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FDI in India’s Retail Sector
More Bad than Good?
By Mohan Guruswamy Kamal Sharma Jeevan Prakash Mohanty Thomas J. Korah
CPAS Centre for Policy Alternatives 94 Uday Park New Delhi 110049 Website: www.cpasind.com Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Telephone: 51650995/7 Facsimile: 51650996
Retailing is the interface between the producer and the individual consumer buying for personal consumption. This excludes direct interface between the manufacturer and institutional buyers such as the government and other bulk customers. A retailer is one who stocks the producer’s goods and is involved in the act of selling it to the individual consumer, at a margin of profit. As such, retailing is the last link that connects the individual consumer with the manufacturing and distribution chain. The retail industry in India is of late often being hailed as one of the sunrise sectors in the economy. AT Kearney, the well-known international management consultancy, recently identified India as the ‘second most attractive retail destination’ globally from among thirty emergent markets. It has made India the cause of a good deal of excitement and the cynosure of many foreign eyes. With a contribution of 14% to the national GDP and employing 7% of the total workforce (only agriculture employs more) in the country, the retail industry is definitely one of the pillars of the Indian economy1. (see Table 1) The Indian Scenario: Trade or retailing is the single largest component of the services sector in terms of contribution to GDP. Its massive share of 14% is double the figure of the next largest broad economic activity in the sector. (see Table 1)
Singhal, Arvind, Indian Retail: The road ahead, Retail biz, www.etretailbiz.com
6 8983. Lalith Achoth.0 4.G. Indian Bank): “Strategy for Financing Service Sector” (Sept. the local kirana shops.5 Trade 1.9 5. etc.8 Storage 3. Arpita Mukherjee. Business/Legal Services 5.8 6. owner manned general stores. paan/beedi shops.0 2943. refers to the traditional formats of low-cost retailing.0 Hotels & Restaurants 1. 2004) The retail industry is divided into organised and unorganised sectors. hand cart and pavement vendors. 15.6 9966. Evolution of Food Retail Chains: The Indian Context.5 7482. income tax.0 3682.Ramachandra Reddy and P.2 Source: Presentation to FICCI by MBN Rao (Chairman.3 6.5 10534. B. that is.3 7055.1 -7.3 7.Ravi.C. www.1 5.2 6666.7 Railways 4.1 5.3 Defence 7.0 Communications 6. (see Table 2) Table 2: Growth of Retail Outlets in India (‘000) Outlets 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2769.0 6332. These include the corporate-backed hypermarkets and retail chains.0 Other Transport 0. Unorganised retailing.9 Food Retailers 6040.M.0 Total Retailers Source: P.3 Table 1: Components of Service Sector in India Components Share % in Growth during GDP (2002-03) 2002-03 5. on the other hand. 5-6th Nov.Chengappa.2 Other Community & Social Services Total 56.1 7. and also the privately owned large retail businesses.5 22. 2003.9 Real Estate. convenience stores.4 11165.6 Retailers 8542.9 11.6 Banking & Insurance 6.6 9455.3 Construction 14. etc.2 3480.com .4 3300. Organised retailing refers to trading activities undertaken by licensed retailers.1 Non-Food 5773. for example. those who are registered for sales tax.ficci.9 3123.1 4.
4 Unorganized retailing is by far the prevalent form of trade in India – constituting 98% of total trade.3 In a recent presentation. www. Achoth. AT Kearney estimated it to be Rs. Ramachandra Reddy B.com.000 crores and poised to double in 2005. 2003. 3.000 crores.000 crores in 1999 and poised to grow to Rs. 2003. Changing Retail Landscape. the corporate owned sector is expanding at a furious rate. it deserves very special focused attention.00. while organised trade accounts only for the remaining 2%.indiaonestop.M. Evolution of Food Retail Chains: The Indian Context. Thus even without FDI driving it.000 crores or 44% of GDP4. & Ravi. FICCI has estimated the total retail business to be Rs.ficci. 15.2 On the other hand.35. Food retail trade is a very large segment of the total economic activity of our country and due to its vast employment potential. 2 3 Ganguly.C. what is the need for FDI? It is not that retailing in India is in the need of any technology special to foreign chains.G. 38. if one used the Government’s figures the retail trade in 2002-03 amounted to Rs. Estimates vary widely about the true size of the retail business in India. 5-6th Nov.ksa-technopak. The question then that arises is that since there is obviously no dearth of indigenous capital. Mukherjee. Retailing Industry in India. Saby. One thing all consultants are agreed upon is that the total size of the corporate owned retail business was Rs. 11. 4 Chengappa. 4.com .com Singhal. www. sales now account for 44% of the total GDP and food sales account for 63% of the total retail sales. increasing to Rs.82. P. www.00. 1999. Arpita.1 billion in 1996. Arvind.000 crores by 2005 and keep growing at a rate of 40% per annum. P.100 billion from just Rs. Lalith. Technopak Projections. According to this report dated Nov. Efficiency enhancements and increase in the food retail sales activity would have a cascading effect on employment and economic activity in the rural areas for the marginalized workers.
