This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
In a thermal power plant, steam is produced and used to spin a turbine that operates a generator. Shown here is a diagram of a conventional thermal power plant, which uses coal, oil, or natural gas as fuel to boil water to produce the steam. The electricity generated at the plant is sent to consumers through high-voltage power lines.
1 Chimney. 6 SCAPH. 11 Final SH. 16 Cold Reheat Line. 21 Furnace. 26 Coal Mill.
2 ID Fan. 7 Air Pre Heater. 12 Platent SH. 17 Hot Reheat Line. 22 Burner. 27 Coal Crusher. 37 Condensate Pump. 42 HP Heaters. 47 Generator. 52 Cooling Towers.
3 ESP. 8 Economiser. 13 Extended Steam Wall. 18 Boiler Drum. 23 Wind Box. 28 Seal Air Fan. 33 IP Turbine. 38 Gland Steam Cooler 1,2. 43 Makeup Pump. 48 Hydrogen Plant. 53 CT Pump.
4 FD Fan. 9 Feed Water Line. 14 Reheater. 19 Down Commer. 24 Hot PA Header. 29 RC Burner. 34 LP Turbine. 39 LP Heaters. 44 Circulating Water Pump.
5 PA Fan. 10 Primary SH(LTSH). 15 Super Heated Steam. 20 BR Header. 25 Cold PA Header. 30 PC Pipes. 35 Condenser. 40 Deareator. 45 Water Treatement Plant.
31 Water Platent. 32 HP Turbine. 36 Ejactor. 41 Boiler Feed Pump. 46 Control Structure. 51 Air Circuit Breaker.
49 Main Transformer. 50 Aux. Transformer.
Introduction to the Steam Turbine De Laval, Parsons and Curtis developed the concept for the steam turbine in the 1880s. Modern steam turbines use essentially the same concept but many detailed improvements have been made in the intervening years mainly to improve turbine efficiency. Steam turbines are used in all of our major coal fired power stations to drive the generators or alternators, which produce electricity. The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in 'Boilers' or 'Steam Generators' as they are sometimes called. Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into rotational energy as it passes through the turbine. The turbine normally consists of several stages with each stage consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade. Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam (temperature and pressure) into kinetic energy (velocity) and direct the flow onto the rotating blades. The rotating blades convert the kinetic energy into forces, caused by pressure drop, which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator, which produces the electrical energy. The rotational speed is 3000 rpm for Australian (50 Hz) systems and 3600 for American (60 Hz) systems.
In a typical larger power stations, the steam turbines are split into three separate stages, the first being the High Pressure (HP), the second the Intermediate Pressure (IP) and the third the Low Pressure (LP) stage, where high, intermediate and low describe the pressure of the steam. After the steam has passed through the HP stage, it is returned to the boiler to be re-heated to its original temperature although the pressure remains greatly reduced. The reheated steam then passes through the IP stage and finally to the LP stage of the turbine. A distinction is made between "impulse" and "reaction" turbine designs based on the relative pressure drop across the stage. There are two measures for pressure drop, the pressure ratio and the percent reaction. Pressure ratio is the pressure at the stage exit divided by the pressure at the stage entrance. Reaction is the percentage isentropic enthalpy drop across the rotating blade or bucket compared to the total stage enthalpy drop. Some manufacturers utilise percent pressure drop across stage to define reaction. Steam turbines can be configured in many different ways. Several IP or LP stages can be incorporated into the one steam turbine. A single shaft or several shafts coupled together may be used. Either way, the principles are the same for all steam turbines. The configuration is decided by the use to which the steam turbine is put, co-generation or pure electricity production. For co-generation, the steam pressure is highest when used as process steam and at a lower pressure when used for the secondary function of electricity production. A typical power station steam turbine and its View of the internals of a typical power station steam turbine. external equipment; and
Steam enthalpy is converted into rotational energy as it passes through a turbine stage. A turbine stage consists of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade (or bucket). Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam (temperature and pressure) into kinetic energy (velocity) and direct the flow onto the rotating blades. The rotating blades convert
the kinetic energy into impulse and reaction forces caused by pressure drop, which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft or rotor. Steam turbines are machines which must be designed, manufactured and maintained to high tolerances so that the design power output and availability is obtained. They are subject to a number of damage mechanisms, with two of the most important being: Erosion due to moisture. The presence of water droplets in the last stages of a turbine causes erosion to the blades. This has led to the imposition of an allowable limit of about 12% wetness in the exhaust steam; and Solid particle erosion. The entrainment of erosive materials from the boiler in the steam causes wear to the turbine blades. Cogeneration cycles In cogeneration cycles, steam is typically generated at a higher temperature and pressure than required for a particular industrial process. The steam is expanded through a turbine to produce electricity and the resulting extractions at the discharge are at the temperature and pressure required by the process. Turbines can be condensing or non-condensing design typically with large mass flows and comparably low output. Traditionally, pressures were 6.21 MPa and below with temperatures 441º C or lower, although the trend towards higher levels of each continues. There are now a considerable number of co-generation steam turbines with initial steam pressures in the 8.63 to 10 MPa range and steam temperatures of 482 to 510º C.
Two types of bearings are used to support and locate the rotors of steam turbines:
Journal bearings are used to support the weight of the turbine rotors. A journal bearing consists of two half-cylinders that enclose the shaft and are internally lined with Babbitt, a metal alloy usually consisting of tin, copper and antimony; and Thrust bearings axially locate the turbine rotors. A thrust bearing is made up of a series of Babbitt lined pads that run against a locating disk attached to the turbine rotor. High-pressure oil is injected into the bearings to provide lubrication. The oil is carefully filtered to remove solid particles. Specially designed centrifuges remove any water from the oil. Shaft Seals
The shaft seal on a turbine rotor consist of a series of ridges and groves around the rotor and its housing which present a long, tortuous path for any steam leaking through the seal. The seal therefore does not prevent the steam from leaking, merely reduces the leakage to a minimum. The leaking steam is collected and returned to a low-pressure part of the steam circuit. Turning gear
Large steam turbines are equipped with "turning gear" to slowly rotate the turbines after they have been shut down and while they are cooling. This evens out the temperature distribution around the turbines and prevents bowing of the rotors. Vibration The balancing of the large rotating steam turbines is a critical component in ensuring the reliable operation of the plant. Most large steam turbines have sensors installed to measure the movement of the shafts in their bearings. This condition monitoring can identify many potential problems and allows the repair of the turbine to be planned before the problems become serious. Reference Web site Back
A magnetic field is the space or region surrounding a magnet or a current carrying conductor. A current passing through a conductor will develop a magnetic field around the conductor. The same effect is produced if the conductor is stationary but the magnetic field in which it is located varies. Theory of the Transformer The operation of a transformer is based on two principles: 1. the term magnetic "flux" will usually be used instead of magnetic "field". Note: In this discussion on transformers. A transformer used to increase the voltage is called a "step up" transformer. the transfer of electricity efficiently over a long transmission line requires the use of high voltages. different voltage levels are required in the various parts of the networks. and 2. Magnetic flux refers to the magnetic lines of force. A voltage is induced in a conductor when the conductor passes through a magnetic field. For example. Transformers enable these changes in voltage to be carried out easily.Transformers Introduction For transmission and distribution networks to transfer large amounts of alternating current electricity over long distances with minimum losses and least cost. At the receiving end where the electricity is used. The strength of the magnetic field is generally expressed in terms of magnetic flux density (magnetic flux per square meter). the high voltage has to be reduced to the levels required by the consumer. while that used to decrease the voltage is called a "step down" transformer. . in which magnetic effects can be detected. cheaply and efficiently.
then a further insulating cylinder and then the high voltage winding. The assembly of the windings on the core allows gaps to enhance the oil circulation around the windings. This alternating magnetic flux passes through the secondary coil and induces and alternating voltage in the secondary coil. an alternating magnetic flux is set up in the iron core. In installations where the use of transformer oil needs to be avoided. The basic construction of a core type transformer consist of the iron core. great care is taken to ensure windings are well insulated both from the iron core and from each other. For the average transformer used in a power station. The oil is used for further insulating purposes plus the removal of heat from the windings. Small transformers are often solely air-cooled. which forms a complete magnetic circuit. Large transformers that are of open construction so that cooling is provided by direct contact with the surrounding air are being developed for indoor use. is made up of laminated strips of special steel having low hysteresis loss and high electrical resistivity. The tank is constructed with fins or tubes to allow better circulation of the oil and to provide a greater surface area for contact with the cooling air.A transformer consists of two coils electrically separate but linked by a common magnetic circuit of low reluctance formed by a laminated soft iron core. the cooling medium used can be gas (nitrogen is often used). Very large transformers have banks of fans to provide greater air-cooling and are operated in conjunction with temperature sensors. These basic components are shown on the attached diagram and are also shown in the attached part cross-section of a very large transformer. Clamps are used to hold the assembly in place. If one coil (the primary coil) is connected to an AC supply. In assembling the transformer. the conductor used for the windings consists of paper insulated copper bar or wire. Some transformers also have forced oil circulation using a pumping system and an oil cooling circuit. then a cylinder of insulation. . The magnitude of the secondary voltage is directly proportional to the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary and primary windings and to the primary voltage. Construction of a Large Transformer The iron core. The assembled transformer has its winding and iron core assembly usually contained in a tank and immersed in transformer oil. The lamination of the core reduces the eddy-current loss. followed by the low voltage winding.
pressure and temperature. and 4. Final The final works test on a transformer fall into three categories: Tests to prove that the transformer has been built correctly .These include ratio.The first tank of any new design is checked for stiffness and vacuum withstand capability. Testing Manufacture To ensure that the manufacturing process is proceeding as per the design program.This is checked by megger and by application of a 2 kV RMS or 3 kV DC test voltage on completion or erection of the core and again following replacement of the top yoke after fitting of the windings. the assembled core and windings are heated to between 850°C and 1200°C for a length of time. In large transformers.This is carried out by application of a few temporary turns of cable before the windings are fitted and the core excited to normal flux density. the tap changer is an on-load automatic switch.Incoming core plate is checked for thickness and quality of insulation covering. current transformers are provided in conjunction with the insulated terminals. It is then best to immerse the transformer winding in the transformer oil while the windings are hot because they tend to absorb the oil. For these protection systems. Tank tests . is left to stand for several days to let any remaining air bubbles become absorbed by the oil. Devices on a transformer normally protect against overload. In a generator transformer. Tests to prove guarantees . Before the final tests are carried out the transformer.Most distribution type transformers have a tap changer. temperature rise and noise levels tests. The different coils of the transformer winding are brought out and connected to the selector switch to allow the additional turns to be brought into or taken out of circuit. the tap changer switch is an off load manual switch. 3.These are losses. resistance and tap change operation tests. a number of tests will be required. The transformer windings will be considered dry when plotted values of power factor drop to a minimum value and the insulation resistance increases rapidly. The time taken can be as long as weeks for very large transformers or a few days for medium sized transformers. Core frame insulation resistance . impulse tests including chopped waves to simulate lightning strikes and withstand capability are usually required. For the first transformer of a new design. which is a selector switch that allows the voltage ratio of the transformer to be changed by increasing or decreasing the turns of the winding. earth fault. Core loss measurement . In some distribution transformers. impedance. 2. The most important of these are: 1. Transformer Losses Testing . current and voltage transformers are built into the transformers. Prior to final testing. and Tests to prove that the transformer will be satisfactory in service for at least thirty years . Tanks are also checked for leak tightness by filling with a fluid of lower viscosity than transformer oil and pressurising for a period of time. the tap changer is a very sophisticated device that is automatically operated on load by the system control.The test in this category include dielectric or overload and load current runs. polarity. Core plate checks . while in others.
Losses in a transformer are known as 'Iron losses' and Copper Losses'. In order to determine the iron loss. thus causing the transformer to behave like a coil having a leakage impedance equal to that of both windings. Iron Losses Iron losses are due to hysteresis and eddy-current loss produced by the alternating magnetic flux in the iron core. one winding of the transformer (whichever is the most convenient) is open circuited. . This test is known as the short circuit test for copper losses. Under these conditions. The iron losses are almost independent of the load and thus are considered to be constant at all loads. A low voltage is applied to the open winding sufficient to circulate full load current through the open winding due to transformer action in the short-circuited winding. The short circuit test is carried out by short circuiting one winding. The copper losses are proportional to the square of the current and therefore to the kVA output. Copper Losses Copper losses are the heat losses in the windings due to the electrical resistance of the windings. Copper losses under these circumstances are negligible. This power represents the iron losses. the flux set up in the core is so small that iron losses can usually be neglected and the wattmeter would give the total copper loss. These losses can be calculated from the design data but can also be measured by a test. A voltage is applied to the other winding and the power (watts) in this circuit is measured.
9. 3. A check on the breather and the condition of its silica gel. 4. it will have to be changed or filtered. 7. and indicators. and 10. A check on the tap changer. The condition of the tank in regard to leaks and cleanliness. the internals may have to be removed from the tank and a check made on the condition of the windings and their bracing. or if the transformer has registered high temperatures or excessive noise. Maintenance procedures may require the oil to be filtered on a regular basis. Condition of the pressure and temperature elements. such as an external fault. To ensure their continued reliable and efficient operation. A check on the insulation of the transformer windings. A check on the explosion vent (if fitted). If the oil does not meet its quality standards. 5. . 6. 2. A check on the connections and the current and voltage transformers where fitted. A check on the insulating terminals for condition of insulation (breaks or cracks and cleanliness) and oil leaks. If considered necessary. This is usually only necessary if the transformer has been subjected to unusual circumstances. the maintenance of the average oil filled type transformer requires a check on the following: 1. Oil quality.Maintenance Large transformers are usually very reliable and efficient. A check on the condition of the connecting cables and connections in the terminal boxes. 8.
computation.au/electricity/infosite/index. It is only during a power failure. constantly. that you realize how important power is in your daily life. Without it. entertainment..qld. cooking.energy. when you walk into a dark room and instinctively hit the useless light switch.gov. light. sound.htm Power Grids Electrical power is a little bit like the air you breathe: You don't really think about it until it is missing.Reference Web Back site : http://www. life can get somewhat cumbersome.." meeting your every need. You use it for heating. Power is just "there. Power travels from the power plant to your house through an amazing system called the power distribution grid . refrigeration. cooling.
what you will find is that the power at the wall plate looks like a sine wave. AC has at least three advantages over DC in a power distribution grid: Large electrical generators happen to generate AC naturally. you will be able to really see it and understand what is going on! Power Plant Electrical power starts at the power plant. Single-phase power is what you have in your house. The alternative to AC is DC. We will look at all of the equipment that brings electrical power to your home. the thing spinning the generator is a steam turbine. and we will see that the power distribution grid depends on transformers. It is so public. so conversion to DC would involve an extra step. Your brain likely ignores all of the power lines because it has seen them so often. it is helpful to understand single-phase power first. in fact. and that wave oscillates between -170 volts and 170 volts (the peaks are indeed at 170 volts. But in most cases. chances are it is right out in the open for all to see. the power plant consists of a spinning electrical generator. 120-volt AC service. The next time you look at the power grid. You generally talk about household electrical service as single-phase. that you probably don't even notice it anymore. from the negative to the positive terminal of the battery. Something has to spin that generator -. a large diesel engine or a gas turbine. Oscillating power like this is generally referred to as AC. In almost all cases. The rate of oscillation for the sine wave is 60 cycles per second. Transformers must have alternating current to operate.if you live in a suburban or rural area. If you use an oscilloscope and look at the power found at a normal wall-plate outlet in your house.The grid is quite public -. commercial electrical generators of any size generate what is called 3-phase AC power. No matter what it is that spins the generator. or alternating current. oil or natural gas. . or direct current.it might be a water wheel in a hydroelectric dam. it is the effective (rms) voltage that is 120 volts). Batteries produce DC: A steady stream of electrons flows in one direction only. The steam might be created by burning coal. To understand 3-phase AC power.
000 volts in order to reduce line losses. they would look like this relative to ground: There is nothing magical about 3-phase power.. There are four wires coming out of every power plant: the three phases plus a neutral or ground common to all three. High-power 3-phase motors (used in industrial applications) and things like 3-phase welding equipment therefore have even power output. so 3phase is the natural settling point. Four phases would not significantly improve things but would add a fourth wire. In 3-phase power. Typical voltages for long distance transmission are in the range of 155. and the three phases are offset 120 degrees from each other. at any given moment one of the three phases is nearing a peak. The 3-phase power leaves the generator and enters a transmission substation at the power plant. so it makes a good return path for electrons. of the earth. (Car manufacturers do something similar. This substation uses large transformers to convert the generator's voltage (which is at the thousands of volts level) up to extremely high voltages for long-distance transmission on the transmission grid. produces AC.000 to 765. there are 120 moments per second when a sine wave is crossing zero volts.It is easy to convert AC to DC but expensive to convert DC to AC. they use the metal body of the car as one of the wires in the car's electrical system and attach the negative pole of the battery to the car's body. The earth is a pretty good conductor and it is huge. It is simply three single phases synchronized and offset by 120 degrees. It is the dirt. so if you were going to pick one or the other AC would be the better choice. And what about this "ground.) "Ground" in the power distribution grid is literally "the ground" that's all around you when you are walking outside. However. A typical maximum transmission distance is about 300 miles (483 km). The power plant. groundwater. High-voltage transmission lines are quite obvious when you see them." as mentioned above? The power company essentially uses the earth as one of the wires in the power system. You can see at the back several three-wire towers leaving the substation. etc. therefore. If you were to look at the three phases on a graph. rocks. it produces three different phases of power simultaneously. They are normally made of huge steel towers like this: . Why three phases? Why not one or two or four? In 1-phase and 2-phase power.
A power substation typically does two or three things: 1. it comes off the transmission grid and is steppeddown to the distribution grid. It often has circuit breakers and switches so that the substation can be disconnected from the transmission grid or separate distribution lines can be disconnected from the substation when necessary. The place where the conversion from "transmission" to "distribution" occurs is in a power substation. like the ones shown above. It has a "bus" that can split the distribution power off in multiple directions. 3.All power towers like this have three wires for the three phases. The Distribution Grid For power to be useful in a home or business. have extra wires running along the tops of the towers. Many towers. 2. It has transformers that step transmission voltages (in the tens or hundreds of thousands of volts range) down to distribution voltages (typically less than 10. This may happen in several phases. These are ground wires and are there primarily in an attempt to attract lightning. .000 volts).
A typical small substation The transmission lines entering the substation and passing through the switch tower .
while power leaves in the other . the bus distributes power to two separate sets of distribution lines at two different voltages. Bus Distribution The power goes from the transformer to the distribution bus: this case.The switch tower and the main transformer Now the distribution bus comes into the picture.200 volts) for one set of lines. The smaller transformers attached to the bus are stepping the power down to standard line voltage (usually 7.
The power leaves this substation in two sets of three wires. As mentioned above. For example. Regulator Bank You will also find regulator banks located along the line. In the typical scene pictured on the right. The wires at the higher voltage need to be stepped down again. the three wires at the top of the poles are the three wires for the 3-phase power. In some cases there will be additional wires. The fourth wire lower on the poles is the ground wire. typically phone or cable TV lines riding on the same poles. either underground or in the air.direction at the higher voltage of the main transformer. you can look at the power lines in a completely different light.8 meters on a side) near the entrance to a subdivision. this particular substation produces two different voltages. each headed down the road in a different direction The next time you are driving down the road. which will often happen at another substation or in small transformers somewhere down the line. They regulate the voltage on the line to prevent undervoltage and overvoltage conditions. It is performing the step-down function for the subdivision. . you will often see a large green box (perhaps 6 feet/1.
A typical regulator bank Up toward the top are three switches that allow this regulator bank to be disconnected for maintenance when necessary: .
200 volts running through the neighborhood on three wires (with a fourth ground wire lower on the pole): . we have typical line voltage at something like 7.At this point.
Taps A house needs only one of the three phases. with the single phase running out to the right: . and taps for one or two of the phases running off on side streets. with the two phases running off to the right: Here is a 2-phase to 1-phase tap. so typically you will see three wires running down a main road. Pictured below is a 3-phase to 2-phase tap.
200 volts) and a ground wire (although sometimes there will be two or three phases on the pole. At each house. depending on where the house is located in the distribution grid). there is a transformer drum attached to the pole. like this: .At the House And finally we are down to the wire that brings power to your house! Past a typical house runs a set of poles with one phase of power (at 7.
In many suburban neighborhoods. Here is some detail on what is going on at the pole: . the distribution lines are underground and there are green transformer boxes at every house or two.
from the bottom.200 volts down to the 240 volts that makes up normal household electrical service.The transformer's job is to reduce the 7. Let's look at this pole one more time. to see what is going on: .
This is a grounding wire. The two from the transformer are insulated. Every utility pole on the planet has one.There are two things to notice in this picture: 1. If you examine a pole carefully. and the third one is bare. The bare wire is the ground wire. The transformer is wired in this sort of configuration: .8 to 3 m) underground. 2. you will see that the end of that bare wire is stapled in a coil to the base of the pole and therefore is in direct contact with the earth. There are two wires running out of the transformer and three wires running to the house. It is a good. The two insulated wires each carry 120 volts. solid ground connection. If you ever watch the power company install a new pole. There is a bare wire running down the pole. running 6 to 10 feet (1. but they are 180 degrees out of phase so the difference between them is 240 volts. This arrangement allows a homeowner to use both 120-volt and 240-volt appliances. you will see that the ground wire running between poles (and often the guy wires) are attached to this direct connection to ground.
2. 4. A mouse chews through the insulation in a wire and directly connects power to ground. Someone accidentally vacuums up a lamp wire with the vacuum cleaner. A fan motor burns out a bearing.The 240 volts enters your house through a typical watt-hour meter like this one: The meter lets the power company charge you for putting up all of these wires. causing a direct connection between power and ground. Let's say that you did not have fuses or circuit breakers in your house and something "went wrong. Fuses and Circuit Breakers Fuses and circuit breakers are safety devices. seizes. directly connecting power to ground. A person is hanging a picture in the living room and the nail used for said picture happens to puncture a power line in the wall. A wire comes loose in a lamp and directly connects power to ground." What could possibly go wrong? Here are some examples: 1. cutting it in the process and directly connecting power to ground. 5. . 3. overheats and melts.
a thin piece of foil or wire quickly vaporizes when an overload of current runs through it. The main breaker lets you cut power to the entire panel when necessary. protecting it from overheating. Fuses must be replaced each time they burn out. (The wire in the wall will get hot like the element in an electric oven gets hot. In a fuse. all of the wires for the different outlets and lights in the house each have a separate circuit breaker or fuse: If the circuit breaker is on. Inside the circuit breaker panel you can see the two primary wires from the transformer entering the main circuit breaker at the top. which is to say very hot!). its goal in life is to pump as much electricity as possible through the connection. A circuit breaker uses the heat from an overload to trip a switch. The power then enters the home through a typical circuit breaker panel like the one above. and circuit breakers are therefore resettable. A fuse is a simple device designed to overheat and burn out extremely rapidly in such a situation. the outlet. then power flows through the wire in the wall and makes its way eventually to its final destination. Either the device or the wire in the wall will burst into flames in such a situation. This kills the power to the wire immediately. .When a 120-volt power line connects directly to ground. Within this overall setup.
