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MATHEMATICS USEFUL FOR UNDERSTANDING PLATO .
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THEON OF SMYRNA
Platonic Philosopher

T r a n s l a t e d fr o m th e 1 8 9 2 G r e e k / F r e n c h e d i t i o n o f J. D upuis by

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ROBERT and DEBORAH LAWLOR
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edited and annotated by C hristos Toulis and others.

w ith an a p p e n d i x o f n o te s by Dupuis, a c o p i o u s glo s sa ry , in d e x o f w o rk s etc.

SECRET DOCTRINE REFERENCE SERIES

WIZARDS BOOKSHELF SAN DIEGO 1979
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will bear fruit according to the ardour and zeal with which one applies one’s self to it. strive in vain who seek to know diatonic nuances and to com pare sounds by being satisfied by at­ tentively straining their ear and drawing as near as possible to the instrument. But the clever arithm etician seeks in reflection for what numbers correspond to the consonances and form harmony. Others doubt the existence of this sound. two things are necessary. 526b. “Astronom y and H ar­ mony which. and what ones are those which correspond to dissonances.4 THEON’S same book. if it is general and extends to all the common properties of things through drawing tighter the bonds of their m utual affinities. 531a. they seek the truth in the plucking of the strings and the turning of the keys of their instru­ ments. 529a. " Republic V II 526d.” 1 0 In the same book he again assures us that even in war. section II. Any method. the art of calculation is very useful. all else is use­ less. for taking possession of areas. 1 4 Republic V II. 1 6 Republic V II. do not know how to account for the reason of things to themselves nor to others.. 15 Republic V II. see fu rth er on. It is indeed impossible that the dialecticians who are so clever. are two sister sciences. “ for encampments. which consequently obliges the soul to look upward and to bypass the things of the earth for the contem plation of those of the sky. 530d.” 1 2 In the same writing he speaks of music because for the contem plation of all that exists. for it is in reasoning according to them that we arrive at the contem plation of things. 5 3 Id.1 1 1 No one will ar­ rive at this if he does not take these sciences for guide.1 4 Some say that they hear a certain particular sound between two sounds and that the interval is the sm allest that can be detected.. 10 Cf. but “ that astronom y has as its object the m ovem ent of the solid. . according to the Pythagorean doctrine. for the concentration and deploym ent o f ‘troops” .. 531c. “Those who know how to calculate apply themselves successfully to all the sciences and even those who have a slower mind become more intelligent through this. Preferring the authority of the ear to that of the spirit. 1 2 Republic V II. Republic V II. praising the same science he says that geometry pertains to surfaces. as if wishing to overhear secretly the conversation of their neighbor.1 5 This study leads to the investigation of the good and beautiful. 1 3 Republic V II..” 1 3 Those therefore. 1 1 Further on.

Now he is a mendacious person who develops a false opinion of the gods and expresses it w ithout even having l7I believe” . and it is not less evi­ dent that number. because if one is ashamed to com m it false­ hood in the eyes of men. m oreover it would no longer have its essence. It is evident. 18 Epinomis.” 1 8 Let us pass in review everything which is related to the other arts. this would already be much to concede. who knows how to distinguish neither two nor three. he will never know nor com ­ prehend for how many of our faculties and forces num ber is the source. But he who will consider that there is som ething divine in the origin and the m ortality of man. C ertainly the anim al. p. could not be the cause of any “evil” . he says. “ If one were to remove numbers from humanity. On the contrary. 989b. it is w ithout order. Deprived of true reason he will never become wise. will never be able to give reason to anything. who knows neither the even nor the odd.INTRODUCTION 5 In th e Epinomis. and we will see that there is nothing which would sub­ sist. one is even more asham ed to do so in the eyes of the gods. . To consider only the arts. “ I may say th at t’is not so m uch o ur luck as a god w ho preserves us by his gift o f it. F urther on. 976 e. Then passing to the description of the contrary. knowing only through the senses and the memory. 977d. that music can only result from movements and sounds m easured by numbers. and that person will recognize num ber in man. he says. P lato comes again to A rithm etic which he calls a “ gift of G od” 1 7 and he says that no one would know how to become virtuous w ithout it. and unless he be a prophet. then he says that it is necessary to begin with astronom y.” Epinomis. He next shows how one inspires piety towards the gods. that which is devoid of num ­ ber lacks any sort of reason. p. without grace and ultim ately deprived of all perfections. for example. sees w hat need he has of piety towards the gods. he continues thus: “No one will ever pursuade us that there could be a virtue for the human species greater or more noble than piety” 1 9 because it is through piety that he who has taken care to in­ struct him self acquires the other virtues. one would be reasonably able to believe that this science is only necessary to the human species for objects of little im portance. w ithout beauty. 19 Epinomis. as the source of all that is good. all discretion would be made impossible: the soul of the anim al deprived of reason would be incapable of any virtue. nothing which would not perish were the science of number withdrawn. who knows nothing of number.

because it contains a com bination of numbers which are not sim ilar to one another by nature. the knowledge of which all the genius of man finds it difficult to achieve.”23 A nd in the third book of the Republic. “ that the person who is truly an astronom er is necessarily very wise.”20 Now he who proposes to prepare the minds of men for these studies. as far as they con­ tribute to making known the nature of things. “ Do you not know” .■ — W gM . 990a. p. will m ultiply three numbers whose planes are as I already discussed. wishing to prove that the philosopher alone is a musician.2 1 There is an aspect of this science which has been given the com pletely ridiculous name of geometry. a com bination which makes evident the condition of surfaces. “ the greatest and beautiful political harmony is wisdom. and how to recognize them or to recog20 Epinomis. 22 Plato is undoubtedly alluding to this problem: “construct a rectangular parallelopiped sim ilar to a given rectangular parallelopiped which is to this solid in a given relationship”. that is. as for the one who abandons it. 689d. which suppose so much prelim inary knowledge. p. but of those who scrutinize the revolutions of the seven planets. . he says. He is a citizen useless to the safety and prosperity of the State. One possesses it only to the extent that one lives according to right reason. since he lives in extrem e ignorance. must have himself been given fam iliarity with the m athem atical sciences since childhood and all during his youth. he is the corruptor of his own house. he says: “ By the im m ortal gods. the principal one is the science of abstract numbers. a problem o f which that o f the duplication o f the cube is but a particular case. he says that. the best. 23 Laws. And among these sciences. making the product sim ilar (to another num­ ber) and dissim ilar to w hat it was. he will create a solid body Erqaei Iloiet ILwfjtaTa which is truly a divine and marvelous w ork. 990c. of generosity and of high mindedness and everything in the world w hich conform s to or is contrary to these virtues. III. he says. p. of courage. 2 1 Epinomis.22 In the Laws. Following this he m entions another experience and art which he calls stereometry: if someone. astronomy. not an astronom er in the m an­ ner of Hesiod who busies him self with observing the rising and set­ ting of the stars. 6 THEON’S studied the nature of the perceptible gods. separate from all m atter. also that of genera­ tion and the properties of the odd and even. as long as we do not know all the forms of tem perance. neither we nor the guardians whom we must educate. speaking of musical harmony. we will never be musicians.

It is also through music th at the harmony of things and the governm ent of the universe is m aintained. this virtue which con­ sists in the good and honest ruling of our life. confusion and discord in all that one does by oneself or by im itation. He adds that the com pan­ ions of right reason are decency. also define music as the perfect union of contrary things. The Pythagoreans. usage conforms to reason. or to the corrupted use of reason. who does not have ideas of de­ cency. On the other hand.INTRODUCTION nize th e ir images in those who possess them. of nobility of the soul and of temperance. tem ­ perance and decency if he him self is immodest and intem perant. F or music does not only coordinate rhythm and m odulation. for som eone to become a perfect musician who has not acquired all the habitudes of a good education. beauty. while he who is vicious and mean is a stranger to the Muses. and his greatest work is to reconcile with one another things which were enemies. when he was taught music. p. says Plato. no person will know modesty. and God also is the ar­ ranger of discordant things. . all these are the images of that beauty. it puts order into the whole system. It is impossible. decency in song. that beautiful eternal order which has a true existence. and as can be seen by the preceding. the true and sincere integrity of morals. regarding them as being part of the same art and the same study. if.402b. honesty. by means of the laws of music and medicine. large or sm all. he took on habits of decency and order. always since the first years of his adolescence. cadence in rhythm. th at accord. cadence and accord. But the things which com prise the em bellishm ent of human life. and shows that only the philosopher is truly a musician. For. so that only he who has good m orals is a musician. unity within m ultiplicity. w ithout neglecting any of them . that is to say. he says. harmony. even accord within discord. and its com pan­ ions are indecency. for that 24 Republic. im propriety or m oral corruption is essentially linked to a perver­ sion of reason. follows right reason. whose feelings Plato often adopted. accord in harmony. its end is to unite and to coordinate. that is to say that these perceptible things are the characteristics and the expression of intelligible things.” 24 7 By these words and by the preceeding he proves the usefulness of music. for music joins innocent pleasure to utility. Because it belongs to the philosopher to know ideas. III. or ideas. he is also the true philosopher. He must realize that these ideas are found everywhere and are not to be taken lightly either in large things or in the small.

tried by pain or pleasure. says Plato. and their brilliancy cannot be rem oved. I am going to tell you of som ething w hich appears to me to be sim ilar. such as those of impure “ Republic. like a dye.” 25 W e teach children music. This is how they proceed. and no little care is necessary so that the wool takes the color in the best way. consisting in these sciences which are as so much astringent medicine. gymnastics. Indeed. neither with the aid o f lye nor otherwise. But if. their character will have been formed by education. but there are some aspirants whom the harbinger of the path separates out. It has indeed the power to bring order and union into the m ultitude. the reasons for all the virtues we teach them. Now the efficacy and use of this science. p. after having pre­ viously adm inistered to them detergents and other preparations. geometry and arithm etic. the right ideas which have been given to him in his education.69d. w ithout ever rejecting them. p.8 THEON’S which harmony is in the world. these four things have need of being well ordered and constituted. because participation in the mysteries must not be indiscrim inately given to all those who desire it. good legislation is in the State. neglecting nothing in order that they receive. W e can again com pare philosophy to the initiation into things truly holy. more corrosive than any lye. It is necessary to proceed in the same way with our faculties. Phardo. W hen our dyers w ant to dye wool purple. the colors are incorporated into the w ool. on the contrary. their feelings will remain indelible. body. w hich com es off and disappears. and tem perance is in the family. . one knows w hatthappens and how the wools re­ tain little of their color. always preserves. Then they make their preparation. that w hich is white.— nor by pain nor by fear and greed. agitated by desire or by fear. is seen in four of the elements belonging to humanity: mind. the dyer does not take these precautions. This color and this dye that we will have given them will not be rem ovable by any lye— by this I mean sensual pleasure. and thanks to this m ethod. they begin by choosing from am ong the wools of various colors. 28 There are five parts in initation: the first is the prelim inary purification. “ Cf. and State. and to the revelation of the authentic mysteries. IV .429d. Here again is what P lato says of m athem atics in the books of the Republic: “ The good man is he who. more dangerous than any perversity and any habitude. family. letters.

or whose speech lacks prudence. he says that the binding and the crowning of the head must be understood as the faculty which is given to the adept by those who have taught him. but even those who are not rejected must be subjected to certain purifications. to lead others to the same con­ tem plation. logical. Finally. all of which would be necessary for the readers in order to become perfect arithmeticians. He calls full vision28 the occupation of the spirit with intelligible things. stereometry. A fter this purification comes the tradition of sacred things (which is initiation proper). with true existence and with ideas.INTRODUCTION 9 hands.27 “ it is necessary that he who wishes to submerge him self in the pure wave of the five fountains begins by purifying him self of his defilements. musicians or astronomers. Phaedrus. In the third place comes the ceremony which is called the full vision (the highest degree of the initiation). which is the end and the goal of the full vision. vs. becomes capable in his turn of transm it­ ting the tradition to o th e rs. geometry. Finally the fifth stage. music and astronomy. “ identifies them with the Diety. geometers. in so far as that is possible.” And Plato also said one must seek purification in the five m athem atical sciences. either through the dadouchos (the torch bearing ceremonies). But from the fear that I might appear unable to stop presenting the reasons to praise these sciences. edition M ullach. is to be a friend of the Diety.” One who wishes to dem onstrate the usefulness and the necessity of the m athem atical sciences could speak of it at even greater length than this. The tradition of philosophical. The fifth stage is that consum m ate felicity which they begin to enjoy. Indeed one begins from childhood with a certain consistent purification in the study of appropriate m athem atical theories. The fourth stage. 432. which is the crowning of all that has preceeded it. which are arithm etic. p. According to Em pedocles. and to enjoy the felicity which consists of living in a fam iliar commerce with him. It is in absolutely the same m anner that the tradition of Platonic reason follows. political and natural principles corresponds to initiation. or by some other priestly work. is the binding of the head and the placem ent of the crowns. in order that he who has received the sacred things. 28 Cf. . I am going to begin the explanation of the necessary theorems. or through hierophantism (interpretation of sacred things). according to Plato. but that is not 27 Empedocles. 250c. and which.

so that they may readily un­ derstand our explanations. It is sufficient that those who wish to approach our writings or those of P lato might have gone through the first elem ents of geometry. However.10 INTRODUCTION the goal sought by all those who wish to read the writings of Plato. here I will explain the theorems which are sufficient for understand­ ing the meaning of his writings. . things which are appropriate for children and which are destined to prepare and purify their minds in order to make them capable of understanding philosophy. Indeed Plato him self did not wish that we continue to extrem e old age to draw geom etric figures or to sing songs. what we say will be such that it can be understood even by those who are com pletely ignorant of mathematics.

The second is that whose ob­ ject is surfaces and is called geometry. 530d — after having assigned the fourth rung to astronom y — Republic V II. 528e. since one can understand nothing of celestial music. According to the natural order. we will give them the second rung. the order and the concert of the stars which travel in space. . we can only examine this harmony after having studied the numerical laws of sounds. called stereom e­ 29 P la to places music after astronom y — Republic V II. W hen P lato says that music occupies the fifth rung 29 (in the study of m athem atics). But we must give m athem atics of music second place (that is to say. the first science will be that of numbers. The third. W e are going to begin with the arithm etic theorem s which are very closely connected with the musical theorems which are transposed into numbers. W e have no need for a musical instru­ ment. in order to facilitate our study. as P lato him self explains. Then so that the numerical principles of music can be connected to the theory of abstract numbers. W hat we desire is to un­ derstand harmony and the celestial music. place it) after arithm etic. he speaks of celestial music which results from the movement. if one does not understand that which has its foundation in numbers and in reason. which is called arithm etic. as P lato wished.ARITHMETIC 11 ARITHM ETIC O N THE ORDER IN W HICH MA THEM A TICS M U ST BE STUDIED II. when he says that it is not necess­ ary to agitate the strings of an instrum ent (with hand to ear) like curious folk trying to overhear something.

or a progression of the m ultitude beginning from and returning to the monad (through the successive addition or subtraction of one unit). but following the natural order. or 5 and 1. yet it grows larger as a num­ ber because in place of that which was one there are now several. 1. Now. 1. The monad. the principle. and if each part is then subtracted. but if it is divided into 4 and 2. The fourth treats of solids in move­ ment and this is astronomy. is indivisible. is the study of solid objects.12 ARITHMETIC try. and in taking away each of these parts. Thus in our plan. Indeed nothing can be divided into parts larger than itself. according to the doctrine of the Pythagoreans. into parts equal (in sum) to the whole. divided into parts greater than its whole. a tangible unity. the numerical laws of music will come immediately after arithmetic. it is not possible to understand it before having grasped what is based on numbers. And it follows that this one is indivisible. is diminished and reduced into parts sm aller than itself. THE ONE AN D THE MONAD III. these parts are equal to the unit. is divided into six parts. the numbers are. is also divided. then. being divided. As for the monad. we come again to one in such a way that that which is one. this music which con­ sists in studying the harmony of the worlds will come in fifth place. Among tangible things. the source and the root of all things. as a number. 1. like six into 3 and 3. in the m anner of numbers. if a body. if that which is one is divided it is diminished in bodily size and as a result of the partitioning it is divided into parts sm aller than itself. it will term inate at one.30 Every other number. Num ber is a collection of monads. and if we again divide this one into several parts.1 . whose object is to con­ sider the m utual relations of the movements and intervals. For example. is without parts and indivisible. the parts are greater than the unit. when disentangled from the m ultitude through subtraction and isolated from all number. As for music. . or into 4 and 2. remains firm and fixed: it is impossi­ ble to push division any further. so to say. whatever these relations be. the m ultitude will arise out of it. 1. But it is called the 30 See note II after the translation. as one. But that which is one. what was one becomes several. which. indeed 4 and 2 as numbers surpass one. If we divide a tangible body in several parts. it is the term inate quantity— the principle and element of numbers. 1.

whereas for the Pythagoreans. but is the one considered in itself. The monad is then the principle of numbers. and the one the principle of numbered things.3 1 IV. and the principle of all that which is four. can be divided to infinity. But. posterity considers the m onad and the dyad as principles of numbers. Archytas and Philolaus use the words one and monad interchangebly. while the numbers are incorporeal. As for the one which is met among tangible things. the num erable quantity is found among tangible things. it is called the monad because it is separated and placed alone outside the m ultitude of other numbers. but that which is one. 31 Thus according to Theon. As num ber differs from that which is numbered. that the principle of three among tangible things is the triad. the one concrete. the m onad is abstract. that is to say. 5 oxen. such as 5 horses. the one which is found in numbers is not just any one. . M ost add the epithet “first” to the name m onad.” They say. but in so far as it is tangible. can most assuredly be divided to infinity. as if they had a m onad which was not first. for example. being tangible. with a naive attitude. is the tetrad. one times one is always one. as being a participant in the first essence and idea of that which is one. They further claim that the m onad is the princi­ ple of all these numbers and that the one is free of all variety. but of intelligible ones. and they say that the m onad is the one. one m an. 5 men. among tangible things. in the same way the monad differs from that which is one. Numbered things again differ from numbers in that they are corporeal. the principle of numbers consists in the series of successive terms through which the odd and even are conceived. T hat which is one. not so far as it is num ber or the principle of number. like the quantity 5 and the quantity 10 which are not com ­ posed of tangible bodies. in the same way that each existing thing is called one. and as if the one which they call first were the more universal. being tangible. For it is through this that it becomes the principle and the measure of things which are subordi­ nate to it. The num ber indeed is an intelligible quan­ tity. it is called one in itself. as one horse. indeed in multiplying the m onad by itself we will always have the monad. so that the monad which is intelligible does not adm it of division. However. Moreover. and sim ilarly for all other numbers.ARITHMETIC 13 monad because it remains im m utable and does not go beyond the limits of its nature. and if we multiply even to infinity it will always remain the monad. it is not a certain quantity and a diversity with regard to another one.

