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line balancing

# line balancing

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03/08/2014

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# Assembly Line Balancing

• Assigning all tasks to a series of workstations so that each workstation is limited by
the cycle time and so that the unassigned or idle time across all workstations is minimized. Workload equalization is another important objective of the balance. • Product interval time, time between products being completed at a workstation, also called takt time and cycle time. • Task: is the smallest element of work; it can not be subdivided further. • Workstation: is a place of work with workers, equipment and material to perform one or more tasks. • Line: is made up of one or more workstations. • Cycle Time (throughput time): the overall time to complete an individual product also the time it takes to assemble one unit or the time elapsed between two successive units coming off the line. • Precedence Chart: a chart that specifies the order in which the tasks must be performed in the assembly process.

Line Balancing Steps
1. 2. Specify the sequential relationships among tasks using a precedence diagram. Calculate cycle time (C), using the following formula:

C
3.

=

Productive time per day (P)

Unit output per day (D)

Calculate the minimum theoretical number of workstations (Nt), using the following formula:

Nt =
4.

C

Select a primary rule by which tasks are to be assigned to workstations and a secondary rule to break up ties should they occur. Assign tasks to workstations according to specified rules. Evaluate efficiency (Eff.) and balance delay (BD) as follows:

5.

Eff. =

T Na * C

,

BD =

Sum of idle time Na * C

= 1 – Eff.

Rebalance if eff. is low using a different primary rule.

Designing Line-Flow Layouts Line Balancing: Assignment of work to stations in a line so as to achieve the desired output rate with smallest number of workstations There are two constraints in line balancing : 1. Precedence requirements – Physical restriction. Cycle time restrictions – Max. operating time allowed for each workstation – Depend on demand rate. order of operations 2. production time .

Draw and label a precedence diagram. Calculate the theoretical minimum number of workstations. 2. recognizing cycle time and precedence constraints. Calculate the desired cycle time required for the line.Line Balancing Process 1. 4. Calculate the efficiency of the line. Stop if theoretical minimum number of workstations on an acceptable efficiency level reached. If not. 3. 6. . Group elements into workstations. 5. go back to step 4.

Assembly Lines Balancing Concepts Question: Suppose you load work into the three work stations below such that each will take the corresponding number of minutes as shown. What is the cycle time of this line? Station 1 Minutes per Unit Station 2 7 Station 3 3 6 .

. the cycle time of the line is 7 minutes.Assembly Line Balancing Concept Question: Suppose you load work into the three work stations below such that each will take the corresponding number of minutes as shown. In this problem. What is the cycle time of this line? Station 1 Minutes per Unit Station 2 7 Station 3 3 6 Answer: The cycle time of the line is always determined by the work station taking the longest time. There is also going to be idle time at the other two work stations.

5 1 1 1. C D E B F.2 0.4 Description Assemble frame Mount switch Assemble motor housing Mount motor housing in frame Attach blade Assemble and attach safety grill Attach cord Test Predecessors None A None A.Example of Line Balancing • You’ve just been assigned the job a setting up an electric fan asbly line with following tasks: Task A B C D E F G H Time (Mins) 2 1 3. G .25 1.

G H E C D F . C A B G H E.Example of Line Balancing: Precedence Diagram Task Predecessors A None B A C None Task Predecessors E D F E G B D A.

25 D 1.5 .4 H F 1 C 3.2 E .Example of Line Balancing: Precedence Diagram Question: Which process step defines the maximum rate of production? 2 A 1 B 1 G 1.

What would our cycle time have to be? .Example of Line Balancing: Cycle Time Question: Suppose we want to assemble 100 fans per day.

Example of Line Balancing: Number of Workstations Question: What is the theoretical minimum number of workstations for this problem? .

Example2 : Line Balancing A company must produce 600 unit output in a 40-hour week. D Performance Time (min) 1 2 2 4 3 4 . balance the assembly line Work Element A B C D E F Precedence A B A. E C. Given the following conditions.

Indicate the composition of each station. 4. should the production quota be set to the maximum? Assume one worker per station. Rebalance the line for maximum production.50 0. precedence reqmts and time reqmts to assemble a picture frame are shown here. Assume the company can sell as many frames as can be produced. If workers are paid Rs8 an hour and the profit per frame is Rs5. Calculate the efficiency and balance delay of the line.20 0. Construct a precedence diagram of the process and label task times.50 0.50 0. Elements A B C D E F G H I Description Attach left frame side to top of frame Attach right frame side to bottom of frame Attach left and right frame subassemblies Cut 8-inch by 10-inch glass Cut 8-inch by 10-inch cardboard Place glass into frame Place cardboard into frame Secure cardboard and glass Apply descriptive label to glass Precedenc e A.35 0.Example3: Line Balancing Additional Example work elements.70 0. 3. 2.35 0.600 frames per 40-hour week.20 0. G D Time (min) 0. B C. Set up an assembly line capable of producing 1. F F. . 5. Calculate the maximum number of frames that can be assembled each week. 6.10 1. D E.

H.Example4: Line Balancing Toy Wagon Assembly Line Balance Example Task A Performance Time (sec.) 45 Tasks that must precede --- B C D E F G H I J K 11 9 50 15 12 12 12 12 8 9 A B --D C C E E F.I J .G.

11 B 15 9 C 12 H 12 I F 8 9 A 50 12 G J K D E .Precedence Diagram 12 45 sec.

Balance the Line Using Most Followers Rule Task time(sec) Task Remaining time Rem. time Task@ St.4 idle none . Tasks Feasible most followers Task @ longest opr. 1 A 45 5.

2 A D 45 50 5. time Task@ St. 1 St.4 idle none none .Balance the Line Using Most Followers Rule Task time(sec) Task Remaining time Rem. Tasks Feasible most followers Task @ longest opr.4 idle 0.

H.I none F.I F.4 idle none none St. 1 St. E C E C F* 9 12 15.H.G.4 C. 2 A D 45 50 5. E C. time Task@ St.4 idle F.H.G.4 3.4 idle 0. Tasks Feasible most followers Task @ longest opr.4 24. 3 B E 11 15 39.I C.G.Balance the Line Using Most Followers Rule Task time(sec) Task Remaining time Rem.H.I .

I none H. I E F. I .4 idle none none St. 3 B E C St.Balance the Line Using Most Followers Rule Task time(sec) Task Remaining time Rem.4 26. time Task@ St.I H.I F.4 idle 38. 1 St.H. E C F.H. Tasks Feasible most followers Task @ longest opr.H. 2 A D 45 50 5.H. I I J none C.4 F* G* H I J 11 15 9 12 12 12 12 8 39.G.G.4 idle 0.4 6.4 15.4 idle C. E C.4 3.I H.4 24.G.4 14.

4 24. E C. 3 B E C St.H. I E F.I none H. 1 St.4 idle 38.G.H.H. E C F.4 15. 5 K 11 15 9 12 12 12 12 8 9 39.G.4 26. I I J none none C. Tasks Feasible most followers Task @ longest opr. 2 A D 45 50 5.4 6.H.I H.4 idle 41. time Task@ St.Balance the Line Using Most Followers Rule Task time(sec) Task Remaining time Rem.G.4 3.4 14.4 idle 0. 4 F* G* H I J St.I F.I H. I .4 idle C.4 idle none none St.

100% .Efficiency and Balance Delay Calculations Efficiency = 195 (5) 50.23 or 23% Check.77 or 77% Balance Delay = 57 (5) (50.4) = 0. Total = Notice that BD = 1.4) = 0.0 – Eff.

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