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The Epoch of the Seven Sages

The Epoch of the Seven Sages

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The Epoch of the Seven Sages Author(s): Alden Mosshammer Reviewed work(s): Source: California Studies in Classical Antiquity

, Vol. 9 (1976), pp. 165-180 Published by: University of California Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25010705 . Accessed: 25/11/2012 07:37
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Thales and the College of Seven were formally recognized asWise during the archonship of Damasias.218 on Sun. Most scholars now agree.5).2 Thus. He chose the first Pythian Celebration as being an appropriate date both for the traditional synchronism and for the "official" recognition of the Seven asWise. in this version's alignment of the tables This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.4 (577/6). however.168. 582/1. 582/1. the later Epoch of the Seven Sages is not reported at Demetrius' date. According to the Marmor. Demetrius followed a tradition similar to that attested by Plato (Protagoras343a) that the Seven Sages met at Delphi and there dedicated to Apollo the first fruits of their wisdom. according to whom sophos. however. The chronographic epoch is best attested in the Chronicleof Eusebius. The Armenian translation exhibits the notice at the year of Abraham 1439.1 The date of Damasias' archonship is controversial. where an entry for the Naming of the Seven Sages appears at the fiftieth Olympiad (580/77) in both versions of the Chronological Canons.82.22.3 The Naming of the Seven Sages subsequently became an epoch in the chronographic tradition. Thales was the first to be named He cites Demetrius of Phalerum for the date. Olympiad 50. 25 Nov 2012 07:37:49 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the first in the regular series of Pythian Games (agon stephanitis) was celebrated in Damasias' second archonship. that both the absolute date of Damasias' archonship and the rationale behind Demetrius' association of the Seven Sages with it can be inferred from the entry of theMarmor Parium at the year corresponding to 582/1. Despite the authority of Demetrius and the appropriateness of his synchronism with the first Pythian Festival.ALDEN MOSSHAMMER The Epoch of the Seven Sages According toDiogenes Laertius (1.

however. the fourth in the Armenian. the disagreement between Apollodorus' date in 585/4 and that of Eusebius in the fiftieth Olympiad (580/77) is only superficial. 585/4. in both cases precisely where the notice on the Seven Sages stands. Erwin Rohde had noted that in the Canonsof Eusebius the thirty-third year of Alyattes corresponds to the second year of the fiftieth Olympiad in the Latin version.6 Felix Jacoby therefore argued that Demetrius' date had been superseded by that of a far more influential authority Apollodorus of Athens. based on the appearance in the fiftieth Olympiad of the thirty-third year of Alyattes. Both scholars were influenced to a certain extent by This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. The year 585/4 was the thirty-third year of Alyattes for Apollodorus. Apollodorus synchronized the akmeof Thales with the Epoch of the Seven Sages and expressed the date by citing the specific regnal year of Alyattes.86) that Alyattes ruled for fifty-seven years and Croesus for fourteen years to an absolute chronology by dating Croesus' fourteenth year to 547/6. with a slight shift downwards introduced by the manuscript tradition.218 on Sun. Apollodorus dated the akme of Thales to 585/4 in synchronism with the famous solar eclipse supposedly predicted by Thales (Herodotus 1. In Jacoby's view.7 The hypothesis of Rohde and Jacoby. This version of the Lydian listwas not the only one in use. and the entries of the Canons can accordingly not be treated as resulting from transcriptional error. Busolt therefore suggested that the Eusebian Canons in fact preserve Demetrius' date.16): ol er7raaooo d'VwoCd Orloaav. and the Epoch of the Seven Sages thus came to be associated with the fiftieth Olympiad. 1.2 (579/8): Septem sapientes appellati. as well as by naming the Athenian archon for the year. the Lydian king involved in the famous eclipse-battle.74) which brought to an end the war of the Lydians and theMedes. 25 Nov 2012 07:37:49 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . He elevated the Naming of the Seven Sages to the status of chronographic epoch by synchronizing itwith the akmeof Thales.4The equivalent Greek is preserved by Syncellus (453.5 A date for Thales and the Seven Sages in the fiftieth Olympiad is attested in sources other than Eusebius. Jerome's version. the notice stands at Olympiad 50. but not conclusive. In the Bodleian manuscript of St. The epoch is never reported at theApollodoran date.24. An excerptor assigned an Olympiad date using a different recension of the Lydian king-list. is plausible.82.166 AldenMosshammer (p. 187 Karst). Jacoby adopted Rohde's conclusion that the date for Thales and the Seven Sages in the fiftieth Olympiad was a late variant of the traditional date in 585/4.168. On this hypothesis. since he converted Herodotus' statements (1. In both versions of the Canonsand in Syncellus the notice immediately follows Eusebius' entry on the establishment of the Isthmian and Pythian Festivals.

