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Assignment 3/25/2013 Submitted by : Rodica Lenuta Moga, id no 20981 Submitted to : Dr.Sam Hazra
Rodica Lenuta Moga
Table of Contents
"Food & Beverage which is the sector / industry that specializes in the conceptualization, making, and delivery of foods. Most F & B employees are in restaurants and bars, including hotels, resorts, and casinos’’
Food can be: a substance or material e which can provide nutritional support
or fuel to the body
Food is plant or comes from animal origin and contains essential nutrients,: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals
Food is assimilated by the body and becomes energy
Beside the need of nutrition, food and drink are a part of the culture of people Beverages refers to tea, coffee and alcohol and they are part of festive social and other occasions. Everyone has to eat and drink, so it is an industry that does not lose much money because it is a necessity.
LO1.Understand different food and beverage production and service systems:
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Rodica Lenuta Moga
1.1 Discuss the characteristics of food production and food &beverage service systems (P1)
There are 5 food production methods:
• • • • •
Traditional method Cook-Freeze method Sous vide method Centralised distribution Cook-Chill method Traditional method which is used in kitchen establishments and has the
• • • • • • • •
Goods into kitchen Refrigeration Freezing Dry store Preparation or mise en place Ordered from customer Cooking Serving
Miser en place means that everything is in place, it is used in professional kitchens and it refers to organising and arranging ingredients. • Cook-Freeze method is similar to cook chill the difference is the temperatures
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Cook –Chill method has various service systems. includes factors like size of operation. prices are cheaper for buyers. has the less wastage as food is used only when ordered. food can be advantage of produced and accurately portioned . that means they are in Danger zone. the disadvantages are that it is required capital investment in equipment and storage . quantity of customers . availability of resources . In Blast Chill food temperature is reduced from +70 to +3 degrees in 90 minutes. . is not capable of extracting enough heat . exists a high level of hygiene.individual pouches are labelled for easy stock rotation . has the advantage of specialised food production.Rodica Lenuta Moga Current food legislation requires all food must be cooked as quickly as possible. it requires low capital investment and minimum of staff.pouches also retains freshness. To minimise the time spent in Danger Zone is required Blast Chiller or Freezer because standard equipment degrees C.nature of the menu. so food is chilled or frozen between +8 and +68 degrees C. it is continuously introduced heat that’s why thawing cabinets have excellent results.inexpensive regeneration .It is -18 recommended that temperature should be reduced from +70degrees C to • Sous –Vide method has a specific temperature of 138 degrees . on the other hand in Blast Thawing the air needs to be warmer than the food. not too warm and not too cold. is not as fresh as traditional method. but also service systems differs in relation to the 4 | Page . • Cook –Chill method is based on catering system on normal preparation and cooking of food. is not able to adjust customer requirements. • Centralised distribution is when food is produced in bulk-off site . the disadvantages are that sends the control to a different company and can occur delays while delivering products. customer needs. budget of customers.
with Cook –chill method include 9 service systems: Table/Plate Service Buffer Service A la carte Table d’hôtel Silver/Russian Service Family /English service Guerdon/ Flambé service Specialise food service 1.Rodica Lenuta Moga required : quantity of personnel . their skills level . Table /Plate Service. level of involvement by the customer. the level interaction customer. has quality presentation and portion control 5 | Page .
meal dishes are cooked usually when ordered from a menu. The advantages are that can feed a much bigger amount of people. 6 | Page . this is a way restaurant earn high profit on inexpensive items. customers have a choice. and the most typical approach is to price each item separately. A al carte is used in hotel or restaurant. not so much staff is needed and also skills are not so important.Rodica Lenuta Moga 2. Counter /Buffet service means that food is prepared in advance and food is served from a table in restaurant. 3.
Table d’hôtel is a restaurant meal. price change is simply and could increase turnover. is a 7 | Page . 5. food is transferred with a large spoon . 4. but is more expensive and is difficult to find seasonal ingredients.Rodica Lenuta Moga It allows each guest to order as much or as little food as desired. the menu rarely changes. Silver /Russian Service means that food is cooked and placed on a hot silver platter and is sent to the restaurant . the amount of dishes is numbered and the price is fix.
Family /English service refers to food which is cooked and placed in bowls and where customers can help themselves and customers have the control. 8 | Page . 6. but has the disadvantage of high labour cost . service can be slow and sometimes dangerous .Rodica Lenuta Moga highly personalised service .