whereas the unorganized retail trade employs nearly 3. January. .5 Employment in Retailing: A simple glance at the employment numbers is enough to paint a good picture of the relative sizes of these two forms of trade in India – organised trade employs roughly 5 lakh people (see Tables 8 & 9). both due to economic expansion as well as the ‘jobless growth’ that we have seen in the past decade.95 crores5! According to a GoI study the number of workers in retail trade in 1998 was almost 175 lakhs. the number of individually-owned retail outlets far outnumber the corporatebacked institutions. Online Asia Times. www. China. That about 4% of India’s population is in the retail trade says a lot about how vital this business is to the socio-economic equilibrium in India. India Confront the Wal-Marts.com. Table 3: Share of retailing in employment across different countries Country Employment (%) 8 India USA 16 Poland 12 Brazil 15 7 China Source: Presentation to FICCI by Alan Rosling (Chairman. Jardine Matheson Group): “International Experience on Policy Issues. this is only indicative of the magnitude of expansion the retail trade is experiencing. It must be noted that even within the organised sector. Though these numbers translate to approximately 8% of the workforce in the country (half the normal share in developed countries) there are far more retailers in India than other countries in absolute numbers.atimes.” 5 Iyengar. 31. Given the recent numbers indicated by other studies. Jayanthi. India’s workforce is proportionately much larger.2004. because of the demographic profile and the preponderance of youth.
implying lean employment and high automation) Table 4: Retail Trade in India & South East Asia Countries Organised Unorganised 2 98 India 20 80 China 15 85 South Korea 25 75 Indonesia 35 65 Philippines 40 60 Thailand 50 50 Malaysia Source: CRISIL 6 Retail as a ‘Forced Employment’ Sector: It is important to understand how retailing works in our economy. 6 . convenience stores. that is.9 million in the US. the local kirana shop. Most importantly. Thailand. with about 11 million outlets operating in the country and only 4% of them being larger than 500 square feet in size. India still predominantly houses the traditional formats of retailing. which together form the bulk. and bazaars. Though organised trade makes up over 70-80% of total trade in developed economies. Indian retail is highly fragmented.6 Organised retail is still in the stages of finding its feet in India even now. Figures quoted from Anil Sasi’s article “Indian Retail Most Fragmented”(Aug. hardware stores. paan/beedi shop. India’s figure is low even in comparison with other Asian developing economies like China. Compare this with the figure of just 0. from a social as well as an economic perspective. weekly haats. yet catering to more than 13 times of the Indian retail market size. 18. These figures quite accurately reveal the relative underdevelopment of the retail industry in India. South Korea and Philippines. all of whom have figures hovering around the 20-25% mark. and what role it plays in the lives of its citizens. 2004) The Hindu Business Line. (Here development is used in the narrowest sense of the term.
7 Singhal. And thus. www. January. which should be the prime concern of the policy maker.atimes. Given the already over-crowded agriculture sector.com. India Confront the Wal-Marts.7 The Indian retail industry was. According to the global consultancy firms AC Neilsen and KSA Technopak. One of the principal reasons behind the explosion of retail and its fragmented nature in the country is the fact that retailing is probably the primary form of disguised unemployment/underemployment in the country. given the lack of opportunities. 31.000 people. This report also states that the Indian retail market holds the potential of becoming a $300 billion per year market by 2010. a report prepared by McKinsey & Company and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) predicted that global retail giants such as Tesco. The explosion of retail outlets in the more busy streets of Indian villages and towns is a visible testimony of this. Jayanthi China.” www. depending on his or her means and capital. many million Indians are virtually forced into the services sector. In 2001 they estimated there were 11 outlets for every 1.com 8 Iyengar. and the hard nature and relatively low wages of jobs in both. Carrefour and Ahold were waiting in the wings to enter the retail arena.ksa-technopak. .8 It does not talk about creating additional jobs however. India has the highest shop density in the world. Kingfisher. provided the sector is opened up significantly. Online Asia Times.7 Further. seemingly out of circumstance rather than choice.2004. highly fragmented. This phenomenon quite aptly explains the millions of kirana shops and small stores. and continues to be. Arvind. it is almost a natural decision for an individual to set up a small shop or store. Here. a retailer is born. and the stagnating manufacturing sector. “ A Strong Pillar of Indian Economy.