He uses Pliny's report on the eclipse (N.11 There is. Even ifApollo dorus had included the precise regnal year of Alyattes. His principal points may be summarized as follows.168. For Apollodorus the thirty-third year of Alyattes was 585. Thus the thirty-third year of Alyattes is 577 in the Armenian. the eclipse. There is accordingly a notice for thewar at the year 577 inJerome. This two-year difference results in the length of the war being raised from six years to eight years. 575 in theArmenian. The beginning of thewar is entered six years earlier by Jerome. the thirty-third year ofAlyattes and the events associated with it constitute the basis from which all versions of the Lydian listwere constructed. had the thirty-third year of Alyattes "tatsachlich vor Augen" when he wrote of Thales.82.218 on Sun. It was much easier to convert archon-years toOlympiad dates than Lydian king-years. it is not likely that his epitomators would either have transmitted it or used it tomake the conversion to the Olympiad system. Kaletsch adduces the Eusebian texts in proof of this hypothesis. who reckoned inclusively. There can be no doubt that Apollodorus included the name of Alyattes in his report about the akmeof Thales in the year of the eclipse.53) as the principal evidence for the Apollodoran date in 585/4. but then he adduces the Epoch of the Seven Sages in the fiftieth Olympiad as "ein neuer beweis dass die Apollodorische epoche des Thales wirklich in ol. On the contrary. The chronographers wrongly synchronized the eclipse with the beginning of the six years' war. and the Lydo-Median War. His excerptors were concerned primarily with converting these eponymous dates to the numbered system of Olympiads which Eratosthenes had made standard for literary chronology. In the Armenian version. The asso ciation of Thales and the eclipse with the thirty-third year of Alyattes was no accident oftransmission. the Lydian list ends at the fall of Croesus two years later than in Jerome.H. Hence the thirty-third year of Alyattes. 2. The Chronicle of Apollodorus was organized by Athenian archon-years. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. although he did not mention the regnal year in the text. rather than its end. Hans Kaletsch has extended the argument considerably. 25 Nov 2012 07:37:49 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . was lowered six years to 579. no real evidence that he cited a specific regnal year. where it appears in Jerome's text together with the notice on the Seven Sages. 4 zu setzen ist.The Epoch of theSevenSages 167 a desire to create agreement among the sources about an important date which is especially significant for modern historians because it is subject to independent control by astronomical data."10 The argument is circular. and on 28 May of that year a total eclipse of the sun was widely visible in Asia Minor.8 Rohde assigns even Demetrius' date to that year. however. 48. That much is clear from Pliny. marking the end of the war. Herodotus himself.9 Jacoby rightly associates Demetrius' report with the first Pythiad.

Some adjustments may have been necessary to harmonize the lists. eight years earlier in the Armenian version. For Greek history he used an Olympiad chronicle from which excerpts could readily be transcribed onto chrono logical tables in which he had made the Olympiad numbers especially prominent. Thus Jerome transmits an eight-year interval between the eclipse and the end of the war. neither redacted the content. leaving in the middle of the page a space for historical entries. This interval of eight years.168. with exclusive reckon ing. Eusebius collected the regnal lists from a variety of sources and created from them the elaborate synchronistic display of the ChronologicalCanons. Their energies were directed solely to the difficult task of translating and transcribing the complex Chronicleof Eusebius. In Jerome that notice is entered. The arguments he adduces from the Chronicleof Eusebius.218 on Sun. apart from Jerome's Roman addenda. cannot supply the proof. either in the alignment of the regnal lists or in the placement of historical This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. at 585.82. Even for Eusebius himself. at 583. In the Armenian version the notice on Thales and the eclipse also appears at 583. These he added to the chronological framework from encyclopedic epitomes inwhich the notices were already associated with absolute dates. 25 Nov 2012 07:37:49 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Differences between the two versions in the alignment of the numerals in the chronological framework with respect to each other and to the historical notices are textual problems. the primary business was transcription-not chronographic manipulation -and there was never any such relationship between the regnal lists of the chronological framework and the historical notices of the text as the argument of Kaletsch suggests. beginning with the eclipse. but Eusebius did not alter the given material on the basis of new research and calculations. Neither Jerome nor the Armenian translator engaged in such chronographic manipulation as the reckoning of intervals and the adjust ment of termini.12 The general thesis in this section of Kaletsch's study is that all ver sions of the Lydian king-list derive from Herodotus. Kaletsch is probably right. If there are errors and disagreements in the extant texts. separately from the war. rather than from the application of different estimates about the average length of a generation to the genealogy of the Lydian kings.168 AldenMosshammer at 582. He transcribed the lists of his sources in parallel columns. since they are based on amisunderstanding of the extant texts. however. but. Both altered the format of the Chronological Canons. although he also has separate notices on thewar with a six-year interval. instead of ending there. instead of six. accounts for the chronographers' corresponding reduction in the number of regnal years allotted to Alyattes from the fifty-seven attested by Herodotus to the forty-nine of the Eusebian lists. not chronographic puzzles.