8. . Guerdon / Flambé service means the food is prepared but not cooked .Rodica Lenuta Moga 7. is a highly personalised service . Specialist Food Service includes a variety of foods: starters. pudding. staff should have knowledge for basic food handling and other preparation techniques. but can be very dangerous. customer feels more involved in the process . 9 | Page . it demands high labour costs . main courses. is visual and aromatic . Has the advantage of food being prepared according customer request.
Customers have a choice fewer 6. In this service.Rodica Lenuta Moga 1. 3. Food is attractively arranged on a long table. classified and arranged according to proper sequence. Staff require less skills 7. thus very little food is left for the latecomers. Some equipment like dinner plates and saucers are laid down right on the buffet table. cutlery and napkin and all other items and serve themselves of their own choice. It is a fast service. b) Family/ English service This type of service is also known as "family style" service.2 Discuss factors affecting recipes and menus for specific systems (P2) a) Buffet Service This is also called self-service and is normally used in banquet functions and I n some restaurants. * Disadvantages: 1. The presentation of the different dishes can be appetizing. The same procedure is 10 | P a g e . the guests go to the buffet table pick up plates. It requires less staff to render the service needed. from appetizers to desserts. Soup is placed on a soup tureen and the hot entrees in chaffing dishes to keep them warm. It may result in shortage of food especially when the early ones may serve themselves more. Instead of the waiter serving the guests. Can be served a large number of people 5. indicating the person to be served. 2. china. * Advantages: 1. the soup tureen is placed before the host alongside with preheated soup plates and hands them to the waiter.
If so desired. 4. It is fast. dirty areas. Then the waiter places the plate before the guests. amount. 2. size of equipment used and needed and how many employees are needed. Plates of food are served immediately at the proper Temperature. Less staff required * Disadvantages: 1. 2. 11 | P a g e . Counter service. Therefor in order to start calculating cost of labour and equipment it is necessary to find out what kind of equipment is needed. No matter the process used it is important to use the easiest working conditions. Less showmanship. 1. Reduced personalized attention to the customer. hot wet areas. Regarding cost implications the facilities that are used depends of the production process: dry areas.Rodica Lenuta Moga followed with the main entree. This type of service is usually found in coffee shops. family restaurants. wet areas. 3. hot dry areas.Beverage control tends to be more difficult than the control of materials of other industries. but we have to be sure that food hygiene regulations are complied. * Advantages: 1.3 Compare the cost and staffing implications for different systems (P3) Food . It is inexpensive. It requires no special equipment. the partly filled dinner plate is presented to the hostess who serves the vegetables from large serving dishes placed before her. type.
As most catering operations are subject to changes in the volume of business done. sales production. supervisory management. people management. There are a range of roles for which staff is needed: food production. beverage. marketing.Rodica Lenuta Moga The costs include: Material cost Labour cost Overhead cost MATERIALS 30% LABOUR 30% OVERHEADS 20% NET 20% TOTAL COSTS 80 % SALES 100% PROFIT Staff should have certain skills. No matter buffet service or family /English service the cost measurement has the same formula: 12 | P a g e . it is normal practice to express the elements of costs and net profit as a percentage of sales. experience and requirements. merchandising. knowledge. food service.
. The server places the proper plate in front of the guest. All courses are served either from platters or an Escoffier dish.4 Justify suitability of systems for particular food and beverage outlets (P4) Russian service Food is fully prepared in the kitchen. Cost of labour Staff has a critical influence on the success of food service operations. productivity. serves the food from the guest's left with the 13 | P a g e . Tureens are used for soup and special bowls for salads.Rodica Lenuta Moga Gross Profit % sales revenue –costs of sales*100 Sales Net Profit% sales revenue-total costs*100 Sales Material Cost % sales*100………. the server returns with a tray of food and moving counter-clockwise around the table. After the plates are placed. The quality of the feedback we get from customers in terms of positive comments and tips. 1. and therefore. Productivity is about how customers feel. Costs of materials Labour costs% sales *100………. Communication between customers and staff observation of their relationships tells me about the level of quality.