Yet. Because of this fragmentation. Central Statistical Organisation. being a free and democratic country.gov. performs a vital function in the economy as a social security net for the unemployed. Therefore.000 jobs have been added in the organised sector in the whole country10 A vast majority is aware of what these figures signify – that they are most unlikely to get such jobs.8 The presence of more than one retailer for every hundred persons is indicative of the lack of economic opportunities that is forcing people into this form of self-employment. July 2004.7. Retailing is by far the easiest business to enter. rarely eligible for tax and following a cheap model of operations. pension. there were 413. only a total of 30. as opposed to an economy like China. and as such. and union membership etc. to enjoy the benefits and security that a job in the organised sector provides – lifetime employment. with low capital and infrastructure needs. GOI . even though much of it is marginal. India. The typical traditional retailer follows the low-cost-and-size format. they find jobs in the informal sector. one could brand this sector as one of “forced 9 10 As per figures given in www. They register at the exchange. labour and real estate options. functioning at a small-scale level. Volume 57. In this light. mostly in retail. even this does not annul the fact that a multitude of these so-called ‘self-employed’ retailers are simply trying to scrape together a living.tn. where employment is regulated.88 lakhs job seekers registered at the Employment Exchange9. As on January 1st of this year. in the face of limited opportunities for employment. the Indian retail sector typically suffers from limited access to capital. No. But over the period 199293 to 2001-02.in Monthly abstract of Statistics. provides its people with this cushion of being able to make a living for oneself through self-employment.
This entails job losses by the millions. Of these 1355 were outside the USA. Only 4% of the 12 million retail outlets were larger than 500 sq. www.000 crores employing 39.075.9 employment”.4 mn persons. The Waiting Foreign Juggernaut: The largest retailer in the world ‘Wal-Mart’ has a turnover of $ 256 bn.000 mn.000.000 sq.walmart.5 mn persons. and is growing annually at an average of 12-13%. 735. The average size of a Wal-mart is 85. The total turnover of the unorganized retail sector was Rs.. 11 Annual Report. Wal-Mart Corp. It had 4806 stores employing 1. In 2004 its net profit was $ 9. no Indian retailer in the organised sector will be able to meet the onslaught from a firm such as Wal-Mart – when it comes. This is a normal predatory strategy used by large players to drive out small and dispersed competition. 186. The turnover per employee averaged $ 175. With its incredibly deep pockets WalMart will be able to sustain losses for many years till its immediate competition is wiped out. where the retailer is pushed into it.com . In 2004 Wal-Mart had a 9% return on assets and 21% return on equity.ft and the average turnover of a store was about $ 51 mn. purely because of the paucity of opportunities in other sectors.11 By contrast the average Indian retailer had a turnover of Rs.ft in size. 2004. Let alone the average Indian retailer in the unorganized sector.
Chidambaram. In this context. Rather we seem to moving towards a policy steamrolled obviously by vested interests acting in concert with the CII & FICCI. This would mean an employment of just 43. “On retail.”12 The Question of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Retail: Given this backdrop.32. the role that could be played by organised retail chains.800 billion on today’s basis. the review notes that creating an effective supply chain from the producer to the consumer is critical for development of many sectors.10 India has 35 towns each with a population over 1 million.000 persons.540 persons displacing nearly eight million persons employed in the unorganized retail sector. it says. pp 1-15. a great deal of prudence should go into policymaking. including international ones merits careful attention. made while making the mid year review for 2004-05. If large FDI driven retailers were to take 20% of the retail trade. 80. it would mean displacing about 4.330 mn with only 10195 employees. In this context we must be concerned about the statement the Finance Minister. Mr. P.2004 . with arguments to support both sides of the debate. as the now somewhat hard-pressed Hindustan Lever Limited anxiously anticipates. If Wal-Mart were to open an average Wal-Mart store in each of these cities and they reached the average Wal-Mart performance per store – we are looking at a turnover of over Rs. the recent clamour about opening up the retail sector to Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) becomes a very sensitive issue. With possible implications of this magnitude. It is widely acknowledged 12 Review hints at FDI in retail. Times of India. this would mean a turnover of Rs. Extrapolating this with the average trend in India. We need to take a deep hard look at FDI in the retail sector. particularly processed and semi-processed agro-products. 14 Dec.