The abundance of cheap fuel makes these units the most economical generators to run. Steam Turbine 2. Solar Thermal 13. are generally used to generate continuous power for up to 24 hours a day. Pumped Storage Wave 7. Combinations Power Station Turbines Operations Modern coal fired power stations with generating units of approximately 200 MW or over. Photovoltaic 8. but due to their inability to change their output quickly. The next time you drive down the road and look at the power lines. they are not suitable for use as a provider of 'peak demand' power. Nuclear 9.com Back site : Power Stations Power Stations This section provides a brief description of the major types of power stations and their suitability for particular operational duties. examples of actual power stations.What an unbelievable story! It took all of that equipment to get power from the power plant to the light in your bedroom. Reference Web http://people. Smaller coal fired units are more likely to provide intermediate power. The power distribution grid is truly an incredible system. Wind 12. Combined Cycle Gas 10. These are normally run . Tidal Fuel Cells 4. or power to 'top up' the base load providers to meet normal variations in daily power demand. Where possible. This is known as providing 'Base Load' power. 1. MHD 5. Reciprocating 11. Open Cycle Gas Turbines 6.howstuffworks. or the next time you flip on a light. and follow demand. you'll hopefully have a much better understanding of what is going on. Hydro Electric 3.
This presents an opportunity for the 'peaking' units to come 'online'.340 2. fuelled by the wind.050 Owner City State Fuel Total Capacity (MW) .100 2. Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Madhya Pradesh Chattisgarh Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal 2. landfill gas. demand for heating or air conditioning power becomes higher than normal. The power generated by these stations is generally used to supply energy to local users. can respond rapidly to changes in demand.100 2. NTPC NTPC NTPC NTPC Durgapur Neyveli Sidhi Bilaspur Karimnagar Dist. Steam turbine Steam turbine Steam turbine Steam turbine Hydro-electricity using using gas using using coal as or oil as biomass as geothermal fuel fuel fuel energy Thermal-Electric Power Plants in India (100 MW and Greater ) Location Power Plant Conventional Thermal Power Plants Chandrapur Neyveli Vindhyachal Korba STPS Ramagundam Singrauli Maharashtra SEB Neyveli Lignite Corp. and so they are only used when absolutely necessary.280 2. or connected to the grid as 'green power'. a conventional cycling unit (either an oil or a natural gas fired peaking unit) was described as one designed for rapid rates of load increase and a significantly large number of start-up and shutdown cycles compared to base load operation. At times of very high or very low temperatures. These units. tide and waves. There is a growing number of small 'renewable energy' stations.as a 2-shift station (2 x 8-hour shifts) which runs at high load during the morning and evening peak demand periods. In the past. The cost of running these units is much higher than for the coal fired units. Sonebhadra Dist.260 2. Ltd. bagasse. and when the spot price of electricity is high enough for them to be run at a profit. sun. usually gas or oil fired turbines. water.
000 1.550 1. Paravade Suratgarh Nasik Gandhi Nagar Bhatinda Panipat Kota Ukai Dam Dadri Kahalgaon Khaperkheda Bilaspur Mettur Umaria Dist. Ropar Krishna Paloncha Mumbai Betual Dist.150 1.Talcher Anpara Farakka Obra Tuticorin Raichur Wanakbori Kolaghat Ropar Vijayawada Kothagudem Trombay (coal-fired section) Satpura Koradi Rihand Simhadri Suratgarh Nasik Gandhi Nagar Guru Hargobind Tau Devi Lal Kota Ukai Dadri (coal-fired section) Kahalgaon Khaperkheda Korba West Mettur Sanjay Gandhi Unchahar Bokaro Patratu Chandrapura Angul Smelter Badarpur Parli Bakreshwar Mejia North Chennai Renusagar * Dhuvaran NTPC UPRVUNL NTPC UPRVUNL Tamil Nadu SEB KPCL Gujarat SEB West Bengal Power Development Corp. Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal 1.970 1.470 1. Koradi Sonebhadra Dist. Madhya Pradesh SEB Maharashtra SEB NTPC NTPC Rajasthan RV Utpadan Nigam Maharashtra SEB Gujarat SEB Punjab SEB Haryana Power Generation Corp.260 1.100 1.470 1. Tata Power Co.550 1.000 910 870 860 860 850 850 840 840 840 840 840 840 840 805 770 750 720 720 690 630 630 630 619 534 . Punjab SEB Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp.260 1. Tuticorin Raichur Dist. Ltd.143 1. Ltd. Murshidabad Obra Dist. Rajasthan RV Utpadan Nigam Gujarat SEB NTPC NTPC Maharashtra SEB Chattisgarh SEB Tamil Nadu SEB Madhya Pradesh SEB NTPC DVC Jharkhand SEB DVC National Aluminum Corp. Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp. Gujarat SEB Angul Mirzapur Dist. Ltd. Sevalia Medinipurt Dist. Rai Bareilli Bokaro Patratu Chandrapura Angul New Delhi Parli Vaijnath Birbhum Dist. NTPC Maharashtra SEB West Bengal Power Development Corp. Durlavpur Chennai Renukoot Anand Orissa Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Uttar Pradesh Tamil Nadu Karnataka Gujarat West Bengal Punjab Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Rajasthan Maharashtra Gujarat Punjab Haryana Rajasthan Gujarat Uttar Pradesh Bihar Maharashtra Chattisgarh Tamil Nadu Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Jharkhand Jharkhand Jharkhand Orissa Delhi Territory Maharashtra West Bengal West Bengal Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal.180 1.260 1. DVC Tamil Nadu SEB Hindalco Industries Ltd.000 1.630 1.630 1.
Jharkhand SEB West Bengal SEB Chattisgarh SEB DVC Bihar SEB Madhya Pradesh SEB Steel Authority of India Ltd. Sikka Titagarh Jamshedpur Visakhapatnam Calcutta Kanti Jhansi Kutch Faridabad Shyamnagar Durgapur New Delhi Calcutta Raigarh Choudwar West Bengal West Bengal Maharashtra Maharashtra West Bengal Tamil Nadu Gujarat Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Orissa Andhra Prdesh Jharkhand West Bengal Chattisgarh West Bengal Bihar Madhya Pradesh Jharkhand Uttar Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Orissa Karnataka Tamil Nadu Gujarat Delhi Territory Assam Gujarat West Bengal Bihar Andhra Pradesh West Bengal Bihar Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Haryana West Bengal West Bengal Delhi Territory West Bengal Madhya Pradesh Orissa Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Blast Furnace Gas. Maharashtra SEB West Bengal SEB Tamil Nadu SEB Ahmedabad Electric Co. CESC Ltd.Bandel Budge Budge Dahanu Bhusawal Santaldih Ennore Sabarmati Harduaganj Tanda Ib Valley Rayalaseema Tenughat Durgapur Korba East Durgapur DVC Barauni Amarkantak Bokaro Works * Panki NTPC BALCO Rourkela Works * Torangallu Works * Neyveli Zero Surat Indraprastha Bongaigaon Sikka Titagarh Jamshedpur Works * Vizag Steel Works * Cossipore Muzaffarpur Paricha Kutch Faridabad Mulajore Durgapur Works * Rajghat Southern Raigarh Works * Choudwar West Bengal SEB CESC Ltd. Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. BSES Ltd. Ltd. Jalgaon Santaldih Ennore Sabarmati Harduaganj Faizabad Barhanpalli Cuddapah Dist. Ltd. CESC Ltd. Ltd. Shahdal Bokaro Panki Korba Rourkela Torangallu Neyveli Surat New Delhi Salakati Dist. Delhi Transco Ltd. Bihar SEB UPRVUNL Gujarat SEB Faradibad Power Systems Ltd. CESC Ltd. UPRVUNL NTPC Steel Authority of India Ltd. Steel Authority of India Ltd. Bokaro Dist. Burdwan Bilaspur Waria Hazaribagh Dist. Ltd. Jindal Tractebel Power Co. Indian Charge Chrome Ltd. Tata Iron & Steel Co. Gujarat Industrial Power Corp. (ICCL) Hooghly Calcutta Thane Dist. Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal 530 500 500 483 480 450 450 440 440 420 420 420 405 400 350 310 300 287 279 270 269 260 250 250 248 240 240 240 238 236 225 220 220 210 165 150 140 135 135 112 108 . Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. AES Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp. CMS India Ltd. (GIPCL) Indraprastha Power Generating Co. Assam SEB Gujarat SEB CESC Ltd. UPRVUNL NTPC OPGC.
Gujarat State Energy Generation Ltd. Naphtha Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Naphtha Natural Gas Oil Natural Gas Natural Gas Naphtha Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Oil Natural Gas 912 826 817 656 655 652 618 516 430 413 368 349 330 330 291 282 272 220 210 208 205 180 173 159 108 135 120 108 105 . Park Yelahanka Kozhikode Brahmapuram Samayanallur Samalpatti Melodeon Exports Nagda Madhya Pradesh Coal 106 CMS India Ltd. NTPC NTPC LANCO Kondapalli Power Private Ltd. NTPC NTPC Essar Power Ltd.Nagda Works * Diesel Engine Power Plants Chennai Vasavi Whitefield Ind. Samalpatti Power Corp. Perungulam Maharashtra Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Gujurat Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Gujarat Haryana Rajasthan Andhra Pradesh Kerala Tamil Nadu Delhi Territory Assam Delhi Territory Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra Kerala Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Assam Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Natural Gas Naphtha Natural Gas Naphtha Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas. Ltd. Ltd. Baroda Utran Lakwa NagaiquaidE. Dadri Surat Paguthan Etawah Bharuch Hazira Faridabad Baran Kondapalli Aleppey Dist. BSES Ltd. Milloth Dist. Ltd. Ltd. Tata Power Co. (GIPCL) Gujarat SEB Assam SEB Tamil Nadu SEB Tamil Nadu SEB Ransai Dam Ratanagiri Dist. NEEPCO Indraprastha Power Generation Co. Ltd. Pillaiperumalnallur New Delhi Dibrugarh Dist. Ltd. Pvt. Ltd. Chennai Bangalore Bangalore Kozhikode Kochi Samayanallur Samilpatti Tamil Nadu Karnataka Karnataka Kerala Kerala Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Oil Oil Oil Oil Oil Oil Oil 200 158 132 128 110 106 105 Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Power Plants Uran Dahbol Dadri (gas-fired section) Kawas Paguthan Auriaya Gandhar Hazira Essar Faridabad NTPC Anta Kondapalli Kayamkulam Pillaiperumalnallur Pragati Kathalguri Indraprastha GT Vijjeswaran Peddapuram Godavari Tanir Bavi Barge Jegurupadu Trombay (gas-fired section) Kochi-Kerala Hazira GSEG Baroda GIPCL Utran Lakwa Kovilkalappal Perungulam Maharashtra SEB Dahbol Power Co. Karnataka SEB Kerala SEB Kerala SEB Balaji Power Corp. GVK Industries Ltd. Tanir Bavi Power Co. NTPC NTPC Gujarat Pagathuan Energy Corp. NTPC PPN Power Generating Co. Pragati Power Corp. Spectrum Power Generation Ltd. (GSEG) Gujarat Industrial Power Corp. New Delhi Vijjeswaran Peddapuram Kakinda Mangalore Jegurupadu Mumbai Kochi Surat Dist. Scintilla Power Co. BSES Ltd. Ltd. Andhra Pradesh Gas Power Corp.
Vatwa Ahmenabad Electric Co. GMR Group Haldia Petrochemicals Ltd. ONGC Reliance Industries Ltd. Satluj Kalinadi Krishna Idduki Krishna Satluj Chenab Ranjit Indravati Kundah Satluj Ravi Jhelum Godavari Krishna Ranganadi. Vatwa Gujarat Natural Gas 100 Conventional Gas Turbine Power Plants Baroda GIPCL * Pampore Hazira RIL * South Bassein Jamnagar RIL * Basin Bridge Haldia Chemicals * Anola Gujarat Industrial Power Corp. (GIPCL) Jammu & Kashmir SEB Reliance Industries Ltd. Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp. BBMB NHPC Punjab SEB OHPC Tamil Nadu SEB BBMB NHPC NHPC Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp. Kerala SEB Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp.920 1.035 990 840 810 780 770 710 690 600 600 555 540 540 480 460 450 405 400 400 360 360 . Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Owner Baroda Pampore Hazira Bassein Jamnagar Chennai Haldia Anola City Power Plant Location Gujarat Jammu & Kashmir Gujarat Maharashtra Gujarat Tamil Nadu West Bengal Uttar Pradesh State Fuel Natural Gas Oil Natural Gas Oil Naphtha Naphtha Natural Gas Natural Gas 216 175 165 152 132 124 104 100 Total Capacity (MWe) India's Hydroelectric Power Plants (100 MW and Greater) Location Power Plant Koyna I-IV Sharavathi Dehar Kalinadi Nagjhari Nagarjuna Sagar Idduki Srisailam Right Bank Bhakra Right Bank Salal Ranjit Sagar Upper Indravati Kundah Bhakra Left Bank Chamera I Uri I Lower Sileru Srisailam Left Bank Ranganadi I Kadampari Koteshwar Balimela Pong Owner Maharashtra SEB KPCL BBMB KPCL Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp. Ltd. NEEPCO Tamil Nadu SEB THDC OHPC BBMB River(s) Koyna Sharavathi Beas. Dikrong Cauvery Bhagirathi Machkund Beas State Maharashtra Karnataka Rajasthan Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Kerala Andhra Pradesh Rajasthan Jammu & Kashmir Punjab Orissa Tamil Nadu Rajasthan Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh Orissa Himachal Pradesh Total Capacity (MW) 1. Ltd.
Pamba Brahmani Yamuna Mahi Godavari Varahi Beas Umrong Cauvery Ramganga Siul Sharvathi Periyar Chambal Narmada n/a Bethi. Ltd. Karnataka Power Corp. Bihar SEB Jammu & Kashmir SEB Kerala SEB n/a KPCL UJVNL KPCL Tamil Nadu SEB Himachal Pradesh SEB NHPC Madhya Pradesh SEB Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp. Ltd. Tamil Nadu SEB Punjab SEB Tata Electric Co. Ltd. Meghalaya SEB Punjab SEB Kolab Sone Mahanadi Tapti Rihand Anathodu. Kalinadi Ganga Mahi Periyar n/a n/a Subernrekha Sindh Kuttiadi n/a Sharvathi Tons Kalinadi Cauvery Bhaba Khad Sarda Chambal Machkund Umiam Uhl Orissa Madhya Pradesh Orissa Gujarat Uttar Pradesh Kerala Orissa Uttaranchal Gujarat Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Punjab Assam Tamil Nadu Uttaranchal Himachal Pradesh Karnataka Kerala Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Karnataka Uttaranchal Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Punjab Maharashtra Jharkhand Jammu & Kashmir Kerala Chattisgarh Karnataka Uttaranchal Karnataka Tamil Nadu Himachal Pradesh Uttaranchal Madhya Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Meghalaya Punjab 320 315 308 305 300 300 250 240 240 240 230 207 200 200 198 180 180 180 172 160 150 150 144 140 140 134 132 130 127 125 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 115 115 114 110 . UJVNL Rajasthan State Electricity Corp. Punjab SEB NEEPCO Tamil Nadu SEB UJVNL NHPC KPCL Kerala SEB Rajasthan State Electricity Corp.Upper Kolab Bansagar Hirakud Ukai Rihand Sabarigiri Rengali Chibro Kadana Upper Sileru Varahi Mukerian Kopili Mettur Tunnel Ramganga Baira Siul Gerusuppa Lower Periyar Rana Pratap Sagar Pench Bhira PSS * Kadra Chilla Mahi Bajaj Sagar Periyar Anandpur Sahib Bhira Subernrekha Upper Sindh Kuttiadi Hasdeobango Jog Khodri Kodasalli Lower Mettur Sanjay Bhaba Tanakpur Gandhi Sagar Machkund Umiam Shanan (Uhl I) OHPC Madhya Pradesh SEB OHPC Gujarat SEB UPJVNL Kerala SEB OHPC UJVNL Gujarat SEB Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp. Madhya Pradesh SEB Tata Electric Co. Ltd. Karnataka Power Corp.
au/electricity/infosite/index. Subhash Ltd. Madras Cements Ltd.html http://www. Ltd. Muppandal Wind Farm City Satara Dist.energy. Newam Power Company Ltd.gov/international/indiover. MP Windfarms Ltd.gov. Kethanur Wind Farm Andhra Pradesh State Rapid Transit Corp. Chettinad Cement Corp. Aban Lloyd Chiles Offshore Ltd.htm Back Sources of Energy Non RenewablePrimary Energy Source Coal The major use of coal in electricity generation is as a fuel burnt in the furnace of a large steam . Danida India Ltd. Perungudi Kethanur Hyderabad Muppandal Poolavadi Reference Web site : http://fossil. Cape Comorim Kayathar Ramakkalmedu Muppandal State Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Kerala Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Tamil Nadu Madhya Pradesh Karnataka Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Total Capacity (MWe) 259 33 30 25 22 21 20 15 15 14 14 12 11 10 10 10 Gujdimangalam Wind Farm Gujdimangalam Wescare (India) Ltd.energy.Loktak I Lower Jhelum Kalinadi Supa Kodayar Power Plant NHPC Jammu & Kashmir SEB KPCL Tamil Nadu SEB Owner Leimatak Jhelum Kalinadi Kodayar River(s) Location Manipur Jammu & Kashmir Karnataka Tamil Nadu State 105 105 100 100 Total Capacity (MW) India's Largest Windpower Facilities (10 MW and Greater) Location Power Plant Vankusawade Wind Park Cape Comorim Kayathar Subhash Ramakkalmedu Muppandal Wind Gujdimangalam Puthlur RCI Lamda Danida Chennai Mohan Jamgudrani MP Jogmatti BSES Perungudi Newam Kethanur Wind Farm Hyderabad APSRTC Muppandal Madras Poolavadi Chettinad Owner Suzlon Energy Ltd.qld. Subhash Ltd. BSES Ltd. Puthlur Lamda Chennai Dewas Chitradurga Dist. Mohan Breweries & Distilleries Ltd.
Solar radiation reaching the earth's surface is called insolation and has two components . the output of which drives a generator. The combustion of the oil can be completed in a smaller volume resulting in smaller furnace size and lower cost. The term "gas" usually encompasses: Two types of related. Gas Gas is an important energy resource. Distillate is used to generate electricity by being burnt in a gas turbine or a reciprocating engine. Renewable Primary Energy Sources Solar Solar systems are powered by energy from the sun.generator. industrial processes. which plays an increasingly significant role as a fuel source for electricity generation. Jet Fuel Jet fuel (also known as kerosene) is the lightest fraction of fuel oil having the lowest viscosity and which may be pumped at ambient temperature. Fuel Oil The term fuel oil covers a wide range of petroleum products from heavy oil which requires preheating for burning and handling through to a light petroleum fraction similar to kerosene. LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) is one of the petroleum products produced in the oil refining process. It is a product of an oil refinery after crude oil has been processed. The high pressure and temperature steam is then supplied to a turbo-generator which produces the electricity. Heavy fuel oil (also known as residual or bunker C) is difficult to use since it has a very high viscosity and must be heated to about 40°C for pumping purposes. Distillate Distillate is a lighter fraction of fuel oil having a low viscosity and which may be pumped at ambient temperature. both of which contain mainly methane (CH4). The overall process is simple but there is a large amount of associated plant and equipment used to optimise the cycle efficiency and minimise environmental pollution. business and residential consumers. naturally occurring gases (natural gas and coal seam methane). It is usually burnt in the furnace of a steam generator which supplies steam to a turbo-generator. Jet fuel is usually burnt in the combustion chamber of a gas turbine (aero-derivative type) which then drives a generator.direct normal insolation (DNI) is that part of the radiation coming directly from the sun (usually 80%) and diffusion insolation is that part that has . Fuel oil contains no (or very little) ash and this makes the furnace design much easier compared to a design for coal fired plant.
The insolation may be reduced by clouds. For much of the earth's area. Systems in which the solar radiation is concentrated use only direct normal insolation. There are several different arrangements of solar thermal systems incorporating different shapes of collectors and varying mechanisms of heat transfer. Electricity generation using solar energy is by means of two quite different methods .solar photovoltaic and solar thermal.1 kW / m2. areas with a mean wind speed greater than 6 metres per second are considered suitable for wind energy projects but it is anticipated that improvements in technology will permit areas with lower wind speed to be developed. a device that tracks the sun. On a smaller scale. The best information on insolation resource for a particular location is measured data at that location. It quickly increases in the early morning and just as quickly falls away in the late afternoon and varies throughout the day.this means that a doubling of the velocity results in an eight times increase in available power. unobstructed terrain and natural wind tunnelling features cause some areas to have inherently higher wind speeds. A typical efficiency for a wind turbine is about 40%. atmospheric haze or by the angle of the sun to the surface. The energy flow rate per unit area is proportional to the wind velocity cubed . are more efficient and which can produce more energy than is used in their manufacture. Hence the economics of a wind power system are extremely sensitive to the wind velocity resource. The wind velocity at a particular location varies with the height above ground level and the nature of the terrain. Direct normal insolation is measured with a pyroheliometer. usually containing silicon. about 40% of the power available in the area swept by the wind turbine blades is converted to electricity. .been scattered by the atmosphere or is reflected off the ground or other surfaces. thermal winds can be generated by local thermal effects. Wind Wind energy systems convert the wind's kinetic energy into mechanical or electrical energy. Sunlight striking the solar cell produces an electric current which may be transmitted to the external load. In the receiver. Many demonstration plants have been or are currently being performance tested within Australia and throughout the world. The actual amount of energy that can be extracted from the wind is less than the theoretical amount of energy available with the theoretical limit being about 60%. that is.9 kW/m2 to 1. A vast amount of research effort has been expended in recent years in developing solar cells which are cheaper to produce. Solar photovoltaic systems convert solar radiant energy directly to electricity through the use of solar cells which are typically solid-state semiconductor devices. the solar energy is absorbed. the instantaneous insolation on a surface oriented towards the sun at noon on a very clear day is typically in the range of 0. Solar thermal technologies convert radiant energy from the sun to thermal energy. Insolation is typically given as a power density in kW/m2 and average daily insolation as an energy density in kWh/m2-day. winds result from temperature gradients between the equator and the poles and between the land and seas. heating a fluid that powers a heat engine to generate electricity. On a global scale. All of these technologies include a collector which redirects and concentrates the insolation on to a receiver. At present. Local factors such as high altitude.
