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Information Processing II
JND Weber’s Law Marketing Implications of JND & Weber’s Law The Butterfly Curve Marketing Implications of the Butterfly Curve
Types of Attention Capturing Consumer Attention Perceptual Organization Stimulus Organization Semieotics
The Just Noticeable Difference Threshold (JND) . . . . . is the minimal amount of . difference in intensity of a stimulus
that can be detected 50% of the time. Examples: changing size of packages, changing taste, changing the quality of sound, or touch, or smell of a product.
A theory concerning the perceived differentiation between similar stimuli of varying intensities (i.e., the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different).
Marketing Applications of the JND Companies need to determine the relevant JND for their products: • so that negative changes are not readily discernible to the public • so that product improvements are very apparent to consumers .
the ability to detect a difference between the two levels of the stimulus decreases.20 rule of thumb) • How much to lower price of $20. JND: Just Noticeable Difference • JND = Intensity X Constant (.” .Weber’s Law and the JND Weber's Law states that as the intensity of the stimulus increases.000 car? Is pricing JND? No!! It is “just meaningful difference.
when the word new is used make sure the product change is greater than JND Packaging: To update package styling and logo keep within JND To change Image. make styling changes greater than JND . move less than JND When lowering the price for sale. move more than JND Sales Promotion: Make coupons larger than JND Product: Make decreases in size of packaging less than JND.Marketing examples of the JND Pricing: When raising price.
N.D.Betty Crocker Changes Fall Below the J. .
N.Gradual Changes in Brand Name Fall Below the J. .D.
. . . • A reference point to which changes in the level of the stimulus are compared. . . is the amount or level of the stimulus to which the consumer has become accustomed. .Consumer Adaptation .
The Butterfly Curve . . is the idea that something slightly different may be perceived more positively. . . . . High Liking Low Stimulus intensity .
The Attention Stage Before consumers can comprehend and remember information. greater the amount of attention that will be focused on it. • The more demanding the task. • Attention involves the allocation of cognitive capacity to an object or task so that information is consciously processed. . they must first attend to it.
Spontaneous brand switching iv.Marketing Application of Butterfly Curve Marketing application i. Why fashion trends change so often? ii. Why radical fashions are adapted slowly? iii. Periodical change in corporate logos and other corporate symbols to give a fresh look .
Attention can be voluntary or involuntary. • Orientation reflex is the involuntary reflex when something surprising or novel is presented one turns toward and allocates attention to it.Types of Attention Pre-attention is an unconscious process in which consumers automatically scan the features of the environment. • Selective attention is voluntarily & selectively focusing on relevant information. .
. threaten.or violate the expectation of consumers.Capturing Customers’ Attention Goal is to activate the orientation reflex by creating stimuli that surprise. annoy.
Unexpected Attracts Attention .
Unexpected catches attention .
bright colors) Make it Bigger Distinctiveness Contrast with other elements in the perceptual field in which the object appears (Using different colors and shapes in packaging .Grabbing Consumer Attention Connect with consumer needs Reminding them of their needs before showing them how the product can satisfy needs Snicker’s TV advertisement starts with the question. Viewers are then instructed to grab snickers as they see a human hand voraciously devour the product Look ! It moves Colors are nice Make it more intense (Loud sounds. “ Hungry?”.
on right hand pages than on left hand page.Grabbing Consumer Attention Location! Location! Location: Products located at the end of the aisle or on shelves at eye level stand better chance of getting attention An ad’s location in the magazine influences attention Greater attention is given to the ad in the front part than in the back part of magazine. and outside back covers For smaller ads. inside back. and on the inside front. upper left hand corner of the page gets the maximum attention whereas lower right hand corner is least likely to get attention The surprise factor The Human Attraction ( Showing attractive endorsers) .
“Special offer” or “50% Off” Look for less cluttered environment . word “ free” with words that show saving money.. “ Clearance Sale”.g.Grabbing Consumer Attention The entertainment factor “Learned” Attention inducing stimuli Some stimuli attract our attention because we have been taught or conditioned to react to them Ringing phone or doorbell Certain words or phrases are associated with things we desire. e.
Aspects of Perception Selection Organization Interpretation .
. . . forms. and expectations to attach meaning to a stimulus. . memory. Interpretation process is how people draw upon their experience.The Comprehension Stage . . . and lines in their visual world. is the process in which individuals organize and interpret information Perceptual organization is the way people perceive the shapes. figures.
(The anal retentive artist— Esher) .Perceptual Organization Gestalt psychologists attempted to identify the rules that govern how people take disjointed stimuli and make sense out of them.
b). These principles are based on gestalt psychology (meaning is derived from totality of a set of stimuli). or images. a). sensations. In German.” .Stimulus Organization One factor that determines how a stimulus will be interpreted is its assumed relationship with other events. Our brains tend to relate incoming sensations to others already in memory based on some fundamental organizational principles. pattern. Sometimes the “whole is greater than the sum of its parts. or configuration. gestalt means whole. 1).