triggering a series of reactions that in the long run can lead to greater efficiency and improvement of living standards. Imagine if Wal-Mart. This is because the primary task of government in India is still to provide livelihoods and not create so called efficiencies of scale by creating redundancies. As per present regulations. Till such time we are in a position to create jobs on a large scale in manufacturing. Supporters of FDI in retail trade talk of how ultimately the consumer is benefited by both price reductions and improved selection. But the most important factor against FDI driven “modern retailing” is that it is labour displacing to the extent that it can only expand by destroying the traditional retail sector. the world’s biggest retailer sets up operations in India at prime locations in the 35 large cities and towns that house more than 1 . no FDI is permitted in retail trade in India.11 that FDI can have some positive results on the economy. This in turn can lead to greater output and domestic consumption. it would make eminent sense that any policy that results in the elimination of jobs in the unorganised retail sector should be kept on hold. Allowing 49% or 26% FDI (which have been the proposed figures till date) will have immediate and dire consequences. apart from greater integration into the global economy. Entry of foreign players now will most definitely disrupt the current balance of the economy. it is not fully applicable to the retailing sector in India. not yet. brought about by the technology and know-how of foreign players in the market. Though most of the high decibel arguments in favour of FDI in the retail sector are not without some merit. will render millions of small retailers jobless by closing the small slit of opportunity available to them. or at least.
“By controlling both ends of the chain. Once a monopoly situation is created this will then turn into buying low and selling high. from vegetables to the latest electronic gadgets. This means a foreign company will buy big from India and abroad and be able to sell low – severely undercutting the small retailers. given the ‘predatory’ pricing power that a foreign player is able to exert. One must also not forget how countries like China. who opened their retail sector to FDI in the recent 13 14 Census 2001. GOI Robbins. “The World’s First Multinational. It is easy to visualise from the discussion above. which would now have demand mostly only for fluent English-speaking helpers. The producers and traders at the lowest level of operations will never find place in this sector. at extremely low prices that will most likely undercut those in nearby local stores selling similar goods. the company could buy cheap and sell dear”14. In time. (Dec. Having been uprooted from their traditional form of business.” The New Statesman. Nick. WalMart would be more likely to source its raw materials from abroad. Registrar of Census. 13. The supermarket will typically sell everything. the neighbouring traditional outlets are also likely to fold and perish. and procure goods like vegetables and fruits directly from farmers at preordained quantities and specifications. Such re-orientation of sourcing of materials will completely disintegrate the already established supply chain. how the entry of just one big retailer is capable of destroying a whole local economy and send it hurtling down a spiral. As Nick Robbins wrote in the context of the East India Company. Malaysia and Thailand.12 million people13. these persons are unlikely to be suitable for other areas of work either. 2004) .
it would translate into around 160 million dependents using a 1:4 dependency ratio. “Debate: Should FDI Be Allowed In Retail Branding?”. 2004) . Tarun. one must not forget that the western concept of efficiency is maximizing output while minimizing the number of workers involved – which will only increase social tensions in a poor and yet developing country like India. Plus. and pushing a lot of families under the poverty line. a big domestic retailer or any new foreign player will be able to provide their merchandise at cheaper rates than a smaller retailer. in any circumstance. 15 Vijay. It is true that it is in the consumer’s best interest to obtain his goods and services at the lowest possible price. The Financial Express. where tens of millions are still seeking gainful employment. Opening the retailing sector to FDI means dislocating millions from their occupation.13 past. Given their economies of scale and huge resources. (Dec. have been forced to enact new laws to check the prolific expansion of the new foreign malls and hypermarkets15. But this is a privilege for the individual consumer and it cannot. 6. But stopping an Indian retailer from growing bigger is something current public policy cannot do. override the responsibility of any society to provide economic security for its population. Clearly collective well-being must take precedence over individual benefits. Disturbing the Hornet’s Nest: If you assume 40 mn adults in the retail sector. whereas the State does have the prerogative in whether foreign entry in the retail sector should be stalled or not.