Its use. Water Water energy systems use the energy contained in the water resource. generate electricity for sale back to a retailer. There are numerous hydro-electric schemes throughout the world. There are a number of different devices used to generate electricity from ocean waves. The west coasts of the United States. particularly to threatened and/or migratory species. a turbogenerator and a sluice gate in the dam to allow the tidal flow to enter or leave the tidal basin. is now being promoted in facilities that operate all year and which. S Biomass has a number of advantages over traditional fossil fuels with its primary advantage being that it is renewable. Tidal energy using conventional hydro-electric technology has been demonstrated on a large scale. The Wells turbine spins in the same direction irrespective of the direction of the air passing through it. Europe. The energy may be in the form of the potential energy stored in an upper water reservoir which can be released as the water falls to a lower reservoir. The rise and fall of waves in the chamber cause air in the chamber to pass backwards and forwards through a Wells turbine.Electricity generation using wind as the energy source uses a wind turbine consisting of a large rotor. Such schemes depend on Government subsidy and/or generous buy back prices for their viability. Wind turbine technology has developed significantly is the last 25 years and one of the latest turbines has done away with the gearbox since this was a major cause of failure in some early machines. in the non-crush season. a gearbox and a generator. thereby generating electricity. New Zealand and Japan are considered suitable for wave energy extraction. It may also be potential energy resulting from the changes in the level of ocean water during tidal cycles. with some having a capacity of thousands of megawatts. The tendency is to construct wind farms consisting of a number of interconnected turbines in a cluster to achieve an economy of scale. As the water is released from the upper to the lower reservoir it passes through a water turbine which drives a generator. Care must also be taken in the site selection so as to avoid bird kills. Biomass Biomass is regenerative organic material used for energy production. A tidal energy conversion plant typically consists of a tidal basin created by a dam. The greatest resource for wave power typically occurs between 40 degrees and 60 degrees latitude in each hemisphere. together with other agricultural/forest wastes. The growth and combustion cycle of biomass does not increase the . One arrangement uses a water oscillation chamber incorporating a Wells turbine. The wind farm must be carefully located so as to prevent objections from residents on the grounds of visual or noise pollution. The kinetic energy of waves is associated with the velocity of the water mass. Bagasse (the waste from the crushing of sugar cane) has been used for many years in the sugar industry as boiler fuel for the generation of steam and electricity for use in the sugar mill during the crushing season. Another form of water energy resource is associated with the kinetic and potential energy of ocean waves. Sources for biomass fuel include agricultural and forestry residues and municipal and animal wastes. A hydro-electric plant is used to generate electricity from the potential energy stored in the water. the potential energy is associated with the displacement of water above or below the mean sea level.
left when the coal is completely burned. Electricity production from biomass generally uses direct combustion of the biomass in a steam generator which supplies a turbo-generator. Anthracite Hard and very brittle. bituminous. For example. anthracite is dense and shiny black. An alternative method is to process the biomass in a gasifier with the gaseous output being burnt in a combined cycle gas turbine plant.qld. It is a mixture of organic chemical and mineral materials . which is the fibrous residue from sugar cane milling. fixed carbon.energy. if not used for energy production. Coals are grouped according to rank and are known as anthracite. called moisture.gov. volatile matter. mineral impurity.htm Fuel-Coal Coal is created as the result of a natural chemical process in which vegetation is transformed by time. The temperature at which the reaction takes place need not be high. cultivation and harvest of biomass requires the use of fuels that may increase the carbon dioxide level). for time brings about a relatively great change even at the low temperatures prevailing in the earth's crust. An analysis. with coals with a high amount of volatile matter being the easiest. The coal rank increases as the amount of fixed carbon in the coal increases and ranges from anthracite (highest rank) to lignite (lowest rank). It is usually a low cost fuel since many biomass sources are agricultural or industrial residues that. Pressure is also important because coal of high rank is generally found in regions that have been under high pressure. The amount of volatile matter in the coal influences the ease with which the coal can be burnt.the organic chemical materials produce heat when burned and the mineral matter remains. There is no satisfactory definition of coal. Reference Web Back site : http://www. consisting of gases driven out when coal is heated to certain temperatures. called ash. is a light-weight material with a high ash content and demands special consideration in the design stage. water. The time involved is very long to accommodate the organic chemical reaction which proceeds at a slow rate. It has a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. the coke-like residue that burns at higher temperatures after volatile matter has been driven off. subbituminous and lignite. 3. pressure and temperature. This means that anthracite is difficult to burn and special consideration . bagasse. 4. is used to rank coal and it determines four constituents in the coal: 1.au/electricity/infosite/index. would result in disposal costs.atmospheric carbon dioxide level (however. known as the 'proximate analysis'. 2. Allowance must be made in the design of the materials handling system and the steam generator for the specific properties of the biomass to enable satisfactory plant operation.
The high pressure and temperature steam is then supplied to a turbo-generator which produces the electricity. with only a few demonstration plants in the world. In particular. The high usage of coal for electricity generation reflects the ready availability of low cost coal which has enabled Australia to be one of the lowest cost producers of electricity in the world. recent pulverised coal plants have been designed to operate at very high steam pressure and temperature with a much improved efficiency approaching that of IGCC without the complexity. . bituminous coals derive their name from the fact that on being heated they are often reduced to a cohesive. A more thermally efficient way to use coal is in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant. Bituminous By far the largest group. However. sticky mass. In an IGCC plant. Plant modifications (if feasible) are then required which usually require an extensive plant outage resulting in lost revenue as well as capital expense. coal properties influence the coal handling and boiler plants while ash properties influence the boiler. The design of a plant for a new coal field is a difficult exercise since much of the design is reliant on empirical data from past experience on other similar coals. Sometimes this results in an inappropriate design due to an unusual coal/ash property which is not discovered until the plant is operational. as much as 15 to 30 percent. Extensive testing of the coal and ash is required prior to the design of a plant for a new coal field. but they have more volatile matter and burn easily. ash and dust handling and flue gas cleaning plants. Subbituminous These coals have high moisture content. They have high volatile content and are free burning but they have high moisture content (up to 65%) and low heating value so they are not economical to transport long distances. It is very important that the properties of the coal and ash are well known when designing a coal fired power station since they can strongly influence the capital cost and availability of the plant.must be made in the design of the combustion system to ensure that stable combustion is achieved. This is new technology and is not yet commercial. Their carbon content is less than that that of anthracites. binding. Lignite Lignites are brown and of a laminar structure in which the remnants of woody fibres may be quite apparent. The overall process is simple but there is a large amount of associated plant and equipment used to optimise the cycle efficiency and minimise environmental pollution. The coal may be gasified in a chemical reactor vessel that is integrated with the gas turbine plant. and are free-burning. This consists of laboratory and perhaps small scale tests but usually not full scale due to the expense. Use of Coal in Electricity Generation The major use of coal in electricity generation is as a fuel burnt in the furnace of a large steam generator. coal is gasified and the gas burnt in combined cycle gas turbines.
. Performance decreases dramatically at high ambient temperatures. Availability (%) Availability is an indicator of the maximum amount of electrical energy that a unit is able to generate during a period. animal manures and sewerage. They are lightweight. The proposal is to produce a low cost gas which is burnt in a combined cycle gas turbine. They have higher thermal efficiency and capital cost than industrial gas turbines and their maintenance costs can also be higher.gov. It has been used for about 40 years in Uzbekistan where the gas was burnt in a conventional steam generator. Exhaust gas temperatures are generally lower than industrial gas turbines. after making allowances for outages due to all causes (Total installed capacity (MW) * period hours MWh losses due to all outages during the period) * 100 divided by: Total installed capacity (MW) * period hours Back pressure steam turbine A simple non-condensing steam turbine.htm Electricity and power definitions Auxiliary power/energy All electricity consumed internally within the boundary of a power station or cogeneration plant to run the plant.qld. Base load Operating regime in which the generator operates at its full capacity (or close to it) at all times.energy.au/electricity/infosite/index. High-pressure steam is expanded through the backpressure steam turbine to generate electricity. food processing waste. The idea has been researched and trialed in many countries with the latest trials being conducted in Australia by CS Energy and Linc Energy. Aeroderivative gas turbine Aeroderivative gas turbines originate from the aviation industry. Reference Web Back site : http://www.Another method of coal gasification is to partially combust it while the coal is still underground. Biomass Is material produced by photosynthesis or is an organic by-product of a waste stream suited as a feedstock for electrical and/or thermal energy or the manufacture of fuels and substitutes for petrochemicals and other energy intensive products. and is exhausted at the required steam conditions for use in a process or for direct heating. The idea has some inherent practical difficulties concerning the monitoring of a partial combustion process underground together with the possibility of pollution of underground aquifers by the products of combustion. Auxiliary Fuel fired boiler used to raise the site boiler steam and/or hot water requirements. Includes a wide variety of renewable organic materials (eg sugar cane pulp. This is known as Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) and is an idea which has been around for over 100 years but has not been adopted commercially in any Western economy.
Bottoming cycle Heat is recovered from an industrial process (eg a furnace) and then used to generate steam through a boiler. Production efficiency is achieved by harnessing heat that would otherwise be wasted. Creep The plastic (i. Special forms of these are used in switchyards and substations for the control of power between power (transmission and distribution) lines. Boiler blowdown Stream of water which is bled from the boiler drum or steam supply system to control the concentration of total solids and other contaminants in the boiler water. pyrolysis for liquid and gaseous fuels and chemicals. Capacity factor (%) Total energy produced for a specified period relative to the total possible amount of energy that could have been produced for the same period. which is then used to generate electricity. The composition of the material also has a bearing on its rate of creep. Lower pressure steam can also be used for process. useful combined heat and power.and organic municipal solid waste). Total period energy generated (MWh) * 100 divided by: Total installed capacity (MW) *period hours Centralised Generation Electricity production based on large-scale power stations which are usually remote from electricity consumers. and which require long-distance. sometimes referred to as maximum continuous rating (MCR). Clean-as-new New unit. two to three times more efficient than major conventional.g. high-voltage transmission networks. Boiler drum Generally the steam drum of a boiler where the steam generated is separated from the circulating boiler water. Biomass fuels tend to be renewable. no degradation. Consideration of the material's creep properties is particularly impotant in the selection of materials for components subject to high temperature and high stresses. e. Capacity The rated continuous load carrying ability expressed in megawatts. and anaerobic digestion and fermentation. Condensate Steam which has been condensed for return to the boiler. Temperature and stress on the material directly influence the rate of creep. such as those in . inelastic) movement of a metal or other solid. The heat and power can also be converted into many applications such as cooling. centralised power stations. predominantly coal-fired. Cogeneration Involves the generation of two products from a single fuel. of generation equipment. Circuit Breakers A type of switch used to control the flow of power in an electrical circuit. It is typically. Energy conversion paths include combustion and gasification for heat and power (cogeneration).e.
to the consumers.6kV & 415V). Distributed generators can also export electricity into the local grid. but where the assets may eventually become part of the shared network. Continuous process occurring between overhauls. embedded or localised. when arrangements change. usually over long distances. Demineralised water Pure water produced by removing mineral salts. supplying electricity on-site or over-the-fence. Requires steam to provide the energy for heating. inlet air contaminants. This can be as small as a 3 kWe micro-cogeneration plant. particularly at peak usage times. 6. fuel contaminants and thermal stress. Also referred to as decentralised. Includes cogeneration and other types of generation such as fuel cells and photovoltaic. Deaerator Used to preheat feedwater before entering the waste heat boiler. The demand requirements are usually in two forms: Instantaneous Demand . and Period Demand . and to drive off noncondensable and potentially corrosive dissolved gases. It also is important in determining if the transmission and distribution systems can cope with the flow of electricity during peak demand times. Demand Demand is usually taken to mean the electricity requirements of the end consumer. Deep Connection Transmission assets and services provided by the Transmission Network Operator which are: initially for one participant. Distribution systems are usually operated at medium to low voltages (eg 110kV.the amount of electrical energy used by the end use consumers over a period of time (measured in MWh or GWh). Distribution Electrical cabling system which transfers power. This measure is used to estimate how hard the power stations need to operate during that period. for example. Dump condenser Excess steam from the waste heat boiler bypasses the steam turbine and goes directly to the . the amount of fuel consumed in the generation of that energy and the potential income for electricity retailers and generators. It is important in determining the generating capacity required to on-line. 33kV.the size of the demand at any instance in time and is measured in MW. in the NEM. and immediately part of the shared network. DegradationDemand Deterioration in power output and/or heat rate of an engine or turbine under operating conditions due to. Charges and risks associated with Deep Connection services may eventually be shared with other participants. the term "demand" includes consumption and losses in the distribution and transmission networks and in the power stations as well as end user consumption. Not relevant to hot water case. 66kV. Extreme care should therefore be taken in the use of published "demand" values. Distributed Generation Is power generation generally located close to where it is consumed. for example. However. usually by an ion exchange process. or as large as a 450 MW industrial on-site system. 11kV. turbines and superheaters.boilers. but are assets which would not need to exist if not for connection to one participant.
Dump stack & damper Used to control flow and temperature of exhaust gas to bypass the waste heat boiler. unavailable to the Forced outage rate (%) Forced outages require the removal of a generating unit from service for repairs that have not been planned. Enthalpy Measure Entropy A measure Feedwater Total flow of of supplied the heat energy boiler. they are distributed generators. content in sum of a of a thermodynamic condensate and substance. makeup. Used to balance site load with steam generated.total auxiliary energy (kWh) * 3600 * 100 divided by / Quantity fuel (kg) * higher heating value of fuel consumed (kJ/kg) Efficiency Efficiency (s/o) (s/o) (%) is = related 3600 * to 100 Heat Heat Rate Rate (s/o) by: (s/o) (kJ/kWh) / Electrical efficiency (Cogen) NFT) [Cogen gross elec output] + [imported electricity] . Economisers are assumed on WHBs in this analysis. By nature of where they connect to the grid. Heat Rate (gen) (kJ/kWh) Efficiency (Sent Out)% (Total energy generated (kWh) . Are in contrast to large-scale coal-fired generators that are connected to very high voltage electricity transmission networks. Efficiency Thermodynamically. Used to balance steam generated with site load. Efficiency (Generated)% Total energy generated (kWh) * 3600 * 100 divided by: Quantity fuel (kg) * higher heating value of fuel consumed (kJ/kg) Efficiency (gen) is related to Heat Rate (gen) by: Efficiency (gen) (%) = 3600 * 100 . It increases the temperature of the water entering the boiler drum using otherwise wasted exhaust heat and hence increasing steam-raising ability. In the National Electricity Code. DUOS Distribution use of system charge. Has many specific definitions and care needs to be taken that the meaning is clear.condenser. . Can also be used to isolate equipment in the exhaust gas stream when the equipment is out of service or requires maintenance. the ratio of useful energy output to energy input into a process.[parasitic electricity] dividede by: [Fuel to cogen unit] + [fuel used for imported electricity] Embedded Generation Smaller-scale generators that are connected to electricity distribution networks. the charge for using the electricity network on or below 66 kV voltage level. See also Heat Rate. Economiser A counterflow heat exchanger for recovering energy from the exhaust gas. system.
oil and liquid petroleum gas./ Efficiency (s/o) (%) Heat Recovery Steam Generator A boiler that uses waste heat (such as gas turbine or reciprocating engine exhaust gas) to produce steam or hot water. both natural and anthropogenic. that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation. Heat Rate (Generated) (kJ/kWh) Quantity fuel (kg) * higher heating value of fuel consumed (kJ/kg) divided Total energy generated (kWh) Heat Rate (gen) is related to Efficiency (gen) by: Heat Rate (gen) (kJ/kWh) = 3600 * 100 divided by:/ Efficiency (gen) (%) by: Heat Rate (Sent Out) (kJ/kWh) Quantity fuel (kg) * higher heating value of fuel consumed (kJ/kg) divided by:/ Total energy generated (kWh) . Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere. . Heat rate A form of expressing efficiency of an engine or turbine. fuels can be gaseous or premium liquid fuels such as distillate. this is discounted for steam/heat production. natural gas. coal seam methane. Higher Heating Value (HHV) The amount of heat recovered when the products of complete combustion of a unit quantity of a fuel are cooled to the initial temperature of the air and fuel (kJ/kg).) per MWh sent out.Total auxiliary energy (kWh) Heat Rate (s/o) is related to Efficiency (s/o) by Heat Rate (s/o) (kJ/kWh) = 3600 * 100 . Common unit is kJ/kWh. For cogeneration. constant pressure combustion and expansion of the compressed heated gases through an expansion turbine. The fuel heating value consumed per unit of useful output (usually electrical output).Energy Total lost due installed to forced capacity outages (MW) (MWh) * * 100 divide by: period hours Fossil Fuel Derived from hydrocarbon and includes coal. Generated Electrical energy generated Energy by the power (MWh) plant. Greenhouse Intensity (GI) Measure of Greenhouse efficiency as the emission rate of greenhouse gases from fuel burning expressed in kg CO2 (equiv. To convert to efficiency divide by 3600 and invert. Gas turbine An engine operating on what is known as the Brayton cycle with continuous steady flow compression of air. Working fluid is usually air.
or effectively zero loss.1 * LHV Industrial gas turbine Heavier. at average sea level) and 60% Relative Humidity (RH). more robust. It can be thought of as the load (% MCR) that would have produced the same total energy over the same operating hours. which is added to the system to replace steam and water lost to site requirements. Peaking Operating regime in which the generator operates at its full capacity (or close to it) only for short periods at times of high demand. evaporation.For Natural Gas. the relationship between Lower Heating Value (LHV) and Higher Heating Value (HHV) is (approximately): LHV = HHV/1. Used in the context of steam turbine ability to convert steam energy into mechanical energy. Network Losses Amount of energy lost when electricity flows in the power lines of a transmission and/or distribution network. as opposed to leaving the turbine as exhaust steam energy at the exhaust steam pressure. blowdown. The plant is shut down for the remainder of the time. and cheaper than aeroderivative gas turbines. (i. The electrical resistance of the power lines is the main contributor to these losses. For Natural Gas.1 Makeup Treated raw water. Generally have lower thermal efficiency and higher exhaust gas temperatures than aeroderivative gas turbines. Operating Hours Total number of hours during which a unit generates electricity over a period of time. ISO conditions Ambient conditions stated in the ISO Standard 2314 = 15°C. Total Total energy generated during installed capacity the (MW) period * (MWH) operating * 100 hours Lower Heating Value (LHV) The amount of heat recovered when the products of complete combustion of a unit quantity of a fuel are cooled to just above the dew point of the water vapour it contains (kJ/kg). sampling or venting. Load factor (%) (Also called Output Factor) . 0 metres ASL. Isentropic Constant entropy.total energy produced for a specified period relative to the total possible amount of energy that could have been produced for the operating hours during the same period. Parasitics The plant's internal power consumption and losses.e. . the relationship between Higher Heating Value (HHV) and Lower Heating Value (LHV) is (approximately): HHV = 1.
hydro. It is measured by: 1. Typical vehicle engine. The grouping of these prices within the NEM is known as the pool. 2. the Reserve Plant Margin . The ability of demand side management techniques (such as hot water switching and short . It also includes power generated using waste products. Reciprocating engine An engine characterised by the movement of the pistons in the cylinders back and forth in a straight line driving a crankshaft to convert the work into rotary shaft work. Each generator provides prices at which it is willing to supply designated levels of MW. Note: The reserve plant margin calculation may not take into account: The generating capacity kept in reserve for system stability reasons. 3. wind. Process Steam used within an industrial plant. such as Wivenhoe pumped storage hydro power station. Renewable Generation Produces no net greenhouse emissions. usually by more than one year. Taking away 1. Pulveriser A machine that grinds coal into a fine powder for injection into the furnace of a pulverised coal fired boiler. Summing the supply capacities of all the power stations able to operate at any time during a particular interval of time(usually the three winter months or the three summer months). solar (photovoltaic) and tidal. The energy limits of the northern hydros and some peaking plants. is meant to give an indication of the ability of the electricity system's generation plant to cope with the estimated peak (instantaneous) demands on the system.Planned outage rate (%) Planned outages are due to overhaul (or other) work which is planned well in advance. Energy Total lost due installed to planned outages capacity (MW) * (MWh) period * 100 hours Pool Price Price of electricity available for supply in the National Electricity Market. natural resources such as biomass. The unavailability of power stations due to scheduled and unscheduled outages.30%). The short term overload capabilities of some of the power stations. in theory.e. Includes power generated from non-hydrocarbon. usually for steam heating.3 means that there is a 30% "excess" in sent out supply capacity available to meet the maximum peak demand (i. Reserve Plant Margin Reserve Plant Margin is a well used (but generally misunderstood) simplistic measure which. A value of (say) 0. Tend to be distributed and connected to local distribution networks. Dividing by the total power station sent out supply required to meet the maximum peak (instantaneous) demand estimated for that interval of time.
and other. thankfully. Can generally be done on gas turbine exhausts because sufficient oxygen remains in the exhaust. Generally steam admitted into a steam turbine must be superheated (that is. With the advent of the NEM. declined in importance. the importance of the Reserve Plant Margin measure has. This is the generated energy minus the auxiliary energy used in the plant. Substation Similar to a "switchyard" but is usually associated with lower voltage distribution lines. Historically. Sent Out Energy Electrical energy leaving the power plant. Superheater A heat exchanger part of a boiler for increasing the temperature of saturated steam to superheated steam. Not generally done on reciprocating engine exhausts due to lower excess oxygen in exhaust. reasons. For these. Energy generated (MWh) minus auxiliary energy (MWh). Steam turbine An engine in which a vaned wheel is made to revolve by the impingement of steam. values between about 20% to 25% have been used in Queensland. Shallow Connection Transmission assets and services provided for one participant where the assets will never be part of the shared network. the reserve plant is compared to a "guesstimated" optimum value that is supposed to take some account of these factors.term reduction in industrial loads) to reduce peak loads. The main definitions can be described by working back from the electricity end user to the power station: . The main problem with using the reserve plant measure is that most people are not be aware of the way in which it is calculated and so would assume that there was always a large excess in generating capacity and that all peak loads would be met. The interconnectors being able to supply some of the required capacity. Supply Supply has many meanings depending on the point of view of the organisation providing the data. while more than this indicated an over-capacity in generating plant to meet the peak demands and that some plant would be under-utilised. usefulness and usage. Most of the equipment is enclosed within a building. Retrofit Any improvement activity on an existing power plant that generally involves fitting new equipment to an existing plant. Supplementary fired Additional gas firing into a waste heat boiler when the unfired exhaust gas is not sufficiently hot for raising the site steam requirements (temperature or steam mass flow). Converts steam energy to mechanical energy. above the saturation temperature at that pressure). A reserve plant margin less than this meant that there was a risk of not having sufficient plant to meet the demand peaks. or The load limits on the interconnectors and inter-zonal transmission lines.