Thus the monad and the one. as are the monads to which can be added another monad. Others place another difference between the one and the monad: the one does not change according to the substance. such as two and four. does not specify what the object is nor of what species it partakes. It is by virtue of a par­ ticipation in this essence that all things are called one. for it itself is monad. therefore again. being at the same time intelligible and tangible. ’ E vas = u n it (From ■Epo<? = one) 34 O ne o f the lost works o f A ristotle. it is for this reason that it is called the unique one. Some have said that the first of the odd numbers is the monad (unit) for even is the opposite of odd. . The one then differs from the m onad in that it is defined and term inated. the total will be even. p. while the monads are indefinite and indeterminate. in The Pythagorean 34 that one participates 32 Philebus. now unity added to an even number gives an odd number. but it does not even divide at all. If you add an even num ber to another even number. are in no way different from one another. is something com pletely immutable. and the monad (unit) is necessarily either even or odd. ODD AN D E V E N NUM BERS V. It does not change according to quantity either. 15a. However. is odd. but is applied to all things. and unlike the monads which are several. It is one and not several. one. the odd numbers. and it is not the one which causes the monad or the odd numbers to change according to essence. because it is not composite. 33A variation o f the word Mottos = unit or m onad here referred to as an adj. are those which can only be divided into unequal parts. not only does it not divide into two equal parts. on the contrary. like five and seven. Neither does it change according to quality. Initially the numbers are divided into two kinds: those which are called even and the others which are called odd. Now it cannot be even since. he did not call them so after one. in the Philebus32 uses the expression “ the Units” 33. unity is not even. This is why the name itself. but odd. but after the m onad which is a participation in the one. The even num­ bers are those which can be divided into two equal parts. therefore unity. And although Plato. This one which is distinguished from the monad of which it is the essence. A ristotle says.14 ARITHMETIC and were both the m onad and the one — for they also call it the one — and as if it were the first and intelligible essence which caused all the things that are one to be such.

Now the relationship 1 + % is sm aller than 1 + Vi. 13. These are 3. Indeed one times 3 is 3. And one would find that the ratio decreases in like m anner for the other numbers.. 5. The absolute prime numbers (incomposite) are those which no other number. incomposite. because the lengths and the lines are only considered as a single dimension. except the unit. in the world also. This is why the dyad is called indefinite.. the ratio of the number 2 to unity is double. because it is not defined. 4. which causes that which is indefinite. each surpassing the preceeding one by a unit. On the other hand. unknown and disorderly to be attributed to the quality of even. PRIM E OR INCOMPOSITE NUM BERS VI. Likewise. A nd for this reason these numbers are called oddly35 Dyad = tw o /p a ir from G reek 8ua?. 17. This is why it is called odd-even. as also in the world. These numbers are also called linear and euthymetric. They have thus been given five different names: prime. thus none of the numbers other than unity (m onad) can divide 3 in such a way that 3 could result from their m ultiplication. 11. as is the Unit (or monad).and other sim ilar num­ bers. Archytas also ap­ pears to have had this feeling. It can thus be seen that the successive num­ bers are alternately odd and even. As for the terms which follow in a continued series. 5. the quality of odd is attributed to that which is defined and well ordered.ARITHMETIC 15 in both natures. But in the measure of the terms. they a l­ ways increase by an equal quantity. added to an odd num ber it gives an even number. and finally 1 + % is sm aller than 2. which it would not be able to do if it did not participate in both natures. 1. others are prim e in relation to each other but not absolute. the first idea of the even is the indefinite dyad35. beginning with unity. others are absolutely com posite and still others are composite in relation to each other. Indeed. Some among the numbers are called absolute prim e or in­ composite numbers. They are also called the oddly-odd numbers. and one times 11 is 11. 6. one times 7 is 7. can measure.Vn. They are the only indivisible numbers. that of 3 to 2 is sesquialter (1 + *4) finally that of 6 to 5 is sesquiquintan (1 + Y & ). 2. The first idea of the odd is therefore the monad. 7. 3. 1 + 1% is sm aller than 1 4. T riad = th re e /trin ity from G reek Tpias Cctyux rpto? = holy trinity) (Toulis) . 1 + Yt is sm aller than 1 + %. linear. euthym etric and oddly-odd. one times 5 is 5.

’ . for 3 times 2 equals 6 and 3 times 3 equals 9. Com posite numbers are those m easured by a num ber sm aller than themselves. for 2 times 3 equals 6 and 2 times 4 equals 8. they are considered as having two dimensions. Prim e num bers are included in this form ula by supposing that 2b + 1 = 1. like 6 which is measured by 2 and 3. the dyad measures 4 because 2 times 2 makes 4. In­ deed the even numbers are not prim e or incomposite. 9 which is m easured by 3. 36 E uclid calls num bers in the form (2a + 1) (2b + 1) oddly odd. 10. one times 8 equals 8. it is not indefinite. def. and. it is not a number. The composite numbers which are the product of two numbers are called planar. Because of this it is said that the num ber two has the nature of the odd numbers because it has the same property as the odd. but not absolute. are those which have unity for com m on measure. cf. COMPOSITE NUM BERS VII. as for the number 2. such as 8 and 6 which have 2 as their com m on denom inator. although other numbers measure them if they are considered separately. A ll the other even num ­ bers with the exception of 2 are likewise measured by numbers greater than the unit. Also. and one times 10 equals 10. Elem ents V II.t it is the first num ber different from the unit. length and width. Finally the numbers resulting from the m ultiplication of one type of numbers by the other are called peripheral numbers. such as 8 which is measured by 2 and 4. Those which are the product of three numbers are called solids since they possess the third dimension. Those which are called prim e in relation to one another. one times 9 equals 9. Such again are 6 and 9 which have 3 for their common denom inator. but other numbers also. Indeed one times two is two. t Unity + u n ity = the indefinite dyad. that is to say. and although even. The num ber 2 is the only one among the even numbers which is sim ilar to the odd numbers in having only unity for its measure. For example. As for the unit. b = 0. and 10 which is measured by 2 and 5. They indeed have unity for com m on measure either in relation to one another or in relation to their prime factors: one times 3 equals 3. C om posite numbers in relation to one another are those which have a common denom inator.16 ARITHMETIC odd 36 for they are odd and unity which measures them is odd as well. it is not only unity which measures them. but 1 + 1 = 2 is ‘not indefinite. only odd numbers can be prim e and incomposite. 2 and 3 measure 6 because 2 times 3 and 3 times 2 make 6. it does not have a divisor greater than the unit. but the principle of number.

Am ong the even numbers. 3. Indeed half of 6 is 3. Such are the numbers 12 and 20. Indeed. (2) that all the parts be even down to the final unit. Such are 32. 64. Such.37 IX. sometimes odd. cf. 8. and those which follow in proceeding by a double progression. we have 1 2 = 2 x 6 = 3 x 4 = 4 x 3 . and after this first division in equal parts. 8. Likewise we have 2 0 = 2 x 1 0 = 4 x 5 = 5 x 4 . Elements. V II. for example. w hich T heon distinguishes from the evenly-odd. for unity (which remains after the division by 2) is indivisi­ ble. V II. The evenly-odd numbers are those measured by the num ber 2 and by any odd number. the quotients are sometimes even. These numbers. 38 T he evenly-odd num bers are then. six has the num ber 3. and 4.39 37Thus. (3) that none of its parts is homonymous to the odd num­ ber. and the same for the quarter and the eighth (which are considered as the numbers 4 and 8). when divided once by two. and an odd num ber besides. 10 has the num ber 5. 14 has 7. the num bers in the form 2(2a + 1). which is even. def. are partitioned into two odd parts. and others are oddly-even. 2 has the unit. its half. The oddly-even are those which result from the m ultiplication of any two numbers. 128. A ll its parts are even. Now. its eighth. but if a larger divisor is used. in dividing 12 successively by 2. Cf.ARITHMETIC 17 VARIOUS K IN D S OF E V E N NUM BERS VIII. are divided by the number 2 into two even parts. the evenly-even num ber is a pow er o f 2. It is to be observed th at a num ber is evenly-even when it combines these three conditions: (1) that it be created by two even numbers m ultiplied by each other. according to T heon. 9. which when m ultiplied. They are called evenly-odd because they are measured by the dyad. and 5 times 4. 4. it is a product o f two even numbers. they will not be divided equally any further. 32 is the product of the numbers 4 and 8 which are even. This ratio applies also for the other num bers. one of which is odd and the other even. def. and which consequently have odd halves when divided in equal parts. according to T heon. is 2 times 7 or 14. some are evenly-even. the half is considered as the binary number. .38 X. 39 The oddly-even numbers. which respec­ tively have the value 3 times 4. This is the sam e definition as th at o f E uclid. 16. Elements. These parts are homonymous to the even numbers. A ccording to Euclid. and still others are evenly-odd. but 3 cannot be divided into equal parts. w ould then be num bers taking th e form (2a + 1) 4b. its quarter.

18. Such are the numbers 4 and 9. we have 2 + 4 = 6. thus unequilaterals are only comprised of even numbers. 12. Now. 2. T heon never gives th e dem onstration o f the arithm etic theorem s w hich he states. 2. and square). X III. 1. We have 1 times 2 = 2. 4. 16. Through addition. those which have one side (factor) longer than the opposite by one unit are called unequilateral. 30 and so forth. he verifies them w ith several exam ples. 10. 5. for 2 times 2 is 4 and 3 times 3 is 9.2N is in effect n(n + 1). 14. 4 times 5 = 40 U nequilateral . 3.. makes. unity. by m ultiplication and by addi­ tion. XII.4 1 The same unequilateral numbers are also obtained by the m ultiplication of even and successive odd numbers. some are equally-equal. 1 2 + 8 = 2 0 . 8. the num ber which surpasses the odd num ber by one unit is even. so that the sums are the unequilateral numbers 6. when they result from the m ultiplication of two equal numbers (the result is equally-equal.from G reek 'ETepofjuiiiar. 6. 6 + 6 = 1 2 . since 2 times 3 is 6. therefore it is an u nequilateral num ber by definition. 14. the dyad. com posite numbers are unequally unequal when they result from the m ultiplication of two unequal numbers. Among these numbers. 4. Indeed.. 8. Thus these are the successive even numbers. 4 . This is why the num ber 2. the first num­ ber being m ultiplied by the following. 6. 20. 2 times 3 = 6 .18 ARITHMETIC ON E Q U A LLY-E Q U A L. The even numbers which are added to the even numbers which precede them produce unequilateral numbers. being une­ quilateral and surpassing unity by one. On the contrary. being odd and tending to the production of the others.+ /xtjktjs) o th er length 41 T he sum o f the term s o f the progression form ed by the natural series of even num bers 2. 6. the principle of all numbers. UNEQUILA TERAL A N D 40 P A R A L L E LO G R A M A TIC NUM BERS XI. 10. Among composite numbers. 3 times 4 = 12. renders the even numbers which surpass the odd numbers unequilateral by one unit. which is unequilateral. 12. through doubling itself. Such is 6. 2 0 + 10 = 3 0 . 12. 10. . 9. w hich m eans of different length (€r^x><. 7. Now numbers are created in two ways. 16. 8. that is square and planar. 18.

their mean is the unequilateral 6.2 n . If we put 4. 4 times 4 equals 16. 4 and 5 make 9. 16 and 9 make 25. 3. Taking again the squares 4 and 9. 5 times 6 = 3 0 . 3 times 3 equals 9. 2 is. X VI. which yield 8. which is square because 4 times 4 = 16. 8 times 10. . 7 .4 . 4 times 6. 6 and 9 in a line. and so forth. 24. taking the numbers 1. The numbers created by the addition of the successive odd numbers are square. the double of 1. the relationship of the mean 6 to the first extrem e is equal to the relationship of the second extrem e to 6 because the relationship of 6 to 4 is sesquialter (1 + %).1 is n2.. the mean 2 con­ tains the extrem e 1 as many times as it is contained in the other ex­ trem e 4. 9 . 4 x 4 = 16. XV. since 3 times 3 equals 9. Thus indeed in the series of odd numbers. 9. the num ber 3 can only triple it­ self.. 5. for it is equally equal. The parallelogram m atic numbers are those which have one side greater than the other side by 2 units or greater. 16. the mean between them is the une­ quilateral num ber 2. 2. 3 x 3 = 9 . 4. but the consecutive unequilateral numbers do not have squares for their proportional means. 5 times 5 make 25. 6 times 8. The mean term s for the consecutive squares in geom etric proportion are the unequilateral numbers. 9 . each of them m ultiplied by itself gives a square: 1 x 1 = 1 . like 2 times 4. which is also square. Thus. that is to say the num­ bers whose one side is longer than the other by one unit.ARITHMETIC 19 20. such as 2 times 2 equals 4. like the 42 In fact the nth odd num ber starting from th e unit is 2n . and 4 the double of 2. 1 and 3 make 4 which is square. 9 and 7 make 16. The successive squares are thus 1.. 7. 3 . 25. XIV. 48. which is again a square num ber because it is equally equal. each odd num ber being successively added to the square obtained by the sum m ation of the preceeding odd numbers starting from unity 42 The creation also takes place through m ultiplication. by m ultiplying any num ber by itself. The unequilateral numbers are given this name because the addition of unity to one of the sides make the first diversity of the sides. 2 times 2 make 4. 1. 1. indeed.. for the num ber 2 can only double itself. 4. 3. 80 respec­ tively. if we take the series 1. One could continue this way to infinity. 5. 2. none of the factors go beyond their own limits. 5 . 2 x 2 = 4 .. 5 x 5 = 25.1 and the sum of the term s of the progression. Such is therefore the creation of the square numbers by addition. I assert that they have the heteromecis for a mean. 1 1 . Let us actually take the suc­ cessive squares 1 and 4.

the opposite is not true. products of factors which differ by one unit. Thus 2 x 3 = 6 . according to various m ultiplica­ tions. Furtherm ore. since the latter is defined as: a num ber of which one side is longer than the other by one unit. but if all unequilateral numbers are by that fact oblong. since 2 x 3 = 6 . . An oblong num ber is a num ber form ed by any unequal numbers of which one is greater than the other. A num ber is also oblong when. because the ratio of 4 to 2 is double whereas that of 6 to 4 is sesquialter (1 + %). they change in the m ultiplication. 4. is oblong.20 ARITHMETIC relationship of 9 to 6. and other sim ilar numbers. it would be necessary for the ratio of the first term to the mean to be equal to the ratio of the mean to the third term. Such is 24 which has the value of 6 times 4. but 4 is not contained bet­ ween them according to a continuous geom etric progression in such a way that it would have the same ratio with the extremes. the created unequilateral numbers do not include the square numbers. and sometimes longer by m ore than one unit. but it is not une­ quilateral. while th at of 12 to 9 is sesquitertian (1 + %). The same is so with the following squares. It is the same situation with the following unequilaterals. There are three classes of oblong numbers.43 OBLONG NUM BERS X V II. do not remain in their own limits and do not in­ clude the squares. either by one unit. Indeed all unequilateral numbers are at the same time oblong so far as they have one side larger than the other. If we arrange 2. 4 will have a different ratio with each of the extremes. Thus 2 and 6 are the successive unequilaterals between which is found the square 4. or by two units or by a larger number. The unequilaterals on the contrary. Now in order for 4 to be a pro­ portional m ean. the number 3 is m ultiplied by 4 and 4 by 5. it has one side sometimes longer by one unit. Sim ilarly 9. is contained between the successive unequilaterals 6 and 12. for the num ber which has one side longer than the other by more than one unit. and 4 x 5 = 2 4 . Now none of the (first) factors stay within their own limits. The num ber 2 is m ultiplied by 3. Such is 12 which results from 3 x 4 43 See note III. but it does not have the same ratio with the extremes. and 6 in a line. a square number. such as 6. 3 x 4 = 12. for the ratio of 9 to 6 is sesquialter (1 + %).

which is again une­ quilateral. A fter the num ber 4 comes the num ber 6. polygonal. if we add the four units to the first two. The planar numbers are the numbers produced by the m ultiplication of the two numbers representing the length and the width. added to each other. by placing them around them (at a right angle). The triangular numbers are obtained in the m anner that we are going to indicate. 1 and 1. the sum will be 12 .ARITHMETIC 21 and from 2 x 6. by placing them around them (at a right angle). A nd first of all the successive even numbers. for it has the value of 1 x 2. produce the unequilaterals. This is why the numbers resulting from this first alteration of the sides have been called. The unequilateral num­ ber is the one that receives the first alteration after the num ber form ed by equal factors. A m ong these numbers there are those which are triangular. since its length is 3 and its width 2. it has one side longer than the other by more than one unit. Let us suppose that the first even num ber 2 be represented by two units. If we add 6 units to the six first ones. with good reason. Finally. Thus the first even num ber 2 is at the same time unequilateral. we will have the figure of the une­ quilateral num ber 6. so that when the sides are 3 and 4 the num ber 12 is unequilateral and when the sides are 2 and 6 it is oblong. since it has the value of 2 x 3 and the same occurs with following numbers to infinity. a num ber is again oblong. Numbers of this kind can only be oblong. we will show it in the following way. but those which have a side greater than the others by a quantity larger than one unit have been called oblong numbers because of the greater difference of length between the sides. if. the sum will be 6. A fter the num ber 2 comes the even num ber 4. resulting from any kind of m ultiplica­ tion. pentagonal and in general. X V III. unequilateral. T R IA N G U L A R NUMBERS. If now 4 is added to 2. of 8 by 5 and of 20 by 2. But in order to make clearer w hat we have just said. The figure which they form is unequilateral because it is 2 in length and 1 in width. the first alteration being the addition of one unit given to one of the two sides. others which are quadrangular. 40 is of this sort being the product of 10 by 4. THE M ETHOD OF O BTAINING THEM A N D OTHER P O LYG O N A L N U M BERS I N G E N E R A L X IX .

7. because it has 2 for both length and width. being the principle of all numbers. If this gnomon is added to the square 4. the square numbers are ob­ tained. a new square 9 is obtained. 4. the odd numbers added together give the square num ­ bers. Thus unity is the first square number. which. If 3 is added to this triangular number. Next comes the odd number 7. If the num ber 2 is ad ­ ded to it. 44 It is very pro b ab le th at gnomon here has the m eaning o f constant as the succession o f odd numbers can be taken as a constant. See the general definition o f gnom on. Next comes the odd num ber 3. 10. 1. . but the evens and the odds. the result is the triangular num ber 3. 2. to which if you add 7 you will have 28 which. whose length and width are both 4 and so forth to infinity. becomes 36. by adding no longer just the evens alone or the odds alone.22 ARITHMETIC and the figure will be unequilateral as its length is 4 and its width 3. since 1 x 1 = 1 . 6. ad­ ded to the square 9 gives the square 16. The series of the even and odd numbers is 1. the result is 10. 9. which has 3 for both length and width. 5. to this add 6 and you will have 21. 9. I l l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 In turn. 11.45 an equally equal square is obtained. Now the successive odd numbers are 1. 46 In this case the gnom ons are th e natural series of numbers. The first is unity or monad. If this gnom on44 is added to the unity. we will obtain the triangular numbers. in adding them together we form the triangular num ­ bers. 3. (Toulis) 45 T he gnomons are here the successive odd numbers. and this will continue to infinity through the addition of the even numbers. 5. A nd this continues to infinity. 6 is obtained. If 5 is added to this you will have 15. Now it is evident that these numbers are triangular according to the figure obtained by adding the successive gnomons46 to the first numbers. X X III. because if it is not so in act it is so in power. In adding them in a continuous manner. 7. 3. aug­ mented by 8. The odd num ber which comes next is 5. Add 10 and you will have 55. And 36 augm ented by 9 becomes 45. and by adding 4 to this. 8. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Likewise.