The service sector’s contribution to the increase in GDP over the last 5 years has been 63.53 7. (See Table 5) Table 5: Sectoral GDP. which contributes altogether only 21.5 16. With only 17% of our total workforce already employed in industry.90 So far Indian economy has been heavily geared towards the service sector that contributes 56% of our GDP.70 6.14 This dislocated and unemployed horde has to be accommodated somewhere else. Having a high contribution from services is an attribute that is characteristic of developed economies. whereas in India. you wonder where this new accommodation can be found? Agriculture already employs nearly 60% of our total workforce.1 21.1% of the GDP. and is in dire need of shedding excess baggage.2 60. 6 and 7) . That leaves us with manufacturing as the only other alternative.7% of our GDP. this sector can hardly absorb more without a major expansion. manufacturing accounts for a significant share of GDP. manufacturing contributes a mere 23.7 56. What is anomalous in the Indian case is the fact that in other fast developing economies.7 2. (see Tables 5. say China. But if you look at the growth rates of labour in manufacturing and industry.9%.8 22. Employment & Growth Rates (%) Sectors Agriculture Share % in GDP (2004) Employment Cumulative average Growth Rate during 1994-2004 Industry Service Source: FICCI (2004) & NSS 55th Round Employment Survey (1999-2000) 22.
1.9% growth over the corresponding period goes mostly to the service sector.9 23.1 Services Source: Bhanoji Rao – “Industry. (Dec.1 Manufacturing. Ugly Duckling”.5 35.5 Industry 28. which has been growing at 10.2 58.3 6. then there will not be many goods to be retailed! This underlines the importance of manufacturing in a developing economy. Ironically it would seem that the Indian economy is getting a post-industrial profile without having been industrialised! Retailing is not an activity that can boost GDP by itself. Ugly Duckling”.15 Table 6: Indian Economy: Sectoral Sources of Growth (Percentage Contributions to Increase in GDP) 1992-93 1997-98 to to 1996-97 2003-04 20.8 63. the credit for its 5. but that still cannot undermine the seriousness of 16 Calculated from World Development Indicators 2003. One could argue that the alarmingly low contribution of industry is attributable to the structural adjustments going on the sector. 2004) The Economic Times It is evident that the manufacturing sector has been the engine for economic growth in China.9 Services Source: Bhanoji Rao – “Industry.4 Agriculture 62. . construction & quarrying 48.1. In India.3 13 Agriculture & allied sectors 30.1% since 199116. If there aren’t any goods being manufactured. 2004) The Economic Times Table 7: China: Sectoral Sources of Growth (Percentage Contributions to Increase in GDP) 1990-96 1997-2002 9. (Dec. It is only an intermediate value-adding process. getting rid of the flab and getting ready to compete.
the ratio of floor space to parking space etc.215 million out of productive cohort of 600 million is employed in organised manufacturing. . Until that day. disturbing the hornet’s nest would be one very painful experience for the economy. A National Commission must be established to study the problems of the retail sector and to evolve policies that will enable it to cope with FDI – as and when it comes. construction and storage standards. 2. 3. Only until the tardy growth of the manufacturing sector is addressed properly and its productivity chart starts to look prettier. The retail sector in India is severely constrained by limited availability of bank finance. size and specify details like. Recommendations: 1. could one begin thinking of dislocating some of the retailing workforce into this space. state the minimum space. domestically manufactured merchandise and imported goods. These conditionalities must be aimed at encouraging the purchase of goods in the domestic market. Giant shopping centres must not add to our existing urban snarl.16 the issue at hand. Policies that encourage unorganised sector retailers to migrate to the organised sector by investing in space and equipment should be encouraged. in that only 6. The Government and RBI need to evolve suitable lending policies that will enable retailers in the organised and unorganised sectors to expand and improve efficiencies. The proposed National Commission should evolve a clear set of conditionalities on giant foreign retailers on the procurement of farm produce.