The Armenian dates are two years later than those of the Latin version. In this case. his bookman had to turn the page.14 Jerome. Jerome and the Armenian version attest in different ways to the same Eusebian original. 25 Nov 2012 07:37:49 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Either there was one lengthy notice in the original or two short ones were entered side by side. Both attest to the same original. Jerome enters the eclipse at the last years of the forty-eighth Olympiad.82.218 on Sun. Solon 592.The Epoch of theSevenSages 169 chrono notices. Eusebius in turn witnesses to the chronographic tradition as it had developed up to his time. was not only the last in the Olympiad but also the last on Jerome's twenty-six-line page. The Armenian version has both in a single notice entered at Abraham 1433. The and Astyages contra Lydos pugnat (10lf)-in in war that of the Lydo-Median Olympiad does not result appearance from recomputation of the date relative to the eclipse. Jerome attests to an original placement for both entries-Septem sapientesappellati (10le Helm) the fiftieth Olympiad.4 (585/4). the Armenian text suggests that Thales' eclipse and the Lydo-Median war were included in a single notice or perhaps entered side by side on the same line in the space reserved for historical notices.. The date. The Armenian date forThales' eclipse and the Lydo-Median war in 583 instead of 585 must therefore be attributed to transcriptional error. The second sentence (the war) thus came to be inscribed near the top of the next page and in the next (forty-ninth) Olympiad.168.g. The first notice of the forty-ninth Olympiad is Alyattes et Astyages dimi cauerunt(1010Helm). In the Armenian version there is a downward shift by two years or more. 586-585: Solisfacta defectiocumfuturamearnThales antedixisset(100fHelm). Pythian celebration 580). The notices on Thales' eclipse and the Lydo-Median war must be understood accordingly. is the better witness to the original placement of the text with respect to the chronological framework-the traditional Apollo doran date inOlympiad 48. translators. however. as Diogenes' citation This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. for every notice in the right margin of the page (e.13 St. in comparison with Jerome. The Epoch of the Seven Sages was especially associated with Thales. or any graphic manipulation part intermediate redactor. As he was dictating the text associated with that year (uelocissime dictauerim. Aliates und Atdahak lieferten eine Schlacht" (187 Karst). The second Eusebian notice on the Lydo-Median war appears in both versions two lines and therefore two years below the entry on the Seven Sages. p. not chronographic manipulation in the history of the sources. but again this difference results only from the fact that the entire column of entries is displaced. Olympiad 49.2 (583/2): "Die Sonne ward verfinstert nach Thales des Weisen Vorauskiindigung. they reflect logistical problems of transcription-not on the his of Eusebius. however. 2 Helm).

82. It is hazardous to suppose that such a date was embedded in primitive tradition and that Herodotus therefore had the thirty-third year of Alyattes specifically inmind when he wrote of these events-especially since Herodotus himself does not make that association. dates the Seven Sages and Thales in particular to the fiftieth Olympiad. As has already been the variant dates of and the Armenian translator for shown. No extant text transmits a date for the Seven Sages in 585/4. Solon. there is clear evidence that the date in the fiftieth Olympiad was in Eusebius' source material and does not derive from chronographic manipulation on the part of Eusebius. The appearance of the notice in this context suggests that the date was a standard entry of the Olympiad chronicles. The Eusebian texts attest to such a combination in the fiftieth Olympiad-the Seven Sages flourished at the time of the Lydo-Median war. First. the date in the fiftieth Olympiad is well attested. Among the occasional notes which that list trans mits is one at the fiftieth Olympiad on the Naming of the Seven Sages. the thirty-third year of Alyattes. and the Lydo-Median war do not lead to the conclusion that the apperance of the thirty-third year of Alyattes in that Olympiad is significant. Jerome Thales. not Lydian regnal years.168. Any date for the Seven Sages could therefore be combined with the well known tradition about the eclipse-battle. Second.15 The hypothesis of Rohde and Jacoby that the date for the Seven Sages in the fiftieth Olympiad (580/77) is a variant of the Apollodoran date in 585/4. Both versions of the Chronological Canons of Eusebius enter the Seven the in the of fiftieth Naming Sages Olympiad. On the other hand. and the Trojan War appear. Kaletsch's argument that the thirty-third year of Alyattes was always prominent in the tradition founders on two grounds. his redactors. An alternative hypothesis must therefore be sought. Pythagoras. it is not likely that Greek tradition could associate Thales' eclipse with a specific date like the thirty-third year of Alyattes until after the tradition had been systematized by the Hellenistic chrono graphers. the Eusebian texts do not support Kaletsch's argument. 25 Nov 2012 07:37:49 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .170 AldenMosshammer from Demetrius shows. and the variant notices of the extant versions are best understood as textual problems.16 It is in fact attested in sources earlier than Eusebius and earlier than Diogenes Laertius. the eclipse.218 on Sun. Tatian. or his translators. Furthermore.17 Clement ofAlexandria also dates Thales to the fiftieth Olympiad. once in connection with the famous eclipse he is said to have predicted and again in synchronism with This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. the thirty-third year of Alyattes. is open to the objection that Apollodorus organized his Chronicleby Athenian archon-years. in a well-known passage where the vulgate (Apollodoran) dates of Dracon. Eusebius includes in his prefatory chronographic excerpts a list of Olympic victors.

synchronized with the eclipse of that year. assign the synchronism among the Seven Sages either to the fiftieth Olympiad.82. or with Demetrius of Phalerum to 582/1.18 The sole exception (apart from Diogenes' citation of Demetrius' date) to this unanimity among the sources on the date of the Seven Sages in the fiftieth Olympiad is the statement of Eusebius at Praep. if they preserve a precise date at all.168. but the precise date is not reported.The interpretation of the Greek is uncontro versial. there are several references in the Sudawhich show that an epochal synchronism among the Seven Sages was included in the chrono logical sources (presumably. however.C.4. as the context makes clear. who flourished in the sixty-second Olympiad. There is. inasmuch as it both accounts for the evidence of our sources and offers an explanation for the genesis and growth of the tradition without recourse to the objectionable assumption that Thales and his eclipse were always dated to the thirty-third year of Alyattes. earlier even than Demetrius of Phalerum.19 The synchronism with Cyrus therefore lies outside the mainstream of the Greek chronographic tradition. and earlier than the eldest of those the This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Clement of Alexandria associates the date for Thales and the Seven Sages in the fiftieth Olympiad with authors of the mid-fourth century B. Hesychius of Miletus). Eusebius' source for this later date was probably Sextus Julius Africanus.218 on Sun. 10. 580/79. We should therefore seek an understanding of the tradition as it is transmitted in our sources.20 All the authorities upon whom we depend for the reconstruction of Greek chronographic tradition. But it provides an alternative to the prevailing view. and the passages may be translated as follows: Strom. The hypothesis is admittedly conjectural. The synchronism is artificial. Unequivocal evidence is. adduced to show that the earliest of the Greek philosophers were contemporary with the last of the Hebrew prophets. whose was characterized by such vaguely contrived Graeco Chronographiae Hebrew synchronisms.10 that the collective akmeof the Seven Sages could be synchronized with Cyrus. In both of his citations. not to be found.The Epoch of theSevenSages 171 the Seven Sages. Euang.129: They prophesied earlier than Pythagoras. Within that tradition. Neither date can be regarded as a variant of the Apollodoran akmeof Thales in 585/4. as usual when dealing with the chrono graphic tradition. since it cannot be proved beyond all doubt.1. 25 Nov 2012 07:37:49 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . instead of manipulating the data to force the ancients into agreement with a modern astronomical date. a good case for hypothesizing that the synchronism of the Seven Sages in the fiftieth Olympiad derives from sources earlier thanApollodorus.