10. 28. 49. . as cubes. 45. form the pentagons. given by the multiple numbers starting from the unit. when added to the square pre­ ceding it. Indeed. the triples and so forth. as we have shown above. the term s are squares of two by two and cubics of three by three. it will be seen that. 1 1 3 1 1 1 6 1 11 111 10 1 11 111 1111 15 1 11 111 1111 11111 36 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 11111 111111 1111111 11111111 21 1 11 111 1111 11111 111111 28 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 11111 111111 1111111 XX. There is another order of polygonal numbers. 55 and so forth. 81. As we have said. each of which is greater by 2 than the preceding. It so happens that they are alternately odd and even. 4. 64. beginning with unity or the monad. 6. in such a way that the rate of the gnomons. 15. 100. 16. the gnomons. which gives a polygon. their sides are of square numbers. the following ones of 6 by 6 are both square and cubic. 25. 9. 36. beginning with the unit. Furtherm ore. The odd numbers. If now the even and odd numbers are arranged in order. 21. will form the next square. 36. Those which increase by 4 give the hexagons. beginning with the unit. Likewise. and as squares.ARITHMETIC 23 The triangular numbers obtained by addition will then be 3. is always less by 2 units than the num ber of angles in the figure. the square numbers are produced by the ad ­ dition of successive odd numbers. among the m ultiple num ­ bers starting from unity come the doubles. indeed increase by 2. the numbers which increase by the addition of 3. always beginning with the unit. just as the sim ple numbers are alternatively odd and even such as: 1.

tak e n three by three are cubic. 25. 2s.49 XXI. and both square and cubic in six by six. 2 l2. it will be found that the remaining terms are both square and cubic. are unequilateral or oblong. the products of two factors are planes and those of three factors are solids. They are given the names planar numbers. Finally.tak en 6 by 6 are both squares and cubic. is divisible by 3. Thus 4 is called a square number 47 N o tatio n in exponents m akes these facts evident. 2 2. after which comes 64 which is both square and cubic. which becomes divisible by 4 after having been dim inished by one unit. 2... then 8 which is cubic. Next we have 128. and other sim ilar names. 24. The square.48 A square can be divisible both by 3 and 4. If two terms are alternatively om itted. The even square which becomes divisible by 3 after having been dim inished by one unit... Here is how we show that the m ulti­ ple numbers. 28. their roots 2 3 and 28. like 25. followed by 256 which is square. but by com parison with the space which they seem to measure.ta k e n tw o by tw o. 4 * See note IV.a re squares. This is followed by 32. 23. since the exponent is a m ultiple of 3. the square which is neither divisible by 3 nor by 4. and the term s 26.. Likewise in the quintuple progression and in the other m ultiple progressions. The first double is 2. 24. which are unequally-unequal.. Let us arrange several numbers in double progression: 1.. the others. 2 \ 2H . and one could continue this way to infinity. the term s 23. 2“. 32. 2 " \ 2 " . it is the square dim inished by one unit w hich is also divisible by 3. G iven the progression 1. or will become so when dim inished by one unit. . are squares in two by two and cubes in three by three.. beginning with the unit. 2U .. 2 '2. or solid numbers. Next comes 4 which is square. 2. the ones which are equally-equal are squares. 8. In the triple progression a similar development of alternate squares is found.... not in a proper sense. is divisible by 4. th eir roots 22 and 24. then 16 which is again square. 48 Or.24 ARITHMETIC their sides are cubic numbers.. triangular or square. which is the case with 4. admits these two divisors after the subtraction of one unit. 128. 256. Among the numbers.. such as the squares of 25 and 49.47 The squares have this property of being exactly divisible by 3.th e term s 22. 26. And in all cases. 64. 4. which is the case with 9 . are squares.. They are also exactly divisible by 4 or will become so after the subtraction of one unit. like 36. since the exponents are even. As squares. 16.a re cubes and as cubes.

for we have 6 : 3 = 4 : 2. have the same relationship to one another. Gnom on is a guide if we take it literally. as we have already said. it gives birth to the triangle whose three sides contain as many units as has the added gnomon (constant) 2.51 and the sides of any triangle always have as many units as are contained in the last gnomon added to it. Among the planar numbers. All cubes are similar. for in being as the seed of all numbers. and finally the height of one and the height of the other. 6 is called unequilateral. Among the planar numbers which have unequal sides. but in power. and we have seen that it consists in adding to the num ber 1 the natural series of even and odd numbers. Now. are 6 and 4. the squares are all sim ilar to each other. and another planar num ber 24. the width of one and the width of the other. are 3 and 2. all the successive numbers which serve to form the triangular. whose sides. XXII. the length and width. quadrangular or polygonal numbers. Let us take the unequilateral num ber 6. and the entire triangle contains as is many units as contained in the gnomons added together. X X III. or the numbers which comprise them. unity also possesses the faculty of engendering the triangle. (T oulis) . as are the other solids (rectangular parallelopipeds) having proportional sides. whose sides. and for a reason founded on a sim ilar analogy. are called “ gnomons '’. the length and width. O f all planar and polygonal numbers. in such a way that there is the same relationship between the length of one and the length of the other. Because the sum of the so S e e l. just as among planar rectilinear figures the first is the triangle. X IX .ARITHMETIC 25 because it measures a square space. which is not a triangle in fact. the first is the triangular number. 51 N ote — See previous ex p lan atio n o f gnomon which in a ll probability is the word “ constant” here. when they are product of the m ultiplication of two numbers they are called planar and they are solid when they are the products of the m ultiplication of three numbers. In the preceding 50 we have discussed the creation of triangular numbers. those are sim ilar whose sides. When it is added to the number 2. The same numbers representing lengths at one time can be taken as sides at another for the form ation of other numbers. The length of one is to the length of the other as the width of one is to the width of the other. First of all let us take unity. Therefore the planar numbers 6 and 24 are similar.

Indeed. are called cir­ cular or spherical. These numbers are 5 and 6. 16 + 9 = 2 5 . The num ber 10 being augmented by the gnomon 5. and the triangle has the value of as many units as the added gnomons con­ tain. that is. increase by 2. the circle coming back to the position from which it departed. Some numbers are called circular. the numbers which through m ultiplication. in starting from unity. Its sides each have as many units as there are added gnomons. and it is in this m anner that the gnomons form the corresponding triangular num ­ bers. as many units as there are of gnomons added together. T hat is to say. XXV . because it consists of a single line and it begins and ends at the same point. that is 1 + 2 + 3 4.4. 4 1 1 11 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 1111 1111 1111 1111 25 11111 11111 11111 11111 11111 Sec I. The number 6 augmented by the gnomon 4 gives the triangle of 10 units. In fact.26 ARITHMETIC gnomon 1 and the gnomon 2 is equal to 3. which is greater than the num ber 2 by one unit. being composed of 5 gnomons. To the triangle 3 is then added the gnomon 3. and 36 x 6 = 2 1 6 . . XXIV. the sides of which have 4 units each. the sphere has the same property. there are two units to each of its sides. 1 + 3 = 4. 5 x 5 = 25: 25 x 5 = 125. gives the triangle 15. the gnom on which has just been added is 4 and the whole triangle is composed of units of 4 gnomons. 6 x 6 = 36. 4 + 5 = 9. Among solids. and the whole triangle becomes 6. spherical or recurrent. that is to say. those which. each side of which has 5 units. As we have said52 the square numbers are created by the addition of odd numbers. 9 + 7 = 16. because it is described by the revolution of a circle around a diam eter. for in adding 2 and 3 to unity we arrive at the number 6. XIX. Likewise. that is to say according to two or three dimensions. Such also is the circle which comes back to the point at which it began. come back to the num ­ ber which had been their point of departure. end with themselves. They are those which when squarely or cubically m ultiplied. so that the triangle is composed of three units.

Here is the figure for the pentagonal numbers: 5 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 22 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 1111 1111 1111 35 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 11111 11111 11111 11111 11111 etc X X V II. 4. 70 and so forth.28.25 from which result the hexagons 1. 7. 19 and the polygons themselves are 1. starting from unity.45.21. 12. 35. The pentagonal numbers are those which are formed by the addition of the numbers which increase by 3.9. 10. 5.66.17. The heptagons are those which are form ed by the addition of num­ . 13. The gnomons are 1. 22.ARITHMETIC 27 X X V I. starting from unity.5. Their gnomons are thus 1.13. The hexagonal numbers are those which are formed by the addition of numbers which increase by 4.6.15.91 Here are their figures: 15 6 45 28 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 1111 1111 1111 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1 1 1 1 1 1 etc The other polygonal numbers are composed in the same manner. 16. 51.

are called beams. 6. 53 See note V.28 ARITHMETIC bers increasing by 5. Those which have equal sides (being equally equal equally). (n -l)n _ n2 2 ~ Thus the square num ber 25 is broken down into two triangular num bers. the decagons by numbers increasing by 8. and which are unequally unequal unequally. 34. 54 A square num ber n2 can be broken down into two triangular num bers. which have all sides un­ equal. Those. starting from unity. 18. 6 and 10 make 16. others a sm aller third side. The triangular numbers which follow. are called altars. 10 and 15 make 25. the 5 "equal to 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 and the 4 n equal to 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 and indicated by the figure: . Finally those which have two equal sides and the third larger than the two others. being equally equal deficients. 7. one will have the quantity by which the numbers serving to form the polygon must increase. Among those which have two sides equal. some have equal sides (as when three equal numbers are m ultiplied with each other). in removing two units from the num­ ber of angles.53 X X V III. some have all sides unequal while others have two sides equal and another unequal. being equally equal exceedants. so that n(n+ 1) 2 . 21. Thus generally in all the polygons. the enneagons by numbers increasing by 7 starting from unity . 81 The octagons are sim ilarly composed of numbers which increase by 6 starting from unity. Among the solid numbers. 26 from which result the heptagons 1. are called cubes. likewise the union of two linear triangles gives the figure of a quadrangle.54 XXIX. 15 and 21 make 36. some have a larger third side. 28 and 36 make 64. others have unequal sides. 36 and 45 make 81. The gnomons are: 1. This 1 and 3 make 4. 16. Among the latter. 11. have been called plinths or squares. 55. combined together also form squares. Those which have two sides equal and the third sm aller than the two others. 3 and 6 make 9. 21 and 28 make 49. on the other hand. The sum of two successive triangles gives a square. the nn and the ( n 1)n.

but if we add two sides to the diagonal. Let us now add the diagonal to the side. Some have given the name trapezoid (solid) to such a figure. since this is what one calls (that which remains of) a triangle of which a straight line parallel to the base has separated off the upper p art.55 THE L A T E R A L A N D D IA G O N A L NUM BERS XXX I. the diagonal can do once. but one is less by one unit than the double of unity. T he pyram idal num bers are those w hich m easure pyramids and truncated pyramids. 56 T h a t is to say th a t two tim es the square o f the side equals one tim es the square o f the diagonal. which is greater by one unit than the double square of 2. the square constructed on side 2 is 4. that is to say. for the units are in equality. so also we find that the relationships of lateral numbers and diagonal numbers are m anifested in numbers according to generative ratios. . we will have 7 units. according to the supreme generative ratio. In the same way let us add to side 2 the diagonal 3. pentagons and other figures. that is to say one unit to unit.56 From this point on the diagonal becomes larger and the side sm aller.ARITHMETIC 29 P Y R A M ID A L NUM BERS X X X . for that which the side can do twice. Just as the numbers have in power relationships with triangles. and the side will then have the value of 2 units. the square of the diagonal unit will be less by one unit than the double square of the side unit. tetragons. one of which is the diagonal and the other the side. the side will become 5. because it is necessary that unity. which is the principle of all. The square constructed on side 5 is 25. let us add the diagonal to the side. be in power the side and the diagonal. Now a truncated pyramid is (what remains of) a pyramid whose upper part has been taken away. Now. 2 units to unity. that is 2 times 2. and 55 See note V I. and to the diagonal let us add two sides. Therefore since unity is the principle of all figures. the diagonal will have the value of 3 units. for these are the numbers which harm onize figures. it is thus that the relationship of the diagonal and the side is found within unity. If to the diagonal 3 we add two sides. for the first side and the first diagonal. Let us suppose for exam ple two units. through analogy with the planar trapezoids. and the square of the diagonal is 9.

with respect to the squares of the sides. 8. 1. which is 2. what is lacking in the preceding diagonal is found in excess in the diagonal which follows in power. the sum. 58 Cf. we will have 6 which is the first perfect num ber (since 1 + 2 + 3 = 6). 7. the sum is 3. 3. 4. Elements. incom posite number. and we add them until we obtain a prime. If we now add the three successive doubles.58 Let us then arrange the numbers in a progression by doubles. gives 28. are sometimes larger by one unit than the doubles and sometimes sm aller by one unit. . This is how the perfect numbers are created: If we arrange the numbers in a progression by doubles. The propor­ tion alternates: the square constructed on the diagonal will be sometimes sm aller. A ll the diagonals are then. 1. and its sixth. alternately by excess and by lack. Inversely.In fact. Again. some are called perfect. its third. it has its half. 2. The parts of 6 are in fact its half. 36. 12 units are obtained. 16. IX . the diagonals com pared to the sides in power. if the diagonal 7 is added to the side 5. among numbers. the same unit. and others deficient. 2. and 4. A B U N D A N T NUM BERS AN D D EFICIENT NUMBERS. in­ deed. 2. others abundant. starting from unity. whose square (289) is larger by one unit than the double (288) of the square of 12. XXX II. m ultiplied by the last num ber added. double. sometimes larger by one unit than the double of the square constructed on the side. and if two times the side 5 are added to the diagonal 7. in such a way that these diagonals and these sides will always be expressible. its quarter which is 7. if we multiply this by the last num ber added. which when added together make 6.30 ARITHMETIC that which is constructed on the diagonal 7 is 49. and if we m ultiply this sum by the last term added. Euclid. combined with each of them reestablishing equality. such as 6. Furtherm ore. the product will be a per­ fect num ber. its 14th which is 2 and its 57 See note V II. 4. Let us add 1 and 2. which is the second perfect num ber. as aliquot parts. 1. and so forth in continuing the addition. in such a way th at the double does not err by excess or by default. Those are called perfect which are equal to (the sum of) their aliquot parts. which is 14. which is less by one unit than the double (50) of the square 25. we will have 17.57 PERFECT NUMBERS. its seventh which is 4.

each of the sides of which have the value of two units. a sixth 2 and a twelfth 1. However. and the eighth 1. which is greater than the original num ber 12. The deficient number is the number whose aliquot parts added together give a sum less than the original number. call perfect for another reason. nevertheless.59 It is also said that the number 3 is perfect. the half of which is 4. which we will speak of in its place. 59 See note VIII. It is in fact an equilateral triangular number. because it is the first one which has a beginning. because the idea of the solid rests on three dimensions. half of which is 6. Such is 12. Finally the num ber 3 is the first link and the power of the solid. The same is found with the num ber 10 which the Pythagoreans. . a m iddle and an end. the quarter 2. Such is 8. a quarter 3.ARITHMETIC 31 28th which is 1 (and we have 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14 = 2 8 ). all of these parts added together give the sum of 16. a third 4. The abundant num ber is the num ber whose aliquot parts added together make a sum larger than the original number. and it is both a line and a surface.

i.32 MUSIC BOOK CONTAINING THE NUM ERICAL THEOREMS OF M USIC INTRODUCTION Since it is said that there are consonant numbers. . and this harmony. which is also intelligible. And after having finished our treatise on all mathem atics. nor to make more widely known the Pythagorean traditions which we have inherited w ithout ourselves claiming to have discovered the least part of it. I 1 The w ord sym phony should not be taken w ith its m odern m eaning o f the present. and we will not hesitate to relate w hat our predecessors have discovered. felicity in life. o r literally symphony from the w ord 'Lviufxov'ia. This consonance1 has the greatest power. learning about the one sensed through instruments. W e will therefore consider these two harmonies. L ater the word consonance had to be em ployed by E nglish/F rench peoples because they thought that the word symphony w ould be best suited to represent the idea o f a work of music. is more easily understood than perceptible har­ mony. accordance. which is diffused throughout the w orld. This harmony. being truth in reason. etc. e. the reason for this consonance cannot be found w ithout * arithm etic. will not be found unless it is revealed first through numbers. we will add to it a dissertation on the harmony of the world. Desiring then to illustrate to those who wish to study P lato further w hat has been transm itted to us by our pre­ decessors. and harmony in nature. we have judged it necessary to compose this com pen­ dium. a musical work played by a large sym phony orchestra. In those days symphony m eant only one thing — agreem ent. which is a misuse. and the intelligible har­ mony which consists in numbers.

As for the sounds. one never regards the violent noise of the thunderbolt. such as the tetracord. These tw o sounds correspond to the tw o m i o f the sam e octave. such as the octave and the double octave. it can have a still higher pitch. it can become still lower so th at the same sound is found to be median as well. are intervals of sounds juxtaposed to each other such as the tone and the diesis (or half-tone). and for that reason. like that which comes from the mese. The interval is defined as the relationship of sounds among each other. because depth 2 In th e o ctaco rd o r eight-stringed lyre. such as the fourth. if the sound is so low pitched that there can be none lower. Similarly. the injuries from which are always fatal. . and if it is low pitched. The anti­ phonic intervals or opposed sounds are consonant. The dissonants. It is therefore neither every voice nor every tension of sound which would be called sound. others dissonant. it would not be called enharm onic. some are consonant. in discussing the perceptible harmony of instru­ ments. it will no longer be a sound because it will no longer be enharm onic. And a cer­ tain grouping. some are high. As Euripides the poet says. the Phrygian. as enharm onic. on the contrary. Thrasyllus. The consonant intervals are antiphonic. such are the Lydian. others low and others medium pitched. if it is high-pitched. A nd the blow of the thunderbolt has m ade many a victim W ithout wounds that bleed. V. or paraphonic such as the fifth and the fourth. defined sound as a tension of the enharm onic sound. IV. the pentacord and the octacord.2 WHA T IS IN TE R VAL A N D H A R M O N Y III. the nete or the hypate. the fifth and the octave. the hypate the lowest. the low sounds those which give the hypates and the medium sounds those which give the interm ediate strings. but only an enharm onic sound.MUSIC 33 WHA T IS SOUND AN D EN H ARM O N IC SOUND II. the mese corresponds to the la. The high sounds are those which give the netes. If then we imagine a sound which is higher than all others. the Dorian. the nete gave the highest sound. Now sound is said to be enharm onic when. is called a system of intervals. Harm ony is the order of systems. Among the intervals.

and which. belong3 See footnote 1. do not deserve the name of sounds. these sounds being the prim ary and indivisi­ ble elements of which all melody is composed. The sounds are dissonant and not consonant whose interval is a tone or a diesis. it is high if the m ove­ ment is rapid. verbs and nouns are the most im portant parts. and into which it definitively resolves its e lf.34 MUSIC opposed to height produces a consonance. sound is produced. in this regard. On the contrary. . Adrastus. some being higher. when the air is struck and put into movement. it is evident that in immobile air neither noise nor tone would exist. resolves into letters.4 Let us examine. O N CONSONANCES 3 VI. or according to none. one must regard as true sounds. . The sounds differ from each other through tensions. since discourse is com ­ posed of letters and. On the other hand. others lower. because the tone and the diesis are the principle of consonance but they are not consonance itself. low if the m ovement is slow. in the end. indivisible and the shortest element. says: Likewise. and every voice being a noise and noise being a percussion of air which is broken by it. The speeds without relationship result in sounds w ithout rela­ tionship and dissonance.. and paraphonic inter­ vals are consonant because the sounds are neither in unison nor dis­ sonant. perceptible interval. and would more rightly be called noise. properly speaking. strong if the m ovement is violent. and letters are the prim ary signs of language. 4 The tension o f a sound is now called the height. The speeds of these move­ ments occur according to certain relationships. which are composed of intervals which are themselves composed of sounds. pentachords and oc­ tachords. Every m odulation and every sound being a voice. w hether written or spoken. In the same way. the opinion attributed to the Pythagoreans. . These tensions are defined in different m anners. but there is a sim ilar. that which makes up the principle part of sound and of all melody are the systems called tetrachords. weak if the m ovem ent is faint. being elem en­ tary. the essential parts of verbs and nouns are the syllables com posed of letters. the student of A ristotle. in his well known treatise On Harmony and Consonance. in discourse.