There has been a substantial fall in employment by the manufacturing sector. GDP figures from India Observer Statistical Handbook (2004). This is more than just a sizeable portion of the pie and what makes it even more significant is the fact that in this segment. Entry of foreign players must be gradual and with social safeguards so that the effects of the labour dislocation can be analysed & policy finetuned. 5. this is where economies of scale are likely to kick in and benefit the consumer in the 17 Calculated from Monthly abstract of Statistics. Initially allow them to set up supermarkets only in metros. If this sector is given due attention. No. it becomes imperative to develop and improve the manufacturing sector in India. thereby lowering the capital costs for the small retailers. July 2004. Central Statistical Organisation. etc.7.17 4. This will address the dual problem of limited promotion and marketing ability. . Make the costs of entry high and according to specific norms and regulations so that the retailer cannot immediately indulge in ‘predatory’ pricing. Volume 57. Prices for perishable goods like vegetables. to the extent of 4. 7. are not fixed (as opposed to. as well as market penetration for the retailer. In order to address the dislocation issue.06 lakhs over the period 1998 to 2001. 6.4 billion out of the total $180 billion retail sector (these are 2001 figures). returns are likely to be much higher for any retailer. say. then it could be a source of great compensation to the displaced workforce from the retail industry. The government can also facilitate the setting up of warehousing units and cold chains.com. and allowed to take wings. branded textiles) and therefore. fruits. agro products and food processing sector in India is responsible for $69. According to IndiaInfoline. The government must actively encourage setting up of co-operative stores to procure and stock their consumer goods and commodities from small producers. GOI.7%17. while its contribution to the GDP has grown at an average rate of only 3.
Ramachandra. the food-retailing segment presents a focused opportunity to the Government to catalyze growth & employment. Arpita.18 form of lower prices. transporting. government and private colonies with a thrust on easier logistics and hygiene will enable greater employment and higher hygiene consciousness.M. P. The Government themselves can tap into the opportunities of this segment. 2. B.15 as in the case of tomatoes now. they can more directly ensure the welfare of producers and the interest of the consumers. 8. Reddy. But due attention must be given to the producer too.2 and ultimately sold to the consumer at about Rs. and faster turnaround of transport and higher rollover of produce.G. Recommendations for the Food Retail Sector: With 3. for example. Lalith. Achoth. Provision of training in handling. Set up an Agricultural Perishable Produce Commission (APPC). grading. And by doing so. storing.9% to GDP18. 18 Chengappa. Ravi. rather than letting it be lost to foreign players. maintaining hygiene standards. upkeep of refrigeration equipment. 1. community welfare centers. etc. to ensure that procurement prices for perishable commodities are fair to farmers and that they are not distorted with relation to market prices. is an area where ITI’s and SISI’s can play a proactive role.. sorting. when the goods are procured at Rs. Mukherjee. 2003) . Creation of infrastructure for retailing at mandis.6 million shops retailing food and employing 4% of total workforce and contributing 10. Often the producer loses out. P.C. – “Evolution of Food Retail Chains: The Indian Context” (Nov. packing.
5. Quality regulation. creating . dehydrating. packing facilities for small producers at nodal points). economic activity and employment.19 3. Government intervention in food retail segment is necessitated by: a) The lack of any other body at remote/grassroots level. At a subsequent stage. segments and areas. These one off interventions can be replicated in all states. d) Seek markets in India and abroad (provide charter aircrafts. c) Maintain regulatory standards in hygiene. Several successful models of integrating very long food supply chains in dairy. Cross integrations of these unique food supply chains will provide new products in new markets increasing consumer choice. 4. vegetable. Credit availability for retail traders must be encouraged with a view to enhancing employment and higher utilization of fixed assets. 6. b) Need to provide market for casual and distant self-employed growers and gatherers. these interventions can be integrated into the supply chains of the foreign retailers in India and abroad. fish and fruit have been evolved in India. enhance nutritional status of producers and increase caloric availability. vacuuming. e) Provide scope and opportunity for productive self-employment (since Govt. certification & price administration bodies can be created at district and lower levels for upgrading the technical and human interface in the rural to urban supply chain. can’t provide employment). freeze frying. This would lead to less wastage (India has currently the highest wastage in the world) of perishables.
market realities. . and private-public cooperation. the Government can try to ensure that the domestic and foreign players are approximately on an equal footing and that the domestic traders are not at an especial disadvantage. so that their higher costs are not duly nullified by the presence of big supermarkets and hypermarkets. In this fashion. globalization.20 synergy between national priorities. The small retailers must be given ample opportunity to be able to provide more personalized service.
