear information iv) Confidence limits and constraints should be stated Criteria for a good research • • • • • • • Purpose of research should be clearly defined. table of contents b) Main text – introduction. summary of findings. acknowledgement. in simple language. bibliography (list of books.Points to be kept in mind i) The layout of the report should be a) The preliminary pages – title. reports and other govt. main report and conclusion c) The end matter – Appendices. index ii) Should be concise and objective style. Avoid vague expressions such as “it seems”. journals. Procedure should be in detail description Procedural design should be carefully planned Researcher frankness Conclusion should be to those justified by data Greater confidence Should be systematic and logical Problems encountered by research in India i) Lack of scientific training in the methodology of research ii) There is insufficient interaction between the university research departments iii) Most of business units do not rely on research iv) Research studies overlapping one another are undertaken quite often for want of adequate information v) There does not exist a code of conduct for research vi) Difficulty of adequate and timely secretarial assistance vii) Library Management and functioning is not satisfactory viii) Difficulty in assessing copies of old and new Act/Rules.). Publications in time ix) Problem of conceptualisation . reports etc.
Defining a research Problem Synopsis • • • • • • What is research problem Problem definition Examples of well – defined problem Selecting the problem Necessity of defining Techniques involved in defining a problem What is Research Problem? It refers to some difficulty which a researcher experiences in the context of either theoretical or practical situation and want to obtain solution for the same. Conditions to be satisfied: • • • Problem should be attributed from individual. Examples of well defined problems: How has the new packaging affected the sales of the product? Has the new advertising message resulted in enhanced re-calls? How do price and quality rate on consumer’s evaluation of products? Does better automation lead to greater asset investment per dollar of output? What are the components of “quality of life”? Selecting the Problem Subject for research: • Subject which is overdone shall not be normally chosen. for it will be a difficult task to throw any new light in such a case. precise and succinct statement of the question or issue that is to be invested with the goal of finding an answer or solution. C1 and C2 should be defined from 1 or 2 controlled variables. organisation or environment Must be atleast 2 courses of action. . At least 2 possible outcomes O1 and O2 Problem Definition: It is aclear.
relations to be explored. what type of data? Period of time Techniques & how to analyze the data Style of report . Cost involved should be calculated Must be selected based on preliminary study. RESEARCH DESIGN Meaning: Preparation of the design of the research project.etc would be answered by problem. ii). Statement of the problem in a general way. Avoid too vague problem Familiar and feasible Qualification and training is necessary. Techniques involved in defining a problem: Defining a problem involves the task of laying down boundaries within which a researcher shall study the problem with a i). where.• • • • • • Controversial subject should not become the choice of an average researcher. Developing the ideas through discussing. iii). Rephrasing the research problem. Surveying the available literature iv). “It is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure”. Understanding the nature of the problem. characteristics of data. Necessity of defining the problem:• • Well defined problem will solve hurdles What data. what techniques. • • • • • What is study about? Why. v).
appropriate.2 part a) b) c) d) The sample design: methods of selecting items to be observed for the given study. Time & cost budget. Which minimizes the bias & maximizes the reliability of the data collected & analyzed is considered as a good design. Procedures & techniques for gathering information. Operational design: techniques by which the procedure… Important features of research design: • • • Sources & types of information relevant to the research problem. Approach for gathering & analyzing the data. Statistical design: how items observed. Methods – processing & analyzing the data. efficient. Observation design: conditions of observations. Following factors should be considered: • • • • • Means of obtaining information Availability & skills of researchers Objectives of the problem Problem nature Money & time availability . Population. Features of a good research: • • Flexible. information & data gathered are to be gathered. economical. It should contain: • • • • A clear statement of the research problem. Need for research design: • It facilitates the smooth sailing of the various research operations.
Experiment & non – experiment hypothesis: Hypothesis testing research. Ex – offers. Continuous variable – age Non continuous variable – children Dependent variable – height depends on age.group is exposed to usal . Treatments: Experimental & control groups used in different conditions. Experimental – manipulating independent variable. 5. Experimental & control group: Control group . 6.Important concepts: 1. Dependent & independent variable: variable – a concept which can take a different quantitative values. discounts . income. ex : without treatment conditions. Independent variable – age 2. Extraneous variable: Variables that are not related to the purpose of the study. Research hypothesis: It is a predictive statement that relates an independent and dependent variable. Ex: weight. Research in which independent variable is not manipulated – non – experimental. Confounded relationship: Inseparable relationship between dependent & extraneous variable. but may affect dependent variable. 4. 7. 3. Control: Minimize the influence or effect of extraneous variable(s). height. Experimental group – group is exposed to some special conditions. coupons. 8. Ex : intelligence affect social studies.