And if any of the preceding consonances is added again to the oc­ tave. others are symphonic according to prim ary ratios and best known m ultiples. F o r in the same way that in discourse. not ju st any letter com bined with any other letter produces a sylla­ ble or a word. and the double octave. . a certain range that the sound can travel. The fifths in turn give the fifth. This series of m odulations is not situated by chance. a kind of sympathy. in fact. beginning with the lowest sound and going up to the highest and in­ versely. Indeed. w hether spoken or written. music having made progress. a range which is greater in some. the fifth and the octave. on the eight-stringed lyre. nor w ithout art and according to a single mode. and is called the hypate. and also. However. and according to superpartial ratios. A nd when. and for this reason are called fourths. causes the other strings to resonate by means of a certain affinity. but following certain deter­ mined modes which m ust be observed in different types of melody. it is not the com bination of just 5 T he superpartial o r sesquipartial relatio n sh ip is th a t in which the antecedent is g reater than the consequent by one unit. Among these concordant sounds. whether m ultiple or superpartial5 or simply of num ber to number. the octave and the fifth.MUSIC ( 35 ing to m odulation. the double octave an a the fourth. as far as a sound perceptible to the ear can be pro­ duced. with which it has the same consonance. the first to form such a concor­ dance are the fourths that form a consonance with themselves. several other consonances have been found: added to the consonance of the octave are sm aller. T here is. for example. the first sound is found to be the lowest. Next come the eighths which include these two consonances and which we call the diapason (octave). when two sounds being produced at the same time result in a mixed sound which has a sweetness and a quite particular charm. instrum ents were given a greater num ber of strings. those which have a particular relationship to each other.1 to n. larger or equal intervals. having been added to the ancient eight — the denom inations of the ancient consonances. They form a consonance with each other when a sound which is produced by a string of an instrum ent. the fourth. Of these sounds. some are concordant only. like th a t o f 3 to 2. It is in accord by opposition with the last and highest which is that of the nete. is produced. rendering more m ultiple sounds — a large num ­ ber of sounds. likewise in melody. more of them high than low. and the sum of the two results in a new consonance. and so forth. 4 to 3 and generally th a t of n 4. were nevertheless retained. less in others. such as the oc­ tave and the fourth.

which we have t Theon is expounding the tetrachord theory o f A ristoxenus. since 9 is not divisible by 2. It can ac­ tually be dem onstrated that the tone. cannot be divided into two equal parts. is called tone. and another tone. a tone. O N THE DIATONIC. . as we have just said. considered in the sesquioctave ratio (%). in its turn. the extremities. form a consonance. which is composed of three intervals: half-tone. in the same m anner that we call certain letters demi-vowels. THE TONE A N D THE H A L F TONE VII. The easiest part to appreciate and the measure of w hat is called the range of sound and of any sound interval. but because it is a musical in­ terval less than the tone. following the law of defined modes. and these four sounds.MUSIC any sounds that produces the well ordered sound. produces the interval appropriate to m odulation. and continuing to m odulate. The half-tone is not designated as such because it is the half of the tone in the way that the half-cubit is the half division of the cubit as m aintained by Aristoxenes. W hen a voice which is m odulated within the limits of its range goes from a lower sound to a higher sound. any more than can any other sesquipartial. it then. VIII. THE CH RO M ATIC A N D THE EN H ARM O N IC FORMS OF M E L O D Y IX. or which. in the same way that the principle measure of space which sur­ rounds all moving bodies is called the cubit. can not a t­ tain any interval other than that of a to n e . A m odulation of this type is called the tetrachord system. passes to another sound. but it is necessary that this com bination take place.t This produces another m elodic sound which is apt to m odulation. that is to say the lowest and the highest. the consonance of the fourth. producing the in­ terval of a half-tone. The interval of the tone is very easy to distinguish through the difference between the first and best known consonances: the fifth is greater than the fourth by one tone. going through the interval of a tone. and this higher conso­ nant sound will give. This consonance. not because half of a sound is indicated. together with the first. but because it does not com pletely compose the sound itself.

it goes up by two tones. and then passes on to a third.. This m odulation is made then by a half-tone. it can observe no other interval than that of a com plete trihem itone. the voice m odulates the tetrachord. again passing through a half-tone. followed by a half-tone and a com plete trihem itone. This is the type in which. is simple. and passing through a half-tone.6 Aristoxenes says that the enharm onic type is so-called because it is the best. and this caused him to give it the nam e which applies to everything w ell-ordained. because it diverges from the first. th a t is to say.. either because. by progression through a diesis. This m odulation is very difficult. In som nium Scipionis. There is a third type of m odulation which is called enhar­ monic. and this type of m odulation is called chrom atic. starting from the lowest note. CONCERNING THE DIESIS XII.MUSIC 37 said is called the fourth. W hen the voice produces a first sound. 7 P lato .” M acrobius. and it can produce no other sound than that which limits this tetrachord in rising towards the higher sounds. The Pythagoreans call w hat is now called the half-tone. in the ordinary sense. and it changes color. noble and m ore natural. The disciples of A ristoxenes call the quarter-tone or half of the half-tone the diesis minor. it requires much art and study and is only acquired through long practice. XI. the com plem ent of the first tetrachord. II.“diatonum (genus) mundanael musicae doctrina Platonis adscribitur. is then composed of two tones and a half­ tone. rises to a higher sound. This type of m odulation is called diatonic. gives the consonance of the fourth. or because of the vigour and firm character which it manifests. The diatonic type. 4. at the beginning o f the second century. and consider it the sm allest ap­ preciable interval. then another diesis and a double tone. as taken by Plato. 7 " Now. X. on the other hand. and as he said himself. . also assigned the d iatonic type to the harm ony of the spheres :. and which. according to M acrobius. produces another after this. the d iesis. and proceeding with m odula­ tion. expressing sad affections and violent passions. with the lowest.

X L IV . Paris. through the length and thickness of strings as well as through the tension applied to them by the turning of a peg. who appears to have dis­ covered these relationships. 191. p. the consonance will follow the in­ dicated relationship.9 It is Pythagoras. 9 T he relationship o f 256 to 243 is also called leim m a and is the excess o f the fourth over the double tone. If we divide a stretched string into four equal parts on the harm onic canon. all things otherwise being equal. W ith the sound pro8 Cf. The sounds which give the octave and fifth are in triple ratio. th at is 4 / a : (Vs)'2 = 4 / 3 x ‘“/si = 256/ m3. those which produce the fifth are in sesquialter (%) ratio. the accord of the fourth. and for wind instrum ents by the diam eter of the cavity. is obtained by stringlengths. Didot. let us content ourselves with the dem onstration which. or by the weight of disks or the level of the w ater in vases. .8 The sounds which produce the fourth are in sesquitertian (%) relationship to each other. in what is called the harm onic canon. C halcidius. the sound produced by the whole string will form. Among the other concordant sounds. or by the more fam iliar m ethod of suspending weights from them.38 MUSIC TYPES Diatonic Chrom atic half-tone INTERVALS tone tone trihem itone ditone half-tone half-tone Enharm onic diesisdiesis THE D ISC O V E R Y OF THE N U M ERICAL LA WS OF CONSONANCES X lla. with that produced by three parts of the string. since it is equal to 2 + %. It is Pythagoras who appears to have first found that the consonant sounds are in relationship to one another. those which give the tone are in sesquioctave (%) ratio. and those which give the double octave are in quadruple ratio. by greater or less intensity of breath. those which produce the octave and fourth are in the rela­ tionship of 8 to 3 which is polyepim er. are in the relationship of the num ber 256 to the num ber 243. and the relationship is sesquitertian. but which then were called diesis. and those which give the half-tone. W hatever the m ethod chosen from among those we have just cited. we say. F or the moment. In Timaeum Platonis.

MUSIC 39 duced by two parts or half of the string. Again leaving one vessel empty and filling the other up to one quarter. and the relationship is double. triple and quadruple ratios (that is to say. for the relationship is sesquioctave. then they were both struck. The quaternary. and 4 to 3 for the fourth. and yet others by the capacity of the vessels. it will form the accord of the octave. The same relationships as we have seen are obtained by the divi­ sion of strings. and 4 ). but two equally stretched strings in unison. one was left empty and the other filled half way with a liquid. the octave and fifth. the accord of the double octave will be produced. and others by numbered movements. since the relationship is quadruple. 1. then striking them. and the double octave. which is helpful in the calculation of the consonances into numbers. %.1 0 Some prefer to obtain these consonances by weights. others by lengths. Taking several sim ilar vessels of the same capacity. One does not use a single string in every case as in the harm onic canon. the relationship of the empty spaces was 2 to 1 for the octave. the consonance of the fourth was ob­ tained. 2.) . If we divide the string into 9 equal parts. the consonance of the fifth. for the relationship is sesquialter and. with regard to the sound produced by a quarter of the string. thus obtaining the consonance of the octave. with the sound produced by half of the string. for the relationship is 3. obtaining with half of one and the entire other ia This is the tetractys (in GreekTerpajcTv?) and it was the nam e Pythagoreans gave to the num ­ ber 10 since it is the product o f l + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10. the latter of the Pythagorean school. the sound produced by three parts of the string will give. (Toulis. 3. W ith the sound produced by a quarter of the string. the fifth. double. with the sound produced by 8 parts of the string. a third of a vase was filled. 4. For the accord of the fifth. includes all the consonances. Furtherm ore. since it contains those of the fourth. the octave. H alf of one of these strings was plucked by pressing in the m iddle of it with a finger. observed the rapidity and slowness of the motions of li­ quids created in vessels. it will give the conso­ nance of the octave and a fifth. the interval of one tone. which are the sesquitertian. %. 2. It is said that Lasus of Herm ione and the disciples of Hippasus of M etapontus.3. 3 to 2 for the fifth. the sound produced by the whole string will give. ses­ quialter.

If it is divided into four. the lower tone coming from the longer pipe and the higher tone coming from the shorter pipe. In fact. due to the distance of the holes. A sim ilar experim ent has been made on the flute and the same relationships were found. leaving the other one whole. and one takes three parts at the top and one at the bottom . the low. if with a flute divided into two equal parts. they also recognized that these relationships express m otion. and a slow m otion corresponding to a low pitched sound. W hen they were plucked in thirds only. the high. a rapid m otion corresponding to a high pitched sound. a quarter of one of the two cords was plucked. nor be composed of different tensions of lowness or highness. the two other thirds and the entire string gave the accord of the fifth. of equal thickness and of equal diam eter. one blows into the whole flute. because it is m ore retarded. Tone is the resting of the sound on a single intonation. in determ ining the consonances of these cords. then up to the hole which divides it into two parts one will hear the consonance of the octave. suspended the weights from two strings in the rela­ tionships which we have m entioned and that had been obtained by the length of the strings. XIII. is slow. and one blows into the whole flute and into the two thirds. The cause of this must be attributed to the velocity and to the slowness of the m otion. the octave.40 MUSIC string. But sounds are in part high pitched and in part low pitched. and the other. one. the air which escapes from the tube which is two times less long has a double speed and results in the consonance of the octave. one of which is two times longer than the other. this is why among tones. . one will hear the accord of the fifth. If the flute is divided into three. for it is said that the sound should always be sim ilar to itself and not ad­ mit the least difference. Those who have measured consonances with weights. The schools of Eudoxus and A rchytas thought that the relation­ ship of consonances could be expressed by numbers. In the same way. one will have the consonance of the fourth. and this cause produces the same conso­ nances in a single flute. If then one blows into two pipes. pierced in the m anner of a flute. is rapid. to obtain the consonance of the fourth. because it strikes and penetrates the air in a more continuous and quick manner. in blowing into the whole flute and into the three quarters. two thirds being taken from the tongue end and one third from the far end.

12 T h at is % x » /. that we judge the size of the intervals with our ear and that the ratios confirm the testimony of our senses. the rem ainder is the sesquioctave ratio of 9 to 8. the ses­ quitertian relationship (%) of 12 to 9. In fact. THE R E LA TIONSHIP OF THE A D D ITIO N A N D SU BTRAC TIO N OF CONSONANCES X llla . = Vi. the sum of the two give the ratio of 8 to 3. since 4 is to 3 in the sesquitertian relation­ ship and the double of 4 is 8. W e will explain presently how the sounds which have a half-tone interval between them. th at of the fourth is sesquitertian (%) and that of the fifth is sesquialter (%). in fact. 12. the ratio ‘2 ’ of 12 to 6 breaks down into two. as we have de­ scribed them. . As the fifth surpasses the consonance of the fourth by one tone. and 12 is the double of 6: one has the numbers 6. the sesquialter ratio of 12 to 8 will be com pleted. It is clear that the ratio 2 is composed of % and % and is resolved into the same numbers. Let us return now to what A drastus has said on the subject of these instrum ents which were prepared according to certain relationships for the purpose of discovering the consonances. He says. since it is composed of three tones and a half. Thus 8 is % of 6 and 12 is % of 8. if from a sesquialter ratio. such as 9 to 6. as we have already explained. Thus the octave is composed of the fifth and the fourth and is divided into the fifth and the fourth. are in the relationship of 256 to 243. the tone being in the sesquioctave relationship (%). It is evident that the com positions and the divisions of consonances have the same relationship and harmony to one another as the com positions and the divisions of the numbers which measure the consonances.MUSIC 41 This then is w hat was essential for us to relate concerning the dis­ covery (of the numerical laws) of consonances. one subtracts the sesquitertian ratio of 8 to 6. 8. 1 3 " T h a t is % : % = %. 1 1 Likewise if one adds to this the sesquitertian ratio of 12 to 9. Now the ratio of the octave is double. one finds that the sesquialter rela­ tionship (%) also surpasses the sesquitertian relationship (%) by the sesquioctave ratio (%). 1 :1T h at is 2 x Vs = */s = 2 + Vs. = 'V . and the sesquialter relation­ ship (%) of 9 to 6. 1 2 As the consonance of the octave is in double ratio and the conso­ nance of the fourth is in sesquitertian ratio (%). Likewise.

“ See note X. the listeners would no longer be able to distinguish easily the sounds.1 4 8 octave = 2 V V 4_______ __ 3_ fourth = % / 18__________ 9 octave = 2 V my I 6 fifth = % * octave and fourth = 2 + % octave and fifth = 3 The double octave is sim ilarly in quadruple ratio. the triple ratio added to the sesquitertian ratio gives the quadruple ratio. that it is not necessary to push this calculation so far. the relationship of 8 to 6 is sesquitertian and the triple of 8 is 24. for the relationship of 9 to 6 is sesquialter and the relationship of 18 to 9 is double. which gives the triple ratio for the relationship of 18 to 6 . the ratio of the octave and the fifth is 3. considering the natural things and the soul. In the same way. 1 1See note IX. 1 6 If it is objected. P lato. . x '• /. since Aristoxenus lim ited the extension of the diagram which represents the different modes to the double octave and the fifth. the sesquialter rela­ tionship added to two indeed gives this ratio. and that of the fourth is sesquitertian (%) and it is of both that the double octave is composed. according to what we have said at the beginning. the same relationships will always be found result­ ing in the com position of consonances. or rather. since it is com ­ posed of two double ratios: the double of 6 is 12 and the double of 12 is 24 which is the quadruple of 6. since the triple of 6 is 18. = 3. which are necessarily com posed of harmony. have determ ined things in this m anner because they were pursuaded that even those who com pete for the singing prize cannot raise their voices above these limits. which is the quadruple of 6. However. and th at besides. % rds of which are 24 which is the quadruple of 6. It is therefore correct that the quadruple consonance is seen here. considering only the practical point of view. One can push these notions as far as one likes. and the moderns have the pentedecacord (the 15 string lyre) whose most considerable extention contains only the double octave (with one additional tone). says Adrastus. I respond in answer to this that these latter. extends the " T h at is •/.42 MUSIC The octave plus a fifth being in triple ratio. 1 5 P lato carried the diatonic type and the extension of this system up to the fourth octave with an additional fifth and one tone. = '■/. on the contrary.

for the lengths and thicknesses of the strings. One finds that the octave is the sum of the fourth and the fifth. consequently gives a greater force to the higher sound by itself which has. a force less than the suspended weight. says Plato. Indeed. The same thing is found with the wind instruments. is the fourth. according to this.MUSIC 43 calculation up to the solid numbers (8 and 27) and joins the terms by two means. The first of all the consonances. cause them to be weak and prevent them from vibrating easily and from rapidly striking the surrounding air. since it is composed of these two consonances. for exam ple to the tension which is made by the suspension of weights. can go on to infinity. of two strings equal in length and thickness and sim ilar in all other ways. although this would not appear to be so for certain tensions. They also. Because of this. since the greatest weight. The tone can be defined as the interval which separates the fifth from the fourth. is sufficient in itself to retain its own harmony and consonance. on the contrary. It is evident. as in the trum pet and in the organ of the voice in which the feeble and tem pered sounds have (also) a greater force of their own. slowing the movement. for in these instrum ents the lowest sounds result from their length and the size of the holes which allow for the release of a greater quantity of air which is subse­ quently put into motion. by the name of Zeus. in order to be able to em brace com pletely every­ thing th at the solid body of the world is made up of. producing a very strong tension. th at a lower sound possessing by itself a greater force than the suspended weight. the largest num ber must be attributed to the greatest force. since it is through it th at the others are found. the fifth is only separated from the fourth by the interval of one tone. THE L E I M M A XIV . he says that it is suitable to attribute the largest num­ bers to the lowest sounds. which by nature. This is in agreem ent with the train of thought. and he ex­ tended harmony to this point. It is then evident that the lowest sounds have their appropriate force according to the largest number. In addition. . the one which sustains the greater weight will produce the highest pitched sound because of the greater tension. result from the dim inution of the breath.

8 1 . A fter 243 let us take 192 x%. The first interval (con­ tained in the fourth) is thus the tone.. the bottom sesquioctaves the second sesquioctaves the third sesquioctaves 8. 243. pipes. Everyone agrees that the interval of the fourth is greater than two tones and less than three tones. or 256. and it is necess­ ary to take % ths of % ths. and others that it is a leimma (a remainder). vessels.9 6 4 . some say it is a perfect half-tone. the voice. The consonance of the fourth which is in sesquitertian ratio (%). It was always the relationship of 8 to 9 which allowed the ear to discern the interval of a tone.7 2 . so that we have ( 8 .44 MUSIC The ancients took the tone as the first interval of the voice. 1. They dem onstrated this with disks. which is that of 256 to 243 and the difference in this ratio is the num ber 13. T im aeus 36B . is not then com pleted by a tone. 72. 9 m ultiplied by itself. finally. gives 64 and 9 x 8 gives 72. in reaching this in­ terval. On the Creation o f the Soul in theTim aeus 16. If now each of these numbers is m ultiplied 18 by 3 we have 64 x 3 = 192. 9) 64. 81. 17. that is to say by a ses­ quioctave interval (%). Aristoxenus says that it is com ­ posed of two and a half perfect tones. 8 1 x 3 = 243. 216. 17 Cf. W e have then ( 8 . As for the interval called the half-tone. and we will have the series of the following terms. 81. P lutarch. for if % ths of 8 are 9. since 6 is not divisible by 8 and one must take % ths of it. it is known that the first term would not be 6 . Commentary on the dream o f Scipio. II. The ear can again grasp with precision the following inter­ val. 7 2 x 3 = 2 1 6 . which comes after this. 243. suspended weights and in several other ways. it would not follow to then take % ths of 9. 9) 64. gives the ear a sensation of something fixed and well deter­ mined. N either would it be 8 .1 7 This is the m ethod which was used to find this relationship. . but that it is in a num­ ber to number relationship. 216. while Plato says that this in­ terval is two tones and a rem ainder (leimma). They found that the tone is in sesquioctave ratio (%). gives 81. 192. 72. 18 O ne m ultiplies by 3 in o rd er to be ab le to take 4 A rds o f the first term to obtain the num ber which corresponds to the consonance o f the fourth. W e take therefore the bottom sesquioctave 8 and 9. 192. now 8 m ultiplied by itself. since the fourth which is in sesquitertian relationship is greater than the double tone. strings. and he adds that this rem ainder (leimma) does not have a name. Macrobius . with­ out taking into account the half-tone or the diesis.

because the tone being 1 + %. the consonance of the fourth (%) will be com pleted by two tones and the leimma of which we have spoken. strings 4 to 11. Between these two terms are found two sesquioctaves. the half-tone will be half of 1 + %. for P lato did not take a determ ined num ber but only th at ratio of the number. 150 for the standard G reek octave. 1 % «3 is a relationship which is less than Vis. they have the product 384. But nothing pre­ vents us from finding in other numbers the same relationship which exists between 256 and 243. although some believe it possible judging this question not 19 The h a lf o f the tone (1 + %) is not 1 + Ms but hence not a num ber in T heon’s sense. and the related num bers in T ab le II on pg. con­ sidering th at the excess of the fourth term over the third is not 13. is less than the half-tone. gives the relationship of the leimma. which gives 48. Now. 192 ________ 216 tone = % ____ tone = % fourth = % There are some who chose the num ber 384 for the first term. of which the difference is 13. impossible to divide the ratio 1 + % into two equal parts. 243 leimma = 25% »3 256 leimma = 25% 43 . however. or 256. t In the com plete octave scale there are tw o consecutive tetrachords. See Pg. 148. See note XI. t They m ultiply the term 6 by 8 . and in m ultiplying this num ber again by 8 .MUSIC 45 If %rds of 192. a rela­ tionship which is itself less than Vie. in order to be able to take the series of %ths two times. since 512 is the double of 256 and 486 is the double of 243. 19 It is. It is manifest that this interval o f the numbers 256 and 243. Now the relationship which exists between 256 and 243 is the same as that between 512 and 486. %rds of which is equal to 512. with 512. is added. the num ber th at P lato said must be the leimma. that is to say 1+ . for 384 x % = 432 and 432 x % = 486 which. 384 432 486 512 tone = % tone = % fourth = % Some say th at these numbers are not conveniently selected.