htm . Supply from the transmission system .Supply from the distribution system . Note: For each of these. Transmission Electrical cabling system which transfers large amounts of power. Some owner's costs.this is the electricity generated by the power stations and is equal to the supply sent out from the power stations plus losses within the power stations that are associated with the generation of the electricity. but is also used in association with lower voltage distribution lines.this is equal to the supply from the transmission system plus transmission system losses.qld. Supply sent out from the power stations . TUOS Transmission use of system charge. generally a single design and construct contract. owner's start up labour and fuel. Waste Waste products used in power generation include cane residue (bagasse) in the sugar industry. It is usually associated with high voltage transmission lines. may be excluded and need to be considered in the indirect costs or elsewhere. Transmission systems are usually operated at extra high voltages (eg 132kV. the charge for using the electricity network above 66 kV voltage level Turnkey Installation to the point of readiness for operation. the "instantaneous" and "period" values of the electricity supply are required. Reference Web Back site : http://www. Thermal efficiency (Cogen) [Cogen gross elec output] + [imported electricity] + [site steam] [fuel to cogen unit] + [fuel used for imported electricity] + [fuel to aux boiler] Where [site steam] includes hot water as (overall) divided by: applicable.energy. Total Sum of the installed capacity of each unit capacity making up the power plant.this is equal to the end user demand plus the demand from any large user being supplied directly from the transmission system plus the losses in the distribution system. spares. Switchyard Fenced area containing electrical equipment used to control the transfer of power from one set of power lines to another set of power lines.au/electricity/infosite/index. usually over long distances. and methane from landfill sites. such as owner's engineering. In the National Electricity Code. Waste heat boiler A boiler that uses waste heat (such as gas turbine or reciprocating engine exhaust gas) to produce steam or hot water. sludge gas from sewerage treatment plants. and Supply generated . Topping cycle High-pressure steam is raised in an auxiliary boiler and expanded through a backpressure steam turbine to the required site steam conditions. 275kV & 330kV).gov.this is equal to the end user consumption.
the electron could attach itself to the atom and could force another electron to leave that atom. the free electrons can be induced to move (drift) generally in one direction. The number of electrons per second appearing to move past any point of the conductor gives a measure of the electric current. Every atom consists of a nucleus containing a number of positively charged protons around which an equal number of negatively charged electrons move. The number of electrons in each atom of the material largely determines a material's physical. In other materials. This movement of electrons is called current electricity and an electric current is said to flow. chemical and electrical properties. Electric Current Normally. which do not have any electrical charge. When wandering electron encounters an atom. most of the electrons are firmly bound to the nucleus and hence there are few "free" electrons. If an appropriate electrical force (called an electromotive force or EMF) is applied to the conductor.Electricity and motors Electricity The word "electricity" can be used to mean an electrical charge that does not move (static electricity) or an electric charge that moves (current electricity) or a form of energy (electrical energy). The atoms in some materials have "free" electrons that are loosely bound to their nuclei. Increasing the magnitude of the EMF applied to the conductor will increase the drift velocity of the electrons in the conductor. All of these depend on what is happening to the electrons in a material. All materials are made up of atoms. Electricity passes easily through these materials which are called conductors. A free electron can easily be induced to leave its atom and move about in random directions in the spaces between the atoms. The nucleus also contains neutrons. This increase in drift velocity . the free electrons in a conductor are moving in random directions. The rate at which the electrons appear to drift through the conductor is called the drift velocity. Electricity does not easily pass through these materials which are called nonconductors or insulators.
would manifest itself as an increase in the electric current passing through the conductor. The source of EMF can be a battery or a generator or a photoelectric cell. For an electric current to flow through a conductor, the EMF source must apply an electric charge to one end of the conductor and an opposite electric charge to the other end. A simple example of this is the electric current flowing in a metal wire (the conductor) connected between the "negative" terminal and the "positive" terminal of a battery (the EMF source). All materials offer some resistance to the flow of electrons and hence work has to be done in forcing the electrons through the material. Materials with low resistance are the "conductors", the "insulators" having high resistance. The degree of resistance ranges from almost zero (for special materials called "super conductors") to very high (for the materials used to insulate powerlines). When an electric current flows through a conductor, two effects are produced: the electrical energy used to overcome the electrical resistance in the conductor is converted to thermal energy which increases the temperature of the conductor. Examples:heaters, stoves and electric kettles use the heating effects (conversion of electrical energy to thermal (heat) energy); and incandescent light bulbs emit light because their elements are raised to a high temperature (electrical to thermal energy conversion). a magnetic field forms around the conductor. for example: When a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, the interaction between its magnetic field and the other magnetic field exerts a force on the conductor. In an electric motor, this interaction forces the shaft to rotate (conversion of electrical energy to mechanical energy). Most of the ways in which electricity is used can be traced back to these two effects. Electrical energy can therefore be easily converted to other forms of energy.
Conversely, most of the electricity in a large electricity supply system is generated by the use of magnetic fields in machines called, appropriately enough, "generators" (which can be thought of as being electrical motors driven backwards). Other forms of energy are used to produce the mechanical energy used to rotate the shafts of the generators. There are other ways in which electricity can be generated, but they all involve the conversion of a source of energy into electrical energy. Electrical energy can therefore be easily produced by the conversion of other forms of energy. A law of physics formulated by Isaac Newton notes that 'Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be transferred from one form into another'. The usefulness of electricity therefore lies in its unique ability to be a convenient and easily controlled means to transport energy from one location to another location and to convert energy from one form into another form. The Familiar Forms of Electricity
Ever walked on a carpet and been "zapped" when you touch a metal object. That is an example of static electricity. Static electricity is used to a lesser extent than current electricity in our every day lives. The ENERGEX web site has a good explanation of this form of electricity. A more useful form of electricity is "current" electricity in which the electric current "flows" in one direction only - Direct Current (DC). The batteries in our torches, toys, portable radios and cars
are the most common sources of DC low voltage, low power electricity. Higher voltage, higher power DC systems are used for particular applications, such as energy storage systems associated with renewable energy systems that are not connected to an electricity supply network. High voltage, high power DC powerlines have been used successfully in special applications such as interconnectors between transmission systems and undersea power cables. Large DC electric motors are common in certain applications, such as electric locomotives where high starting torque and variable speed are required. The most useful type of "current" electricity is the type in which the direction of flow of the electrical current changes direction many times in each second - Alternating Current (AC). AC electricity powers the appliances in our homes, turns the electric motors of industry and energises our electric lights. The current in an AC system does not instantaneously change direction. Rather, it gradually (in relative terms) increases in magnitude until it reaches a maximum in one direction, then gradually reduces to zero, gradually increases to a maximum in the other direction, then reduces to zero - and the whole cycle starts all over again. The number of complete cycles carried out in a second is called the frequency of the AC electricity supply. In Australia, the AC frequency is 50 cycles per second, with 60 cycles per second used in America. If DC and AC electricity can both be used successfully, why is AC the dominant form of current electricity? The answers lie in the consideration of: economics - in general, AC electrical equipment is smaller and cheaper to manufacture than DC equipment of similar duty; and voltage changes - changes in voltages can be easily carried out in an AC system, but voltage changes in DC systems are complicated and require significant equipment. This ability to change voltage is particularly important in transmission and distribution systems where line losses are reduced if the voltage is increased. The voltages used in a large electrical supply system and the importance of having various voltages in the system are discussed in the Transmission and Distribution section.
Phases There is one further major characteristic of an AC electricity supply that requires explanation phases. A DC circuit has two wires through which the current in the circuit flows from a source of electricity through a load and back to the source. A single-phase AC circuit also has two wires connected to the source of electricity. However, unlike the DC circuit in which the direction of the electric current does not change, the direction of the current changes many times per second in the AC circuit. The 240 volt electricity supplied to our homes is single phase AC electricity and has two wires - an "active" and a "neutral". The distribution line supplying your home may be single phase and have only two wires strung between the poles (we will use the overhead power lines as examples because they can be easily seen). However, the distribution line may be made up of 4 lines. What are the others? The other lines carry the currents from two other electrical circuits, making a total of three circuits or phases. The reason why there are only 4 lines is because the 3 phases have a common neutral line (i.e. 3 active lines and 1 common neutral line).
But why 3 phases? Why not 2 or 4? Because the magnitude and direction of the electricity flowing in each of the phases is slightly displaced in time from the electricity flowing in the other phases, the current flowing in the common neutral will be the sum of the neutral currents from the 3 phases. The resultant current in the common neutral is smaller in a 3 phase system than in systems with other numbers of phases. This ability to use a common neutral of relatively small capacity has large economic advantages and is the main reason why 3 phases are used. 3 phase electricity has another advantage. We mentioned above that, in Australia, the voltage between the active and neutral in the single phase, low voltage supply to our homes is 240 volts and that this phase is only one of the phases in the 3 phase system. The voltage between the phases of this 3 phase system is 415 volts (in Australia). A 415 volt, 3 phase supply is able to deliver more energy than a 240 volt, single phase supply. 3 phase supplies are normally restricted to large electrical loads, such as large electric motors. As we travel back up the electrical network, the voltage increases and the neutral disappears! Why? The answer can be found in the consideration of why a neutral is used. A single phase supply must have a neutral, whereas a 3 phase supply does not require a neutral. More complicated reasons deal with fixing the voltage of the single phase supply relative to the earth (because domestic appliances have their metal enclosures connected to earth) and for fault protection purposes. 3 phase, medium voltage, distribution systems and high voltage transmission systems therefore use one wire for each phase and no neutral. The above discussions focussed on active and neutral conductors (wires) as being the means to convey the electricity. One type of system uses the earth as the return path, with only the active being conveyed by a wire conductor. This type of single-phase supply system is called the Single Wire Earth Return (SWER) system and is use to supply small loads which are located far from the main distribution networks.
No section on electricity is complete without a short warning on the dangerous aspects of electricity. The following discussion is brief. Electricity and the Human Body
Water makes up most of the human body, thus making the body an electrical conductor. If a person touches an electrically energised object (such as a bare wire or faulty equipment) and the person is touching the ground, electricity will pass through the person to ground. Depending on the voltage of the electricity, the frequency of the AC supply, the magnitude of the current flowing through the body and the amount of time the current is flowing, the result can range from a slight tingle to a harmful and potentially fatal shock. The critical path of electricity through the human body is through the chest cavity. A current flowing from one hand to the other, or from a hand to the opposite foot, or from the head to either foot will pass through the chest cavity and could paralyse the respiratory or heart muscles (thus initiating ventricular fibrillation) and/or burning of vital organs. Electricity passing through any area of the body can result in burns caused by the current flowing in tissues and can be at the skin surface or in deeper layers or both. Electrical Protection
Any piece of approved electrical equipment is designed for operation at a particular voltage and is insulated to protect its operator from coming into contact with its electrically live parts. Portable hand held electric appliances, such as electric drills, are unlikely to cause an electric
the device's short detection and operating times would normally prevent severe injury to the person. A protective device has been developed to sense any imbalance of current through the active and neutral conductors. particularly those on electric irons. the electrical supply must have an active and a return path. and think "safety" when doing anything associated with electricity. in the worst case. extension leads and appliances. the protection will not operate. Some install simple safety switches ways on the to Avoid household power Electrical and lighting Accidents circuits. first aid can be applied. The circuit breakers or fuses are rated to operate just below the current limit of the wiring. An electric motor converts electrical energy to mechanical energy in the presence of a magnetic field. and the appliance is connected to the earthing circuit. When there is a fault to earth on an appliance. This device is identified by various names. . If this happened. get qualified help without delay. The current through the circuit will be identical through both the active and neutral conductors. with the outside of the item made from a suitable insulating material. If an Electrical Accident Occurs Do not touch the victim unless you are sure that the victim is not still in contact with the electrical hazard or that the electricity has been switched off. or 2. Again if you are unsure of how do this. protect power points from the probing of children. Residual Current Device (RCD) and Safety Switch. including Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB). If the victim has been removed from the electrical hazard. Theory of Electric Motors An electric generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the presence of a magnetic field. the current in the circuit will greatly exceed that of the circuit breaker or fuse and cause them to operate. by having the circuits wired in accordance with the Multiple Earthed Neutral system. if the appliance does not have an earth connection or if the earthing circuit is faulty. This device does not provide protection unless the electricity has a path to earth. This disconnects the appliance from the supply.and do not use your finger to clean the connection. The disadvantage of the system is that. Protection against faulty equipment or circuits causing shocks to people in a domestic dwelling can be provided in two ways. be through a person. which could. make sure that a light has been switched off before changing the bulb . for an electrical component to function. have a qualified electrician regularly check the household's electrical systems. get qualified help without delay. particularly electric blankets and those appliances with metal cases. 1.shock because they are usually double insulated. in conjunction with suitably rated circuit breakers or fuses. replace worn electrical leads. If you are unsure of how do this. NEVER touch a fallen powerline unless given specific assurances of its safety by a person qualified to do so.
DC DC motors have two main parts: Motors a) A Yoke which supports poles and field windings and provides a path for the magnetic flux. when the conductor is inclined to the magnetic field. Motors can operate on direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC).The field in a series motor is connected in series with the armature winding. and b) An Armature with commutator and brushgear. the forces acting on the loop will rotate it. The magnetic field can be produced by a magnet or by a current carrying coil wound on soft iron pole pieces. the conductor experiences a force. Electric motor use the latter method to produce a magnetic field. When a current carrying loop is placed in a magnetic field so that it makes an angle with the magnetic field. and d) Compound motor . b) Shunt motor. such as cranes. thus producing mechanical energy. rolling mills. The starting torque of a shunt motor is 100-150 % of the full load torque. a shunt motor is considered a constant speed motor for all practical purposes. The starting torque about 250-300% of full load torque.An electric motor operates on the principle of electrodynamics that states that when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field. However.5 kW) are used for specific purposes. For this reason. The series motor finds extensive application in traction and in other jobs where high starting and accelerating torque is required and the motor is never required to run on light load. particularly in industrial applications. Its speed remains practically constant over the entire load range. The speed of a series motor is high at light loads and falls off rapidly with increasing load. The principal types of three phase motors are the induction motor and the synchronous motor. c) Series motor .The field winding in a separately excited motor is energised from an independent source of electricity and so not affected by the load or voltage drop in the armature. Larger three phase AC motors are the electric motors most used. a series motor is used with a directly coupled load. DC motors are classified on the type of connections to the field windings: a) Separately excited motor . It cannot be run on light or no load because it may overspeed. The field windings are designed to give practically constant speed at all loads. The speed of a shunt motor drops slightly as the load increases. and excavators. . DC motors and small single phase AC motors (up to about 2. In general. The starting torque is of the order of 300-500% of the full load torque. Compound motors are used where high starting torque and fine speed control are desired.A compound motor has a series as well as shunt field and its speedtorque characteristic is determined by the relative strengths of the two fields.
DC motors possess the following advantages: High starting torque. The voltages of the three-phase system are 120° out of phase with each other. 3. Principle of operation of a three phase induction motor The principle of operation for all three-phase motors is the rotating magnetic field. As a result. The torque produced by an induction motor results from the interaction between the stator flux and the rotor flux. Characteristics of Induction Motors Some of the important characteristics of induction motors are: . The rotor always turns at a speed slightly less than that of the stator field. 1. The The number frequency of stator of poles. The The three voltages of the change stator polarity windings at around regular the intervals. 2. 1. Speed control over a wide range. AC 3 Phase Induction Motors The most commonly used motor in industrial applications is the three-phase induction motor. The attraction between the stator field and the rotor field causes the rotor to follow the stator field. both below and above the normal speed. At the start up. The induced current set up form a closed path from the rotor windings through the slip rings and brushes to a star connected speed controller. The disadvantages of DC motors and are: High capital cost of the motor and the control gear. stopping. Increased operating and maintenance costs because of commutators and brushgear. In the case of wound rotor induction motor. the stator field cuts the rotor bars and induces the required rotor voltage and current in the rotor field. a field is created in the rotor core. and Quick starting. The voltage induced in the squirrel cage winding produces current in the rotor bars. of the and motor. There are three factors that cause the magnetic field to rotate. the and AC. This additional resistance causes an excellent starting torque and a large percent slip. reversing and accelerating. the voltage and current are induced by the rotating field similar to that in the squirrel cage induction motor. In this way. all of the resistance of the star connected speed controller is inserted in the rotor circuit. 2. The synchronous speed of a three-phase motor is determined by two factors. arrangement inside The speed at which the magnetic field rotates is known as the synchronous speed. The field set up by the stator windings cuts the copper bars of the rotor.
construction. Skewed rotors are twisted (skewed). Squirrel cage rotor: The rotor is constructed of laminated steel sheets assembled around a shaft. It is about 75% for smaller motors. The aluminium conductor rotors are therefore more rugged. The three single-phase windings are connected in star or delta formation.i) For the same slip. size and load. The rotor winding consists of copper or aluminium bars. A motor with a lower value of slip will be more efficient than a motor with a higher slip because of the increased losses in the rotor of the latter. the rotor is sometimes made up of solid steel without any winding.The stator is a three-phase winding placed in the slots of a laminated steel core and formed of three single-phase windings spaced 120 electrical degrees apart. Such motors operate by virtue of the eddy currents established in the rotor. the torque varies as the square of the terminal voltage. . iii) The torque varies directly with the slip. eliminates the magnetic locking of the rotor and increases starting torque. maintenance. slow speed motors and motors running at part load. and Motors induction and motor. iv) The slip varies inversely as the square of the terminal voltage. The efficiency of three phase induction motors varies with type. the speed of an induction motor is more or less constant with load. 2. The slots of the rotor are not always parallel to the slots on the stator. operation. In very small motors. motors: motor are as follows: Construction Broadly 1. The laminations of the steel core are insulated by varnish or oxide coating. The copper bars are soldered to two copper end rings. and The Rotor. speed control. Stator: The squirrel-cage and the wound-rotor induction motors have nearly the same stator construction and winding arrangement. and since the slip varies over a small range only. and v) The efficiency of an induction motor is inversely proportional to slip. The efficiency is less in the case of slip-ring motors. The Simple Rugged Reliable Low Easy Simple High advantages of an AC induction design. and are slotted in their inner periphery. ii) The slip is proportional to the load. induction Squirrel-cage Wound-rotor Each of these two types of three phase induction motors consist of: The Stator. the bars and end rings are all die cast in position without soldering at the ends. initial operation control gear for of are two types induction or slip-ring of and starting and efficiency. In the case of rotors with aluminium windings. Skew effectively reduces noise. The three line leads from the three windings are brought out to a terminal box mounted on the frame of the motor. there Induction three-phase motor. cost. It ranges from 85% to 99% in the case of squirrel cage motors above 5 HP.
15 lagging.90 lagging.The speed performance of a squirrel cage motor is measured in terms of slip. the copper losses become excessive and the efficiency decreases. AC 3 Phase Synchronous Motors A synchronous motor consists of a DC field winding on its rotor. Hence the power factor at no load is low. The in-phase component of the no load current is low. the fixed losses become a smaller part of the input power.85 and 0. Leads from the carbon brushes are connected to an external speed controller. The power factor at no load is approximately 0. Carbon brushes press against these slip rings and are held securely by adjustable springs mounted in the brush holders. The copper losses consist of the I2R losses in the windings of the motor. Induction Motor Losses and Efficiency The losses in an induction motor consist of stray losses and the copper losses. These windings are placed 120 electrical degrees apart. The insulated coils of the rotor winding are grouped to form the same number of poles as in the stator windings. The brush holders are fixed rigidly. size. In practice. The stray power losses include mechanical friction losses. A motor running at high speed and near full load has a better power factor than when it operates at part load and low speed. As the load on the motor incr4eases. The three leads from these windings terminate at three slip rings mounted on the rotor shaft. However. The no load current consists mainly of magnetising current. as the rated capacity of the motor is exceeded. rotational speed and load. The three single-phase rotor windings are connected in star. At light loads. the in-phase current component supplied to the motor increases and hence the power factor increases. Slip is usually expressed as the percentage by which the speed of the rotor falls behind the speed of the rotating synchronous speed of the stator field. which may have a starting current in the order of 600% of its full load current. Power Factor of Induction Motors The power factor of an induction motor depends on its type. These losses are nearly constant at all loads and are often called fixed losses. and are: Relatively low starting current (250 to 350% of the full load current) compared to a squirrel-cage motor. torque. Thus. As the load increases. Slip-ring motors have lower power factors than squirrel cage motors of the same size. slotted to hold the formed coils of the three single-phase windings. a three-phase winding on its . Wound-rotor (or slip-ring motor): The cylindrical core of the rotor is made up of steel laminations. the power factor of the inductive motor at the rated load is between 0. An increase in load increases the current in the motor windings and hence the I2R losses. the percent efficiency is low because the fixed losses form a large part of the input power. This current produces the magnetomotive force (mmf) required to send the stator flux across the air gap and through the magnetic circuit. The Its High advantages susceptibility starting to torque of speed of 200 a control by 250% slip-ring regulating of full motor rotor load resistance. windage losses and iron losses. the efficiency increases with load.
Above this speed. The torque of the induction motor is dependent on the magnetic field strength (flux per pole). the inductive effect decreases and the power factor improves. To reduce maintenance. Starting torque can be improved by adding resistance to the rotor circuit. If a condenser is provided. AC Single Phase Motors Single phase motors are usually used in domestic appliances because they are suitable for low power ratings. When a synchronous motor is used exclusively for power factor improvement and not for driving any mechanical load. Due to this large inductance. The AC from the alternator is converted to DC by bridge connected silicon diodes and then supplied directly to the field winding. further variations are required to provide a phase difference for starting purposes. the power factor decreases and the torque rapidly reduces to . The ability of a synchronous motor to operate at leading power factor makes it suitable to be used for power factor improvement. It is usual to fit the single phase motor with a centrifugal switch which will take the starting winding out of service as soon as the motor comes up to speed. from the main winding. the rotor current and the rotor power factor. the DC excitation is supplied to the field winding and the motor pulls into synchronism. The magnetic effect of a single phase winding results in a pulsating magnetic field which may not be able to start the rotor turning if the rotor is in certain positions. This arrangement eliminates the exciter. but is enough to start the motor. there is considerable inductance inherent in the rotor circuit. it is called a synchronous condenser. As the motor comes up to speed. the starting winding and condenser are left in the circuit. The resistance is constant and the torque improves to a maximum at approximately 80% nominal speed. This does not produce an exact 90 degree phase difference. a second (starting) winding is installed in the stator slots at 90 degrees. subjecting the rotor current to a low power factor. In order to make a single phase motor self-starting. An alternator mounted on the motor shaft replaces the exciter. the reactance of the rotor is much higher than the resistance when the motor starts.stator and a means to bring it to speed (usually a squirrel cage winding placed in the salient poles on the rotor). the rotor frequency will be less than the stator or supply frequency. No voltage is generated in the auxiliary rotor winding during synchronous operation. This will provide a 90 degree phase difference. This is done by either: placing a non-inductive resistance in series with the starting winding. When the motor comes up to speed. brushless synchronous motors are now being manufactured. A synchronous motor is started as an induction motor or by a separate induction motor. or half a pole pitch. As the motor is only supplied by a single phase source of electricity. As a laminated iron frame surrounds the rotor conductors. or connecting a condenser in series with the starting winding. Maximum torque is reached when the value of rotor reactance reaches the value of rotor resistance. commutator and the field slip rings. The starting torque of the induction motor is therefore low. The DC excitation is provided by an exciter driven either from the motor's shaft or by a separate motor. On starting with the rotor at standstill.