Herodotus' account (1. who flourished in the fiftiethOlympiad. Olympiad dates were not yet current.23 This estimate for the relative date of Thales and the Seven Sages of about one hundred years before the Persian Wars. was subsequently translated into a misleadingly precise date by the authors of literary Olympiad chronicles. p. 143Wehrli) says Thales predicted the solar eclipse which happened when the Medes and the Lydians joined battle with one another during the reign of Cyaxares the father of Astyages. apart from a fragment preserved by Diogenes Laertius (1. he needed a relative chronology for his antiquarian work. FHG II.172 Alden Mosshammer Greeks consider wise. however. Andron's synchronism may well have carried at least a relative date. king of the Medes.74) agrees with him.65: Eudemus in his History of Astronomy (fr. It is nevertheless important to note that a synchronism as such between Thales and the Seven Sages was current with Andron.218 on Sun. 347). told in detail of the Sages' self-effacing agon to lose the prize of wisdom. The date which Clement associates with Andron and Eudemus suggests that the popular tradition of their time believed Thales and the Seven Sages to have lived about one hundred years before the Persian Wars.21 Andron.82. Thales. 25 Nov 2012 07:37:49 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Where This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Eudemus shows himself to have been free of the chronographic computation which carried with it the name of Astyages as king. 347). Indeed. before the publication of Demetrius' Archons' List. however.168. among others. as Andron says in The Tripod (fr. p. and Alyattes the father of Croesus. Clement or his source has no doubt added it. 1. and by naming Cyaxares as the Median king.30.Miller FHG II. Strom.22 Nevertheless. Clement associates the same date both with Andron and with Eude mus' account of Thales' eclipse. for the popular synchronism of Thales and the Seven Sages must surely have been made by the middle of the fourth century. agreed on Thales' date. The date is fiftieth Olympiad. and chronography in the strict sense cannot be attributed either to Andron or to Eudemus. popular in the time of Andron and Eudemus. giving the date shared with Tatian and with Eusebius' Olympiad chronicler. Little survives of his account. 3. The Olympiad date in these passages cannot be attributed directly either to Andron or to Eudemus. Those enrolled with him as wise were synchronous with Thales. Some vague estimate.29) of the visits to Croesus' Sardis of all the Greek sophistai of the day has been taken as suggesting that such a synchronism was popular already in the fifth century. who were roughly contemporary. Unlike that of Plato's Protagoras (343a). king of the Lydians. Herodotus in the first book (1. Eudemus relied for his information on Herodotus. Clement may be right that he and Andron.

Such a hypothesis is plausible enough as an explanation for the pres ence in the chronographic tradition of a date for Thales and the Seven Sages in the fiftieth Olympiad. As one of the Seven. the would have to be a few years after most appropriate occasion for his akme. Solinus (7. On this hypothesis. That date was the Apollodoran akmeof Periander (FGrHist 244 F 332). F 333.6). The evidence of Andron and Eudemus is admittedly tenuous.24 Confirmation of chronographic hypotheses is found in odd places. he flung himself into the sea and was delivered safely to Cape Taenarum on the back of a dolphin.218 on Sun.25 The date ismuch too early. since there can be no doubt that he synchronized Thales and the Seven Sages at a precise date. their excerptors and epitomators. he booked passage on a Corinthian vessel bound for home.23-24). synchronous with the beginning of his reign as tyrant of Corinth. This account was the starting point of any attempt to establish Arion's date. introduced the equivalent absolute date. From there he made his way to Corinth and brought before Periander an indictment against the sailors.82.The Epoch of theSevenSages 173 Andron and Eudemus had given an approximate relative date. Either there was a corruption in the numeral (XXIX for XXXIX) or Solinus has made the common error of confusing an Apollodoran birthdate with the akme. Solon's own position in the archons' list (594/3).168. the ten years of his apodemia (Herodotus 1. who preserves Apollodoran material excerpted from the lost Chronicleof Nepos (FGrHist 244 T 7. dates a Sicilian victory of Arion and his return to Greece on the dolphin to the twenty-ninth Olympiad. According toHerodotus (1. and the Suda reports the same date for the akmeof both inOlympiad 38 (628/5). A date forArion's miraculous ride. Arion had lived for some time at the court of Periander before voyaging to Italy and Sicily to win prizes there.26 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. and the traditional association of Solon with the amphictyonic victory. Wishing to return. The evidence of Demetrius of Phalerum is much better. Demetrius inherited a tradition to the effect that Thales and the Seven Sages lived about one relative chronology shared hundred years before the Persian Wars-a with Andron and Eudemus.29). lent credence to the precise date in 582/1. The simplest view synchronized him with Periander. including Clement or his source. there is supporting evidence in the variant dates reported for Arion. Instead of converting the interval directly to an absolute eponymous date corresponding to 580. he fastened upon an event about one hundred years before the PersianWars with which he believed the Seven Sages could reasonably be synchronized-the estab lishment of the regular Pythian games in 582. 348). 25 Nov 2012 07:37:49 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the beginning of Periander's rule in accordance with Herodotus' account of thematter. His life threatened by the greedy crew. In this case.