It is as in the harm onic canon: the bridge of a stringed instrum ent which is perceptible has. The fourth being in the relationship of %. but into two numbers which are 13 and 14. it is the same in all other things. it would intercept absolutely nothing from the end of the first part and from the beginning of the second. we perceive it by the ear in sounds. 8 . t T he two and a h alf perfect tones o f T heon are not those of A ristoxenus (pg. 53. nor in perceptible and visible intervals. 44) for T heon is m aking a fine distinction A ristoxenus considered irrelevant to the ear. Through the act of the division itself. for it is the leimma which makes the fourth less than two and a half perfect tones. this interval being expressed by whatever numbers. and then. of which % rds equals 8 and % nds equals 9. This num ber is 6 . as we have just shown. If it is asked. . and 9 and the excess of the interval % over the interval % is %. It is evident that the tone cannot be divided into two equal parts. to which consonance it belongs. See II X X IX . even when our senses do not give us evidence of it. Thus there will always be a certain part of the tone which will be absorbed. regardless of its construction. the base sesquioctave % has the indivisi­ ble unit as the difference between its terms. As in certain tangible things some parti­ cles are lost.f However. 20 The difference of the terms which is the unit . a part of that which is divided is found to be destroyed. as the product of the cut when one cuts something with a saw. we would say that it is necessary to consider it as belong­ ing to the fourth. neither in numbers. and sometimes. and cannot be so thin that in partitioning the tone. W hen a cut is made. is assuredly not divisible. the difference between the terms cannot always be divided into two equal parts: thus the difference of 27 between the terms of the relationship of 216 to 243 is not susceptible to division into two equal parts. a certain width. XV. and some­ times we look for it in numbers and intervals. We have 6 . for unity is not divisible. since 9 is %ths of 8 . In partitioning. concerning the leimma. This tension was given the name of tone. pg. the base of the sesquioctave interval being the relationship of 9 to 8 . To begin with. the first num ber divisible by both 2 and 3 has been taken. XVI. some sm all part " T he base o f a relationship is this relationship reduced to its most sim ple expression. there are then three things: the two divisions and the part subtracted by the bridge. finally. and we know that it can never be divided into two equal parts. Sometimes we grasp the tone by the operation of the intelligence. and the fifth in the relationship of %. here is how the tone has been found.46 MUSIC by reasoning but by ear.

although im per­ ceptible to the ear. while it seems to be above the second by only a half-tone. And neither in sounds does one find the splitting of the tone into two equal parts:+ for if. t The argum ent here depends on knowing that the first sem itone is 256 : 243 and the second is % H . by three emissions of the sound. We should speak now of the harmony which is contained in numbers and to explain what the term is which. a part of the string being lost. in everything. and it is in vain that we would wish to reproduce the same sound twice by splitting the sound.« % 4 3 = « 8% 0 4 1 . If. It is as if one wished to make two punctures perfectly similar. shows the property of w hat is spoken of. in trying to retain the same quantity. This is why the two half-tones will never be complete. in adjoining them by the ends. power. for example. the language which the moderns call oral.MUSIC 47 is perm anently lost. I produce two half-tones instead of one single tone. for example. going up two intervals. but there will always be a difference. there will always be more or less a difference of force applied. or into ink or honey or bitumen. the lowest cannot be simi­ lar to the highest. the third sound is higher than the second and it is one tone higher than the first. mass. W ith regard to the ideal tone. you measure and you next divide it into several parts. and if you wish to once more stretch all the parts. number. size. one might conceive that it could be divided into two equal parts. or to pluck a string twice in the exact manner. before dividing the shaft of a lance or a reed or any other long object. gravity. The same thing will oc­ cur if one wishes to plunge his finger the same way twice into a li­ quid. after having heard a tone followed by another tone. The word \ 0 y 0 9 is taken to have several meanings by the students of Aristotle. ON THE VARIOUS MEANINGS OF THE WORD \ 0 y 0 5 (logos) X V III. XVII. W e would give some resonance. but this half-tone is neither equal nor sim ilar to that which is found between the first sound and the second. you will not be able to prevent. if you divide a string into several parts and you cut it. you will find that after the cutting the developm ent will be less. you will find the length of all the parts put together is less than the length of the object before division: Likewise.

the word \ 0 7 0 5 is used with four different meanings: for m ental thought w ithout words. taken for the purpose of being com pared with each other. It is impossible. But. dry things with dry things. or the triple. according to Plato. fluids with fluids. or not taking account of it (word of honor). The ratio of form is also called this as well as the seminal ratio and many others. liquids with liquids. The name Xo-yo? is also given to the eulogy. solids with solids. indeed all things of the same species. It is this ratio that we propose now to seek. such as lengths with lengths. as is the discourse of Demosthenes and Lysias in their w ritten works (speech). The ratio of proportion of two terms of the same species is a certain relationship that these terms have to each other.___________________________________ 48 MUSIC and m ental reasoning w ithout the emission of voice are both desig­ nated in this way. but one can com pare things of the same species with one another. says Adrastus. W e call ‘term s’ homogenous things or things of the same species. for the explana­ tion of the elements of the universe. essence with essence. such as the double. numbers with numbers. m otion with m otion. the definition of things which explains their essence (reason). and the ratio of proportion. tim e with time. The relationship of proportion or ratio is also called this. surfaces with surfaces. the chenice (a measure of volum e for dry things) and the cotyle (a measure of volum e for liquids). and fables. since it is to this that it applies. W hen we examine what relationship exists between the talent and the mine. THE RA TIO OF PROPOR TION XIX . It also has the meaning of the explanation of the elements of the Universe: the recognition of things which honor and are honored. the syllogism and induc­ tion. X X. the tales of Lybius. weights with weights. to the tale and to the proverb. and it is in this sense that we say: taking account of something. and it is in this sense that it is said that there is a rela­ tionship of one thing to another thing. and sound with sound. we are saying that they are terms of the same species. for discourse pro­ ceeding from the mind and expressed by the voice. . to find a rela­ tionship between two things which are not of the same species: thus one cannot com pare the cubit (a measure of length) and the mine (a measure of weight). the white and the sweet or the hot. The calculation of bankers is also called \ 0 y 0 5 . color with color.

the sub-sesqioctave (% ) and the relationship of 243 to 256. it is one tone. the sub-quadruple (*/<). the quadruple ratio in the double octave. since the tone and the leimma are the principles of consonance and have the vir­ tue of com pleting it w ithout. others are sesquipartials. the sesquitertian (1 + VO in the fourth. R elationships are greater. It remains the same for the inverse relationships. X XI. some are subm ultiple. the subsesquialter (V 3). as we have seen above. XXII. and the relationship of 256 to 243 is a leimma. II. O p­ posite to these ratios are the sub-double ('A). As for the sesquioctave ratio (1 + Vs). or equal. II. the triple ratio in the consonance of the oc­ tave plus the fifth. however. 22 In arithm etic there are ratios of numbers. and the others are foreign to it. others are subsesquipartial and others are neutral. 100 to 100. The proportion is the relationship of ratios with each other as 2 is to 1 and 8 is to 4. such as 1 com pared to 1. Such are the relationships which com pare the same quantity. but also the epim er and the polyepim er and other ratios which we will clearly explain later on. The equal rela­ tionship is one and always the same. The fourth is com ­ 21 Cf. or 2 to 2. V. the triple ratio and the quadruple ratio: the sesquipartial ratios are the sesquialter ratio (V 2 = 1 + ‘A). Among the relationships that are larger than unity. It is the same with other homogenous things. Am ong the neutral ones. Among relationships that are less than unity . X II and X III. is found in the conso­ nance of the octave 21. The double ratio. and the sesquitertian ratio (Vs = 1 + Vs). lesser. the sub-sesquiter­ tian (3A). being consonances. . The m ultiple ratios which represent the consonances are the dou­ ble ratio. some represent consonances. and others are neutral. Am ong these ratios. the ses­ quialter (1 + V 2) in the fifth. Among the neutral ratios are the ses­ quioctave ratio (1 + Vs) and the ratio of 256 to 243 which are not consonances but are also not beyond consonance.MUSIC 49 because they are both weights. 10 to 10. there is the sesquioc­ tave ratio (9/s = 1 + Vs) and the relationship of 256 to 243. 22 Cf. and it prevails over all others as being elementary. some are m ultiples (that is to say integers). the sub-triple (VO. not only m ultiples and superpartials.

the relationship is double. others are neutral. while others are sub-sesquipartial. the one . The larger term is given the name of the num ber of times the sm aller measures it: if. the fifth of three tones and a leimma. Likewise 6 surpasses 4 by 2 units which is half of 4. and the ratio is called half. the sm aller term as part of the larger. there are m ultiple relationships. is called sesquitertian. the third of the triple te r m . 6 contains one times 4. Thus according to the principles of arithm etic. and so forth. and the others are inverse relationships larger than unity. if it measures it four times the relationship is quadruple. X X III. and among the relationships sm aller than unity. if it measures it three times. that is to say when the larger term is greater than the sm aller by a certain quantity which is a part of it. 3 indeed contains one times 2. others polyepimer. the octave of one fifth and one fourth. after the designation of the fraction. third.50 MUSIC posed of two tones and a leimma. it measures it two times. such as "A. the relationship is triple. Reciprocally. such as 3/z and %. but the relation­ ships of proportion must precede them. . THE SU PERPARTIAL OR SESQ U IPARTIAL RELATIO N SH IP XXIV. and so forth. receives a denom ination corresponding to the m ultiple ratio: it is called the half of the double term. plus unity which is half of 2. and others epimer. a particular denom ination. when the sm aller term ex­ actly measures the larger without there remaining any part left over. Thus the one which is greater than unity by half of the sm aller term. The relationship is m ultiple when the larger term con­ tains the sm aller several times. others m ultisuperpartial. that is. because it surpasses it by one unit which is a third of 3. there are the sub-m ultiples. plus 2 which is half of 4. Thus the num ber 4 is ses­ quipartial in relationship to 3. while others are sesquipartial. for example. has been called sesquialter since the larger quantity contains the whole of the sm aller plus a half of it.. as Adrastus teaches. The relationship is called sesquipartial when the larger term contains the sm aller term plus a part of the sm aller term one time. The relationship which is greater than unity by one third of the sm aller term. Each sesquipartial relationship is given.

as in the relationship of 7 to 4. and so forth in­ creasing indefinitely. Thus the num ber 5 contains 3 plus two-thirds of 3. because the fraction V 2 is the first. (Toulis) 44 In fact we have "A = 1 + 5 A = 1+ 3 A + V« = 1 + *A + 'A 7A = 1 + 3A = 1 + *A + 'A = 1 + V* + 'A ‘Via = 1 + 7 . the first and largest is the sesquialter relationship(l + X A). and sesquiseptan (1 + *A) are found. Similarly. such as 5A or 10/s. A relationship is called epimer when the larger term con­ tains the sm aller one tim e plus several other parts of it. 23 This exclam ation “ by Z eus” actually exists in the ancient G reek text as met. The parts are different when the largest term contains the sm allest and in addition. sim ilar as two-thirds. next comes the triple. T he French tran slato r does not m ention it in French. always proceeding by diminishing. for in the same way that the relationship of 3 to 2 is called sesquialter. the first and sm allest is the double. then the quadruple. Am ong the m ultiple relationships. Perhaps he thought including ex ­ clam ations w ould be beyond the scope o f his work. etc. then the ses­ quiquartan relationship (1 + 'A) and so forth indefinitely. sesquisixtan (1 + Ve). som ething beyond any doubt. It is not a colloquialism as I assume M r. as in the relationship of 19 to 12 24. the num ber 8 contains 5 and three-fifths of 5.MUSIC 51 which is greater than unity by a fourth. Dupuis inferred and consequently censored it out of his transla­ tion.2 = 1 + Via + Via = 1 + ‘A + ‘A . either sim i­ lar parts or different parts. or again. THE EPIM ER R E LA TIONSHIP XXV. Inversely. or its half and its quarter. and in continuing in the same manner. is called sesquiquartan. the relation­ ship of 2 to 3 is called sub-sesquialter. all of which are sesquipartials. the third and the quarter. three or a greater num ber of parts. the relationships of the sm aller terms to the larger terms are called sub-sesquipartial. Am ong the sesquipartial relationships. the num ber 7 contains 5 plus two-fifths of 5. as in the relationship of 11 to 6. also in a previous page. Then comes the sesquitertian relationship (1 + V 3 ) . other epim er relationships can be recognized which are greater than unity by two. the relation­ ships called sesquiquintan (1 + Vs). two-fifths. by analogy. and so on. its half and its third. the largest and the one which most closely approaches the whole. by Zeus 23. T he truth is th at a statem ent follow ed or preceeded by this exclam ation “ by Z eu s” was the ultim ate. In the same way again the relationship of 3 to 4 is called sub-sesquitertian.

a third of 3. O ther m ultisuperpartial relationships are recognized in the same manner. as in the relationship of 14 to 3. Likewise 9 contains 2 times 4 and the fourth of 4 in addition. A ratio of num ber to num ber is w hat takes place when the larger has none of the relationships we have spoken of with the . whether they be sim ilar or different. Inversely the hypepim er rela­ tionship. 7 contains in this way. It is easy to find many other polyepim er relationships. since 3 does not exactly measure 14. in the preceding relationship. Thus the relationship 26 to 8 is m ultisuperpartial because 3 times 8 does not give 26 com pletely. A relationship is called polyepim er when the larger term contains the sm aller two times or more. The relationship is called m ultisuperpartial or multisesquipartial when the larger term contains the sm aller two or more times plus a part of this sm aller term. but when the larger gives a rem ainder which is at the same time a rem ainder of the smaller. and the relationship is called trisesquitertian. and the relationship is called double with two-thirds in excess (2 + V3). Also it is said that the relation­ ship of 7 to 3 is bisesquitertian. the relationship of 9 to 4 is bisesquiquartan. the ratio of the sm aller term to the larger. and of 14 there re­ mains 2 which is two parts of three and which is called two-thirds. but comes to 24 rather than 26. 2 times 3 and in addition. and there is a rem ainder of 2 which is a quarter of 8. is the one which is obtained by taking. 10 contains 3 times 3 along with the third of 3. They occur in every case where. of the two proposed num­ bers. and this takes place each time that the sm aller num ber does not exactly measure the larger. To the polyepim er relationship is opposed the hypo-polyepim er relationship (the inverse relationship). the relationship of 11 to 4 is double with three-quarters in excess 074 = 2 + 3A = 2 + V>+ 74). likewise the rela­ tionship of 11 to 3 is triple with two-thirds in excess (3 + V 3 ) . along with two or several parts of the latter. two-thirds of 3. but 4 times 3 are 12. THE M U LTISU PERP ARTIAL AN D POLYEPIM ER RELATIO N SH IPS XXV I. the sm aller does not measure the larger exactly. but there is a rem ainder formed of several parts of the sm aller number. X X V III. Again likewise.52 MUSIC whether these parts be sim ilar or not. X X V II. Thus 8 con­ tains 2 times 3 and in excess.

but there are two different relationships. It borrows its name from the first relationships. Between unequal terms. for the sesquiter­ tian relationship it is 4 A . THE DIFFERENCE B E T W E E N THE IN TE R VAL A N D THE R E LA TIONSHIP XXX . O f all the relationships which we have discussed in detail. which measures the leimma. THE FOUND A TION OF R E LA TIONSHIPS X X IX . and the triple relationships expressed in larger and com posite numbers go on to infinity. for after this the dou­ ble relationships are expressed in larger and com posite numbers. The same observations can be made of other relationships. the relationship of 2 to 1 25 T he relationship o f 256 to 243 is epim er. since we have: 2“ A<a = 1 + “ /« » = 1 + ’/it* + V243 + */»«• = 1 + V 2 7 + V»i + '/mj. Thus the first and the basic of the dou­ ble relationships is the relationship of 2 to 1. but there is a rela­ tionship between them which is that of equality. In the same way the first and the basic of the triple relationships is the relationship 3 to 1. As will be shown. several different parts o f it. com posite terms. This is why there is no interval between equal terms. and 6 to 3 and so forth indefinitely. It is the same with other m ultiple relationships and superpartial relationships. the interval of one to the other is unique and identical. those which are expressed in the sm allest numbers and prim ary to each other are called “firsts” or the basic of all the relationships of a sim ilar (or equal) species. so th a t the larger term contains the sm aller one tim e and in addi­ tion.25 It is evident that the ratio of the sm aller numbers to the larger numbers is in the inverse. while the relationship is varied and inverse from one term to the other: thus 2 to 1 and 1 to 2 have only a single and indentical interval. for the sesquiquarten relationship it is 5 A. reduced to its sm allest terms. as has been shown. like the relationships of 4 to 2. the first and the basic of the sesquialter relationships is %. The interval and the relationship differ in that the interval is contained between hom ogenious and unequal terms. II. the rela­ tionship which is 256 to 243. .MUSIC 53 sm aller. it is a relationship of num ber to number. while the relationship simply links hom ogenious terms to one another. Cf. There is an infinite num ber of equivalent relationships expressed in larger. X X V .