After this process. The insulation needs to be checked to ensure there has been no movement. the windings are given an appropriate insulation test. motors should be checked on a regular basis. place. It is normal to carry out maintenance on motors when the item being driven is to be serviced. Visual checks should include: Cleanliness of the surroundings. In some cases the insulation may need to be sprayed with an insulating varnish or even re-dipped. The maintenance on a motor can include the following: Disassemble the motor in a workshop. The environment in which the motors are operating and the importance of the motors' continued operation should dictate the regularity of the checks to be made. If the environment is hostile (e. Clean the windings and the rotor. The slot wedges should be checked for tightness and or cracking. Signs The The of motor motor grease frame is against and not the or bearing showing weather. accessible) abnormal dust. Maintenance of Electric Motors Under normal operation. This may involve as little as dusting the parts down with a clean dry cloth. The induction motor will therefore never reach synchronous speed due to its inherent induction and loss factors. no cracking or signs of deterioration. leakage (if of from are the not bearings. RTDs or thermocouples.become zero at synchronous speed. heat. An insulation check is to be made on the stator prior to assembly and a further test given when the motor is being reinstalled. This applies particularly to the feet of the motor. vibration etc is noise. Checks are to be made for any signs of abrasion on the rotor or the iron core of the stator. the stator and rotor will have to be placed in an oven or at least heated to thoroughly dry the insulation. The motor frame/housing is to be checked for any damage. This includes the connections to any heaters. unduly or in hot. dirty and hot).g. The condition of the fan and fan cover is to be checked. . The condition of any internal connections is to be made and the connections into the terminal boxes. wet. ensuring that cooling vanes are clear of extraneous matter. It can be as much as washing the parts including the windings thoroughly with a spray using water and a solvent. and Air intakes and filters (if applicable) are not clogged. the checks should be at least on a daily basis. oil plates signs sun. Protection There is no evident damage to incoming cables and or terminal boxes. Under these circumstances.
Generally the larger electric motors would be expected to comply with at least the following Australian Engineering Standards or their equivalent: -AS -AS -IEC -AS 1359 parts 1081 34-6: 1939 4. 10. Medium voltage insulation (as per AS 1359 Pt. it is normal to further check the state of the coupling or other drive mechanism associated with the motor. and. use of anti-condensation heaters. Power factor. Resistance of windings. 4. Momentary overload. the correct recommended grease or oil is used. On reinstallation in the field. the vibration and noise levels. speed. Terminations are checked and made in accordance with maintenance instructions for tightness and phasing. This series of tests are called 'Type Tests'. use of porous plugs and type of painting. Efficiency. the specification will list a number of Engineering Standards that the motor will have to meet. the motor should be given a no load run in the workshop prior to reinstallation in the field. on reassembly. Care is taken to ensure rotation direction is correct prior to final connection to the driven equipment. The performance tests required during manufacture are specified to be in accordance with AS 1359 part 60 or its equivalent. 7. mounting and the tests that the motor must be subjected to during manufacture. No-load losses and current. winding insulation. 50. 8. 60. 60). 69 & AS 1469 1991 Methods Protection Degree Rotating Electrical Machines. Bearings must be checked for wear and deterioration. and . It is normal to require that the first motor of a design be subjected to a more stringent set of tests than subsequent motors of the same design. Locked rotor test (see description below). Noise (as per AS 1081 with the level as described in AS 1469). Vibration (as per the requirements of AS 1359 Pt. 9. 50 or equivalent). 5. and The cables being connected to the motor are checked for condition and to ensure they are connected in the correct sequence on the motor terminals. 2. The protection required during transport and lifting facilities can also be specified. Electric Motor Standards and Tests When purchasing an electric motor. Other items will detail the starting characteristics. size. 6. cooling system and required temperature rise limits. Temperature rise (see description below).The coupling of the motor is to be checked for wear and any sign of looseness during operation. requirement for special lubrication systems and bearings. Noise Levels. These will determine the details of the motor type. and Ratings of Enclosures. Where possible. The tests normally required for type tests are as follows: 1. 3. the inbuilt thermal protection devices required. If there is any sign of deterioration. ensuring that the correct type is used. the bearings must be changed. of Cooling.
and 2. Terminals are usually described to suit the cabling requirement of size and direction of location of the cables on the side or top of the motor. 5. Test Certificates are required for all tests and should show the results and description of all tests. It is preferable to carry out this test at 100% rated voltage but if this is not possible (due to the potential of damaging the motor and/or the limitations of the test facilities). These less stringent tests are known as 'duplicate' tests and include the following: 1. A record of all readings. current. below). For example. 3 PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR . The voltage is slowly increased until full load current circulates in the stator winding. Locked Rotor Tests are performed with the rotor locked to establish starting torques and starting currents. 2.65 mw. the voltage can be raised in equal increments up to 50% rated voltage.6 kV. including temperature. Resistance No-load Locked Medium rotor losses (see voltage Vibration. insulation. Starting torque can be evaluated using a torque arm which locks the rotor. A no-load test which provides full voltage iron loss for the motor .the motor is coupled to a load as close to full load as the test facility will allow. the motor temperature rise should not exceed that specified. If the proposed manufacturer has previously produced this type of motor and has carried out the required type tests.11. A full load test at full copper loss . of and description windings. Determination of run-up speed/torque characteristic. Note that. the specification could require a motor whose windings are to have insulation of 'F' Class and a maximum temperature rise of 800° C when operating at an ambient temperature of 400° C. if anti-condensation heaters are fitted. the maximum Temperature Rise under full load conditions and the maximum ambient temperature are usually specified together. are to be supplied as part of the test results. the voltage reduced until full load current is reached and the motor run until thermal equilibrium is reached. 4. 5. Temperature Tests are conducted in two parts: 1. The Insulation Class on the windings.the motor is uncoupled and run at full voltage until thermal equilibrium is reached. 3. less stringent test may be allowed. A curve is then drawn through the plotted values and extrapolated to the 100% rated voltage value. To satisfy the specified requirements. then these are to be energised while the test is in progress. voltage and current. Photographs STATOR OF 6.
Note the air cooler mounted on the top of the motor assembly. .DIAGRAM OF A LARGE SQIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR This motor is similar to that in the above photo.
gov.qld.au/electricity/infosite/index.Reference Web Back site : http://www.htm Electrical Cables .energy.
Conductor sizing The cables must be able to conduct power in a manner that will allow the connected device to operate to its full capacity. The temperature rating of the cable must be suited to ambient conditions. The installation of cables Wiring requirements Rules. and 4. The cable also must be protected from the detrimental effects of the environment in which the cable is installed. If the cable is to be installed in an area where it is subject to flammable dust or liquid. The cable must be able to withstand the voltage to which it will normally be subjected. and 2. Theory The sole function of an electric cabling system is the transfer of electric power. or through other means. This information sheet does not discuss uninsulated wires and focuses only on insulated cables. A general understanding on what is involved in sizing and installing electrical cables. Installation 1. 3. resistance to UV becomes a factor. 2. Any cabling system must meet the following requirements: Safety 1. The cable must be able to conduct the full load current without causing any significant voltage drop at the terminals of the load connection. In considering this factor. in other equipment. This information sheet is not meant to provide the reader with an in-depth knowledge of cable sizing.The electrical conductors strung between the poles and towers of overhead powerlines are usually bare wires without an insulation covering. A cabling system must be installed in such a manner that it presents no danger to any person likely to come in contact with the cables. the starting current requirements of the connected device has also to be taken into consideration and the cable must be able to withstand a fault on the system to which it is connected. The type of insulation must suit the type of installation and the environment. selection or methods of installation. A general appreciation of the factors that should be generally considered when confronted with cabling information. It is meant to provide: 1. The load to be supplied can vary from a small indicating lamp to a large generator transformer. An electrical cable is generally defined as being an insulated electrical conductor. and 3. Cable Construction . 2. additional factors must be considered. The cable support must protect the cable from any reasonable chance of damage. Also if the cable is to be installed where it is subject to direct sunlight. The cables must not develop a hazard by induction.
This includes the rated full load and the starting current (if applicable). Possible short circuit withstand currents. The decision on which conductor to be used in the cable will require the above factors to be considered. The current carrying capacity for Mineral Insulated Metal Sheathed (MIMS) cables are based on an operating temperature of 100° C for the external surface of either bare metal sheathed or served cables.Conductors Copper and aluminium are the materials most used for conductors. and 5. 3. an aluminium conductor would need to have 1.). 4. in cable ladders. The temperature the cable has to withstand. The sizing of the conductors will require consideration of the information in the various standard specifications and the Wiring Rules. underground in conduit. Higher continuous operating temperatures are permissible for bare metal sheathed cables. This influences the quality and type of the insulation. dependant upon factors such as: . Insulation The type of insulation is influenced by a number of factors such as: 1. Normally aluminium conductors cost less than copper conductors.g. coverings. sheathings. aluminium cables are not generally used Copper is a better conductor than aluminium. The maximum operating voltage of the cable. Because of the equivalent aluminium conductor requiring a larger cross sectional area than that of copper the size of the cable is larger. Type of protection being provided for the circuit to which the cable is to be connected. etc. above ground. Therefore below 16 mm2 . insulating sleeves on connections and sealing compounds used on the cable. underground direct buried. which will interfere with the conductivity of the termination. and 2. The maximum ambient temperatures expected to be encountered by the cable. Aluminium conductors have approximately half the specific gravity as copper conductors. Current required by the load being supplied. The termination of an aluminium conductor requires great care to avoid problems due to the formation of aluminium oxide on the metal surface. How the cable is to be installed (e. In most cases the main factors to be considered are: 1. To achieve the same current flow as a copper conductor.6 times the cross sectional area. 2. Aluminium conductors of cross-sectional area less than 16 mm2 have proved difficult to terminate due to its tendency to 'cold flow'. This will result in greater space required to terminate an aluminium conductor than a copper conductor of equivalent current carrying capacity.
This inner sheath also provides a secondary moisture barrier to prevent water reaching the primary insulation in the event of the outer sheath being damaged.1. The insulation screen may be either an extruded layer of semi-conducting material or a semi-conducting varnish applied direct to the insulation surface. Paper insulated cables have lead or alloy sheaths and in consequence are heavier and more difficult . Where extruded screens are used. the choice of insulation is usually between paper and polymeric. the outer covering is a PVC sheath and the insulation described as PVCPVC. This is due to them normally being connected to loads of higher fault ratings through circuit breakers rather than fuses. and 4. A helically applied copper tape screen is provided over the semi-conducting insulation screen to carry both leakage and fault currents.1 series. Mechanical protection can be provided by placing steel or aluminium wire along the length of the cable between a plastic bedding material wrapped around the insulated cores and the outer sheath. the colour coding of the cable cores is designated in the standards and the Wiring Rules. For power cables. Other environmental and external influences. which prevents the extruded material being 'lost' between the conductor strands. 3. The circuit breakers do not restrict the fault current as much as fuses thereby placing the high voltage cable under greater stress. On 415 volt cables. materials. The conductor core screen normally consists of an extruded layer of semi-conducting support tape. A PVC inner sheath is provided over the copper tape to provide a bedding for the armour wires. The location of the cable away from areas where there is a reasonable chance of persons touching the exposed surface. In such cases reference should be made to warnings given in the electrical equipment Standards. 3. The cable cores (the conductors) are encased in an outer sheath to provide additional protection and insulation. For 11 kV cables. To assist in overcoming electrical stresses the high voltage cable is manufactured with conductor and core screens. The minimum temperature of use of MIMS cables will be dependent on the cable seal used and manufacturer's recommendations should be followed. Finally an outer PVC sheath is applied. This can result in the temperature limits of the insulation of cables in the vicinity of the terminals exceeding the limits otherwise specified. Current carrying capacities determined in accordance with the AS/NZS 3008. 2. these being non-ferrous to avoid eddy current heating. The The suitability location of of the the cable cable away terminations from the and combustible mountings. The cable construction is completed by applying a layer of aluminium armour wires. Typical combinations of outer sheathing and protection are: 1. these should be 'cold strippable' to ease the process of terminating. Higher voltage cables are generally subject to greater electrical stresses than 415 volt cables. with a semiconducting tape applied over it as protection against mechanical damage from the metallic screen. do not take into account the effect of temperature rise on the terminals of electrical equipment. 2.
11 3. Thermosetting materials give significant benefits since short circuit requirements and resultant temperature effects often dictate the size of 11 kV cables.3 kV kV single single core core cable. i. cable. and 3.e. 3. The preferred insulation for 11kV cables used in power stations is of the thermosetting type. These give a conductor continuous operating temperature of 900C and a short circuit temperature of 2500C. XLPE or EPR. 2. Plastic insulated cables can be made more fire retardant than paper insulated cables and are therefore preferred for power station applications.3 kV multi-core cable. .to terminate and install than plastic insulated cables. Typical construction diagrams of several types of cables can be viewed at the bottom of this page: 1.
As noted above. There are a number of precautions that must be considered for the longterm reliability of the cables: 1. 2. it is crucial that cables are selected of the right type and construction to suit the surrounding temperatures or they will fail under short circuit conditions. or the insulation will rapidly . Selection of cables that are unsuitable for the ambient temperatures.Insufficient support of the cables can place strain on the cables causing premature electrical and or mechanical failure.Installation The requirements for the installation of cables are generally those required to meet the Wiring Rules AS/NZS 3000. Adequate support of the cables .
and -Cables should be designated with cable numbers and the cores identified with wire numbers. -The terminal to which each cable core is to be fixed must be of a size suited to the size of the cable. 3. If terminating lugs are used they must be: -Of the correct material to suit the conductor. Tables are available which recommend radii Vs cable diameter and type. The withstand capability of cable fixing methods needs consideration. Change of original installed conditions can cause cable problems. Maintenance Cable maintenance consists primarily of: 1. Checking its insulation resistance between phases and to earth. Checking cable installations for change in original installation conditions. 5. if three single-phase cables are installed in trefoil. cables originally installed as open wiring and then covered with heat absorbent material can become overheated if operating at maximum rating and could cause a fire. Checking the cable insulation for physical deterioration or damage. -There should be sufficient space in the terminal box to maintain safe electrical clearances and allow the terminations to be carried out without undue bending of the cables. This is particularly important for larger diameter cables and cables of medium voltage and above. -The lugs must be of the correct size and type for the terminating procedure used and the cable size. 4. -The terminating of the lugs must be carried out with tools of the correct type and size to suit the lug and cable size. and 3. if possible this is done along the length of cables and its support system. . Checking of the terminations for signs of overheating and damage. This is particularly important if the conductor is aluminium. For example. For example. 6. Where cables are installed in a location where they can be subject to mechanical damage. they must be given suitable mechanical protection. -Segregation of cables should be maintained to prevent undue heating and induction. and suitable tightness of the connections. This is most important in respect to the separation of power and control or communication cables. Bending radiuses should not be less than 15 times the cable diameter. care must be taken to ensure to ensure that the clamps used are of sufficient mechanical strength to withstand the effects of a cable fault. correct terminating accessories must be used. This is important in assisting trouble shooting and reconnection at a later date. When terminating cables. Bunching of cables in cable ladders or if passing through openings can result in cables becoming overheated and failing.deteriorate. 2.
connection. 2. Each core to be numbered in black inscription in order to provide ready core identification. The cable is to be suitable for voltages up to 1. 12 core + E. The environmental effects of these systems will also be briefly discussed.au/electricity/infosite/index.6/1. All these cores are of copper.htm Condenser and cooling system The condensers and cooling systems involved in condensing the exhaust steam from a steam turbine and transferring the waste heat away from the power station. 3.6/1.0 kV.gov. insulated in white PVC and suitable for a voltage up to 1. 0. Care should be taken to ensure that mechanical protection is in place and in good condition where deemed necessary. 4 mm2. One cores of cross diameter core sectional core for for the area the equal neutral earth to 16 PVC-PVC. This describes a control cable of 1000 metres in length. with 12 cores of copper conductor each of 4mm2 cross sectional area. 3. mm2. The insulation structure is to be PVC on the cores and a sheath of PVC as the outside cover. .0kV. Cable Size and Type Designation When designating the required cable size and type.0 kV.5 core + E copper.cores white with black numbers 1 to 12 with outer sheath black.qld. This indicates that 100 metres of cable are required. 16 mm2. the operating voltage and the insulation required. PVC/PVC . An earth core is also required Reference Web Back site : http://www.4. The outer sheath is to be black in colour. The cable has 5 cores: Three 1.0 kV. 0. Examples of cable descriptions are given below: * 100 metres. * 1000 metres.energy. and reduced One connection. it is usual to nominate the cable's cross sectional area.
Condensers The function of the condenser is to condense exhaust steam from the steam turbine by rejecting the heat of vaporisation to the cooling water passing through the condenser. This pressure is called the turbine backpressure and is usually a vacuum. Note: Within limits. and Provide for de-aeration of the collected condensate. decreasing the turbine backpressure will increase the thermal efficiency of the turbine. A typical power plant condenser has the following functional arrangement. The condenser also has the following secondary functions: The condensate is collected in the condenser hot well. By the number of shells (which is dependent on the number of low-pressure turbine casings). Large power plant condensers are usually 'shell and tube' heat exchangers. These types of condensers are also classified: As single pressure or multi-pressure. Decreasing the condensate temperature will result in a lowering of the turbine backpressure. depending on whether the cooling water flow path creates one or more turbine backpressures. depending on the number of parallel water flow paths through each shell. . and As either single pass or two-pass. Provide short-term storage of condensate. Provide a low-pressure collection point for condensate drains from other systems in the plant. from which the condensate pumps take their suction. The temperature of the condensate determines the pressure in the steam/condensate side of the condenser.
The type of cooling system used is therefore heavily influenced by the location of the plant and on the availability of water suitable for cooling purposes. lakes or large rivers that have the ability to dissipate the waste heat from the steam cycle. water pumped from intakes on one side of the power plant passes through the condensers and is discharged at a point remote from the intake (to prevent recycling of the warm water discharge).Other types of condensers are: Plate types consisting of a series of parallel plates that provide paths for the steam and the cooling water. Plants in remote dry areas without economic water supplies use closed cycle dry cooling systems that do not require water for cooling. Types of Cooling Systems Some power stations have an open cycle (once through) cooling water system where water is taken from a body of water. This type of condenser is used in applications where the cooling water is the same quality as the steam condensate. . Have a minimal resistance to the flow of heat from the steam/condensate through the material into the cooling water. Open Cycle Cooling Systems Open cycle (once through) cooling systems may be used for plants sited beside large water bodies such as the sea. pumped through the plant condenser and discharged back to the source. In the open system. The selection process is also influenced by the cooling system's environmental impacts (refer to a following section for a brief discussion on this topic). Plate condensers are used mainly for smaller power plants. lake or ocean. Hybrid cooling systems are used in particular circumstances. and Direct contact types where the cooling water is sprayed directly into the steam. Systems that have dry cooling (described in a following section) sometime use direct contact condensers. such as a river. The parts of shell and tube condensers and plate condensers involved in the transfer of heat from the steam and condensate to the cooling water should have the following properties: Be resistant to corrosion from both the steam/condensate and the cooling water. and Provide mechanisms to remove organic and inorganic deposits on the heat transfer surfaces in contact with the cooling water. Inland plants away from large water bodies prefer to use closed cycle wet cooling system with wet cooling towers.
so that the load on the receiving waters is contained within pre set limits. Environmental requirements have become more stringent on the allowable rise in temperature of the receiving waters. usually to less than 30º C. Systems with helper cooling towers are common in Germany and France where cooling supplies are drawn from the large rivers. Open Cycle with Helper Cooling Tower In this system. . The helper towers are used in the warmer summer periods to limit the temperature of the discharged cooling water. Lake cooling systems are a variant on a true open system as the temperature of the lake is increased from the circulation of the warm water.Open systems typically have high flow rates and relatively low temperature rises to limit the rise in temperature in the receiving waters. so that closed systems are now more commonly used in Australia. A typical 350 MW unit would have a flow of some 15000 to 20000 L/s. cooling towers are installed on the discharge from open systems in order to remove part of the waste heat.
This 'fill' in the later Queensland towers is manufactured from plastic. is transferred to the rising air. heat is removed from the falling water and transferred to the rising air by the evaporative cooling process. the waste energy that is rejected by the turbine is transferred to the cooling water system via the condenser.8 litres of water per kWh of power generated. The evaporation rates of the Queensland 350 MW cooling systems are typically 1. and this is visible in the plume of water vapour above towers in times of high humidity.Closed Cycle Wet Cooling Systems In closed cycle wet cooling systems. . The falling water is broken up into droplets or films by the extended surfaces of the tower 'fill'. The waste heat in the cooling water is then discharged to the atmosphere by the cooling tower. typically 1 to 1. In the cooling tower. Some of the warm water.5% of the cooling water flow.