83 1.79 9.55 12.77 15.61 30.5 9.96 45.95 73. No.56 9.21 Table 8: Employment in Organised Sector.07 50.36 35.19 1.92 12.76 273. Insurance.94 97.5 3.63 3.06 16.23 16.38 29.2 21. 1992-1997 (Nos.67 194. in Lakhs) Public/Private Sector 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 33. etc.33 9.66 74.41 0.86 29.06 12.92 52. Volume 57.93 17.17 0.14 35.6 3.46 9. etc.46 77.85 Total Employment 271.58 32.2 35.16 17.97 18.(2) State Govt.45 0.25 279.52 93.6 5.32 8. Community.62 9.4 8.37 9.06 0. Storage & Communications (7) Financing.12 0.84 12.45 10.26 33.78 16.4 9.8 95.85 80. Hunting. Social & Personal Service 78. Central Statistical Organisation * This is the figure only for Organised Retail Sector .03 85.3 195.83 95.83 72.94 1.92 12.11 86.66 29. Storage & Communications (7) Financing.61 9.17 0.49 0.62 30.08 0.48 30.14 64.(5) Mining & quarrying Manufacturing Electricity.01 46.34 1.54 1.37 65.39 0. 7.5 22.74 29.31 11.44 Public Sector Central Govt.9 35.46 21.55 65.5 79.42 0. Gas & Water Construction Wholesale & Retail Trade (6) Transport.57 11.04 1995-96 1996-97 33.64 1.78 194.73 94.38 11.85 65.64 30.02 5.46 11.4 0.35 11.(5) Mining & Quarrying Manufacturing Electricity.82 15.67 1.51 9. Hunting.98 9.59 1.61 9.01 0. Central State Local Bodies Agriculture.3 0. Real Estate. July 2004.76 194.93 16.92 73.97 5.58 71. Gas & Water Construction Wholesale & Retail Trade* (6) Transport. etc. Real Estate. Community.55 2.16 0.3 69.41 282.48 22.2 75.92 5.93 64.55 3.75 275.38 0.5 69.98 21.4 0.58 2. Insurance.92 28.39 10.14 17.6 Private Sector Large (3) Small (4) Agriculture. etc.45 33.06 9.53 3.53 3.44 5. Quasi Govt.58 35.73 3 0.45 Source: Monthly Abstract Statistics.95 74.62 31.56 2.18 9.03 47. Social & Personal Service 193.04 9.84 9.
Insurance.79 50. Volume 57.61 35.61 13. Gas & Water Construction Wholesale & Retail Trade* (6) Transport. Social & Personal Service 194.52 0.76 3.01 22. Real Estate.34 31.7 17.04 0.85 0.61 5.61 74.3 9.19 31.19 9.16 9.67 0.6 63.53 74.42 Total Employment 281.13 29.81 50. Insurance.73 74.58 17.21 0.91 17.58 63.38 187.35 0.57 3.27 9.35 10.69 3.37 16.13 22.69 9.42 12.65 3.56 3. Real Estate.85 34.14 22.63 30.32 75.39 0.59 5.81 1.07 1.3 0.13 279.56 30.26 34.94 77.71 77.23 10.13 0.42 0.35 Public Sector Central Govt. 7.46 5. etc.68 48.87 51.(2) State Govt.03 97. Storage & Communications (7) Financing. July 2004. Community.75 14.76 3.63 30.84 12.7 3.3 77.41 16.7 9.91 52.3 9.52 84.74 3.75 4. Hunting.92 32.96 97.14 9. No.92 1.09 9. Central State Local Bodies Agriculture.73 Private Sector Large (3) Small (4) Agriculture.46 10.48 78. Gas & Water Construction Wholesale & Retail Trade (6) Transport. Storage & Communications (7) Financing.08 9.83 8. Social & Personal Service 87.58 64. (5) Mining & quarrying Manufacturing Electricity.24 8.06 Source: Monthly Abstract Statistics.28 8.54 11.41 0.23 0.77 12.18 194.55 0.41 0.04 0.(5) Mining & Quarrying Manufacturing Electricity.37 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 33.71 3.15 9.15 193.09 1.14 191. Hunting.66 281.33 0.5 9.25 61. Community.13 74.91 29. Central Statistical Organisation *This is the figure only for Organised Retail Sector . etc.81 98.72 29.89 272.84 60.46 86.57 3.94 97.6 277.64 30.63 30.77 86.23 32.09 12.55 5. 1997-2002 (Nos.26 15.78 0.36 29.84 12.24 15.95 28. Quasi Govt. etc.88 97.31 9.21 9.95 73.02 8. etc.58 17 32.24 21.43 9. in Lakhs) Public/Private Sector 1997-98 32.62 11.22 Table 9: Employment in Organised Sector.98 86.27 9.25 22.71 0.26 1.33 0.42 0.