Eratosthenes. This is evident: for each species there is a certain elem ent or principle which belongs to it. 4. of position or in any other way. 3. A t least three terms are necessary for a continuous proportion. 1 in double ratio form a continuous proportion. that is to say a sim ilarity of ratios in several terms. which takes place when the relationship of the first term to the second is equal to the relationship of the second to the third or to the rela­ tionship to two other terms. of quality. because of the repetition of the mean term. into which all the others are resolved. the three sm allest terms. The same would be found of proportions having other relationships.54 MUSIC being double. XX X I The proportion is a sim ilarity or identity of several rela­ tionships. since 6 is to 3 as 4 is to 2. in the Platonist also said that the interval and the relationship are not the same thing. 2. and the discontinuous requires at least four terms. 6. Eratosthenes says that the ratio is the principle which gives birth to the proportion and it is also the prim ary cause of the creation of all orderly things. 4. The same thing is observed with other m ultiple relationships. The first proportion is called con­ tinuous and the second is called discontinuous. in sesquialter relationship (1 + V2). while it itself does not resolve into any of the others. and the numbers 6. because the relationship is a specific connection of two magnitudes to each other. whether of size. Every proportion is indeed composed of ratios and the principle of the ratio is equality. form a discontinuous proportion. 6. because 4 is to 2 as 2 is to 1. By this it is evident that the relationship is a different thing than the inter­ val. or that the intelligible differs from the known in the same relationship as the perceptible differs from opinion. and the terms 9. However this principle is necessarily . while these things differ only by a single interval. as when it is said that the perceptible is to the intelligible in the same relationship as opinion is to scientific knowledge. whereas the relationship of 1 to 2 is a half. because the half and the double do not form the same relation­ ship while they do form the same interval. A fter the proportion formed of equal terms. 15. 4. 10. form a continous proportion. 2 form a dis­ continuous proportion. and the continuous proportion is in a certain way a four term proportion. The explanation is the same when the relationships are sesquipartial: thus the numbers are 9. and it exists between different and also not different things.

every com bina­ tion of numbers. (Toulis) . but if a term is contained between two others it is not necessarily a proportional mean between these num­ bers. And each thing is indivisible and whole as it is an elem ent of a composed or mixed thing. A mean num ber differs from a mean proportion. The cause of what we have just said is that equality has no in­ terval. because unity m ultiplied by itself does not create like the other numbers: one times one is one. He says. nor the point in size. X X X II. like 2 which is conM Epinomis. Thus the elem ent of quantity is the unit. while by addition it increases to infinity. As for the point. And this uniqueness will be apparent to whomever com prehends correctly w hat we teach: he will understand that a single bond naturally unites all things. and every astronom ical revolution manifest the uniqueness of proportion. for it can increase only by the repetition of it­ self. the line out of the point. for anything that can be broken down and divided is called a bond and not an element. nor is equality a part of the relationship. Thus the point is not a part of the line. that of m agnitude is the point. relationship and proportion out of equality. For unity cannot be divided in quantity. indeed in the Epinomis™ that it is necessary that every figure. Plato seems to believe that the connecting elem ent of m athem at­ ics is unique and that it consists in proportion. 991 E — 992A 2 7 The G reek word Metroryj? m eans ‘m edian’ (or m ediate in French) and here it can he m anifested as a mean num ber. in the same way th at the line forms a surface and the surface a solid.MUSIC 55 unresolvable and indivisible. but by a continuous movement. nor equality in m ulti­ ple relationships. Similarly the ratio of equality does not increase by addition. every harmonic group. it is a term contained between them. The elements of substance are therefore indivisible according to substance. that of relationship and of proportion is equality. but not all in the same manner. just as the point has no size. those of quantity are so according to quantity. Num ber is born out of the unit. In every case unity makes up part of the number. to him who learns according to the true method. those of quality are so according to quality. for if one adds several equal relationships in order. the ratio of the sum again gives an equality. It can in fact happen that a num ber contained between two extremes might not be in proportion with them. it is neither by m ultiplication nor by addition that it forms the line.27 For if a num ber is a proportional mean between two others.

56

MUSIC

tained between 1 and 3, and 2, 3, 4, which are contained between 1 and 10, because 10 cannot be reached w ithout passing through 2, 3, 4 and yet none of these numbers is in proportion with the extremes, since the relationship of 1 to 2 is not equal to that of 2 to 3, and likewise also the relationship of 1 to 2, 3 or 4 is not equal to that of 2, 3 or 4 to 10. The proportional means between two numbers are, on the contrary, contained between these numbers: thus in the pro­ portion 1, 2, 4, whose ratio is double, the proportional mean 2 is contained between 1 and 4. ON PROPORTIONS (B E T W E E N TH REE NUMBERS) X X X III. Thrasyllus takes three principle proportions between three numbers into account: the arithm etic proportion, the g eom etric p ro p o rtio n , and the h arm onic p ro p o rtio n . T he arithm etic proportion is that in which the mean term surpasses one extrem e term by the same am ount as it is surpassed by the other ex­ treme, such as the proportion 1, 2, 3; the geom etric proportion is that in which the mean term contains one extrem e, such as the pro­ portion 3, 6, 12. The harm onic proportion between three numbers is that in which the mean num ber surpasses one extrem e num ber and is surpassed by the other, by the same fraction of the extrem e numbers, like the third, and the fourth, such is the proportion of the numbers 6, 8, 12. Thus each of the relationships can be considered in this way. 12 is the double of 6, 18 is its triple, 24 its quadruple; 9 is % of it and 8 is Vs of it; 9 is % of 8; 12 is Vs of 9, and 3A of 8 (the double of 6); 18 is the double of 9 and 27 is the 3 A of 18: 8/e gives the consonance of the fourth, 9A the consonance of the fifth and 12A the consonance of the octave; 1 8/e gives and octave and a fifth, for 12 being the double of 6 forms the consonance of the octave and 18 being 3A of 12 is the consonance of the fifth: we have the relative numbers 6, 12, 18.28 “ A gives the consonance of the double octave; 9A gives the tone and “ A the fourth; “ A gives the fifth and 18A the octave. The ratio 27A« gives the fifth. The octave “ /« is com posed of the fifth 9A and the fourth 12A , or again the fifth “ A and the fourth 8A . 29 The octave 18A is composed
» ■% =

'* x >«, = 3.

" ' * = %x'K = *Kx% = 2.

MUSIC

57

of the fifth 1 8/i 2 and the fourth 12A ;30 the ratio “ Aa for the octave is composed of the ratio 24As for the fourth and the ratio 18A2 for the fifth.3 1 Finally the ratio 9A which is a fifth is composed of a tone 9A and a fourth 8A 32 and the ratio 12A is thus a fifth, composed of a fourth 12A and a tone 9A .33 X XX IV. The leimma is in the relationship of the number 256 to the num ber 243. This is how the relationship is found: we take the sesquioctave relationship two times (the two terms of the first are m ultiplied by 9, the two terms of the second by 8), and triple the result. Then we join the sesquitertian relationship to it. The ses­ quioctave relationship being that of 9 to 8, we form with these two numbers two other sesquioctave relationships in the following manner: 9 x 9 = 8 1 ; 9 x 8 = 72; and 8 x 8 = 64; 81 is 9A ths of 72 and 72 is 9A ths of 64. If we triple these numbers, we have 8 1 x 3 = 243; 72 x 3 = 216 and 64 x 3 = 192. 4 A rds of 192 is 256. This num ber com pared with 243 gives the relationship of the leimma which is less than 1 + V isth.3 4 256 leimma v 243 tone ■ >fourth ^ 216 tone J 192

THE D IV ISIO N OF THE CANON X XX V. The division of the canon is made according to the quaternary 35 of the decad which is composed of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and which embraces the sesquitertian, sesquialter, double, tri­ ple and quadruple ratios (that is 4 A, 3 A , 2, 3, and 4). This is how Thrasyllus divided this canon. Taking half of the string he obtains the mese consonance of the octave which is in
30 ■ »/ » = 31 « / „ 32 • / . = 33 1 2 /8 = = % > • / .. X “ /• M /„ X > •/„ X */.

H /9 X %

3< The leim m a is less than 1 + */n th. The fraction ‘V»3 is actually less than ‘/ u , therefore 1 + ls/ 2«3 o r “ V 243 is less th an 1 + ‘/is th. “ T he “ tetraktys” o f the Pythagoreans — T he num ber 10 o r its parts 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10. (Toulis)

58

MUSIC

double ratio, the tension being double for the higher pitched sounds, in the inverse direction of the movement. The inversion is such that, when the total length of the string is dim inished by the canon, the pitch is proportionately raised, and that when the length is increased the pitch is proportionately lowered, because the halflength of the proslam banom enos, which is the mese with respect to the total string, has a double tension toward the higher pitches, and the total string which is double has a half-tension on the side of the low sounds. The division of the string into three gives the hypate of the meses and the nete of the disjuncts, the nete pf the disjuncts being a fifth of the mese since the divisions are in the relationship of 2 to 3, and it is to the hypate (of the meses) in the relationship of an octave, since the divisions are as 1 to 2. The nete of the disjuncts gives with the proslam banom enos the consonance of the octave and a fifth, because from the proslam banom enos to mese there is one octave and, the intervals being prolonged up to the nete of the disjuncts, there is a fifth from this to the mese. From the mese to the hypate (of the meses) there is a fourth, and from the mese to the proslam banom enos there is an octave, the hy­ pate of the meses giving the fifth through the relationship to the proslam banom enos. The same distance of an octave is obtained by adding hypate (of the meses) to the mese, which is a fourth, to the interval from mese to the nete of the disjuncts, which is a fifth. The numbers of movements (that is to say vibrations) varies in the in­ verse direction from the division of the lengths (that is in the in­ verse direction of the length of the vibrating part). By dividing the string in fourths, the diatone of the hypates, also called the hyperhypate, and the nete of the hyperboles are ob­ tained. The nete of the hyperbole is to the nete of the disjuncts in the relationship of the fourth, to the mese in the relationship of the octave, to the hypate (of the meses) in the relationship of the oc­ tave and a fourth, to the hyperhypate in the relationship of the oc­ tave and a fifth, and to the proslam banom enos in the relationship of the double octave, in going toward the low tones. The hyperhypate is to the proslam banom enos in the relationship of the fourth, going toward the low tones, and to the mese in the relationship of the fifth, going toward the high tones; it is one tone below the hypate (o f the m eses) and the in terv a l from hyperhypate to the last cord (the proslam banom enos) is equal to

. There is. . there are two parts.36 All of this will be made evident through the numbers. . The ratio of the hypate of the meses to the same nete 8 / s . and from the latter to the mese. the disjunct (nete of the disjuncts). and here again the num ber of movements (vibrations) is in the inverse direction to the size of the divisions. In fact. one part. the con­ sonance of the fifth. which is the sesquitertian relationship which gives the conso­ nance of the fourth. three above the mese and three below it.1 See note X II. the consonance of the octave and a fifth. The hyperboles (nete of the hy­ perboles) is obtained by taking three parts of 11 the string. The interval of the hypate (of meses) to the nete 3 . there are 6 divisions. three parts of the canon can be counted.MUSIC 59 the interval of the fourth from the nete of the disjuncts to the nete of the hyperboles.. the conso­ nance of the double octave. The relationship of the mese to the nete of the hyperbole is ® /s = 2 which is the consonance of the octave. then. and finally from the latter to the end of the canon. from the beginning of the canon to the hyperhypate. two parts. The ratio of the mese to the nete of dis­ juncts equals 8/« = */*. three parts. it is spaced by one division from 12 proslambanomenos . Between the hyperhypate and the nete of the hyperboles. From the mese to the nete of the disjuncts. from there to the hypate of the meses. The ratio of the hyperhypate to the nete is 9 /a = 3. a total of 12 divisions. . the nete o f hyperboles mese will be given by each half of the total nete o f disjuncts string.. r ween them. and this completes the partitioning. The hypate of meses will be given by blocking off four parts at the beginning of the canon and the nete of disjuncts in taking mese four parts at the other end of the canon. which is the sesquialter relationship. in such a way that there will be four parts bet. . because if one divides the length of the canon into twelve appropriate parts. and the relationship of the proslam banom enos to it is 1 2/3 = 4 . from there to the hyperbole one part. The ratio of the nete of the disjuncts to the nete of hyperboles is V s. hyperhypate js Spacecj by one division from the hypate 10 (of meses). The hyperhypate will be o given hypate of meses jr jr by blocking off three parts at the beginning. the conso­ nance of the octave and a fourth.

this relationship equals 4A . The hyperhypate is to the hypate of meses as 9 is to 8. The 3A ratio of the fifth is greater than the ratio 4A by one tone which is equal to 9A : let us take for exam ple the num ber 6 which is divisible by 2 and by 3: 4A of 6 equal 8 and 3A of 6 equal 9. the relationship is “ A = 3.* The rem ainder of the interval up to the nete of the dis­ juncts will be the leimma. since the tone. we will have the trite of the hyperboles. T hat of the hyperhypate to the mese is 9A = 3A and gives the fifth. and nete of conjuncts. F or the com plete proslam banom enos. This insertion begins at the nete of the hyper­ boles. and 9 is 9A of 8. we diminish by a ninth the length of the nete of the dis­ juncts. we will have the diatone of the hyperboles. the octave. 8.60 MUSIC of disjuncts equals 8 A = 2. And the re• See the Perfect System on page 148. T hat of the com plete proslam banom enos to the mese is 1 2 /« = 2. The numbers of vibrations are subject to inverse pro­ portion. indeed if we extend the latter an eighth part of its length. one tone lower. the octave. the consonance of the octave and a fifth. X XX VI. The relationship of the whole proslam banom enos to the hypate of the meses is 12A = S A (the fifth). which is a tone higher than the nete of the disjuncts. which is the double fifth (fifth of the fifth). which is lower by one tone than the diatone. and which is lower by one tone than the nete of disjuncts. W e then have 6. the ratio of the tone. which is lower by one tone. which is also called the diatone. and which is the same as the diatone of the conjuncts. we will have the chrom atic of the hyperboles. the ratio of which is sesquialter (S A). The same string is to the hyperhypate as 12 is to 9. the ratio of which is sesquioctave (9A). . If on the contrary. T hat of the hyperhypate to the same nete equals 9 A . the intervals must then be filled by tones and leimmas. If we prolong the diatone an eighth part of its length. The relationship of the hypate of the meses to the mese is 8 /« = 4A . we will have the trite of the disjuncts. 9 and the excess of the interval 3A over the interval 4A is 9A But the interval 4A of the fourth is composed of two times 9A and a leimma. the consonance of the fourth. Then if we prolong the nete of the conjuncts by one eighth of its length. are found condensed in the canon. the fourth. this augm ented by one eighth will give the paranete of disjuncts. the consonance of the fourth the ratio of which is sesquitertian (4A) and the consonance of the fifth. com plem ent of the consonance of the fourth through relationship to the nete of the hyperboles.

increased by one eighth gives the parhypate of the hypates. we will have the chrom atic of the disjuncts. increased by an eighth. lower by one tone. we will have the mese. qf which we take successively % ths and the other fractions we have indi­ cated. if the length of the proslam banom enos is divided into 9 parts. The enharm onic system is derived from the diatonic system by removing the diatones that are heard two times in each octave and by dividing the half-tones in two. higher by one tone than the mese. The proslam banom enos will have the value of 10368. R eciprocally. and one of these parts is taken away in the inverse of what we have done for the high tones. as we have said. and which com pletes the octave. Such is the division of the canon given by Thrasyllus. lower by one tone. we will have the hypate of the hypates. one obtains the chrom atic of the meses. the diatone of the meses. If we prolong the param ese by one eighth. every mean is a mean number. and in subtracting its ninth part from this.MUSIC 61 m ainder of the interval up to the param ese will be the leimma. higher by one tone than the proslam banom enos and term inating the tetracord of the hypates by the relationship of the leimma which it has with the parhypate. lower by one tone than the mese. increased by an eighth. It is then in so far as the mean is a m ean num ber th at it 37 See note X III. and from there to the hypate of the meses there remains a leimma for the com plem ent of the consonance of the fourth with the mese. If one subtracts one ninth from the hypate of the meses. but every mean num ber is not a mean. W hen we put forth the elements of astronom y we will show how all of this applies to the system of the worlds. . which.37 It is unnecessary to develop this in detail because anyone who has un­ derstood the foregoing will find it easy to calculate. which is higher by one tone. gives the parhypate of the meses. and if on the other hand. W e will find the numerical results by beginning with the nete of the hyperboles which we will suppose to be of 384 parts. The mese. will give the diatone of the meses. one increases it by one eighth. If we dim inish the mese in the same m anner (by retracting a ninth of its length) we will have the param ese or chrom atic of the conjuncts. In this way the whole im­ m utable system of the diatonic type and the chrom atic type are completed. Let us now go on to the ex­ planation of the other means and the mean numbers since. the hyperhypate is obtained.

all the relationships of the consonances are found in the quaternary of the decad. L ife o f Pythagoras. it is of these numbers that we have to speak. since the sum of the numbers 1. Since. II. into our souls” . They allow for the unification of odd and even because numbers are not only odd or even. 38 The one who bestowed it was Pythagoras. fact. It is for this reason that the form ula of their oath was: “ I swear by the one who has bestowed the tetraktys to the coming generations. constitutes the quaternary. The decad in. as we have said. etc. 6: Theologumena Arithm eticae IV . + 4) is great in music because all the consonances are found in it. para. Against the Christians (philosophy of the cynics). The second is formed by m ultiplication. and in this way the im mutable diagram is completed. XXV III and X X IX . III. Commentary on the Dream o f Scipio . 4 is 10. Of these numbers. 2. + 2. and its essence is simple. G olden Verses o f Pythagoras. . For this reason. starting from unity. But these numbers contain the consonance of the fourth in the sesquitertian (“A) relationship. But it is not only for this reason that all Pythagoreans hold it in highest esteem: it is also because it seems to outline the entire nature of the universe. 3. Opinions o f the Philosophers. The first quaternary is the one of which we’ve just spoken: it is formed by addition of the first four numbers. as we have shown. The Em poror Julien. 18. para. of even and odd num­ bers. THE Q U A T E R N A R Y (OR TETRA K TYS) AN D THE DEC AD XXX V II. 1 8 Cf.62 MUSIC is necessary to understand the following. source of eternal nature. The im portance of the quaternary obtained by addi­ tion (that is to say 1. and it has been said that the tetraktys appears indeed to have been discovered by him. + 3. Next comes three numbers from the odd as well as the even series. Iam blicus. in m ultiplication. I. that of the fifth in sesquialter (Ya) relationship. the odd numbers and of all the odd-even numbers. edited by Ast. Plutarch. I. M acrobius. it is the principle of all the even numbers. unity is the first because. concerning means and mean numbers. 47-48. that of the octave in the double ratio and that of the double octave in the quadruple ratio. H O W M A N Y QUA TERN ARIES ( TETRA K TYS) A R E THERE? X X X V III. p.