The major components of a closed cycle wet cooling water system are: Cooling towers . and . Natural Draught Towers Concrete natural draught towers have a large concrete shell. These towers therefore do not require fans and have low operating costs. concrete natural draught towers and mechanical draught towers.two types are commonly used. The warm air rises up through the shell by the 'chimney effect'. creating the natural draught to provide airflow and operate the tower. The cooling towers have two basic configurations for the directions of the flow of air in relation to the falling water through the tower fill: The counter-flow tower where the air travels vertically up through the fill (a diagram of this type of tower is shown below). The heat exchange 'fill' is in a layer above the cold air inlet at the base of the shell as shown in the tower sectional view. and Pumps and pipes.
as their performance is better suited to cooler and more humid areas. Mechanical Draught Cooling Towers In mechanical draught cooling towers. South Africa and Eastern USA. . particularly on hot dry days. Natural draught towers are the most common towers for large generating units in Europe. fans have the advantage of being able to provide lower water temperatures than natural draught towers. This performance limitation also limits their use in Australia. Natural draught towers are only economic in large sizes. which justifies the cost of the large concrete shell.The cross-flow tower where the air travels horizontally through the fill. They are not used in the drier areas of Western USA.5 to 2. large axial flow fans provide the airflow. typically 1.0 MW for a 420 MW unit. While fans have the disadvantage of requiring auxiliary power.
which can be regularly over 30º C and up to 40º C on typical summer afternoons in Queensland. carbon steel pipes in seawater service require either an internal coating. vertical wet pit pumps are in common usage. higher operating temperatures. Circulating water piping carries the cooling water from the circulating water pumps to the condenser and returns the water to the cooling tower or discharge structure. These pumps are required to operate economically and reliably over the life of the plant. Pipe materials used include steel.Mechanical draught towers are used exclusively in central and western USA as their climate can vary from freezing to hot with low humidity. Coastal sites generally use seawater or brackish water as the circulating water source. Concrete pipes may require a dense concrete mix to withstand chloride attack. Compare this to wet cooling towers. or a cathodic protection system. vertical wet pit and horizontal dry pit are used about equally. The design of the pipework must consider the environment internal to the pipe as well as the external environment. The three types of pumps commonly used for circulating water service are 'vertical wet pit'. This will increase the trend towards corrosion resistant piping materials. either by pumping directly from the sea or extracting the water from the local bores. The large flow rates associated with circulating water systems typically require the use of large diameter piping in the range 900 mm to 2400 mm diameter. Dry cooling systems are the least used systems as they have a much higher capital cost. The most common materials used in large mechanical draught cooling towers are timber for the framing and plastic for the cladding and internals. Closed Cycle Dry Cooling Systems Dry cooling systems are used where there is insufficient water. 'horizontal dry pit' and 'vertical dry pit'. For re-circulating cooling systems. or both. The large water requirement generally makes it uneconomical to use high quality water sources. or where the water is too expensive to be used in an evaporative system. In the dry cooling system. fibre reinforced plastic and reinforced concrete. The steam condensing pressures and temperatures of a dry cooled unit are significantly higher than a wet cooled unit. which is typically 20º C on summer afternoons. Pumps and Pipes in a Cooling Water System Circulating water pumps supply cooling water at the required flow rate and pressure to the power plant condenser and the plant auxiliary cooling water heat exchangers. Water from many sources can contain high concentrations of corrosive contaminants. and lower efficiency than wet cooling systems. which cool towards the wet bulb temperature. Any pipe materials considered must include measures to protect the pipe for the service life of the plant. The source of water for the plant generally depends on the plant's location. heat transfer is by air to finned tubes. . due to the low transfer rates of dry cooling and operation at the dry bulb temperature. For example. These protective measures significantly increase the capital cost of an installation such that it can be as economical to install fibre reinforced plastic pipe to obtain the same service life. the quality of circulating water in future power plants is expected to decline further. As existing water sources become strained and new water sources more scarce and expensive to develop. and the mechanical towers can provide a more controlled performance over this wide range of conditions. For once through systems. with occasional use of vertical dry pit pumps. The minimum temperature that can be theoretically provided is that of the dry air.
There are two basic types of dry cooling systems: 1. with the circulating water being passed through finned tubes in a natural draught cooling tower. finned tube. The maintenance of the water quality to suit all circuits is critical to the successful operation of the system. which may be wet with some dry or dry with part wet. being typically 4 to 5 MW for a 420 MW unit. Indirect Dry Cooling System Indirect dry cooling systems have a condenser and turbine exhaust system as for wet systems. The steam trunk main has a large diameter and is as short as possible to reduce pressure losses. but significantly higher operating costs. so that the cooling banks are usually as close as possible to the turbine. Direct Dry Cooling System In the direct dry system. The water pipework allows the towers to be sited away from the station. The power required to operate the fans of this system is several times that required for wet towers. The direct system is the most commonly used as it has the lowest capital cost. condenser. In the spray condenser. . and 2. Variations on the full dry and full wet systems are hybrid systems. the turbine exhaust steam is piped directly to the air-cooled. A variation on this type of indirect system is the system that uses a direct contact condenser in place of the traditional tube type condenser. The finned tubes are usually arranged in the form of an 'A' frame or delta over a forced draught fan to reduce the land area. The indirect dry cooling system. The direct dry cooling system. the water from the cooling cycle mixes with the boiler water.
can create fog. In the part dry or plume abatement tower. These towers . a dry section above the wet zone provides some dry cooling to the exhaust plume to remove the condensing water vapour.Hybrid Systems There are two common hybrid systems. Wet with Part Dry One of the problems with wet towers is that in cold and humid climates the towers plume. which have been developed to overcome some of the disadvantages of the full wet and full dry systems.
this waste heat transfer process may negatively affect the body of water buy increasing the temperature of the water. Because of this direct path to the atmosphere.are common in Germany and England where environmental problems with mechanical towers have arisen. surrounding water bodies typically do not suffer adverse thermal effects. the storage energy is reconverted back to electrical energy. Dry with Part Wet Problems with full dry towers are centred on loss of performance in hot weather. Types of energy storage General Electrical energy cannot be stored directly. However. which rejects the heat directly to the atmosphere. In the once-through cooling water system. In dry cooling systems. Large quantities of "storage" energy are difficult to store and reconvert . In a re-circulating cooling system. The heat is then gradually transferred to the atmosphere by evaporation. the cooling water carries waste heat removed from the steam turbine exhaust to the cooling tower. Electrical energy can be indirectly stored by converting the electrical energy to some other form of energy ("storage" energy). Environmental Effects of Cooling Systems All the heat transferred from the exhaust steam to the cooling system eventually finds its way into the earth's atmosphere. there is provision for water sprays to evaporatively cool the finned tubes for short periods of extreme temperature. When a supply of electrical energy is required. heat is removed from the steam turbine and transferred to the source body of water. the waste heat is transferred directly to the atmosphere. Some water is discharged from the cooling water system to maintain the concentration of chemicals in the cooling water below licensed limits. This water is often discharged to surrounding watercourses. With the part wet towers. convection and radiation.
such as spinning reserve. the storage efficiency could be as low as 70%. such as that employed at Wivenhoe power station in Queensland. Other developmental storage technologies include superconducting magnets and flywheels. the water in the upper storage is released and flows through a turbine on its way back to the lower storage. operation and maintenance are offset by the differential between peaking and base-load energy costs. Note: Storage efficiency = Electrical Energy Output / Total Electrical Energy Input . When required. then reconverted for use during peak hours (when electricity can be sold at a premium).e. but these will not be discussed here. energy storage concepts are economical when the costs of the energy storage system's construction. If economically competitive. then draws off the battery during the night. Because of losses and inefficiencies in the elements of this system. Energy storage systems could also be justified if they are more economic than new generating capacity that would be used only during times of peak load. Pumped Hydro-electric Storage In the pumped hydroelectric storage concept. electrical energy from the electricity supply network is used to pump water from a lower level water storage to a higher level water storage. a common trait of many renewable energy sources. storage systems may also be useful in combination with intermittent energy sources. The potential energy in the water is reconverted into electrical energy again by the turbine / generator. In this type of application. Additional electrical energy generated during off-peak hours (i. An energy storage system under development is based on regenerative fuel cell technology. The most common example of this is a system that utilises the excess electricity from a photovoltaic array to charge a battery during daylight hours. Furthermore. when there is spare generating capacity and the cost of electricity is lower) can be converted and stored. batteries and compressed air storage systems. and area frequency and voltage control. The electrical energy is therefore stored as the gravitational potential energy of the water in the upper storage.The most widely used energy storage systems are pumped hydroelectric storage systems.Energy storage technologies allow generation facilities to be more evenly utilised. storage systems may produce additional system advantages.
Battery Storage A battery storage system comprises the battery. charger. The heated air is then mixed with small quantities of oil or gas. ac switchgear and a building to house these components. inter-coolers and Motor Generator. Battery storage systems also have dynamic source benefits because they provide spinning reserve. and increased system reliability. the only battery available for large energy storage applications is the lead-acid battery. The hot gas from the combustor is expanded in the turbine to generate electricity. Compressed Air Energy Storage Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a technology in which energy is stored in the form of compressed air in an underground cavern. A disadvantage of battery storage systems is the high initial cost. 14 MWh in Puerto Rico. they offer a means of matching load growth. stored in a cavern. and then used on demand during peak periods to generate power with a turbogenerator system. 2. Most of the electric energy from the grid is therefore stored as the pressure potential energy of the compressed air in the cavern. expander train (including expanders and Recuperator. 5. Typical round trip (ac to ac) efficiencies are around 72%.4 MWh in Germany. it is first preheated in the recuperator. batteries using existing technologies require replacement every 8 to 10 years.4 MWh system would be able to produce 17 MW of instantaneous electrical power and provide a total of 14. which uses lead electrodes and a sulphuric acid electrolyte.4 MWh of electrical energy before requiring a recharge. 4. Advanced batteries such as the sodium-sulphur and the zinc-bromine battery are being developed for this application. 21 MW. Battery energy storage systems have several advantages in addition to their load levelling capability. Because of their small sizes and because battery storage systems are environmentally compatible in virtually any area. area frequency and voltage control. dc/ac converter. cavern train (compressor. 3. The heat generated by the compression process is extracted by inter-stage cooling and after cooling and stored. Currently. 40 MWh in USA. The recuperator reuses the energy extracted by the compressor coolers. Because battery systems can be added to in small increments. which drives an air compressor. and 10 MW. they can be located near the loads. which is burned in the combustor. Examples of large battery installations in operation are: 17 MW. 14. A 1. combustors). with a consequential reduction in system losses. Note: A 17 MW. made up of battery round trip (dc to ac) efficiencies of about 78% and power conditioning system efficiencies of about 94%. Also. and Underground Electricity from the grid powers an electric motor. When air is extracted from the cavern. Air is compressed during off-peak periods. The combustor and turbine components are identical to those used in a conventional gas . 14. typical Compressor Turbine CAES unit consists of five basic components: after-cooler). with the small amount extracted by the compressor coolers is stored as heat energy. transformer.
Three types of geological formations used for compressed air storage are salt dome. resulting in a high thermal efficiency of the energy recovery stage. Less fuel is therefore required to generate the same quantity of electricity. In a constant volume cavern. which is defined as the ratio of the electrical energy required to charge the system versus the electrical energy generated during discharge (the number of kWh input in charging to produce 1 kWh output). all the power of the turbine can be used to generate electricity (its combustion air has already been compressed and stored). However. Inc. The first commercial scale CAES plant in the world is the 290MW Huntorf.8 . The plant has reported high availability of 86% and a starting reliability of 98%. The Alabama Electric Co-operative. water from a surface reservoir displaces the compressed air to maintain a constant pressure in the cavern. instead of having to utilise some of its output to compress its air needed for combustion.turbine. An important performance parameter for a CAES system is the charging ratio. The Huntorf plant runs on a daily cycle in which it charges the air storage for 8 hours and provides generation for 2 hours. in McIntosh. Alabama built the second commercial scale CAES plant. there are two classes of cavern design concepts. Two of these are illustrated below. In a constant pressure cavern. By comparison. Fast start-up is an advantage of CAES. the air pressure is allowed to drop as air is withdrawn from storage. the overall cycle efficiency would be the ratio of the electrical energy generated to the total energy input (electrical energy from the grid + fuel energy). conventional combustion turbine peaking plants typically require 20 to 30 minutes for a normal start-up. However. A low charging ratio results in low off-peak electrical energy requirements during the charging cycle. aquifer and rock caverns. constant volume (also called un-compensated) and constant pressure (also called compensated). Germany. plant operated by Nordwest Deutsche Kraftwerke (NDK) since 1978. and about 12 minutes under normal conditions. A significant contributor to the cost of a CAES system is the construction of the underground cavern. The Huntorf plant has a salt cavern. A CAES plant can provide a start-up time of about 9 minutes for an emergency start. In addition to the geological formation classifications. This plant has the maximum existing CAES cavern capacity of around 1.
. (sometimes known as redox flow cell technology) converts electrical energy into chemical potential energy by 'charging' two liquid electrolyte solutions. which uses an aquifer cavern for storage.7 % thermal efficiency) with a charging ratio of 1. supplies real and reactive power and is therefore suited to many different applications on a power system. The cavern for the McIntosh plant was mined from a salt dome by dissolving salt with fresh water. The plant is designed to store 120 MWh of energy and discharge it at a nominal power rating of 15 MW. Israel also has a 100MW CAES unit under construction. One of the most commercially advanced of these is the regenerative fuel cell technology. The cell has two compartments. This system has a high speed of response. This chemical energy is converted back to electrical energy on discharge. one for each electrolyte. The cavern which is 70m in diameter. The CAES plant has a full load nett plant heat rate of 4819 kJ/kWh (74.3. In contrast to most types of battery system. 305m tall and 460m below grade. The regenerative fuel cell. in simple terms. physically separated by an ion-exchange membrane. In addition to the NDK and the McIntosh CAES facilities. supplies compressed air supporting generation of 100MW for 26 hours. a 35MW CAES unit is under construction in Japan. The reaction occurs within an electrochemical cell. It will be used in conjunction with an adjacent combined cycle gas turbine power station to meet power requirements.million cubic metres. Electricity Generation The electricity production process involves. The first Regenesys™ system is expected to be operational in 2002 at Little Barford. the electrolytes flow into and out of the cell through separate manifolds and are transformed electrochemically inside the cell. It began operation in 1991 and provides 110 MW of power generation. the conversion of energy from a (primary) energy source to electrical energy. A commercial application of this system is the Regenesys™ system. The Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System There are several methods to used chemical energy as the form of energy storage. Regenerative fuel cell systems store or release electrical energy by means of a reversible electrochemical reaction between two salt solutions (the electrolytes).
There are many sources of energy that may be used and many types of energy conversion processes. as the name implies. water. The various methods used to develop the rotational energy are discussed. The major generator components are the stator. Hot Gas Turbines . is the stationary portion of a generator and consists of a core and windings. which is usually hydrogen for large machines. Electricity Generation By Conversion of Rotational Energy Turbines . In the case of a turbine. Water Turbines . The generator frame supports the weight of the stator and rotor and acts as a containment vessel for the coolant gas. with emphasis on turbines & reciprocating engines.Steam Turbines . either directly or through a gearbox. The Generator Before turbines are discussed. some energy conversion processes can be used to convert several different sources of primary energy. gas or steam. The rotor of the generator is connected to the turbine. The stator. the components are blades which are driven by a fluid which may be air. In the case of a reciprocating engine. the components are pistons and connecting rods driven by internal combustion forces. . Energy Conversion Processes This section will look in particular at the energy conversion processes. A rotating generator is the most common means of generating electricity. rotor and frame.the generator. These processes can be grouped in several ways. Conversely. Wind Reciprocating Engines This section provides brief discussions on how rotational energy can be produced. It carries the rotating electric field into which direct current is introduced to produce the electromagnetic field and which is used to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy in the stator. but the following grouping is used here: Conversion of Rotational Energy in a rotating generator. It is important to distinguish between the primary energy source and the energy conversion processes because some primary energy sources can be used in several types of energy conversion processes. The stator winding provides the generator output voltage and current and which is connected to the electric power system. it is pertinent to give some mention to the item of equipment fundamental to the conversion of rotating energy into electrical energy and is the final link in the energy conversion process which commenced with the energy source . The shaft is made to spin by fluid energy imparted to components attached to it. Rotational Energy Rotational energy is the kinetic energy possessed by a spinning shaft. The amount of direct current required is produced by an excitation system.
. Fuel Cells are devices that convert a fuel to electricity also by electrochemical means. This is mechanically connected to the rotor of the generator which produces the electrical power output from the generator stator. A battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy through an electrochemical process involving stored materials. Reciprocating Reciprocating engines and their use in electricity Engines generation. The actual detailed design of the rotor is. The turbine rotors for steam. quite different depending upon the properties of the fluid which drives it. Conversion of Chemical Energy in a Fuel Cell or Battery.Turbines The main component of any turbine is the rotor. however. The operating duty is quite different also and depends upon the ease of starting and stopping the turbine. blade shape and materials. Conversion of Electromagnetic Radiation (Solar Energy) in a Photo Voltaic cell (which produces an electrical potential when exposed to light) or by heating a working fluid in an electricity generating cycle. All turbine rotors may be considered to be generically similar in that they all consist of a shaft with blades attached. Conversion of Kinetic Energy by the MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) process in which the flow of a conducting plasma through a static magnetic field produces an electrical current. For example. the time involved in reaching full load and the life consumed each start. the rotor of a steam turbine has many blades and is much smaller in diameter than the rotor of a wind turbine which may only have three blades made from a quite different material. water and wind turbines are very different with respect to size. hot gas.
e. when there is spare generating capacity and the cost of electricity is lower) can be converted and stored. An energy storage system under development is based on regenerative fuel cell technology. operation and maintenance are offset by the differential between peaking and base-load energy costs. Note: Storage efficiency = Electrical Energy Output / Total Electrical Energy Input . and area frequency and voltage control. In this type of application. but these will not be discussed here. The potential energy in the water is reconverted into electrical energy again by the turbine / generator. When a supply of electrical energy is required. Other developmental storage technologies include superconducting magnets and flywheels. Electrical energy can be indirectly stored by converting the electrical energy to some other form of energy ("storage" energy). Energy storage systems could also be justified if they are more economic than new generating capacity that would be used only during times of peak load. Pumped Hydro-electric Storage In the pumped hydroelectric storage concept. storage systems may also be useful in combination with intermittent energy sources.The most widely used energy storage systems are pumped hydroelectric storage systems. electrical energy from the electricity supply network is used to pump water from a lower level water storage to a higher level water storage. Large quantities of "storage" energy are difficult to store and reconvert Energy storage technologies allow generation facilities to be more evenly utilised. Additional electrical energy generated during off-peak hours (i. The electrical energy is therefore stored as the gravitational potential energy of the water in the upper storage. the storage energy is reconverted back to electrical energy. then reconverted for use during peak hours (when electricity can be sold at a premium). Because of losses and inefficiencies in the elements of this system. batteries and compressed air storage systems. The most common example of this is a system that utilises the excess electricity from a photovoltaic array to charge a battery during daylight hours.Types of energy storage General Electrical energy cannot be stored directly. such as that employed at Wivenhoe power station in Queensland. If economically competitive. storage systems may produce additional system advantages. When required. then draws off the battery during the night. the storage efficiency could be as low as 70%. energy storage concepts are economical when the costs of the energy storage system's construction. the water in the upper storage is released and flows through a turbine on its way back to the lower storage. a common trait of many renewable energy sources. such as spinning reserve. Furthermore.
. 14 MWh in Puerto Rico. Advanced batteries such as the sodium-sulphur and the zinc-bromine battery are being developed for this application. ac switchgear and a building to house these components. transformer. charger. Typical round trip (ac to ac) efficiencies are around 72%. made up of battery round trip (dc to ac) efficiencies of about 78% and power conditioning system efficiencies of about 94%. and 10 MW. which uses lead electrodes and a sulphuric acid electrolyte. they offer a means of matching load growth. and increased system reliability.4 MWh system would be able to produce 17 MW of instantaneous electrical power and provide a total of 14. Air is compressed during off-peak periods. the only battery available for large energy storage applications is the lead-acid battery. Examples of large battery installations in operation are: 17 MW. Note: A 17 MW. Battery storage systems also have dynamic source benefits because they provide spinning reserve. Because of their small sizes and because battery storage systems are environmentally compatible in virtually any area. Because battery systems can be added to in small increments. Compressed Air Energy Storage Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a technology in which energy is stored in the form of compressed air in an underground cavern. 21 MW. 40 MWh in USA. with a consequential reduction in system losses.Battery Storage A battery storage system comprises the battery. Also. area frequency and voltage control. Currently. A disadvantage of battery storage systems is the high initial cost. they can be located near the loads. batteries using existing technologies require replacement every 8 to 10 years. dc/ac converter. 14. Battery energy storage systems have several advantages in addition to their load levelling capability.4 MWh in Germany.4 MWh of electrical energy before requiring a recharge. stored in a cavern. 14. and then used on demand during peak periods to generate power with a turbogenerator system.
When air is extracted from the cavern. inter-coolers and Motor Generator. 5. cavern train (compressor. However. Two of these are illustrated below. Most of the electric energy from the grid is therefore stored as the pressure potential energy of the compressed air in the cavern. it is first preheated in the recuperator. all the power of the turbine can be used to generate electricity (its combustion air has already been compressed and stored). combustors). which is burned in the combustor. aquifer and rock caverns. the overall cycle efficiency would be the ratio of the electrical energy generated to the total energy input (electrical energy from the grid + fuel energy). with the small amount extracted by the compressor coolers is stored as heat energy. However. resulting in a high thermal efficiency of the energy recovery stage. An important performance parameter for a CAES system is the charging ratio. which is defined as the ratio of the electrical energy required to charge the system versus the electrical energy generated during discharge (the number of kWh input in charging to produce 1 kWh output). typical Compressor Turbine CAES unit consists of five basic components: after-cooler). which drives an air compressor. . 4. 2. The recuperator reuses the energy extracted by the compressor coolers. By comparison. Fast start-up is an advantage of CAES. A low charging ratio results in low off-peak electrical energy requirements during the charging cycle. A significant contributor to the cost of a CAES system is the construction of the underground cavern. instead of having to utilise some of its output to compress its air needed for combustion.A 1. The hot gas from the combustor is expanded in the turbine to generate electricity. conventional combustion turbine peaking plants typically require 20 to 30 minutes for a normal start-up. The combustor and turbine components are identical to those used in a conventional gas turbine. Less fuel is therefore required to generate the same quantity of electricity. The heated air is then mixed with small quantities of oil or gas. 3. A CAES plant can provide a start-up time of about 9 minutes for an emergency start. expander train (including expanders and Recuperator. The heat generated by the compression process is extracted by inter-stage cooling and after cooling and stored. and about 12 minutes under normal conditions. and Underground Electricity from the grid powers an electric motor. Three types of geological formations used for compressed air storage are salt dome.
constant volume (also called un-compensated) and constant pressure (also called compensated). This chemical energy is converted back to electrical energy on discharge. Alabama built the second commercial scale CAES plant. The regenerative fuel cell. (sometimes known as redox flow cell technology) converts electrical energy into chemical potential energy by 'charging' two liquid electrolyte solutions. The Alabama Electric Co-operative. The CAES plant has a full load nett plant heat rate of 4819 kJ/kWh (74. In contrast to most types of battery .8 million cubic metres.In addition to the geological formation classifications.3. there are two classes of cavern design concepts. physically separated by an ion-exchange membrane. water from a surface reservoir displaces the compressed air to maintain a constant pressure in the cavern. The reaction occurs within an electrochemical cell. a 35MW CAES unit is under construction in Japan. Inc. The plant has reported high availability of 86% and a starting reliability of 98%. The first commercial scale CAES plant in the world is the 290MW Huntorf. The cell has two compartments. 305m tall and 460m below grade. Israel also has a 100MW CAES unit under construction. The Huntorf plant runs on a daily cycle in which it charges the air storage for 8 hours and provides generation for 2 hours. It began operation in 1991 and provides 110 MW of power generation. The Huntorf plant has a salt cavern. the air pressure is allowed to drop as air is withdrawn from storage. In a constant pressure cavern. plant operated by Nordwest Deutsche Kraftwerke (NDK) since 1978.7 % thermal efficiency) with a charging ratio of 1. The cavern which is 70m in diameter. One of the most commercially advanced of these is the regenerative fuel cell technology. The Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System There are several methods to used chemical energy as the form of energy storage. The cavern for the McIntosh plant was mined from a salt dome by dissolving salt with fresh water. This plant has the maximum existing CAES cavern capacity of around 1. Germany. Regenerative fuel cell systems store or release electrical energy by means of a reversible electrochemical reaction between two salt solutions (the electrolytes). In addition to the NDK and the McIntosh CAES facilities. in McIntosh. which uses an aquifer cavern for storage. supplies compressed air supporting generation of 100MW for 26 hours. one for each electrolyte. In a constant volume cavern.