and the Eusebian Canons date the beginning of Tarquin's reign to the fortieth Olympiad. according to Solinus. The Apollodoran date for Arion is the fortieth year before his date for Thales.168. synchronized. The notice actually appears at Abraham 1406. The date may derive. there cannot have been docu mentary evidence for its date. dated the akme of Arion to 624/3. however. The computation of a date for Arion in 619/18 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. with a Sicilian victory in dithyrambic music and with his return to Greece astride the dolphin. between Tarquin and Arion. 25 Nov 2012 07:37:49 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of a lengthy notice on the war between Josiah ofJudah and Necho of Egypt. the precise dates are 624/3 forArion and 663/2 for Archilochus. In the oldest manuscripts ofJerome's version the entry appears between the second and third years of the fortieth Olympiad (619-18): Arion Methymnaeus clarushabetur. The Armenian evidence also points to an original placement for the entry on Arion in the fortieth Olympiad. A precise date is afforded by applying Apollodorus' well-known device of setting the akmai of famous persons at intervals of the fortieth year apart. and the displacement of the notice for Arion into the forty-second Olympiad results from the interpolation into the right column of entries.218 on Sun. Apollodorus could. The Eusebian date is the fortieth year before the synchronism between Thales and the Seven Sages in the fiftieth Olympiad. Eusebius preserves a somewhat later date forArion. Olympiad 42. however. however. appears in the fortieth Olympiad. The date is different both from the vulgate synchronism with Periander in the thirty eighth Olympiad and from the Apollodoran date in the thirty-ninth Olympiad.3 (610/9). The entry appears immediately below Tar quiniusPriscus Capitolium extruxit (971). Eusebius found among his sources a date for Arion in the fortieth Olympiad (620/17). The date forArion in the thirty-ninth Olympiad (624/1) is forty years after Apollo dorus' date forArchilochus (FGrHist 244 F 336) and forty years before the akme of Thales. then. The entry on Tarquin. from a computation similar to that of Apollodorus. The date for Thales was the starting point.82. infer an approximate date for the famous ride by reference to his Cypselid chron ology-a few years after the accession of Periander in 627. The notice cannot be interpreted as attesting to the Apollodoran date in the thirty-ninth Olympiad with a slight shift downwards introduced in the Latin manuscripts. since Apollodorus reckoned such intervals inclusively. the fortieth year before the akmeof Thales.174 AldenMosshammer The thirty-ninth Olympiad (624/1) is probably Apollodorus' date for the akmeof Arion. Whether or not the victory is historical.27 Apollodorus. The use of that date for such a computation provides evidence that the Epoch of Thales and the Seven Sages in 580/79 was an early element of the tradition. and.Qui a delfino in Taenarum transportatus (97k Helm).

Finally. it was better to have a date for Apollo's proclamation which coincided with the akme of none of them. 25 Nov 2012 07:37:49 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as seems to be the case with Diogenes' dates forAnaxagoras. but it is not likely that a practicing chronographer would have used it as a base-date after the more sophisticated computa tions of Demetrius and Apollodorus had been made. the teacher of Pythagoras.The Epoch of theSevenSages 175 must have been carried out before Demetrius' date for the Seven Sages and Apollodorus' date for Thales entered the chronographic tradition. The association with Apollo and the first Pythiad made good sense. it would have permitted Apollodorus to say that he earned the title con ferred in 582/1 by virtue of the reputation won in 585/4.82. For a chrono grapher who rejected the literal synchronism among the Seven Sages and computed separate akmai ranging from 627 (Periander. F 335). Clement.121) date thefloruit of Pherecydes to the fifty-ninth Olympiad (544/1). there is no direct evidence for the Apollodoran Epoch of the Seven Sages at all. It is not self-evident that Apollodorus must necessarily have synchronized the naming of the Seven Sages with Thales' eclipse. then.218 on Sun. Jacoby argued for the Apollodoran origin of this date.28 Apollodorus. Apollo dorus may well have agreed with Demetrius of Phalerum. The date forArion in 619/18 is the fortieth year before the Epoch of Thales and the Seven Sages in the fiftieth Olympiad. The date in the fiftieth Olympiad was transmitted to the sources of Tatian. FGrHist 244 F 332) to 556 (Chilon. But the variant dates forArion reflect different dates for Thales in parti cular. Evidence to support this hypothesis may be found through close examination of the standard date for Pherecydes of Syros.168. Diogenes' information about Demetrius' date for the proclamation may well have come to him through his epitome of Apollodorus. Both Eusebius (103" Helm) and Diogenes Laertius (1. In Thales' case. rather than for the Seven Sages as a group. These con clusions might be interpreted as implying that Apollodorus did in fact synchronize the Epoch of the Seven Sages with his new date for Thales. and Eusebius. The date for Arion must therefore be ascribed to a fourth-century authority whose method ology prefigured that of Apollodorus. and the coincidental appearance of the thirty-third year of Alyattes in the fiftieth Olympiad of the Eusebian Canons cannot prove that he did. The Apollodoran date for Arion is the fortieth year before the akmeof Thales. On the contrary. Identification of that source must be the subject of a separate investigation where the question can be considered in the context of a broader range of evidence. may have adopted Demetrius' eminently sensible date for theNaming of the Seven Sages. but he was unable to discover its rationale or to reconstruct the precise date with This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. rather than shifting it to the date of Thales' eclipse. Furthermore.