4 and 9.39 The last of these seven numbers is equal to the sum of all the pre­ ceding. The ratios of the most perfect consonances are found in these numbers. having lateral (or linear) :l!' P la to . the other by m ultiplication. is that of the point in this one. The fourth terms. 2 and 3 have the side ratio. It is with these numbers that Plato. after the limit and the point comes the side. 27. so that unity is odd and even sim ultaneously and belongs to both. cubic numbers). The third quaternary is that which. the odd in triple ratio. and in the odd series. and that of the numbers 2 and 3. have the power of the squared surface. constitutes the soul. being equally equal equally (that is to say. In fact. and these quaternaries en­ compass the musical. The second numbers. The fourth among the even numbers is 8. and are consequently linear numbers. In this way. following the same propor­ tion. of lim it and of point. in the Timaeus. being prime. 9. the first of the odd num­ bers being the num ber 3 which arises from unity being tripled. th e Tim aeus. . for the place taken by unity. The second num ber in the even and double (series) is 2 and in the odd and triple is 3. as we have 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 8 -1 . 8 and 27. The third terms.9 = 2 7 . embraces the nature of all magnitudes. the even in double ratio. in the preceding quaternary. have the power of the cubic solid. even the tone is included. The third of the order of even numbers is 4. by virtue of the numbers from this tetraktys. one which is made by addition.MUSIC 63 two quaternaries are taken. However unity contains the principle of ratio. the other odd. growth procedes from the limit and the point up to the solid. 36 be. geom etric and arithm etic ratios of which the harmony of the universe is composed. There are then two quaternaries of numbers. and measured only by the unit. incomposite numbers. being equally equal (that is to say square numbers). one even. then the surface and finally the solid. the first of the even numbers being 2 which comes from unity doubled. and among the odd numbers.

one with a curved surface. in the preceding quaternary. and to earth as 1 is to 4. 40 A solid having 20 surfaces. is here that of the line. and it offers the same proportion as the quaternary of numbers.64 MUSIC power. See: “ M athem atics of the Cosm ic M ind. like the sphere or the cylinder. to w ater as 1 is to 3. through its double form. such is indeed the nature of the elements according to their fineness or density. and which are its intellectual part.” by L. in such a way that fire is to air as 1 is to 2. water to the num ber 3. the one having the property of constituting any m ag­ nitude. the two types of surface. fire. And what. the icosahedron 40 the figure of water and the cube the figure of earth. air. M an is principle and is thus. This is the third tetraktys then. A growth in length is analogous to the num­ ber 2 and to the line. which have the power of the cube and of which one is even and the other odd. the line. G ordon Plum m er. 1972. are the numbers 4 and 9. The family corresponds to the number 2. air corresponds to the num ber 2. the planar and the curved. in the preceding are the numbers 8 and 27. unity. because it is composed of a single line without terminus. are so (surface) in this one: Finally. the other with a plane surface. the surface and the solid. The fifth quaternary is that of the shapes of sim ple bodies. the seed being analogous to unity and to the point. that air is to w ater as 2 is to 3. and so forth for the others). The place occupied by unity in the quaternary of numbers is taken by fire in this one. and finally a growth in thickness is analogous to the num ber 4 and to the solid. the straight line corresponding to the even num ber because it term inates at two points (the line and circle are given as examples here). such as the cube and the pyramid. earth to the num ber 4. A ll of these quaternaries are m aterial and perceptible. having the power of the surface. for the pyramid is the figure of fire. and the circular to the odd. straight or circular. The fourth quaternary is that of the simple bodies. what. There are two kinds of solids. through the point. the village to the num ber 3 and the city to the num ber 4. the octahedron the figure of air. The other relationships are also equal (that is to say. The eighth contains faculties by which we are able to form judg­ ment on the preceding. for these are the elements which compose the nation. and a growth in width is analogous to the num ber 3 and to the surface. The sixth is that of the created things. The seventh quaternary is that of societies. . is constituted by the solid in this one. water and earth.

and the eleventh is that of the ages. the fourth is that of magnitudes. autum n. man in the seventh. the sense of touch being common to all. A nd the perfect world which results from these quater­ naries is geom etrically. containing in power the entire nature of number. adolescence. and so forth with the others following the same proportion. the line. The ninth quaternary is that which composes the living things. And certainly thought. fire in the fourth. the height. the icosahedron. in its essence. 2. sum­ mer. the square. m aturity and old age. the village. the fifth is th at of simple bodies. adolescence. 4. The eighth is thought. the em otional and the willful parts of the soul. winter. the side. the point is in the third. the solid. the family. They are proportional to one another. because it is something between science and ignorance. the seed in the sixth. the rational. opinion and feeling. The third is the point. through the succession of which all things take birth. the sixth is that of created things. There are thus eleven quaternaries. and finally feeling is like the num ber 4 because it is quadruple. the cube. thought in the eighth. m aturity and old age. The first is that of the num­ bers which are formed by addition. science.science is the num ber 2. The tenth is spring. the tenth is that of the seasons. sense. The sixth is the seed. the width. the eighth is that of the faculties of judg­ ment. The tenth quaternary is that of the seasons of the year. the em o­ tional and the willful. The fifth is the pyramid. spring. body and soul. the seventh is th at of societies. since what is unity in the first and the second quaternary. the length. The eleventh is that of the ages: childhood.MUSIC 65 namely: thought. and the body. the ninth is that of the living thing. air. the fourth part is the body in which the soul resides. the sur­ face. Thus the first quaternary is 1. 3. autum n and winter. because it is the science of all things. opinion is like the num ber 3. the octahedron. every m agnitude and every body. the city. earth. w hether simple or composite. the pyramid in the fifth. must be assim ilated to unity. the cube. The fourth is fire. the second is that of the num­ bers formed by m ultiplication. The second is unity. The eleventh is childhood. science. summer. the soul having three parts. all the senses being m otivated through contact. The seventh is man. The ninth is the rational. It is perfect because . that is. water. opi­ nion. harm onically and arithm etically arranged.

23: "the num ber three expresses the m u ltitu d e. justice itself. I. 36. and every intelligible essence. We make three libations to show that we ask everything which is good.found in the quaternary. Plutarch. the soul. Opinions o f the Philosophers.however. III. 41 Cf. Unity is the principle of all things and the most dom inant of all that is: all things em anate from it and it em anates from nothing. On Isis and Osiris.” See also. a m iddle and an end. and it is itself a part of nothing else. and through which all things are assim ilated to number. from which it follows that the strongest numbers can be considered as having their ratio in the quaternary. PROPERTIES OF THE NUM BERS CONTAINED IN THE DECAD (T E T R A K TY S) XL. com position and the relationship of one thing to another. equality itself. XLII. This is why the Pythagoreans used the oath whose form ula we have re­ ported. for we conceive each of these things as being one and as existing in itself. . XLI. since we do not count any num ber beyond ten: in going beyond ten we go back to the numbers 1 . for all the numbers less than this are not called m ultitude (or many) but one or one and other. while three is called m ultitude. since the sum of the four numbers 1. THE DECAD X X X I X . The decad is. Everything that is intelligible and not yet created exists in it: the nature of ideas. The Pythagoreans were no less wise in bringing all numbers back to the decad. the beautiful and the good. in which are seen m atter and all that is perceptible. the generation of motion. God himself. The first increase. It is im m uta­ ble and never departs from its own nature through m ultiplication (1 x 1 = 1). 3. m ultiplication and addition.66 MUSIC everything is part of it. 2. It is indivisible and it is everything in power. the first change from unity is made by the doubling of unity which becomes 2. This is why this num ber is the first to which the name multitude 4 1 applies. 3 and so on. 4 is equal to 10. such as beauty itself. and thrice favored those who are at the limit of success. 2 . We call thrice woeful those who are at the limit of misfortune. which is the first num ber having a beginning. The num ber 2 added to unity produces 3.

the octave. and indetermined. As for all the other angles. one obtains ten. The num ber 4 is the image of the solid. gives the decad. they are infinite in number. It is for this reason that there are three types of triangles. which is greater than one of the ex­ tremes and less than the other. 2. The num ber 5 is the mean term of (two numbers whose sum is) the decad. the sum will always be 10 and the mean term in arithm etic proportion will be 5. the fifth o f the octave and the double octave. the fourth. A nd it com pletes the consonances which are 4 A. for example. whose property it is to be unique. larger than one and sm aller than the other. as we have shown. and 4. for unity is not a number. by the addition of any two numbers. 3. the means of these numbers will be 5 according to arithm etic proportion. well defined and composed of the equal and the sim ilar. 2 and 3. XLIII. . 1 4 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 This num ber is also the first which embraces the two types of numbers. The num ber six is a perfect num ber because it is equal to the sum of its aliquot parts. and which causes all right angles to be equal to one another. added to the first square number. 4.42 XLIV. 8 and 2. the equilateral. Cf. being in the m iddle between the acute and the obtuse angles. This is why it is 42 T he num ber four is the image o f the solid because the most elem entary of the solids is the trian g u lar pyram id which has 4 faces and 4 apexes. This is shown in the diagram in which any addition of two opposite numbers gives 10. the fifth. and also that there are three types of angles. 6 and 4. the first form of the plane being the triangle. it com pletes all the con­ sonances. if you add 9 and 1. the right angle. XLV. by the same difference. as has been shown. Thus. the odd and the even.MUSIC 67 The ternary num ber also represents the first nature of the plane because it is in a sense its image. since they are either greater or smaller. II. th at is. that is to say equal to the sum of its aliquot parts. This perfect number. 7 and 3. the isosceles and the scalene. above. The num ber 3 added to unity and to 2 gives 6 which is the first perfect number. that is. VI. because if. 3A. and it is the first square num ber among the even numbers. the propor­ tional arithm etic mean being 5.

6. being placed in the middle. 8.43 The harm onic mean is com ­ posed according to this primary number. some create and some are created. like 6 which is the product of 2 by 3. Am ong the numbers con­ tained in the decad. Eight is greater than one of the extremes. Finally. Day and night. since 9 is greater than one of the extremes and less than the other by the same quantity. 44 Timeaus 35 b.44 following nature. and does not unite with anything. is en­ dowed with a rem arkable property: it is the only one which does not give birth to any num ber contained in the decad and which is not born out of any of them. and 5 m ultiplied by 2 produces 10. and is created by 2. and 12 which is its double. 2. in the second it becomes full. and in the fourth. The m onth is composed of four weeks (four times seven days). which fact moved the Pythagoreans to give it the name A thena. and which is not pro­ duced by the m ultiplication of any number. m ultiplied by another number. 12.68 MUSIC called that of marriage. A nother num ber of the decad. which is one-third of the extremes. one arrives at the harm onic proportion of the numbers 6. 12. Others create but are not created. endows the soul with 7 n u m b ers. 12. have the nature of the even and the odd. . and m ultiplied by 2 produces 6. in the first week the m oon appears divided in two. because the task of m arriage produces children sim ilar to their parents. . 43 See note X IV . six produces the geom etric proportion when. but which create: 3 produces 9. creates none of the numbers in the decad. 6. is placed on the other. . since 6 then contains one of the extremes. half of it. it returns to meet the sun in order to begin a new m onth and to in­ crease during the following week.e. i. is placed on one side. . XLVI. Seven is the only num ber which. 12. 3. in the third it is again divided. . giving the geom etric proportion of the numbers 3. and less than the other extreme. by the same fraction of the ex­ tremes. Six also gives the arithm etic mean by taking 9. 8. because this goddess was not born out of a m other and gave birth to none. This num ber did not arise from any union. .. but which does not create any of the numbers in the decad. and is contained by the other in the same relationship. since in taking its fourthirds. and its double. P lato in the Timaeus. said Posidonius. for exam ple 4 m ultiplied by 2 creates 8. and its double. such as 3 and 5 which are not created by any com ­ bination of numbers. 12. which is 3A rds of it. Others are created but do not create. 3. the num ber seven.

and the planets are seven in number.MUSIC 69 It is in seven weeks that the foetus appears to arrive at its perfec­ tion. From one solstice of the sun to the other there are seven months. one of the im m ortal gods. at twenty eight. There are seven viscera. It is then also that a man acquires his full height. even in three and four-day fevers. the heart. . the tongue.e. and the two kidneys. It is also in the seventh month that the foetus can be born living. and often it is in the third period. i. Herophilus says that the intestine of man is 28 cubits long. earth and heaven. the lungs. and in all periodic fevers. the sky and the earth. in most straits. that the beard begins to grow. that he acquires his stout­ ness. the king Osiris. and to Love. that is to say. and this is also found in the oaths of Orpheus: By the creators of things forever immortal: fire and water. It is necessary then to understand T h e o n ’s thought as follows: starting from one tropic o r from one equinox.” because the spheres of the world which turn 45 From one solstice o f the sun to the other and from one equinox to the other there are only six m onths. the spirit. the great torch and the black night. is found an in­ scription dedicated to King Saturn and Queen Rhea: “To the most ancient of all.46 XLVII. the spleen. the ebb-tide reverses direction seven times per day. Some think that the male foetus requires five weeks for its perfection. i. The number eight which is the first cube is composed of unity and the septenary. Seven days are needed to diagnose illness. the liver. Tim otheus also relates the proverb “ eight is all. m onum ent to his magnificence and tribute of his life”. the seventh day is always the most serious. the sun reaches the o th er tropic o r equinox in the seventh month. Finally. on a colum n. Some people say that there are eight prin­ ciple gods in the universe. Sim ilarly seven months are counted from one equinox to the o th e r. four times seven cubits. A nd Evander relates that in Egypt. the father of all that is and all that will be. e. and fully produce their teeth in seven years. the night and the day. as Empedocles insinuates in his Expiations. the moon and the sun.45 The head has seven orifices. at the age of twenty-one. the semen and puberty make their appearance at the age of fourteen. C hildren develop teeth starting from the seventh month afterb irth . but it is only in the fourth period. 4 H See note X V.

There are several means : the geometric. THE M ED IANS (TH E M EAN ) L.b = ma. the mean term. of that which is in motion and that which is still. the mean term is less than one extrem e and greater than the other by the same part of the extrem es. time or other). which give the two first squares of 4 and 9. Archytas. that is to say the geom etric proportions. as he then demonstrates. for all the others have need of it. triple. whose terms are in double ratio. However.b : b . some have rational terms and relationships. in his treatise On Nature . Finally.c = a : c . weight. And. Among the primary proportions themselves. or any other numerical proportion: others have inexpressible and ir­ rational terms (size. one even. a .47 LI. in his book On the Decade . as we have said. as Eratosthenes also says: “These eight spheres also harmonise together while making their revolutions around the earth. such as the proportion 12. XLIX The decad completes the series of numbers. write at length on this subject. In the geom etric mean . of all of these me­ dians. containing in itself the nature of both even and odd. The numerical mean contains and is contained by the same number of extremes. 3. and so it is the first. 6. is contained in one extrem e and contains the other in the same relationship (a : b = b : c). the other odd. to which six others must be ad­ ded which are subcontrary to them. Adrastus shows that the ratio of equality is the first in order and that it is an elem ent of all the ratios of which we have pre47 If a . of good and of evil. He says that some give the other means the more general name of proportion.70 MUSIC around the earth are eight in number.” XLVIII. the subcontrary. The number nine is the first square among the odd num­ bers: the two first numbers are 2 and 3. the harmonic. the fifth and the sixth. in the harm onic m e a n . and b-c = me. and Philolaus. in double. and in general m ultiple or sesquipartial ratio. the arithm etic. Adrastus says that the geometric is the only one which is a true proportion. whereas it has no need of the others. then. Let us return now to proportions and to the means.

4. a + b. for it is from it that all others take birth. 25. and so on to infinity. in quintuple ratio. Taking. then. 9. three magnitudes with the propor­ tion found between them. which are in double ratio. b. and the terms will be 1. if one takes three others formed from these. . 5. then another composed of the first and the second. let us form the next one by the same method. with these numbers. and in it that they are all resolved. the terms 1. W e have. the terms 1. we have b2 = ac. By the same method. and with these. if we take three other terms in the m anner which has been indicated. 3. in three units. first an equal one. and a + 2 b + c. and the last composed of the first. But b2 = ac by hypothesis. W ith these numbers. which are in quadruple ratio. these new terms will again be in continuous propor­ tion. in triple ratio. the second will be com ­ posed of the first and the second. c. that is to say. The three terms obtained follow ing A drastus’s rule are a. and that equality is the principle and the element of proportion. 4. therefore the square o f the m ean term is equal to the product o f the extrem es and the three new term s are in continuous proportion. and finally another composed of the first. 2. Eratosthenes says that he will om it the dem onstrations but Adrastus shows that “ any three terms being given in continuous proportion. of two times the second and of the third. of twice the second and the third. 16 will be formed. are the three terms given in continuous p roportion. 48 If a. and it is evident that it can only grow through the terms. and from the proportion in double ratio is born the proportion in triple ratio. which produces the proportion in quadruple ratio and so forth from the other multiples. T he square of the mean term is a 2 + 2 ab + b 2 and the product o f the extrem es is a'2 + 2 ab + ac.MUSIC 71 viously spoken and of all the proportions they give. the other composed of the first and the second. for example. of two times the second and of the third. 1. the proportion of equality (1. we will have the terms 1. we will combine the terms and show that all m athem atics consists in the proportion of certain quantities. The first will be equal to the first. following the order of the multiples. one formed from the first alone. the third will be composed of the first. in the sm allest possible three equal terms. Erathosthenes also says that every ratio increases either by an in­ terval or by terms: but equality has the property of not being susceptible to any interval.” 48 Thus from the proportion whose terms are equal is born a pro­ portion in double ratio. 1).

1. . We will always have the sesquipartial relationship (1 + Vn) corres­ ponding to the m ultiple (n). 9 from them which is a continuous proportion whose relationship is sesquialter. n2 + 2n + 1. The doubles will give in fact the hemiole or sesquialter relationship (1 + V2). 9. 20. we will deduce from them in the same m anner the three proportional terms in the sesquitertian ratio. 25 and so forth. and if the largest term is placed first. 12. we obtain the terms in sesquiquarten ratio 16. W ith the quadruples.72 MUSIC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 If now the m ultiple proportions are arranged inversely. the triples will give the epitrite or sesquitertian relationship (1 + V3 ). If we have the same three terms in triple proportion. 16. with these terms we form the next (pro­ portion) according to the method indicated. If. the double ratio proportion in three terms is given. 2. n. 6.49 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 6 12 20 30 42 56 72 90 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 *a Being in general the continuous p roportion n 2. 9. 4. and the quadruples the sesquiquarten relationship (1 + V 4 ) . 1. We will deduce 4. 1 w hose ratio is n. 3. The new continuous p ro ­ p ortion obtained by A drastus’s rule w ill be form ed from the term s n2. and the terms are added in the same manner. the ratio is 1 + 1 / n . for example. and so forth. the proportions in sesquipartial ratio will be obtained. n2 + n.