It is important to distinguish between the primary energy source and the energy conversion processes because some primary energy sources can be used in several types of energy conversion processes. the electrolytes flow into and out of the cell through separate manifolds and are transformed electrochemically inside the cell. There are many sources of energy that may be used and many types of energy conversion processes. Conversely. A rotating generator is the most common means of generating electricity. It will be used in conjunction with an adjacent combined cycle gas turbine power station to meet power requirements. The various methods .system. A commercial application of this system is the Regenesys™ system. These processes can be grouped in several ways. but the following grouping is used here: Conversion of Rotational Energy in a rotating generator. the conversion of energy from a (primary) energy source to electrical energy. The first Regenesys™ system is expected to be operational in 2002 at Little Barford. in simple terms. The plant is designed to store 120 MWh of energy and discharge it at a nominal power rating of 15 MW. supplies real and reactive power and is therefore suited to many different applications on a power system. some energy conversion processes can be used to convert several different sources of primary energy. Electricity Generation The electricity production process involves. Energy Conversion Processes This section will look in particular at the energy conversion processes. This system has a high speed of response.
the components are pistons and connecting rods driven by internal combustion forces. The stator winding provides the generator output voltage and current and which is connected to the electric power system. with emphasis on turbines & reciprocating engines. Rotational Energy Rotational energy is the kinetic energy possessed by a spinning shaft. gas or steam. Wind Reciprocating Engines This section provides brief discussions on how rotational energy can be produced. quite different depending upon the properties of the fluid which drives it.Steam Turbines . Water Turbines . water and wind turbines are very different with respect to size. is the stationary portion of a generator and consists of a core and windings. It carries the rotating electric field into which direct current is introduced to produce the electromagnetic field and which is used to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy in the stator. Turbines The main component of any turbine is the rotor. The operating duty is quite different also and depends upon the ease of starting and stopping the turbine. In the case of a reciprocating engine. the time involved in reaching full load and the life consumed each start. The stator. The rotor of the generator is connected to the turbine. In the case of a turbine. blade shape and materials. it is pertinent to give some mention to the item of equipment fundamental to the conversion of rotating energy into electrical energy and is the final link in the energy conversion process which commenced with the energy source . the rotor of a steam turbine has many blades and is much smaller in diameter than the rotor of a wind turbine which may only have three blades made from a quite different material. water. The amount of direct current required is produced by an excitation system. Hot Gas Turbines . rotor and frame. either directly or through a gearbox. The major generator components are the stator. The turbine rotors for steam. however. The generator frame supports the weight of the stator and rotor and acts as a containment vessel for the coolant gas. hot gas. For example. The shaft is made to spin by fluid energy imparted to components attached to it. Reciprocating Reciprocating Conversion of engines Chemical and their in use a in Fuel electricity Cell or Engines generation. All turbine rotors may be considered to be generically similar in that they all consist of a shaft with blades attached. the components are blades which are driven by a fluid which may be air. as the name implies. Energy . Electricity Generation By Conversion of Rotational Energy Turbines . The actual detailed design of the rotor is. Battery. which is usually hydrogen for large machines.the generator. This is mechanically connected to the rotor of the generator which produces the electrical power output from the generator stator.used to develop the rotational energy are discussed. The Generator Before turbines are discussed.
au/electricity/infosite/index. Reference Web Back site : http://www. Conversion of Electromagnetic Radiation (Solar Energy) in a Photo Voltaic cell (which produces an electrical potential when exposed to light) or by heating a working fluid in an electricity generating cycle. Fuel Cells are devices that convert a fuel to electricity also by electrochemical means.energy. Conversion of Kinetic Energy by the MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) process in which the flow of a conducting plasma through a static magnetic field produces an electrical current.qld. Question Can you please explain the terms Volts.A battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy through an electrochemical process involving stored materials.htm FAQ on electricity 1. Watts and Kilowatt Hours? .gov.
Your quarterly electricity account uses data from this . These explanations attempt to show the correct usage of these terms. A commonly used analogy is the water supply to your home where the water pressure forces the water through the pipes. The meter in the switchboard of your home is designed to overcome this variability in its recording of your consumption of electrical energy (kWh).000 W electrical heater mentioned above therefore could be identified as 1 kW. Voltage is measured in volts (V). Electrical voltage can be thought of a measure of the electrical “pressure” applied to the electrical system to force the electricity to flow through the wires. 75 watt or 60 watt) in your home. that the electricity supplied to your home is at 240 volts. one of your considerations is its wattage (e.000 watt-hours. the term kilowatt (kW) is often used instead of 1. In the “high voltage” parts of the electrical supply network. that you use light bulbs of different wattage (e.000 watts). power stations are rated in terms of kilowatts (kW) or megawatts (MW) where 1 MW = 1. Electrical energy is commonly measured in terms of kilowatt-hours (kWh) here 1 kWh = 1. and 5. As a simple example. a measure of how fast electricity is being used – more correctly the “rate of use of electrical energy”. these should be called a 240 V single phase supply and a 415 V 3-phase supply. your home is supplied with 240 V electricity and. WATTS & KILOWATT HOURS These are the electrical terms most frequently used. 1. For example you may (or may not) know: 1. 66 kV. that when you pay your quarterly electricity account. that transmission lines (the ones using large steel towers) operate at “high voltage”. essentially. higher voltages are identified in kilovolts (kV) where 1 kV = 1. the 1 kW electrical heater mentioned above would use 1 kWh of electrical energy during each hour it is switched on (i.000 V. The wattage of the new 1. in many cases.000 watts. (More correctly.Answer: The correct use and meaning of many electrical terms have. 110 kV and 275 kV are common. Electrical Terminology – VOLTS.g.e. At the other end of the electricity supply system.) Electrical wattage is a harder concept to visualise because it is. Large amounts of electrical energy are measured in terms of megawatthours (MWh) where 1 MWh = 1. For convenience. electrical energy used in 1 hour = 1 kW x 1 hour = 1 kWh). 4. you are paying for the kilowatt-hours of electricity you have used in your home during that quarter.g. power stations are producing electricity to match the rate electricity is consumed by the end users (plus losses). The “rate at which electrical energy can be produced” determines the wattage of a power station.000 W electrical heater would use electrical energy twice as fast as a 1. Usually. 3.000 W heater. with 415 V electricity. For example.000 MWh. 33 kV. In the “low voltage” part of the electricity supply network.000 kW. or gigawatt-hours (GWh) where 1 GWh = 1. Note: The “rate of use of electrical energy” (kW) in your home is continually varying. both at work and at home. become unclear through general use. For convenience. voltages of 11 kV. a 2. if you have a large air conditioner. 2.000 kWh. We will talk about “phases” in a later discussion. that when you purchase a new electrical heater.
When the switch is closed. a 9 volt battery is a shorthand way of saying that the voltage across the terminals of the battery is 9 volts. When we talk about the 240 volt supply to our homes. for example a torch. and again…. This circuit consists of a battery. Direct Current (DC) electricity is the easiest to visualise because here the electrons (the electrical current) always move in the same direction. In Australia and most of the rest of the world. through the element in the torch bulb (in the process heating the element to produce light) and completes the circuit back to the other side (e. then reverses its direction of flow for a short period of time.g. It is important to understand that when the term voltage is used. This flow of electricity is called an electrical current and is measured in terms of amperes (usually shortened to amps). . NOTE: An expansion of the above answer can be found in the Office of Energy’s new “Electricity Information” web site by clicking on the “What and How of Electricity” icon in the home page of the Office of Energy web site. the negative side) of the battery. it really means the voltage difference between two parts of an electrical circuit. then reverses flow again. a switch and a light bulb connected by wires to form a loop from one terminal of the battery to the other terminal. But why does the filament heat up? This is where the term "resistance" come into the picture. Let us now consider a simple DC (direct current) circuit. Question: What is meant by the terms AC. 2. America uses 60 cycles per second AC electricity. Question: Can you please tell me what is meant by Voltage. and again. because the neutral wire is kept at the voltage of the earth. For example. we really mean that the voltage between the active and neutral wires is 240 volts and. Why does it do this? It’s because the EMF source is not constant and changes its polarity (positive and negative sides) in a regular manner. The rate at which the electrical current changes direction through a full cycle (flows in one direction. What is happening in the light bulb? The simple answer is that the current flowing through the filament of the bulb heats the filament to a high enough temperature that it glows. For example. the voltage between the active wire and earth is also 240 volts. AC electricity has a frequency of 50 cycles per second. DC and frequency? Answer: Electricity is said to flow when electrons in a suitable material (a “conductor”) are induced to move in a particular direction when a suitable force (an “electromotive force” or EMF) is applied to the material. Alternating Current (AC) electricity can be thought of as electricity that flows in one direction for a short period of time. changes direction and flows in the opposite direction then changes back to the original direction) is called its “frequency”. the common torch uses a battery as the EMF source. the light bulb glows and produces light. the positive side) of the battery. an electrical current flows.meter to identify the amount of electrical energy (kWh) you have used (and for which you have to pay) during the quarter. Current and Resistance? Answer: Voltage can be thought of as being the electrical "pressure" in an electrical circuit.g. 3. The EMF is measured in terms of volts. A battery is the EMF source most commonly used to produce small amounts of direct electrical current. Electrical current flows from one side (e.
The relationship between them is V = I x I x R. Why? The answer lies in the concept of "earthing". the current through all the items is the same.the total energy loss in the circuit is made up of the sum of all the energy losses from each of the items. a current (I) will flow. In our torch. across the contact surfaces of the switch. every item inhibits the free flow of electrical current through it. The magnitude of this energy loss is given by the equation Energy Loss = I2R. . decreasing the resistance (R) will increase the current (I). 4. height and width) of the material(s) in the item. conversely. it is to highlight the large number of items.Put simply. in this simple circuit. and the total resistance in the circuit is made up of the sum of all the resistances of the items. It is important to realise that: it. through the other part of the switch. through one part of the switch. There is one further concept that is associated with voltage. there will be resistance in the following items and therefore an associated voltage drop (Note: for simplicity. This is why the filament in our torch bulb heats up when current passes through it! We can draw another conclusion from our torch example . You are probably wondering why we've gone to such detail? Well. between the wire and the switch. and how safety switches work? Answer: The power points in your home have three sockets. The V = I x I x R relationship applies to any part of the circuit. Now think about the enormously more complex electricity supply network and try to work out the huge number of items (each with their own voltage drop remember) involved in the supply of electricity to our homes! We think that the operators of the network do a pretty good job of keeping the voltages in every part of the network within the set limits. The resistance of an item results from the electrical properties of the material(s) that make up the item and the geometry (length. Note that. if the voltage (V) remains constant. current and resistance. When a voltage (ie voltage difference) (V) is applied across an item that has a resistance (R). The degree to which the current is inhibited is termed the "resistance" of the item. and that is the loss of electrical energy when current flows through an item. Some of your appliances have three pin plugs while other appliances have only two pin plugs. This energy is absorbed by the item and the temperature of the item increases. the total voltage drop from one battery terminal through the circuit to the other battery terminal is made up of the sum of all these voltage drops. between the switch and the next wire. and so on. we will call the metal connector pieces in the torch "wires"): between one battery terminal and the wire connected to along the wire. Question: Could you please explain 'Earthing'. then increasing the resistance (R) will decrease the current (I) and. each with their own voltage drop.
An appliance that requires its enclosure to be earthed must therefore have a three pin plug (active. in a normal circuit. Because safety switches can sense and react to this type of situation much quicker (and at a smaller current) than a normal overload protection device. For example. . A current overload could also occur if the active wire came into direct contact with the neutral wire. Each circuit in your home should be protected against overload by a device that senses the current passing through the active wire of the circuit and isolates the circuit when the current is too high. you may be lucky enough to escape with only a mild shock. A toaster usually has a metal enclosure.but by the time that happened. if the active wire came in contact with the metal enclosure. the appliances may have plugs with only two pins (active and neutral). Because metals are electrical conductors (ie allow electricity to pass through them). the current in the neutral wire would be less than the current in the active wire. the overload protection device could be a type of switch that operates on current overload. current will pass through you to earth. the electricity would pass to earth. A safety switch senses this imbalance in currents and isolates the circuit if the imbalance becomes greater than a preset value. If your connection to earth is poor (eg you are standing on a carpet or a wood chair). The overload protection device could be a fuse (a special type of wire that melts if the current passing through it is more that its rated current). An increasing number of appliances are enclosed in materials that prevent the flow of electricity through them (ie they are electrical insulators). Your power points may all be connected to the one "power" circuit or they could be divided into two or more separate power circuits. In both these cases. it may have been too late so save you. Your lights could also be supplied from one or more "lighting" circuits. Lets now look at what happens when you become part of an electric circuit. If. If not. One such device is the "safety switch". If you contact an active wire and you are electrically connected to the earth. The bottom socket is connected to a separate wire which is "earthed" (connected to the earth). the current flowing in the active wire of the circuit is exactly the same as the current in the neutral wire of the circuit. A circuit is the term used to describe an active wire that can be isolated from within your home's switchboard. More usually now. We saw above that the overload protection device in a circuit could operate if the active wire contacted the earth wire. The need for a separate earth wire can be explained by considering your toaster.The top two sockets in a power point are connected to the active and neutral wires. This device is also called an "earth leakage circuit breaker" because of the way it operates. If a fault occurs in the circuit and some current flows to earth. Because these insulated enclosures do not need to be earthed. What is needed is a device that would sense that something is wrong and switch off the supply of electricity before you are injured. the active wire comes in contact with the earth wire. the size and duration of the electric current passing through you to ground may have more drastic consequences! A current could also flow through you if you contact both the active and neutral wires. your electric hot water system and your electric stove usually have their own circuits. severe electrical shocks and electrocutions are prevented. we need to realise that. for any reason. neutral and earth). To understand how it operates. the current passing through you may be high enough to activate the circuit's overload protection device and turn off the supply to that circuit . the electrical current (flow of electricity) passing through the active wire to earth through the earth wire could be large enough to activate the overload protection device in the active wire's circuit. this metal enclosure is "earthed" so that.
The voltage between the phases in the low voltage distribution system is 415 volts (in Australia). the voltage of the AC supply must also have been changing polarity from positive to negative and back again at the same frequency as the alternating current. In this “low voltage” part of the distribution system. However. Because these circuits are electrically linked (see below). it must be realised that safety switches cannot protect you if you come in contact with both the active and neutral wires because in this case current does not flow to earth and there is no imbalance in the active and neutral currents. Because electrical current flows in response to an applied voltage. The neutral wire is kept at the same electrical potential as the earth. This section also contains additional information on phases and on a type of electricity supply system that uses a single wire . cyclic manner. such as a large air conditioner. Question: What is meant by the term 'Phases'? Answer: Alternating Current (AC) electricity changes its direction of flow in a regular.energy. Except if explicitly mentioned otherwise. the voltage between the active and neutral wires is 240 volts (in Australia). 5.au/electricity/infosite/index. 3 active lines and 1 common neutral line). the distribution line may be made up of 4 lines. These pollutants usually have some form of discharge licence limits imposed on their concentrations. A 415 volt 3-phase supply is able to deliver more energy than a 240 volt single phase supply. this can be identified by the larger than normal plugs. and/or .qld. The reason why there are only 4 lines is because the 3 phases have a common neutral line (i. making a total of three circuits. they are called phases. Reference Web site : http://www. the voltage increases and the neutral disappears! Why? The explanation can be found in the Office of Energy’s new “Electricity Information” web site by clicking on the “What and How of Electricity” icon in the home page of the Office of Energy web site and going to the “Introduction” section. 3 phase supplies are common in industrial areas and shopping centres.htm Flue gas cleaning This information sheet explores the options available to reduce the concentrations of pollutants in the flue gas being discharged from a thermal power station. What are the others? The other lines carry the currents from two other electrical circuits. discussions in this section will be directed to coal fired power stations. Concentration limits at the point of discharge which have been set regardless of the amount of the pollutant or the location of the point of discharge.However. These licence limits are usually: 1. so that the voltage between the active and earth is also 240 volts.gov.the Single Wire Earth Return (SWER) system. As we travel back up the electrical network. A 3-phase supply to a home would normally be required only for large electrical loads.e. The distribution line supplying your home may be single phase and have only two wires strung between the poles (we will use the overhead power lines as examples because they can be easily seen).
but may reduce the thermal efficiency of the generating plant. These factors will not be discussed further in this information sheet.au/electricity/infosite/index.higher velocities are an advantage. The buoyancy of the flue gas leaving the chimneys .gov. Equipment to remove solid particles (generally called "particulates") . but may require additional fan power. Compliance with concentration limits away from the point of discharge usually is brought about by economic and performance optimisations of several factors: 1. has a lower density). 2. Equipment can be installed to clean the flue gas so that it complies with the discharge point concentration limits.hotter gas has more buoyancy (i. 2. Thus. such as carbon dioxide if carbon taxes or carbon trading are implemented.the two main types of equipment for this duty are electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. but more costly.energy. The height of the chimneys . The discharge velocity of the gas from the chimneys .height is usually an advantage. geothermal power is generally considered to be "earth friendly".e. .htm Back Geothermal Power Plants This unique system taps the natural supplies of heat energy that have accumulated inside the earth. Equipment to remove other gases for which there are not licence limits but which could have economic implications. Equipment to remove gaseous impurities such as oxides of sulphur and oxides of nitrogen. This equipment is discussed below.2. and 3. The location of the chimneys in relation to each other. 3. except where they (mainly buoyancy and discharge velocity) are influenced by the flue gas cleaning equipment. particularly the strength and direction of the wind. and 4. The equipment to clean the flue gas can be divided into several groups: 1. Concentration limits at one or more points away from the point of discharge. Reference Web site : http://www. buildings outside of the power station boundaries and weather conditions. the power station's buildings and cooling towers.qld.
Special care is given to determine blade width and blade tip shroud band construction. which has been used for many high and intermediate-pressure united rotors in fossil fuel powered steam turbines. it is made of highly corrosionresistant Cr. corrosion-resisting protector. EFFECTIVE SEPARATION OF MOISTURE AND DUST Moisture and dust in the steam path are satisfactorily shaked off by centrifugal force toward the outside wall. careful consideration is given to minute details including the dust-and-drain prevention and disposal structures. . is strong enough against foreign matter. and the inspection manhole. STABLE AND LOW-FATT ROTOR Because the turbine rotor operates in erosive geothermal steam. The impulse type design. The wall is covered with a stainless steel impingement shield to prevent erosion.Mo-V steel.Design & Construction Features HIGHLY EFFICIENT AND STRONG STEAM PATH The steam path is designed on the basis of massive results of tests and studies and by means of the most advanced computer techniques so that the maximum stage efficiency can be obtained. HIGHLY RELIABLE LONG BLADE SERIES 12Cr steel blades backed up by close calculation and ample experience are adopted. This rotor is a low-FATT type. SIMPLE SINGLE-SHEEL CONSTRUCTION Simple single-shell construction without an internal casing considerably simplifies maintenance. Furthermore. in which the diaphragm type nozzles are combined with strong cross section blades.
which is directly connected to the turbine.Geothermal Turbine Sectional View 110MW Geothermal Steam Turbine The geothermal steam turbine is. oil cooling water. so to speak. Since the . Consequently. Issues involved include such phenomena as corrosion of turbine component parts and the accumulation of and erosion by solid substances in the steam paths. geothermal steam turbines require much more technical consideration than do standard thermal steam turbines. direct condensing system utilizing natural steam spurting out from production wells was employed for the power plant. no flashing was required. When contacting and mixed with sprayed cooling water in the condenser. Cooled water is used as condenser cooling water. and also by vacuum conditions in the condenser interior. Superheating steam is changed into wet steam from the turbine second stage and is expanded up to 102 mmHg absolute. etc. 52°C. since geothermal steam contains up to several percent of gaseous impurities. a thermal turbine in which mother nature plays the role of a boiler. This cooling water is delivered to the condenser by utilizing potential energy between the cooling tower and the condenser rather than by pumping. This condensed water is pumped to the cooling tower by a condensate pump and is cooled to 27°C. However. the wet steam becomes condensed water at 49°C. Left: 110MW Geothermal Turbine Above: 110MW geothermal turbine under shop assembly Since the steam does not contain hot water and its maximum superheating degree is 9°C.
demand for small sized geothermal power plant has also expanded. The Toshiba portable type turbine and generator set is completely assembled on a common base then shipped to the site. based on our high engineering capability and extensive experience. Toshiba is always working to satisfy customer needs in the geothermal power generation field. Geothermal power plant unit capacity has been increasing in recent years . high efficiency and high reliability. At the same time. no water replenishment is required from the exterior. suitable toa range of applications. installation and adjustment work at site can be minimised. easy operation including start and stop. This portable type turbine and generator set is supported by our extensive experience with geothermal units. Consequently.000kW power is consumed for driving the condensate pump and the cooling fans and other pumps. the net power output at high tension side of step-up transformer is 106. Overflowing condensed water is fed back to the underground through injection wells. Small sized geothermal power plant is generally used for the following purposes: • • • • • An experimental unit as a pilot plant for a larger size installation Meet the needs of electricity demand in limited area Power source during construction Auxiliary or emergency power source for main geothermal generating plant Simplification steam transmission lines as a well-head unit. Noncondensed gases contained in the steam are continuously ejected from the condenser by using steam ejectors. because geothermal wells are scattered in geothermal field Toshiba has a developed a standardised series of portable small size geothermal turbine and generator sets. maintainability. Steam flowing through the ejectors amounts to approximately 34 tons per hour. about 4% of the total steam. supported by technological innovation and driven by the economics of larger installations.condensed water is recycled in this system. Since 4.000kW. Frame Turbine type Type-TPO Back pressure/ Type-TPB Back pressure Type-TPC Condensing . Special consideration is given to easy transportation.
condensing Type Power range Steam condition throttle press Speed No of stage Oil cooler Application Single stage curtis with reduction gear 500-2000kW 3-10 kg/cm2 g 50Hz 6200/1500RPM 60Hz 7400/1800RPM 1 stage Water or air Power source for construction and start for blackout efficiency Multistage rateau with reduction gear 2000-9000kW 3-10 kg/cm2 g 50Hz 6000/1500RPM 60Hz 6000/1800RPM Max. multistage nozzles and blades and low steam consumption. 6 stages Water or air Multistage rateau with reduction gear 2000-9000kW 3-10 kg/cm2 g 60Hz 5000/1800RPM 50Hz 5000/1500RPM Max. . The nozzle diaphragm consists of web with an inner and an outer ring of sufficient strength. and the nozzle partitions are rugged and efficient cross section. 6 stages Water or air Power generation and power Power generation and power for auxiliaries for auxiliaries and high reliability High Toshiba portable steam turbines are of impulse type. The blades also have a rugged and efficient cross section. and are strongly fixed to a solid type rotor wheel. Portable Turbine Generator Main Flow Diagram Typical main flow diagram of the portable turbine generator with low level type condenser and water cooled oil cooler is as follows. The impulse design features sturdy and simple construction. This construction minimized damages from foreign materials and less susceptible to deterioration of performance due to increased leakage caused by packing rules.