then the waiter dishes it out from the platter to the individual plates to guest from the left side. The demand for cooking to be done in the sight of the customer is increasing rapidly from the small hamburger. With this style of service. 14 | P a g e .Rodica Lenuta Moga right hand. Servers put the food on platters and present platters to guests seated at dining tables. This is a specialised form of service which is generally only used in formal or fine dining rooms. chicken rotisserie operations to the more exclusive flambé guerdon service. For "restaurant Russian" foods are cooked at table-side. During the preparation of the dish at the table. The food is prearranged in a platter with enough serving for one table. carved or cooked on a trolley or small table (guerdon) close to the customer’s table. Russian service requires sufficient space between tables for servers to move about freely. the ingredients he/she is using and. Preparation and serving of dishes at the table is “seen service” and one which markets the establishment and the food extremely well. the waiter/waitress can always give some background comment on what he/she is actually doing. It involves a disciplined skill which comes from practice and experience. Guests serve themselves. Guerdon Service Guerdon Service is where a dish is prepared. the server controls the amount served to each guest and has the opportunity to please guests by giving them the portion they want. the proposed end results. Russian service is usually done for banquet functions it guarantees equal portioning of food because the food served are pre portioned over plated service when they are no heaters for individual plates. restaurants offer. portioned.
Rodica Lenuta Moga LO2Understand the financial controls used in food and beverage operations 2. Overhead costs include expenses like utility bill. And include she cost of all ingredients needed to produce drinks: olives. rent. Labour costs are the costs with employees. Cost percentage: Food costs = food costs % Food sales 15 | P a g e . variance analysis. Usually food service manager constantly checks for food costs which are associated with producing item for the menu. including taxes and benefits. A cost related to sale of alcoholic beverage is called beverage cost. lemons. operating statements. cost statements. oranges.1Discuss the use of financial statements in food and beverage operations (P5) Financial statements includes various operations like: dish costing sheet.
salaries.Rodica Lenuta Moga Labour costs=labour costs% Total sales Beverage costs =beverage costs % Beverage sales Profit is calculated as following: Food and Beverage costs =Food and Beverage % Revenue Labour costs= labour % Revenue Overhead costs =overhead costs% Revenue Profit = profit % Revenue Financial statements include also financial accounts which are the records of the financial dealings or day to day transactions. and wages and to help managers 16 | P a g e . to collect money form sales. Their role is to record financial transactions.
Rodica Lenuta Moga to manage properly the business by preparing financial information which shows the sales. Profit and loss account shows information on operations of company like sales. However financial statements provide important information for stakeholders. Cash flows show from where money are coming from: operations. starts from revenue until deducts expenses from income. statements of cash flows. expenses. Statement of retained earning explain all changes to retained earnings on the reported period.2Demonstrate the use of cost and pricing process (P6) Financial statements are a formal record of financial activities and include: balance sheet with reports about assets liabilities. in processing state. to bank repayments of loans risk of loaning money from business. Balance sheet can show the income for all year. investing or financing . to Inland Revenue: tax returns. Dish costing sheet helps to calculate the cost for each portion. to suppliers about trade credit. about investments. is used to calculate the selling price or menu price. about how company invests and financing activities.An income statement shows income. profit for a specific period. Ingredient Quantity Cost 17 | P a g e . costs and profits against budgets. expenses. 2.
information directly from sales. Sales records show all information a company has about customers: their personal information. 2. Variance analysis help management to see which presents costs are and which are the future ones. how they use to pay bills. changes to financial position. money. fixed. and time. Financial statements provide information most used to predict investments and credit decisions. how often they buy a product. Companies analyse this information to see what they like most and to find out which are their best customers. variable Cost elements The amount of money needed to buy a product or service is called PRICE. they show financial position of a company and what are the operating results. amounts. is used to calculate the cost of a dish or beverage. also provide information required by authoritative and regulatory groups. labour is called COST. 18 | P a g e .Rodica Lenuta Moga Cost statements shows all costs involved.3 Analyse the purchasing process There are various costs and pricing like: Sales mix Dishes menu and beverage list Net and gross profit VAT Indirect cost. The total spent for items. and returns. are also used to explain which the difference between actual sales and budgeted sales is.