Apollodorus adopted either of the two attested dates for the Epoch of the Seven Sages. and a Pherecydes of Leros who was younger than the Syrian.29 For Jacoby the akmeof Thales in 585/4 also marks the Apollodoran Epoch of the Seven Sages in the thirty-third year of Alyattes.218 on Sun.713 Adler): yeyove Se KaTa'ro Av8Sv claaLAE'a AvavTTr-v. It reads as follows (4.31 The chronological statement is.2 (543/2) would be the fortieth year after Demetrius' date for Thales and the Seven Sages. 582/1-not with the less from analysis of the Suda's formal estimate which led to 580/79-follows notice on Pherecydes of Syros.176 AldenMosshammer certainty. The Suda has three articles for persons named Pherecydes-one from Syros. An akme inOlympiad 59. since any year in the fifty-ninth Olympiad ismore than forty years later than the akmeof Thales. an elder contemporary. An akme inOlympiad 59. That Apollo dorus synchronized Pherecydes' birth with the Epoch of the Seven Sages at Demetrius' date in the forty-ninth Olympiad. however. Apollodorus agreed and considered the Athenian the younger of the two. 25 Nov 2012 07:37:49 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .). If. For the Suda cites Porphyrius (FGrHist 260 F 21) in refutation of the statement that the Athenian Pherecydes was older than the Syrian. and Porphyrius' chronology is that of Apollodorus (FGrHist 244 F 61.E ofe rrv T71V dA>vpuTrLciaS OAVL'asOa As ouvyXpovelV TroIs ' caoqos O Kal TTEX'acL rEpl sentence combines two chronological references into one.168. 338 and Komm. Pherecydes was not only the teacher of Pythagoras. but also his colleague and friend-that is. We do not know which year within the fifty-ninth Olympiad was theApollodoran akmeof Pherecydes.Apollodorus could compute a precise date for Pherecydes by synchronizing his birth with the Epoch of the Seven Sages.82. Eratosthenes (FGrHist 241 F 10) recognized the existence of only two-the Syrian and the Athenian. an Athenian Pherecydes who was older than the Syrian. but we can determine what date he accepted for the Epoch of the Seven Sages if we can find evidence for the Apollodoran date of Pherecydes' birth. however. whose birth Apollodorus dated to 571/0 (FGrHist 244 F 339). The Suda's dates for Pherecydes of Syros may therefore be regarded as deriving through Hesychius of Miletus from Apollodorus and Porphyrius.4 (541/0) would be the fortieth year after the epoch as dated to 580/79. That is.30 The dates for their akmai in the fifty-ninth and sixty-second Olympiads express this relationship. difficult to interpret. his date for Phere cydes can be explained. Pherecydes flourished during the reign of Alyattes and was synchronous with the Seven Sages. According to the first. . A synchronism between the The This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. according to the tradition which Apollodorus followed. That such a date was approximately correct Apollodorus had inferred from Pherecydes' relationship to Pythagoras.

Such a concept led naturally to a synchronism. the same confusion between birthdate and akme. According to the second statement.33The Suda's first statement. specifically Olympiad 49. The Suda's birthdate in the forty-fifth Olympiad must therefore be a textual corruption. By the end of the fourth century Demetrius of Phalerum had refined the estimate and synchronized Thales and the Seven Sages with the establishment of the Pythian games in 582.32 Both Diogenes Laertius (1. confirms the hypothesis that Apollodorus synchronized the birth of Pherecydes with the Epoch of the Seven Sages. had not the thirty-third year of Alyattes so fascinated historians for almost a century.121) and Eusebius (103n Helm) date thefloruit of Pherecydes to the fifty-ninth Olympiad (544/1) and both frequently transmit Apollodoran data. then. While there was much disagreement about the names to be included. although it is preserved only in Christian sources. One manuscript ("G" = Parisinus 2623) reads ve'. The case is exactly parallel to the Suda'swell-known report of Thales' date in the thirty-fifth Olympiad instead of the thirty-ninth. but he computed separate akmai for the individuals. and the Seven Sages were estimated to have lived about one hundred years before the Persian Wars. Apollodorus adopted Demetrius' date for Apollo's proclamation of the Seven as wise. This statement may derive from such a tradition. the Suda's ye'ove frequently expresses an Apollodoran birthdate. a college of seven was canonical by the beginning of the fourth century B. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.3 (582/1). since Pherecydes was often counted among their number.82. 25 Nov 2012 07:37:49 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . There is the same corruption in the numeral. So interpreted. the first statement confirms the hypothesis thatApollodorus synchronized the birth of Pherecydes with the Epoch of the Seven Sages. a date not in agreement with either of the dates attested for the Seven Sages.218 on Sun. On the other hand. This estimate was used by antiquarians of the middle of the fourth century both as a date for Thales and as a base for other constructions.C. The conclusions are both simple and important. The second statement shows that Apollodorus adopted Demetrius' date for that epoch in the forty-ninth Olympiad. an emenda tion easily justified on paleographical grounds (MOmisread asME). The well-attested date for Thales and the Seven Sages in the fiftieth Olympiad (580/79). They might have been stated long ago and with amuch less tortuous argument. which is either a secondary corruption or a scribe's deliberate attempt to lower the date of Pherecydes to the fifty-fifthOlympiad (560/59) so as to restore an approx imate synchronism with Pythagoras (floruit523). For "45" we should read "49". represents the earliest chronological construction. Pherecydes was born in the forty-fifth Olympiad (600/599).The Epoch of theSevenSages 177 floruit of Pherecydes and the Epoch of the Seven Sages is comprehensible.