Discuss the points. Research design in case of descriptive & diagnostic research studies: o Descriptive – social research . Experiment: Purpose of examining the truth.9. i. take two yields & draw conclusion on that basis.it provides statistical accuracy increases. 3. 2. (hypothesis) o Major emphasis – discovery of ideas & insights. Different research design: 1. Research design in case of exploratory research studies: o formulative research studies. . Ex – north super markets.for both researcher must be able to define clearly. Experimental units: The pre . 10. Ex – rice in 2 parts – test separately.there are 3 principles . Focus is like mba project . but will permit drawing inferences about casualty. what he wants & finds adequate it along with clear definition of “population”. Testing hypothesis of casual relationships. 3 methods are The survey of concerning literature: survey of people who have had practical experience. The experience survey: own experience. The principle of replication: experiments should be treated & conducted more than one time and applied in many experimental units .determined blocks where different treatments are used. Analysis of insight – intensive study & selected instances of the phenomenon in which one interested. Basic principles of experimental designs: According to prof. Fisher . o Purpose – formulating problem for investigating from an operational point of view. • • • Research design incase of hypothesis testing research studies – It is an experimental study. It requires procedure that will not reliability.
Completely randomized design – 2 principles are a) Replication b) Randomization. Then introduce treatment. The principle of randomization: • It provides protection. Ex – we can grow rice two different yields to check fertility. Randomized block design(R. Dependent variable is measured in both tested & control area. The principle of local control: the variability it causes can be & hence eliminated from the experimental error. Random replication design – random replication. iii. iii. One way anova(one way analysis of variance).B. Formal experimental designs: i. . Ex – sales After only with control designs – two groups or areas (test area and control area) are selected & treatment is introduced the dependent variable is measured on both the areas with & with treatment is measured. ii. Important experimental designs Informal design formal design Informal experimental designs: i. Before and after without control designs – treatment introduced measuring the dependent variable is measured before and after the treatment.ii. Before and after with control designs . ii. Two – group simple random design – randomly assigned to the experimental & control groups.select two areas & dependent variable is measured for a time period. design) – principle of local control(two way anova). • Variations caused by extraneous factors can all be combined under the general headings of “chance”.
district. Latin square design . . SAMPLING DESIGN Census & sample survey: Population – all items in any field(universe) A complete enumeration of all items in the population is “census inquiry” Implication of a sample design: Def: It is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. Types of universe: clearly defines the objective universe to studies.iii. Sampling unit: selecting geographical are such as state. school. ii. iv. etc. It refers technique or the procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting items for the sample. flat. village. social unit – family. It also lay down the number of items to be included in the sample(sample sizes) Steps: i. Factorial design – effects of varying more than one factor are to be determined. Universe can be finite or infinite. club.five fertilizers & five treatments.
Characteristics of a good sample design: • • • • Must be result & truly representative error. Confidence level should be kept in mind. Sample errors – variation in the sample estimates around the true population parameters. Large or small & should be optimum. Budgeting constraints Sampling procedure: technique should be used in selecting items. Must result on small sampling error. Indeterminacy principle. Different types of sampling a) Probability sampling: The elements in a populations have same known chances or probability of bricks selected a sample item. Criteria of selecting a sample procedure: • • • • • Inappropriate sampling frame. Natural bias in the reporting of data. reliable & appropriate. iv. . Unrestricted or simple random sampling: Equal change of bricks selected as a subject. Source list: from which sample is to be drawn. If we increase its precision can be increased. It should be correct. vi. It can be either unrestricted or restricted in nature. characteristics of population. Non – respondents. Parameters of interest: interest of sub – groups. vii. v. Defective measuring device. Must result viable in the context of funds available for the research studies Should avoid systematic bias. The measurement of sampling error is called as “precious of the sampling plan”. Size of sample: no of items to be selected.iii. It contains name of all items of a universe.
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