How much is played for food determine how much is needed to charge for it (30-35 %) This include costs involved to prepare food. to serve it.A guest may order what desire they might have and pay for each product separately(meat. The gross profit percentage of house brand beverage is higher than other brand beverage when suppliers do it at a discounted rate . this depends on the type of operation and how is detailed the breakdown sales. Managers sometime offer additions at the same price to run business for a longer period of time Pricing of beverages is similar with pricing for food . Table D’hôtel Menu is a restricted one. the specific difference in pricing is that all extra items are priced and charged separately: flowers on each table.but first departmental profit is target and gross profit percentage and then differential profit margins based on sales mix achievable. clean after it.The method of pricing is similar to table d’hôtel except that each item is priced separately using standard recipes . offers a few courses with a limited choice . Usually when referring to food cost we talk about menu price of a dish in comparison with the price of food that was used to prepare the food . hire of microphone. with a fixed selling price . beginning from payroll to electric bills Price is an important selling tool and aid to achieve desired volume in sales. A La Carte is a larger menu and offers many courses and each item is individually priced . one price for any courses chosen.Rodica Lenuta Moga The perception of choosing a product or service instead of another to satisfy goals is called WORTH. the items rarely change and is found in many restaurants. 19 | P a g e .The pricing s more accurately. must be considered the departmental profit needed and the different profit margins of sales. Banqueting menu is a table d ‘hotel menu and don’t offer choices. vegetable) This type of menu brings high profit from inexpensive side items.
quantity. item required.3 Analyse the purchasing profit The purchasing process include: Purchasing is influenced by search. In purchase record we can find what is ordered and the price of service. size. receipt. purchase.Orders are purchased using a purchased order which include: amount.Rodica Lenuta Moga 2. Products are delivered at a specific date. selection. Purchase specification is an agreement between supplier and caterer. weight. sets limits in order that the product is accepted for delivery. Purchase orders have numbers and can be tracked quickly. 20 | P a g e . final use of commodity. must be signed by an authorised person. weight. storage. beverage sold and purchase by the brand label. It is than calculated the amount a writing of purchase specification . Has the following procedure: To seek for a new supplier must be checked the following: Details of company Copies of recent price list Details of trading terms Samples of products All purchase specification has description about: quality. size.
items for refrigeration and freezing 21 | P a g e . Must exist an agreement that shows the frequency of deliveries. and conditions must be done in writing. in food and beverage inspection is done by a cellar man. acceptable good. Invoice must contain: Business identification number Supplier’s name. for returned items and short deliveries. Usually supplier is issuing a document which shows when items where supplied and how much was the delivery. Clerical procedures involves all documentation that must follow a set of procedure: acknowledgement of receipt. the process is named INVOICING. they are played once a month. contact information Description of what is charged Supply date Date of invoice VAT Amount owed All equipment must be stored correctly: must be considered space. stock taking and clerical procedures Food storage involves: dry goods. Quantity inspection in perishable foods is done by a senior chef. delivery person’s signature on a request for a credit note. Item principles are important for control to be ready for delivery and receipt of goods checks incoming goods.Rodica Lenuta Moga Receipt: Quantity inspection shows someone nominated to count and weigh goods. checks if they are damaged and weigh items separately. address. checks quantity and size to match the order.
from them 10 are vegetarians. 50 of them are adults.Rodica Lenuta Moga Beverage storage involves: cellar items. Be able to devise menus for hospitability events 3. vegetables that can be consumed both by children. My menu will include the following: Menu 22 | P a g e .1 Compile food and beverage menus for a hospitability event (P8) There are 60 guests. 10 are children. Everything must be properly checked to prevent the wastage. vegetarians and those who suffer from diabetes. I have choose a menu that is suitable for both children. which is whiten the budget of 840 pounds. 4 suffer from diabetes. LO 3. I included healthy food like: fruits. vegetarians. on my opinion is an economical menu. separate area and bar stock area.is highly essential to have a clean food or beverage storekeeping to eliminate the risk of running out of raw materials.
can be consumed by men or women. Than as I dessert I introduced fruit salad. for kids and diabetics I serve water. and as well coffee for all guests. a small portion.Rodica Lenuta Moga Starters Garlic Pizza Bread Bruschetta Main course Pizza Vegetarian Grilled salmon with mash potatoes Lasagne Dessert Ice cream Fruit salad Drinks Beer Water sparkling/still Coffee I created a Menu that can be accessible to my guests and have the opportunity to choose. My menu include appetisers that can be served to children as well. healthy. less calories and ice cream which I think everyone love. except kids. 23 | P a g e . where it is served pizza with vegetables. In drinks section I added beer which is present at every party. another dish is salmon with mash potatoes which addresses to al guests except those suffering from diabetes and vegetarians. for those interested in eating healthier and with a reduced caloric value. and of course my last dish on main course is lasagne. followed by a main course.