Eusebius Werke. the earlier estimate continued to be circulated. and Samuel.22. Fotheringham. The ancients believed both. GreekandRomanChronology (Munich 1972) 198-206. J. Oppolzer'sCanon of Eclipses (Dover edition.82. reprinted New York. 585/4. It was also converted to a pre cise. 13. absolute date by the popular Olympiad chroniclers." RE 51 (1923) 2242-2264. On the tradition of the Seven Sages in general. where the chronological difficulties are notorious. Kca' and OV era Kato0 6 't TWV VT avaypen]. 101e.L. 158-162. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 4 P. 1953): oo Kal irp&oZ aos 239 A wvoLyo I' d YpXoTos A0ron a was archon Jaact'ov. See Cadoux. Eusebius Werke. (London Band V 1923). "The Athenian Archons from Kreon to Hypsichides. 1962) 1489. Neither date was ever superseded. 179. sG. Apollodors Chronik (Philo 16.K. 1973) 182-183. Die 1911). In less scholarly circles. Chronik des Eusebius ad sua tempora produxit S. RhM 25 (1870) 253-262. Cyrillus as an early witness to the text of Eusebius' Chronicle. The modem debate over whether Thales could or did predict the eclipse and whether an eclipse was visible on the field of battle at all does not affect the argument. that the Seven Sages flourished in the fiftiethOlympiad. (zweiter Auflage. Die Schuledes Aristoteles (2 vols. Damasias for two years twomonths according to Ath. 9Rohde 159 (above n. The date of Demetrius for the Naming of the Seven Sages and of Apollodorus for the akmeof Thales became standard for chrono graphic computation soon after their publication. Griechische II2 697. Geschichte 6The testimonia are presented and discussed below. 3This is the explanation offered by Felix Jacoby. "r'yoi inden Biographica des Suidas. University of California San Diego NOTES 1 D. one hundred years before the Persian Wars. (GCS 20.168. 7Jacoby (above n. Helm. The article is hereafter cited as "Rohde" with the pagination of Kline SchriftenI. Arno Press. His discussion of the Epoch of the Seven Sages appears pp. Eusebius Hieronymus aus dem armenischen iibersetz. It was transmitted in the works of fourth-century authors who had used this relative chronology before Demetrius established amore formal synchronism with the first Pythiad.178 AldenMosshammer including one forThales at the date Apollodorus established for the famous eclipse.5 = Demetrius FGrHist 228 F 1 and fr.13. Contralulianum 1. J. Basel 2Marmor 1944. Pol. who synchronized Thales and the Seven Sages with the fiftieth Olympiad (580/79). ws as& I7tptloplO? Parium FGrHist 38.218 on Sun. 7). 149Wehrli. The Untersuchungen logische work ishereafter cited as "Jacoby" with the appropriate page numbers. Leipzig Jerome is hereafter cited by the pagination of Helm's edition. however. oI EatpEvs XpXOW acoiol erKani)lyawv. Berlin 1956). Karst. where he also argues for 585/4 as Demetrius' date. Die Chronik des Hieronymus. Spez. 3) 181-182." RhM 33 (1878) 161-220. Kanon derFinsternisse (Berlin 1899) 169. Band VII Canones. Ginzel." JHS 68 (1948) 70-123. 8F.2. "Sieben Weise. Berlin 1902. That the fiftiethOlympiad was the original placement of the notice in the Canons is confirmed by the excerpt of Cyrillus of Alexandria.K. GCS 70. reprinted in Kleine SchriftenI (Leipzig 1901) 114-184. adauxit. see Barkowski.Rohde. 25 Nov 2012 07:37:49 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1. Busolt. Eusebii PamphiliChronici latine uertit. On seeHiller. R. the superscript representing Helm's ordinal lettering of the historical entries.