(Click to Enlarge) Toshiba's portable turbine generator's versatility is suited to a wide range of applications. Mechanical Outline Outline Weight Dimen sion . oil cooler can be selected from two typesair cooled oil cooler and water cooled oil cooler-depending on site suitability. For example. operation patterns and site conditions.
5 Total: 45.3L 2. since the turbine.htm Back site : .3H (m) Easy transportation and construction Toshiba's portable turbine generator unit's compactness ensures simplicity of construction and ease of handling. in addition.atals.0 Reduction Gear: 2.7W 7.5 Generator: 13.8 (ton) 2.7W 7. The equipment can thus be installed and relocated at various sites and operated successfully. generator and their necessary auxiliary equipmentare all skid mounted in Toshiba's workshopso transportation to site is quite simple.3 Total: 42.T Y P E · T P C Turbine: 17.0 Reduction Gear: 2.3 Others: 12.com/newtic/geo_home. Reference Web http://www.6H (m) T Y P E · T P B Turbine: 15. The unit has a steam turbine driven oil pump and mechanicalhydraulic control system. No power source for start Toshiba portable turbine generator can be started without any auxiliary power source except a battery for instrumentation.0L 3.5 Generator: 13.3 (ton) 2.0 Others: 12. Therefore the unit can be installed without need for any electric network in the area.
Aeroderivative units can produce full power within three minutes after start up. The air compressor compresses the inlet air (raises its pressure). They are also called combustion turbines or combustion gas turbines. Because some of its heat and pressure energy has been transferred to the turbine. where most of the remaining heat energy in the gas is used to produce steam. such as turn a generator to produce electricity. There are two basic types of gas turbines . In the past. It is then either discharged up a chimney (often called a stack) or is directed to a special type of boiler. . several combustors (also called burners) and a turbine. called a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). These units have a maximum output of 40 MW. As the turbine is connected to its compressor. their previously small unit sizes and their low thermal efficiency restricted the opportunities for their wider use for electricity generation. their use has been generally limited to generating electricity in periods of peak electricity demand. Depending on size. start up can take from 10 to 40 minutes to produce full output. giving the turbine energy to spin and do work. because of their more robust construction. The main components of a gas turbine are an air compressor. Industrial gas turbines have a lower capital cost per kilowatt installed than aeroderivative units and. the compressor uses some (about 60%) of the turbine's energy. As their name suggests. the gas is cooler and at a lower pressure when it leaves the turbine. Industrial gas turbines range in sizes up to more than 260 MW. How does a Gas Turbine Work? Gas turbines use the hot gas produced by burning a fuel to drive a turbine. aeroderivative units are aircraft jet engines modified to drive electrical generators. Gas turbines are ideal for this application as they can be started and stopped quickly enabling them to be brought into service as required to meet energy demand peaks. They are not suitable for base load operation. Fuel is mixed with the high pressure air in burners and burnt in special chambers called combustors. This gas then passes through a turbine.GAS Introduction to Gas TURBINE Turbines Gas turbines have been used for electricity generation for many years.aeroderivative and industrial. However. are suitable for base load operation. Over the last ten years there have been major improvements to the sizes and efficiencies of these gas turbines such that they are now considered an attractive option for base-load electricity generation. The hot pressurised gas coming out of the combustors is at very high temperature (up to 1350° C).
However. municipal waste and biomass. the speed of rotation of the generator. distillate and "jet fuel" (a type of kerosene used in aircraft jet engines). Inspections for fouling and erosion are usually carried out at defined intervals of operating time. Each row of blades compress and push the air onto the next row of blades. as they can never completely eliminate all impurities. methane. gas turbine and air compressor must remain constant (3000 rpm in Australia). The mass of air being compressed therefore remains constant regardless of the amount of air required for combustion of the fuel at partial loads. Demineralised water and detergent are commonly used for washing. Note: A row of blades fixed to the outer casing of the compressor is also located after each row of moving blades. "washing" of the compressor blades must be carried out whenever blade fouling becomes too severe. The energy used to compress this excess air accounts for most of the reduction in efficiency of a gas turbine at partial loads. The row of largest blades can be seen at the left end of the compressor in the photo above. Filters are used to remove impurities from the inlet air. . the sizes of the blades become smaller from row to row. with the smallest blades to the right (the direction of air flow is from left to right). when the gas turbine is used to generate electricity. Gas produced by gasification processes using. This type of air compressor can change its capacity (mass of air sucked through the air compressor) only by changing its speed of rotation. for example. Fuel Gas turbines can operate on a variety of gaseous or liquid fuels. show these major components. natural gas. and Gas produced as a by-product of an industrial process such as oil refining. Erosion of the blades can be caused by hard particles in the air entering the compressor. However.The attached cross section of a typical large gas turbine and photo of a similar large gas turbine with its top half casing removed. coal. As the air becomes more and more compressed. heavy fuel oil. Air Compressor The air compressors used in gas turbines are made up of several rows of blades (similar to the blades on a household fan). This washing can be carried out on line (with the gas turbine operating) or when the compressor is stopped. including: Liquid or gaseous fossil fuel such as crude oil.
When natural gas is used. Special burners (usually called "dry low NOx burners") are used to reduce the concentration of NOx in the exhaust gas to less than 25 ppm at full load. As the hot gas from the combustors passes through the moving and fixed blades of the turbine. The temperature of the gas in the combustors and entering the turbine can reach up to 1350° C. by passing the air through an evaporative cooler (the air evaporates droplets of water. more usually. The combustors must be inspected for cracks after a certain number of starts. . the power of the gas turbine decreases. another type of burner takes over and allows the fuel to be burnt stably down to low loads. the combustor cools. The burners are attached to chambers called combustors. These fixed blades are attached to the casing of the turbine and do not rotate. When a gas turbine starts. Special heat resistant materials (such as ceramics) are used to line the inside walls of the combustors. Turbine The turbine (also called the "power" turbine) consists of several rows of blades (the "moving" blades) that are fastened to the rotating shaft of the turbine. At this point. A row of "fixed" blades is located after each row of the "moving" blades. Burners and Combustors The compressed air and fuel is mixed and metered in special equipment called burners. These "low load" burners produce significantly higher concentrations of NOx (over 100 ppm). power output and thermal efficiency of the gas turbines are higher than when using most liquid fuels. without the use of water or steam injection. The power and efficiency ratings of a gas turbine are usually based on the inlet air being at ISO conditions of 15° C and 65% relative humidity. This effect can be reduced by cooling the air (by equipment similar to air conditioners) or. The inlet air is usually passed through silencers before it enters the compressor. Dry filters or water baths are usually used to carry out this cleaning. Some burners incorporate both types of burner into the one arrangement (called "hybrid" burners). The area between the combustors and the turbine are also lined. The fuel must be free of chemical impurities and solids as these either stick to the blades of the turbine or damage the components in the turbine that operate at high temperature. particularly in the heat resistant lining material. When the gas turbine shuts down. Note: the values of NOx concentrations and loads depend on the design of the equipment and on the fuel used. the combustor quickly heats up. The fuel & air mixture is ignited close to the exit tip of the burners. Inlet Air The air coming into the compressor of a gas turbine must be cleaned of impurities (such as dust and smoke) which could erode or stick to the blades of the compressor or turbine. This rapid heating and cooling produces stresses in the combustor and can cause cracking. These dry low NOx burners usually cannot operate effectively below about 60% load. If the inlet air is hotter and drier than ISO conditions. reducing the power and efficiency of the gas turbine. thus cooling the air). Water or steam can be injected into the combustors to reduce the concentration of NOx (oxides of nitrogen) in the exhaust gas (by reducing the temperature of the flame). then allowed to fully burn in the combustors. The fuels used in gas turbines power generation plants are often relatively more expensive and in smaller quantities than those required by power generation plants using other fuels (such as coal).
The ability of the gas turbine to do work and the efficiency of the gas turbine are consequently reduced. The smallest row of blades can be seen at the left end of the turbine in the photo of the gas turbine with its top half casing removed. thus reducing their effectiveness. The blades of the turbine become larger from row to row to accommodate the expansion of the gas as its pressure reduces. If the exhaust gas is not passed to a HRSG. . New materials and techniques used to manufacture the turbine blades have resulted in a significant increase in operating temperatures. particularly the blades. The turbine components most subject to conditions causing creep are regularly inspected and tested. Some of this reduction can be regained by maintenance of the gas turbine. This energy transfer reduces the pressure of the gas and causes the gas to become cooler as it passes through the turbine. Ceramic blades offer the possibility of still higher operating temperatures. At these high operating temperatures. This deformation could result in the moving parts touching the fixed parts with possible catastrophic results. turbine blades are made from exotic alloys that retain their strength at the high temperatures experienced in the turbine. The compressor section of the gas turbine provides this cooling air. hard particles and chemical impurities in the air and fuel (even at extremely low levels) can damage the blades of the turbine. Various coatings for turbine blades have been developed as another way to minimise this high temperature damage to the blades. The efficiency of the gas turbine improves if the hot gas temperature rises. Emissions The main chemical emissions from a gas turbine are dependent on the type of fuel used. The moving blades in the turbine are subjected to extreme temperature (from the hot gas exiting the combustors) and stress (from the combination of their rotation and the pressure of the hot gas). causing it to rotate. The heat energy in this gas can be extracted in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) to produce steam that can be used to produce electricity (Combined Cycle generating plant) or used for process heating. it is ducted through a silencer and then discharged up a stack. The exhaust gas is usually visually clear and free of particles. materials to withstand the higher temperatures are usually more expensive than those that can withstand lower temperatures. depending on the design of the gas turbine and the fuel used. Turbine blades can be manufactured with passages inside the blades that allow air to pass through the blades to keep them cool. are also subject to "creep" failure. Exhaust Gases The temperature of the exhaust gas from the gas turbine is typically in the range of 500°C to 640°C. Refer to "emissions" for information on the chemical compositions of the exhaust gas. high stress duties is ongoing. The materials for the turbine blades (and other components of the turbine) are therefore selected to give a balance between hot gas temperature (and efficiency) and material selection (and cost). However.energy is transferred from the hot gas to the turbine. with the largest blades to the right (the direction of gas flow is from left to right). Metals at high temperature & high stress gradually change their metallurgical properties and plastically deform ("creeps"). Research into better (and cheaper) materials for these high temperature. The hot components of the turbine. Currently. This allows the blades to operate in combustion temperatures that would otherwise be too hot for the material of the blades. The type and cleanliness of the air and fuel used therefore has a major impact on the amount of maintenance performed on the gas turbine.
8. 2. 3. more energy is available at the output shaft. Further details of these are given in the "burners and combustors" section above. In general. Power Output Gas turbine output power values are usually given for ISO conditions of 15° C. Increasing the pressure of the air entering or leaving the compressor . silencers and ducts . Divide the turbine into two parts and reheat the gas between the two parts by passing the gas through additional burners and combustors located between the two parts. 6.an increase in pressure increases power output.if less energy is used to compress the air.increased temperature generally results in increased power output. power and efficiency for each application. 5. Inject steam or water into the combustors or turbine. Increasing the pressure of the air at the discharge of the air compressor. Combinations of the above methods. some generalisations can be made. 7. 4.in general. Wash or otherwise clean the fouling from the blades of the air compressor and turbine at regular intervals. Using the exhaust gas to heat the air from the compressor (mainly used in cold weather conditions). The concentration of CO2 (carbon dioxide) in the exhaust gas is dependent on the carbon content of the fuel used. Variations in these conditions during the operation of the gas turbine will result in changes to the power output of the gas turbine as indicated below. The temperature of the exhaust gas . The amount of CO2 produced per unit of electrical energy is also highly dependent on the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine.reduced temperature generally results in increased power output. Cooling the inlet air mainly used in hot weather conditions. Reducing the humidity of the inlet air. and 9. Various methods that have been used to achieve an increase in power output include: 1. However. The drop in pressure across the exhaust gas silencers. The temperature of the hot gas leaving the combustors . 6. 7. 5.However. The methods used are therefore a compromise between cost. NOx (oxides of nitrogen) can be controlled either by injecting water or steam into the combustors or by using special dry low NOx burners.a decrease in pressure loss increases power output. 2. 60% relative humidity and an atmospheric pressure equivalent to average sea level conditions. The drop in pressure across the inlet air filters. SOx (oxides of sulphur) are usually not a problem as most fuels used in gas turbines have low sulphur contents. ducts and stack . Thermal Efficiency . The energy used by the air compressor . 3. higher mass flows result in higher power output. The mass flow through the gas turbine . the power output from the gas turbine is influenced by: 1. Divide the compressor into two parts and cool the air between the two parts. all these methods increase costs and some decrease the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine.a decrease in pressure loss increases power output. 4.
Cooling the inlet air mainly used in hot weather conditions. The drop in pressure across the exhaust gas silencers. 4. The reliabilities of the models improve as these types of failures are designed out. the use of unproven designs and technologies can result in unforseen failures. and 9. 3. Divide the compressor into two parts and cool the air between the two parts. The energy used by the air compressor . Increasing the pressure of the air at the discharge of the air compressor. In general. 2.increased temperature generally results in increased efficiency. The methods used are therefore a compromise between cost. 5. Wash or otherwise clean the fouling from the blades of the air compressor and turbine at regular intervals. higher mass flows result in higher efficiencies. Reducing the humidity of the inlet air. 3. However.a decrease in pressure loss increases efficiency. the way the gas turbine is operated and the quality of the maintenance practices also have an effect of reliability. The mass flow through the gas turbine . Divide the turbine into two parts and reheat the gas between the two parts by passing the gas through additional burners and combustors located between the two parts. . increase thermal efficiency and reduce costs.a decrease in pressure loss increases efficiency. Combinations of the above methods. New models of gas turbines often have significant changes to critical components in an effort to improve power output. Variations in temperatures and relative humidities during the operation of the gas turbine will result in changes to the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine as indicated below. The temperature of the hot gas leaving the combustors . 6. However. 5.The thermal efficiency of a gas turbine is the proportion of the energy in the fuel that is converted to mechanical energy in the output shaft. Various methods have been used to achieve the above goals: 1. ducts and stack . The drop in pressure across the inlet air filters. Operational factors such as the cleanliness of the fuel and inlet air. more energy is available at the output shaft. all these methods increase costs and some decrease the amount of power able to be output by the gas turbine. The temperature of the exhaust gas . 6.in general.if less energy is used to compress the air. 8. silencers and ducts .reduced temperature generally results in increased efficiency. 2. Using the exhaust gas to heat the air from the compressor (mainly used in cold weather conditions). 7. The manufacturers analyse these failures and improve the component. thermal efficiency is influenced by: 1. power and efficiency for each application. Gas turbine efficiency values are usually given for ISO conditions of 15° C (dry bulb). 60% relative humidity and an atmospheric pressure equivalent to average sea level conditions. Reliability The reliability of a gas turbine depends mainly on the design of its components and the selection of materials used in critical components. 4. Inject steam into the combustors or turbine.
Silencers are usually fitted in the inlet air and exhaust gas ducts. The exhaust gas (red) leaves the turbine at the right.Noise Gas turbines are very compact and occupy small ground area. . The inlet air (blue) enters the compressor at the left. The burners and combustors are located between the compressor and turbine. Statutory limits on noise levels at site boundaries can be achieved either by increasing the distance from the boundary to the plant or by installing noise abatement equipment on the machines.
The section that would hold the burners and combustors is between the compressor and the turbine. Note the large bolts that are used to hold the two halves of the casing together. The air compressor is on the left and the turbine is on the right. .The photo shows what such a gas turbine looks like when its top half casing has been removed for inspection or maintenance.
the cross-section of a typical burner/combustor combination. The heat resistant ceramic tiles used in these hot areas can be clearly seen. for a large gas turbine. the arrangement of these combustors and the area between the combustors and the turbine. .The photo shows.
Gas flowing through a typical power plant turbine can be as hot as 2300 degrees F. can lead to more economical operation.. The rotating blades perform a dual function: they drive the compressor to draw more pressurized air into the combustion section. The advanced turbines that . Higher temperatures generally mean higher efficiencies which. high pressure gas stream that enters and expands through the turbine section. as the name implies. One of the major breakthroughs achieved in the Department of Energy's advanced turbine program was to break through previous limitations on turbine temperatures using a combination of innovative cooling technologies and advanced materials. Aeroderivative engines tend to be very compact. natural gas) into the combustion chamber where it mixes with the air.g. As hot combustion gas expands through the turbine. Heavy frame engines are characterized by lower compression ratios (typically below 15) and tend to be physically large. in turn. and feeds it to the combustion chamber literally at speeds of hundreds of miles per hour. however. the requirement for cooling the turbine limits the ultimate thermal efficiency. The combustion produces a high temperature. and they spin a generator to produce electricity. The combustion system. The turbine is an intricate array of alternate stationary and rotating aerofoil-section blades. it spins the rotating blades. The mixture is burned at temperatures of more than 2000 degrees. pressurizes it. and operate at very high compression ratios (typically in excess of 30). Therefore air from the compressor is used for cooling key turbine components. Aeroderivative engines are derived from jet engines.The combustion (gas) turbines being installed in many of today's natural-gas-fueled power plants are complex machines. One key to a turbine's fuel-to-energy efficiency is the temperature at which it operates. but they basically involve three main sections: The compressor which draws air into the engine. Land based gas turbines are of two types: (1) heavy frame engines and (2) aeroderivative engines. typically made up of a ring of fuel injectors that inject a steady stream of fuel (e. but some of the critical metals in the turbine can withstand temperatures only as hot as 1500 to 1700 degrees F.
These boilers are also known as heat recovery steam generators (HRSG). Turbine Successes " Breakthrough" Gas Turbines For years.emerged from the Department's research program were able to boost turbine inlet temperatures to as high as 2600 degrees F .600 degrees F and permitted combined cycle efficiencies that surpassed the 60 percent mark . High-pressure steam from these boilers can be used to generate additional electric power with steam turbines. The barrier was heat. for all practical purposes. The Department of Energy's Fossil Energy took on the challenge of turbine temperatures in 1992. the scorching heat of combustion gases caused metals in the turbine blades and in other internal components to begin degrading.nearly 300 degrees hotter than in previous turbines. A recuperator captures waste heat in the turbine exhaust system to preheat the compressor discharge air before it enters the combustion chamber. two of its private sector partners produced "breakthrough" turbine systems that pushed firing temperatures to 2. along with new firing techniques to stabilize combustion and minimize nitrogen oxide formation. the advanced turbines achieved the higher firing temperatures while actually reducing the amount of nitrogen oxides formed to less than 10 parts per million (NOx is a product of high temperature combustion). The GE H-System Turbine .the "four-minute mile" of turbine technology. A waste heat boiler generates steam by capturing heat from the turbine exhaust. capped power generating efficiencies for turbine-based power generating systems. Another way to boost efficiency is to install a recuperator or aste heat boiler onto the turbine's exhaust. Since higher temperatures are the key to higher efficiencies. the overall energy cycle efficiency could approach 80 percent. With the higher temperatures achieved in the Energy Department's turbine program. Moreover. Above 2300 degrees F. future gas turbine combined cycle plants are likely to achieve efficiencies of 60 percent or more. a configuration called a combined cycle. Among the innovations that emerged from the Department's Advanced Turbine Systems program were single-crystal turbine blades and thermal barrier coatings that could withstand the high inlet temperatures. When waste heat is captured from these systems for heating or industrial purposes. this effectively limited the generating efficiency at which a turbine power plant could convert fuel into electricity. gas turbine manufacturers faced a barrier that. A simple cycle gas turbine can achieve energy conversion efficiencies ranging between 20 and 35 percent. and nine years later.
fossil. announced that its advanced W501G turbine had gone into commercial operation at the 360-megawatt. South Wales. in an industry where improvements are typically measured in tenths of a percent.gov. nearly five percentage points better than the prior best available system. In addition. The Siemens Westinghouse engine has demonstrated a net efficiency of approximately 58 percent in combined cycle application. market that would break through the temperature barrier and push efficiencies to unprecedented levels.gov Back : . however. Using advanced materials and revolutionary new steam-cooling technology.S. Florida's McIntosh Unit 5. a 249-megawatt simple cycle plant. the new turbine is capable of operating at 2600 degrees F. was shipped to Baglan Bay Power Station near Cardiff. Using an innovative dry low-NOx combustion system. The power plant. A 50-hertz version. GE Power Systems unveiled the first gas turbine slated for the U. half the average of the turbines in commercial use. Siemens Westinghouse.au/electricity/infosite/index. The unit announced in February 2000 was slated to be one of two 60-hertz turbines that would have powered the 800-megawatt Heritage Station being built in Scriba. Massachusetts. Siemens Westinghouse W501G Advanced Gas Turbine In May 2001. 2000. Reference Web site http://www.On February 18. in December 2000 and began test operations in November 2002.qld. the Energy Department's other advanced turbine development partner. also went into operation using the advanced turbine at about the same time. combined cycle Millennium power plant in Charlton.htm http://www. The H System was the first turbine to surpass the 60 percent efficiency threshold.energy. New York. the City of Lakeland.energy. the turbine achieved nitrogen oxide emission levels of 9 parts-per-million. was not built when the anticipated demand for electric power in the region failed to materialize. specially designed for the European power grid.