State-wise Number of Workers Engaged in Retail Trade by Type of Enterprises in India (1998) Rural NDE DE 47320 473 20583 19512 2111 17573 2951 2275 2414 36915 35376 26141 30361 61 834 151 382 15367 7207 16027 399 83460 653 29957 29541 296 142 127 289 3872 43 994 433507 94699 3518 57992 91591 3158 46004 12441 10163 6945 83415 165253 58572 109955 1098 8204 743 1999 59629 24517 39612 1434 218380 6963 81505 213391 1186 525 410 375 8693 53 2056 1414479 Urban ALL 780377 9650 297242 565806 16988 285785 106465 63942 54824 450205 503073 503710 633612 17028 18828 3771 7909 495731 150943 279851 5731 690699 36644 817390 1046350 4593 1533 1402 1394 25068 353 6555 7883452 States/UT’s Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh West Bengal A&N Islands Chandigarh D&N Haveli Daman & Diu Delhi Lakshadwep Pondicherry India OAE 638358 5659 218667 454703 11719 222208 91073 51504 45465 329875 302444 418997 493296 15869 9790 2877 5528 420735 119219 224212 3898 388859 29028 705928 803718 3111 866 865 730 12503 257 3505 6035466 OAE 446500 2933 82218 306323 13117 365753 124590 17730 56870 276345 71970 437151 635164 19372 7333 7154 9730 136117 185621 256356 2142 297470 14422 753617 416387 1800 11226 260 1518 174315 273 9136 5140913 NDE 217763 706 16768 61316 5390 73445 14999 3706 12082 130703 44521 55169 210386 1046 1840 898 2547 24826 33274 33960 583 248451 1106 86449 171080 794 7532 97 181 109134 63 7249 1578064 DE 267496 3174 68448 171381 10167 196940 67512 10547 21327 243345 125383 166730 519775 5604 9156 1900 9647 70856 101943 113651 2034 531755 8166 401999 556196 1902 8404 545 762 227370 138 10672 3934925 ALL 931759 6813 167434 539020 28674 636138 207101 31983 90279 650393 241874 659050 1365325 26022 18329 9952 21924 231799 320838 403967 4759 1077676 23694 1242065 1143663 4496 27162 902 2461 510819 474 27057 10653902 Source: Economic Census 1998. MOSPI.23 Table: 10. GOI OAE: Own Account Enterprises. NDE: Non-Directory Establishments. . DE: Directory Establishments.
Kennedy School of Government. Thomas J. Stephen’s College. Korah is a Research Assistant at the Centre for Policy Alternatives. He is currently pursuing an Economics Degree at St. Jeevan Prakash Mohanty is a Research Associate at the Centre for Policy Alternatives and is a doctoral candidate at the Jawaharlal Nehru University. He was educated at St. and is a graduate of the John F. Centre for Policy Alternatives. Stephen’s College. Kamal Sharma is a Fellow at Centre for Policy Alternatives and an independent management consultant. New Delhi was formerly Advisor to the Finance Minister.24 About the Authors Mohan Guruswamy. New Delhi and the Indian Institute of Management. Harvard University. Ahemadabad. Chairman. New Delhi. New Delhi . He also has many years of experience in academia and the private sector.
com. .in.co.25 Reports Authored by Centre for Policy Alternatives • • • • • • • • • • • • Will India Catch-up With China? Left Behind: A Case Study of Assam Towards a New Petroleum Products Pricing Policy Economic Growth and Development of West Bengal: Reality vs. Projects Currently Underway • • • • Redefining the Poverty Line of India The Tibet Conundrum Review of the Indian Education Sector Review of the Indian Transport Sector Centre for Policy Alternatives Society is a privately funded think tank focused on the study and review of public policy in India. Perception FDI in Retail: More Bad than Good? Jammu & Kashmir: is there Really a Fresh Vision and Blueprint? A Socioeconomic Comparison of India’s Three Top States Centrally Planned Inequality: the Tale of Two States – Punjab and Bihar The Children of the Ganga and the Politics of Allocation Last in the South: Economic Growth and Development in Andhra Pradesh The Looming Crisis in Indian Agriculture The Economic Strangulation of Bihar To access these reports. or email us at cpasind@yahoo. CPAS is registered under the “Society Registration Act (XXI) of 1860”.cpasind. please visit our website: www.