A.82. 1. reprinted New York. Barkowski (above n. the causes 179 of a solar eclipse) ThalesMilesius olympiadis XLVIII anno quarto praedictosolis defectuqui Alyatte rege factus est urbis conditae anno CLXX. 201. Mimnermus. In column 30a excerpts time and offers the following synchronism to that of P. 3). an almost by Scaliger which from the Chronicle of Eusebius with the author lists the prophets to translate of Cyrus' from Africanus. 1967) I. But such an expression as a variant of the reckoning "to our own times" attested by Herodotus logy may be regarded (2. 20 The Suda on The a text similar Pherecydes. above n.. 1866. 15The dates in the forty-ninth Olympiad for Thales' eclipse and the Lydo Median war transmitted by Solinus (15.18). See H. See Huxley. Schone.10: TOtrp7irpW7ovs evidence etprinceps This for theGreeks: in ipsis autemtemporibus agorasfamosifilosofi cognoscebantur. 17 ad Graecos to the thirty-ninth 41. SBBerlin 1929 (above n. The attribution. Pythagoras avbpas is possibly an attempt last phrase E'Maooifa OavJiaaOcivaL. 1967) I.E. especially.4.A. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. excerpt 21 cf.137: are common in literary texts. 207) that Africanus is the source of a syn Press. R. "AWar Between Astyages and Alyattes. 11 N. 3] 166). Apollodorus and. notices such as this one at the fiftieth Olympiad to the tradition should be ascribed and not to the excerptor. 331). recorded Sages and Latin. I.74).53: apud Graecos autem inuestigauit primus omnium (sc.53) or to a fixed terminus within historical memory such as Thucydides uses (1. 13 On the technical problems see the introductions to the editions of Fothering ham and ofHelm and. but the date in the epigraphic its inclusion Chronicon Romanum (composed to the Seven References in cannot be read (FGrHist 252 B 3 and Komm.H. 13). is not secure. p. however. Franklin. attested by and especially Pittacus. 12 Kaletsch. p. 18) are. different from those advanced since that time.g. 3). The probably did not the Chronicle of Nepos. It may have been Alcaeus who prompted this disagreement with Herodotus.65.D. derives from Apollodorus but Cicero unfortunately through the date. Mosshammer. H. 2. Gelzer." Historia 7 (1958) 1-47. especially 6-22. Jacoby 78 and FGrHist 244 F. Pythagoras to the sixty-second (532/29. SextusJulius Africanusunddie byzantinische (2 vols. EusebiChronicorum Libri Duo (Berlin 1875. 16 Chron. Leipzig Chronographie 1880. cf. Tyrtaeus.Whatever the immediate source. 1. apparently. Bucknell University Press. he dates Dracon (624/1. examination 407 years after the Trojan War [above n. Jacoby Olympiad Jacoby 215 and FGrHist 244 F 339). 3. 167. 15. (1184/3. Karst.The Epoch of theSevenSages 10Jacoby 182 (above n. Petermann. 10. For the suggestion the Seven Sages and the reign of Cyrus. p. as acoby (179 180) argues. both Greek e. 1898. the first Olympiad in detail below. Helm. de Or. 1977).H. are substantially been a thorough in the An interim report appears inmy forthcoming Chronicle Tradition ofEusebiusandGreek Chronographic (Bucknell chronism some combines (Schoene University (not dated excerpts I.53) with a lower date for the era. reprinted Zurich. Tabellenform 14For this "nebeneinander" hypothesis seeHelm. Jacoby 165). 93. Periander.218 on Sun. in the chronographic tradition of the Epoch of the Seven Sages is prominence A. discussed 19 My own views on Africanus There has not late nineteenth century. 22 cf. See A. variants of theApollodoran date derived from computing Nepos' 170 years ab urbe condita(reported by Pliny N. 16) and Laurentius Lydus (9. Cicero synchronism statement septem fuisse dicuntur uno tempore qui sapientes et haberentur et uocarentur. Solon to the forty-sixth (596/3. 18 Strom. 2. Weidmann Verlag.168. all others after him associated Astyages with the war instead of Cyaxares (Herodotus 1. 16).129. The Chronicle Tradition (forth of Eusebius andGreekChronographic coming. 1977). Eusebius' im mediate source for the list of Olympic victors has been identified as Africanus since the time of Scaliger. 23 There of the relative chrono are no exact parallels. Eusebius' und ihre Chronik (SBBerlin1929). B." GRBS 6 (1965) 201-206. to a precise year) between there is source discovered illiterate in the Excerpta Barbara. "Zur lydischen Chronologie.). 25 Nov 2012 07:37:49 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

See Forrest.): "wie er gerade auf 664 kam. entered at the twenty-ninth Olympiad (664/1). cf. a conjecture which would make the Suda'sbirthdate for Pherecydes forty years before Eusebius' Epoch of the Seven Sages-a plausible emendation logically.180 AldenMosshammer 24Plutarch. computed 150 Wehrli a precise = date by setting him two forty-year intervals before Thales. Jacoby 244. Apollodorus FGrHist 244 F 31. weiss ich nicht. Clinton. 114-184. 31For detailed discussion of the problem of the homonymous persons called see Pherecydes. Solon. "The First Sacred War. Praterea tmpus signatum. that Demetrius made such an association. There can be no doubt.218 on Sun. 33 On this emendation see Rohde (above n. Fasti Hellenici I.6: Taenaron in quo fanum est Methymnai Arins quem delphine eo aduectum imago testis est ad effgiem casus et ueri opris expressa aere. The hypothesis offered here also solves the puzzle left by Jacoby on that date (FGrHist244 F 336 Komm. (1956) festival which celebrated the amphictyonic victory. reprinted in AbhandungenzurGriechische Geschichtschreibung 32 Adler cites von Gutschmid for an emendation to i' (40th).82. Jacoby does not discuss the passage. 29Jacoby 210-215 and FGrHist 244 F 338. however. 27Only Eusebius (94e Helm) preserves a precise date for the Apollodoran akmeof Archilochus." BCH 80 The sources do not associate the Seven Sages with the establishment of the 33-52. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 11.7 = Demetrius 228 2. (Leyden 1956) 100-143. 25 Solinus 7. 2. 7) 158-162. 25 Nov 2012 07:37:49 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "The First Athenian Prose Writer." Aplllodorus inferred an approximate date forArchilohus based on references in the poems to the Cimmerian FGrHist invasions. 193. Komm.1-2. Keine SchriftenI. Olmpiade enim undetrigesima qua in certamine Siculo idem Arion uictor scribitr id ipsum gestum probatur. but not paleographically." Mnemosyne 13 (1947) 13-64. Jacoby.L. but cf.168. 28 D. 26On this error in general see Rohde. F He fr. 30 On the relationship between Pherecydes and Pythagoras in this version of the tradition see Jacoby 210-227.

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