. The principle of similarity-consumers tend to group objects that share similar physical characteristics. We fill in the blanks. b). c). The closure principle--people tend to perceive an incomplete picture as complete. The figure-ground principle--states that one part of a stimulus will dominate (the figure) while other parts recede into the backdrop (the background).Principles include: a).
and it appears to be in front of the ground. the contours seem to belong to it.Figure-ground •we need to separate a dominant shape (a 'figure' with a definite contour) •Is the figure a white vase on a black background or silhouetted profiles on a white background? •we tend to favor one interpretation over the other (though altering the amount of black or white which is visible can create a bias towards one or the other) • When we have identified a figure. .
Billboard for Wrangler Jeans Makes Creative use of the Figure-Ground Principle .
An Ad for Absolut Vodka using the figure ground principle .
.proximity What you are likely to notice fairly quickly is that this is not just a square pattern of dots but rather is a series of columns of dots . The principle of proximity is that features which are close together are associated. Here we are likely to group the dots together in rows.
. In this example we tend to see three pairs of lines which are fairly close together (and a lonely line on the far right) rather than three pairs of lines which are further apart (and a lone line on the far left).We are more likely to associate the lines which are close together than those which are further apart.
. However.features which look similar are associated. This is because of the principle of similarity .similarity Here the little circles and squares are evenly spaced both horizontally and vertically so proximity does not come into play. Without the two different recurrent features we would see either rows or columns or both. .. we do tend to see alternating columns of circles and squares.
for instance. . Here. we are more likely to identify lines a-b and c-d crossing than to identify a-d and c-b or a-c and d-b as lines.continuity This principle is that contours based on smooth continuity are preferred to abrupt changes of direction.
. since if we remove the bracket shapes. Here we tend to see three broken rectangles (and a lonely shape on the far left) rather than three 'girder' profiles (and a lonely shape on the right).. we return to an image used earlier to illustrate proximity. In this case the principle of closure cuts across the principle of proximity. which produce 'closed' rather than 'open' figures are favored..Closure Interpretations.
This Ad Demonstrates the Use of Closure: People Have to Mentally Fill in the Gaps in the Sentence .
Cleans really clean.Scotch-Brite. An ad using the closure principle .
An ad featuring the similarity/proximity principles .
. .is trying to gain an understanding of something garnering our attention . . .Interpretation . .
as well as expectancies regarding what the stimulus “should be like”. Retrieved from long term memory information pertinent to the stimulus.Interpretation Arrives at an understanding of what stimulus is. Personal inclination and biases also influence consumer interpretation of the stimulus Role of Expectation: Expectations are a person’s prior beliefs about what should happen in a given situation (a vanilla pudding in dark brown color was perceived to be the most tasting chocolate pudding) .
Conceptual Relationship of Price Effect + Perceived Quality + Objective Price Perception of price Perceived value Perceived Sacrifice + _ Willingness to Buy _ _ .
Expanded Conceptualization to Include Brand and Store Name Brand Name Store Name Perception of Brand Perception of Store + + + Perceived Quality + Objective Price Perception of Price Perceived Sacrifice Perceived Value + _ Willingness to Buy _ _ .
Consumers use price as indicator of quality more frequently for familiar brands than for unfamiliar brands . Actual quality is difficult to judge by objective means 4. The consumer has some confidence that in this situation price predicts quality 2. Larger differences in price have greater impact on perceived quality than do smaller differences 5. There are real or perceived quality variations among the brands 3.Price Quality Relationship High price indicates high quality under following circumstances: 1.
3. Every marketing message has three basic components: Object .is the sensory imagery that represents the intended meaning of the object( Marlboro cowboy) Interpretant .the symbols around us 1.the meaning derived ( rugged. The field of study that examines the correspondence between signs and symbols and their role in the assignment of meaning. individualistic.Semiotics . American) . 2.is the product that is the focus of the message ( Marlboro cigarettes) Sign .
Object ( product) Marlboro cigarettes Cowboy Sign ( image) Rugged American Intrepretant (meaning) .
Semiosis analysis to identify meanings transmitted. Cross-cultural translations. and other symbols that convey meaning. .Semiotics: Key Concepts Signs: words. Focus groups provide methodology. gestures. pictures.
established visual images are easy to recognize and recall . Unique spellings attract attention and give scientific impressions In general. paq mean compact.Perceptions and Marketing Strategy Brand name and logo development: Create names that convey appropriate meaning for products Compaq: com means computer and communication. concrete terms with relevant.
Stores are designed with highly visible shelves and overhead signs to make locating items as easy as possible . High margin items are often placed in high traffic areas to capitalize on increased exposure iii. Frequently sought-out items separated ii.Perceptions and Marketing Strategy Retailers use exposure very affectively i. Point of purchase displays to attract attention to sale and high-margin items v. Shelf position and amount of shelf space influence which items and brands are allocated attention iv.
ii. Tie the message to a topic the target market is interested in e. i. animated cartoons etc. Media strategy: the fact that exposure process is selective rather than random is the underlying basis for effective media-strategy Determine which media the consumers in target are most frequently exposed to and then place the ad in that media For high involvement products. humor. full page. TV advertisements may be most suited Advertisement Design: For low involvement products: Utilize stimulus characteristics.g. sex etc. celebrities. print media is the best selection For low involvement products. d. bright colors. iii. ii. i. consumers would look for more information. .Perceptions and Marketing Strategy c.
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