pasta and béchamel sauce ) • Dessert: • • • Ice cream (vanilla.60 Main course: • Pizza vegetarian ( tomato sauce. extra virgin olive oil –suitable for vegetarians ) • 0.20 • Drinks: 24 | P a g e . basil.00 • • Grilled salmon with mashed potatoes Lasagne ( Bolognese sauce.Rodica Lenuta Moga Menu • Starters: • • Garlic pizza bread 0. strawberry) Fruit salad (strawberry. peppers) 3.mushrooms. apples ) 1. kiwi.10 4. bananas.50 1. mozzarella . grilled aubergine . chocolate.20 3. onions.40 Bruschetta(toasted homemade bread topped with sliced fresh tomato.
2 Justify the selection and suitability of recipes for menus (P9) A menu is a list of dishes or the food available to be served. theme. soup) Main course : larger portion . restaurant. menus for people at work. pub. snacks. served hot or cold(salad. is also the first impression.hot or cold (grills. menus for children. Corona) Sparkling and Still water Coffee 2. special party of function menu. cyclical menus. Include: • • Appetisers : small portions. and shows the image. I offered a counter buffet with a minimum of staff only for serving and cleaning where guests served them selves 3. service method. I was within the budget and I spent my money wise offering to my guest a great atmosphere and pleasured environment with a good food . Menu dictates: staffing. is used in hotel. A la Carte. production. Most popular menus are: Table D ‘Hotel.Rodica Lenuta Moga • • • Beer (san Miguel . and children’s meal depending on the type of menu. ice cream. Shows what is offered.50 0. more expensive . meat. fruit ) Menu offers: side orders. 25 | P a g e . Customers have the opportunity to choose depending on the budget and situation. organisation. quality. large salads ) • Dessert or final course : hot or cold(sweet. type or theme of food.20 As a result my Hospitality event was a success .50 1.
customers enjoy exotic ingredients. cost of ingredients. has also lunched themes for Easter. Christmas. has a large selection of options items are individually priced. 26 | P a g e . food production methods are adapted. Must be also achieved a target customer. food season ability. A la Carte menu is found in commercial food. to be truthful. the level obesity is increased. food cost. Valentines. dishes are cooked when ordered It must be taken into consideration: Food competition Location. quantity of food used for each dish.Rodica Lenuta Moga Table D’ Hotel has 3 or more availability of equipment . and people like healthy and organic food. target market of customers Analyse or type of customers Estimated customers spend for head Modern trends in food Space and equipment Number and capability of food Availability of suppliers Usually customers look To see various dishes To receive what is described Items to be available To be told the ingredients that might be allergic Caloric information Food and Beverage operators must provide quality ingredients. used in Conference or Banqueting. to inform what items are not available because now a day’s 6% from UK’s population is vegetarian.courses are available at lunch time.
nutritional balance which include protein.Rodica Lenuta Moga Is important to check food availability. colour balance in order to be more appealing. LO4. the equipment needed (for pizza. also food prices are changing depending on season. A menu also is done depending on ingredients and methods: If fresh food is used If is used prepared food The use of cook-chill technique Cooked to order One factor which influence the menu is portion size. and vitamins. pasta). pubs and sometimes in restaurants. carbohydrates. 27 | P a g e . Be able to provide food and beverage services for hospitability events 4.1Plan a food and beverage service for hospitability event within an agreed budget (P10) Counter service is used in bars. wording is essential to encourage purchasing.
Must be taken into consideration the following: Number of people. in this case 60 persons. Plates should be put at the beginning of the buffet where guests can see them and also to see the staff who will replenish them the napkins and cutlery at the end of the buffet so that guests don’t find it hard to handle them Levels should be added to the table Hot food should be placed near hot food and cold food should be placed near cold food . there are 60 guests. The party food buffet must be well presented and must be a source of pleasure for guests. buffet was created to serve a large number of people. bowls and cutlery . Generally the dinners serve them-selves. The advantage is that dinners have possibility of choice and ability to inspect the food and then select to it . among them 10 children.Is a very popular service because of the limited space in homes. 10 children. 10 are vegetarians and 4 suffer from diabetes.it will be easier to keep the same temperature and to replenish plates Vegetable should be placed together Food that can spill should be located more close to guests Must be taken into consideration visual appeal Food must be labelled to indicate the content of a dish including allergens 28 | P a g e . there are used plates. depending of this an image can be created with one or 2 dishes and to allow 2 queues.Rodica Lenuta Moga The budget is 840 pounds.The form of buffet is a table filled with plates and has fixed portions. 50 adults.
all food which is not acceptable must be destroyed. Bulk food usually is stored in containers labelled with their names. Staff must be healthy. 29 | P a g e . is important to wash their hands. food and beverage production. with no wounds. table arrangements. but must be allowed enough staff to replenish and to clean.All food must come from an approved source. Self-serving party will reduce the number of staff needed. cooking in service levels. decoration. Should be meet the procedures that prevent contamination.2 Implement the planned service maintaining standards of quality and health.Rodica Lenuta Moga Dishes must be arranged in decreasing order Water must be placed last in buffet settings Some dishes may be prepared in advance. and candles. must be taken into consideration the capacity of the oven. Health. temperature should be meet. nasal discharges. A menu more economical is to start with: Breads Appetizers Salads Soups 4. A people’s space is important together with a space for serving. Safety and security involve procedures and hygiene practices . all containers and dishes should be hygienic. safety and security (P11) Quality standards must be maintained in production and serving planning. shouldn’t be encouraged to wear jewellery and smoking is forbidden. The display depends on: selection of food. However a served buffet may speed up the serving and enables the control of portion size.
In order to clean cutting boards mix solution of 2 teaspoon bleaching to a quarter of warm water. For clean utensils must be provided proper storage Food baskets must be lined. To be defrost meat should be placed on a clean plate to prevent leak of juice.3 Evaluate factors to determine the success of the service. 4. platter and cutlery to be used. walk INS. counter tops must be cleaned with warm soapy water. top of the container must be cleaned. is important to clean juice spills. separate bowls. Hands must be washed constantly. never put meat on a plate in which was cooked meat before. Rubbish lids are kept closed must be sufficient number of containers bins shall be empty chemicals should be labelled insecticides and pesticides are kept in and are under observation sink must be checked not to be blocked must exist liquid hand cleansing soap sanitary towel There are 4 ways to handle raw meat to prevent spread of bacteria. refrigerators.Everything must be maintained and cleaned: shelves in storage rooms. must be avoided defrosting in warm water but is recommended in cold water. making recommendations for improvement (P12) In Food and Beverage service is based on: 30 | P a g e . For freezing and storing meat must be rewrapped or over wrapped to prevent freezer burn and leakage of juices.Rodica Lenuta Moga To ensure food production equipment sanitised and clean is needed .
must be encouraged innovation .Rodica Lenuta Moga integrity trust quality value consistency For improvements in food and beverage service is necessary to exist a good and strong relationship between managers and staff that work and is organised . is absolutely necessary to invest in people and skills . most important is to measure what really matters : Quality Comfort and pleasure The right concept Execution Service Meet the customers’ expectations Control in operation 31 | P a g e .
Wiley &Sons. The price reflects customer’s view for what they are paying. Hayes K. New Jersey 32 | P a g e .Rodica Lenuta Moga Usually in Food and Beverage labour costs are reduced to maintain sales on this way it can be achieved short term productivity and it will affect long term viability because of erosion on standards of the service. (2005) Food and Beverage Cost Control . Routledge Dobson R. Reference Bernard D et al (2012) Food and Beverage Management. Usa . Successful businesses now a days are those who make profit in progress. 5th edition .5th edition. Lately food and beverage market has met a growth because of: customers appetite for pure products which are healthy for their bodies need new products with special properties Brand is very important in purchasing process. For food and beverage operators price is very important because is related to cost control. if profits are too low this doesn’t mean that prices are too low. Food safety regulations continue to change so producers are forced to adjust their products lines to meet the requirements of customers and market variations otherwise they will meet a decline in profit.
in/food-and-beverage.html http://wiki.com/ Tharakan Y.(2004) A Guide to Food and Beverage .New Delhi 33 | P a g e .McGraw – Hill .answers.Rodica Lenuta Moga http://visahouse.3 rd edition .
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