45. so also are they definitively resolved in it. 12. so that from the mean of these proportions one can form others by the same method. and again the epim er relationships. The proportion 25. by beginning with the largest term.MUSIC 73 In the same way. if any proportion of three une­ . one will derive the proportion in epim er ratio (1 + 3A). we deduce 16. 36. 20. in fact. 21.Va). Thus from the terms 16. at 4. by beginning with the largest term. 4. In fact. And from the proportion in which the relationship is sesquiter­ tian (1 -I. In the same way that all these proportions and all their ratios are composed of the first ratio of equality. the pro­ portion 16. 15. 25. LII. W ith the proportion in sesquiquartan ratio (1 + V 4 ) . 9. by beginning with the sm allest term one obtains the proportion whose m ultisuperpartial ratio is 2 + V*: one takes 4. and beginning with the sm allest term. 20. and ohe can continue in this way to infinity. we will have the proportion in m ultisuperpartial ratio 2 + Vs. < a+ st f )' : W e can om it most of these relationships as being not very necess­ ary.4 9 . 81. give us other epim er polyepim er relationships. and one arrives by the same method. the sesquipartial relationships (1 + Vn) give us the epim er relationships (1 + — £ — ■ ) v m+ n ' and the m ultisuperpartial relationships (a + Vn). in the terms 9. 81. 6. by Adrastus’s method. 16. by beginning with the largest term. W ith the pro­ portion of the sesquialter ratio (1 + V*). W e have. 10. but we should however consider some of them. 2 8 . one obtains by the m ethod indicated a proportion whose epim er ratio is 1 + 2 A . 25. 9. 49. the pro­ portion in epim er ratio 1 + 4A will be found. and by beginning with the sm allest term. 6. which gives 16. the proportion in m ultisuperpartial ratio (2 + V«) will be deduced from it. gives 9. thus the proportion 9. W e do not need to develop this subject further. and. 25. gives indeed 25.

the excess of the mean term over the sm allest term and finally for the third term. prolonged to infinity on the same plane. following two dimensions. It is not necessary for us to go further on this subject.74 MUSIC qual terms is given. Now the plane is in a straight surface such that if a straight line touches it at two points. which is a length without width. which is a spot w ithout extension. it is that which. width and height. next. one will arrive at the proportion of equality which is the first origin of all proportions and which cannot itself be resolved into any other. but only into the ratio of equality. we subtract the sm allest term from the middle term. between two given points. and from the largest. that which remains from the largest. W hen this break­ down is repeated. The m agnitude extended in two directions is a surface. the straight line is that which is direct and as though stretched. without dimension. the first of which is the point. the sm allest and twice the m iddle term diminished by the smallest. and that in order to construct them it is necessary to start from equality. they do not meet and always m aintain the same distance between them. we will have the same sm aller term for the first term. is the shortest of all lines having the same extremities. The curved line is that which does not have this property. The m agnitude which has only one dimension and is divisible in only one m anner is the line. hav­ ing length and breadth. we put the terms thus obtained in order. and which is ex­ tended equally between all its points. i SHAPES LI1I. We will find the same results in the shapes. then for the second. If. Straight lines are parallel when. it coincides with it throughout its whole length. In fact. which has length. and that they resolve themselves in equality. The same difference is found between the plane and the curved surface. Eratosthenes dem onstrates that all figures result from some pro­ portion. . The magnitude having three dimensions is the solid. surface is the apparent limit of all solid bodies. Now the solid is con­ tained and defined by surfaces. the surface is defined by lines and the line is defined by points. Among lines. The proportion which will result from this breakdown will itself be the same that give birth to the new proportion. being the limit of a line and holding the same place as unity does in numbers. length and breadth.

and are called parallelopipeds. Others are included under rectangles and are called rectangular parallelopipeds. is to the excess of the mean term over the smaller. as the first term is to itself or to one of the two others. and among these rectangles those which have four equal sides are properly called squares. the width and the height are equal and these are included under the equal squares and are called cubes. 5"S ee the definition o f H eterom ecic (unequilateral) numbers. and those which are contained by a greater num ber of straight lines are called polygons. but whose height is less. Those of four sides are called quad­ rilateral.'’0 LIV. I. . those which are contained between three sides are called trilateral. one takes another homogenious term such that the excess of the first. some are equilateral in all directions. pro­ perly speaking. that is to say that the length. and the parallelogram s which have right angles are called rectangles. Among the quadrilaterals. Angles are right angles when a straight line. and non-rectilinear shapes do not have this property. Among the plane and rectilinear shapes. are called plinths. Among the solids. which is at the same time the larger. meeting another straight line. comprised between sides which form right angles. the theory of which is indispensible for understanding the writings of Plato. Each rectangular parallelogram is. PROPERTIES OF THE M EANS We now have to speak in more detail of the means. are called beams. Those which are not in this category are called heteromecic (unequilateral). X V II. are included under planar parallelogram s. but whose height is larger. Those whose length is equal to the width. R ectilinear shapes are those which surround straight lines.MUSIC 75 Plane shapes are those in which all the lines are in the same plane. between two homogeneous unequal terms. those which have opposite sides parallel are called parallelogram s. O f those. Finally those which have three unequal dimensions are called scalene parallelopipeds. some to the num ber of six. or as the sm allest is to one of the other two. Those which have length and width equal. over this mean term. that is to say square bases. There is a mean when. forms two adja­ cent equal angles with it.

the extreme 6 is greater than 3 by half of 6. In the product o f the extrem es being equal to the product o f the means. Therefore the product of the extremes is equal to the square of the mean term . being given three terms. and consequently ac = b2. LVI. 3. the arithm etic mean is the one in which the mean term is greater than one extreme and is less than the other by the same number.c = b : c. and 8 m ultiplied by the mean term 3 gives 24. These numbers. and the excess of 6 over 3 is 3. since 1 x 4 = 4 . from which it follows th at ac .be = b 2 . which dem onstrates the stated p ro ­ position. 4. now 6 x 2 = 12 whose double is 24. 3.52 LVIII. If we have a. An harmonic proportion occurs when. 2.1 is 1. This proportion possesses the pro­ perty that the mean term is greater than one extreme and is less than the other by the same part of the extremes. Thus. The geom etric mean. a number is found which is double the product of the extremes. Four is indeed the double of 2. . also called the proportion proper. in the pro­ portion formed of the numbers 2. the three num bers w hich give the geom etric m edian. a . as in the proportion 3. 2. if the extreme terms are added and the sum is m ultiplied by the mean term. and the difference 4 . by hypothesis then. In particular. and the other extreme 2 is less than 3 by half of 2. for 2 x 2 = 4. and likewise. the difference 2 . In fact. is the one in which the mean term is greater than one extrem e and is less than the other by a m ultiple or superpartial ratio (of the first term to the second or of the second to the third). the first is to the third in the same relationship that the ex­ cess of the first (over the second) is to the excess of the second (over the third). This mean term has the property of being the half-sum of the extremes. the product of the extremes is 4. 1. The mean called “subcontrary to the harm onic” (mean) is the one in which the third term is to the first as the excess of 5 1 T heon habitually verifies the stated proposition in a sim ple m anner. com pared with one another. and 6. which is the double of the mean term 2. c. and the square of 2 is also 4. which is the triple of the unit. This mean possesses the property that the product of the extremes is equal to the square of the mean term: thus in the preceding proportion. 52 T he harm onic m edian is in general a . Such are the numbers 6.5 1 LVII. and 2 is the double of the unit. we have (a + c) b = 2 ac. as in the propor­ tion 1.b : b .c = a : c . Furtherm ore. the num ber 2 is greater than 1 by one unit and is less than 3 by one unit.76 MUSIC LV. 2: the extrem e 6 is the triple of 2. are thus in double ratio. b. which is the excess of 3 over 2.be.2 is 2.b : b . so that 3 + 1 = 4 . Thus 6 + 2 = 8 .

by 3. the excess of the second num­ ber over the third. 4. we take the excess of the larger 12. and the unit. and 4 is greater than the other extreme 2 by 2 units. finally. and 4 is to 6 as 1 is to 1 + *A. The Pythagoreans have been much concerned with these six means and their subcontraries. is the mean between the given numbers. Now the extrem e 2 is half of 4. be­ tween the numbers 12 and 6. over the sm aller 6. in arithm etic proportion. the excess of 4 over 1. and 5 is greater than 3 by 2 units. W e have the fifth mean when. Now 2. the excess of the first num ber (over the second) is half of 2. the excess of the first term (over the second). 5. or finally one takes half of the sum of the two given terms. If we propose to find the mean term. being given three terms. and obtain 9. and in which. Such is the mean formed by the numbers 6. being given three terms. is half of 2. the half of which is 3. Likewise if we add the extremes 12 and 6. which is the arithm etic mean between the numbers 12 and 6. 2. in order to sum m arize the exposition of mathematics. which is the excess of 6 over 4. 9. the excess of the second (over the third). H O W THE M E A N TERM S OF THE M EAN S A R E FOUND LXI. 1. whose half. the sum is 18. as the unit. LIX. Such is the proportion formed of the numbers 6. 3. In the arithm etic pro­ portion. . is to 3. in the same relationship as 1 to 1 + ‘A . 3 is half of 6. ac­ cording to the m ethod of Pythagoras. This is how one finds the mean terms. or one adds the halves of each of the two numbers given. which is added to the sm aller term 6. half of the excess of the larger over the sm aller. since it is greater than one and less than the other by 3 units. LX. W e have the sixth mean when. the second is to the first as the excess of the first (over the second) is to the excess of the second (over the third). Such is the proportion formed of the numbers 5. in which 6 is greater than 5 by one unit. The extreme 5 is greater than 4 by one unit. For us. the third is to the second as the excess of the first (over the second) is to the excess of the second (over the third). one adds to the sm all term.MUSIC 77 the first (over the second) is to the excess of the second (over the third). a condensed outline of these principles. 4. The extrem e 6 is indeed greater than 4 by 2. and 4 is greater than the other extreme 1. it is sufficient to have.

Thus the sides which contain the equal angles are proportional. If the num ber contained in the extremes is squared. between which we are to find the mean term in geometric proportion. I assert that BD will be the proportional geometric mean between the straight lines AB and BC. then from point B we lead the per­ pendicular BD to AC.78 MUSIC Here is how the mean term of a geom etric proportion is found: we take the square root of the product of the extremes. each mean term found is rational and its length is com m ensurable with the ex­ tremes. We are given two extremes in double ratio. we have a right angle at D. is the mean term. until it meets the semi-circle. The product is 144. because 24 : 12 = 12 : 6. and we have A B : B D = B D : BC. such as 12 and 6. since it is inscribed in a semi-circle. taking AB and BC for the two terms. We multiply the excess of the larger over the smaller. Fig 1 Most often it is determined geom etrically whether it can be ex­ pressed in rational number or whether the ratio and the lengths are incommensurable. we multiply the given numbers by each other. This is what it was necessary to demonstrate. But if the num ber contained in the extremes is not a perfect square. if we join AD and DC. the height is DB and the triangles which are part of it are sim ilar to the total triangle. in double ratio. We place them in a straight line and on the sum AC describe a semi-circle. It remains now to show how the mean term in harmonic propor­ tion is obtained. therefore BD is the proportional mean bet­ ween AB and BC. for exam ­ ple. If. . 12. and composed of whole units. and consequently similar to each other. It is done in the following way. In fact. In the triangle ADC. the mean term will only be commensurable with the extremes in power. of which the square root. the two numbers 24 and 6 are given.

If the given extremes are in triple ratio. added to the sm aller term 4. by the smaller. such as 18 and 6. added to the sm aller term. which is a third. it remains for us to mention the elements of astronom y. (Toulis) . 36. or 24. 4 . The quotient of the division. which is the half. then divide the product.The transcriber o f another ms. If now we divide 32 by the sum of the extremes which is 16. 6. we m ultiply the excess of the larger over the sm aller by itself: 1 2 x 1 2 is 144. In fact 6 is greater than one extrem e and is less than the other by the same fraction of the extremes. In order to find the harmonic mean between any two given une­ qual terms. gives 6 for the harm onic mean between 12 and 4. 9. by the sm aller term 4. 54A fter the w ord ‘astronom y’ the transcriber o f the V enice ms. 6. adds the words ‘end o f the present book by the help of G od’. that is to say 18. By this method it is necessary to m ultiply the excess by the sm aller term and to divide the product by the sum of the ex­ tremes. by the sum of the extremes. W e have the harm onic proportion of the numbers 18. obtaining 8 which will be the sought-for mean. for the convenience of the readers of Plato. W e divide this result by the sum of the extremes. for example. that is to say 8. 6. has added the words “ G lory to G od” . half of which equals 72. The harmonic pro­ portion is then formed of the numbers 12.53 After this summary exposition. the two terms 12 and 4. We therefore have the harm onic proportion of the numbers 12. by multiplying the excess of 12 over 4.■ MUSIC 79 that is to say 6. for it is greater than one extreme and is less than the other by half of the extremes. gives 9 for the sought-for mean term. since it is greater than one extreme and less than the other by the same fraction of the extremes. one can also use the more general m ethod that we first dem onstrated. and add the quotient 2 to the sm aller term 6. then add the quotient to the sm aller term. If we have. we have 32 as a pro­ duct.5 4 5 3See note X V I. 8. of w hat is most necessary and useful in the portions of the m athem atical sciences of which we have spoken. we obtain a quotient of 2. 6. This quotient 2.

.

not a contradiction to the heliocentric view. This results from the fact that. while we assume the other half to be hidden by the earth and not able to be perceived. and always accom plish the same revolutions. A precise exposition of this doctrine would require such lengthy consideration of so many writings that it would instead be sufficient to summarize here what we have to say. for inhabitants of the same place. The sphericity of the world is again dem onstrated by reason of the fact that.PART THREE ASTRONOMY ON THE SPH ERICAL FORM OF THE E A R T H The entire world is a sphere and the earth. is placed in the middle. by recalling the summary notions transm itted to us by Adrastus. We would say therefore that the w orld and the earth are spherical and the earth is the center of the world. 1 T hat the earth is the • center of the universe and that it is but a point in relation­ ship to the size of the universe: this is what must be established before anything else. all the celestial bodies rise and set and rise again at the same points. half of the sky is seen above us. as far as our senses can tell. But certainly from a spiritual point o f view a geocentric universe is a com plem entary concept. which is itself a spheroid. from each part of the earth. Further- I 'I t can be speculated th at the concept o f Earth as center of the universe is retained by the Pythagoreans for its philosophical and spiritual verity. and is in a certain sense verified by the theory o f relativity as applied to the m ovem ent o f celestial bodies. . and that it is only a point in it.

If we concede that certain parts of the earth are further 2from the constellation o f Argo. Furtherm ore. many stars. On the contrary. when one goes from south towards the north. and if diam etrically opposed stars describe a great circle.82 ASTRONOMY more. all the visual rays appear equal to us. and as many more of these are seen as one advances north­ wards. have for them a rising and a setting. And first of all. The further east­ ward one is. the earth is spherical from east to west. and which used to have a rising and a setting. They take place early for the inhabitants of eastern regions. and the distances from earth to heaven would appear unequal. the sun does not illum inate the whole sur­ face of the earth at the same time. If the universe. it must be spheri­ cal. if we look at the extreme points of the sky. or a pyramid or any other solid. the phenomenon taking place at night. and the sooner one will have seen a greater part. situated in the region of the Bears. it appears at different hours of the day. it would not produce this effect on earth: one of its parts would appear larger. the more advanced the hour will be that one sees it. Thus the star called Canopus 2 is invisible in lands further north than Cnide 3. Canopus was the captain of M enelaus’ boat (brother of A gam em non and husband o f H elen) when they sailed against Troy. and later for those of the western regions. one is setting while the other is rising. but it is visible in more southerly lands. but for all those seeing it. always invisible for us in their movem ent around the pole which is hidden for us. Because of the curved form of the earth. the ris­ ing and setting of the same stars certainly prove this. for the measure that they advance. one o f the most b rillian t stars in the southern hem isphere.) (Toulis) . Since the earth appears convex from all parts. II. become always visi­ ble. which are always visible for us in their movement around the pole. In the same way. A c­ cording to ancient lore. 3C ity o f C arie (Asia M inor. many of the stars which are seen rising and setting in the south dis­ appear. while others. have a rising and a setting. entirely. It is again evident that the earth is convex from north to south: in fact for those going southward. instead of being spherical. and always rises higher and higher to the measure that one is further from the north. A single lunar eclipse further shows this: it is produced in the same brief period of time. every weighted body is carried naturally toward the center. other stars. were a cone or a cylinder. and the shadow that the earth projects moves according to a fixed order. another sm aller.

from the bridge of the ship neither earth nor any other vessel can be seen. and the lower parts are less so. then it must be concluded that the surface of the earth is spherical. But the higher parts are further away from the center of the earth. If the different parts of the earth are equally far from the center. that is to say that angles which are always equal are made with the surface of the earth. we draw the perpendicular to the base XB. a tower. repelled and removed from the center. a tree. The surface of the sea and all tranquil waters are also spheri­ cal. everything being con­ stituted in equilibrium and repose like two wooden beams which m utually support each other or two athletes of the same force. a ship. surrounded with new water would be as far from point X as A and B are. It is evident that the two lines XA and XC are both longer than XB. all points of the sur­ face of the w ater will be at the same distance from X. since the fall of heavy bodies is always and every­ where made towards the center. or the earth itself. This can be recognized in this manner: If. while sailing. It can be physically and m athem atically dem onstrated that the surface of every body of still w ater must be spherical in form. The surface of the w ater being presumed planar. let us call ABC a straight line on this surface. until the latter point. one no longer sees any­ thing. and that the two points A and C are further from the center than point B. In addition. situated on the shore. then if one lowers one’s gaze towards the surface of the water. therefore . Similarly. the convexity of the surface of the sea masking the object. and consequently. being higher and so overcom ing the convexity of the sea which was causing the obstacle. to the point where equality of distance and pressure being obtained. higher than point B. all converge towards the same point and each falls vertically. it is necessary that its form be spheri­ cal. W ater will flow therefore from points A and C towards the lower point B. it would be necessary that the sm all parts which encircle them be pressed. one observes an object from which one is separated by the sea. m utually held in a clasp. or one sees a sm aller part of the object. but a sailor climbs up high on a mast pole and can see them. such as point X. From the center of the earth. III. such as a hill. And often. W ater indeed tends to flow from higher towards lower levels.ASTRONOMY 83 away from the center than others because of their size. and we draw the lines XA and XC to the extrem ities of this base.

It cannot be said that the height of m ountains or the depth of valleys would be contrary to this thesis and prove that the earth is not an exact sphere. (or .000 stades.000. The sphere having a diam eter of a quarter of the diam eter of a grain of m illet is the 64. the finger has the value of 12 m illet-grain diameters. The spherical A A kind o f graphom eter. the width of one finger being about equal to I 2 V2 diam eters of a grain of m illet. the vertical height of the highest m ountains above the lowest plane is 10 stades. Three times this number. The height of the largest m ountain would therefore be equal to an eight-thousandth part of the total diam eter of the earth. Since the foot has the value of 16 fingers 5.000 stades. plus a seventh of this num ber gives. according to Erathosthenes and Dicearchus. developed as a straight line. Erathosthenes indeed shows us that the circle of the earth. .84 ASTRONOMY w ater presents the spherical form and the en tire mass of the earth’s w ater is spherical. the diam eter of our sphere would equal 200 m illet-grain diam eters or a little less.182 stades.0196 o f a yard) Toulis. The diam eter of the earth will then have the value of ap ­ proxim ately 80. Now. They have deduced this result from observations made with the dio p ter 4 which allows the m easurem ent of heights according to cer­ tain intervals.000th part of a whole grain. 5F inger — the sm allest o f the ancient G reek measures of length equal to 0. thus the relationship of a quarter o f the diam eter o f a grain of millet to this one-foot sphere is greater than the relationship of the height o f the highest m ountain to the diam eter o f the earth. If we were to make a sphere one foot in diam eter. But we have seen that the height of the largest m ountain is nearly an eight-thousandth part o f the diam eter of the earth. has an approxim ate length of 252. 252. And the relationship of the sphere having a quarter of the thickness of a grain of millet to the sphere of a foot in diam eter is greater than the relationship o f the sphere of 10 stades in height to the height o f the terrestial sphere. in fact. since 40 times 200 is 8. has the value of three times and nearly a seventh of the circle’s diameter. and Archimedes tells us that a cir cumference of a circle. and 16 times 12 is 192. One quarter of the diam eter of a grain of m illet is then larger than the eight-thousandth part of a foot.018 of the m eter. measured following the circum ­ ference of a great circle.

w hether it be superim posed on a sphere of one foot in diam eter.000 units.025. T h e ra tio o f 14 : 11 for finding the area o f the circle is a ttributed to A rchim edes.000 or 10. they are much sm aller.297 an d “ />■ . Both ratios give an ap p ro x im atio n o f the . it is dem onstrated that the rectangle formed by the diam eter of a sphere and the circumference of a great circle.Vs. •First m yriads are 10. If a m ountain 10 stades high were a sphere. and this quarter equals the area of the circle.508. the circum scribed cylinder will equal 11 and the sphere 7 -I. with respect to the earth. the circle having this diam eter is 38 + 1 / i . is that of 14 to 11. But one such part of a grain of m illet. If the diam eter is seven. which is contained one and a h alf times in the cylinder. but can be derived as well from the ap p ro x im ately 7 : 1 1 ratio o f the vertical half-section of the G izeh pyram id. than & ».043. However the relationship of these numbers. since the largest com m on m easure of these numbers is 7. or w hether it be picked up and placed in a hollow. it would be much sm aller. 250 second myriads. opened out as a straight line. the circle having this diam eter will be 77. Therefore. is also equal to the relationship of 14 to 11. The square of the diam eter is to the area of the circle as 14 is to 11 7.000 units. 270 third myriads. has the value. But m ountains are not spherical.000 units.000. 4350 first myriads. equals 4 times the surface of a quarter of the sphere. in cubic stades. according to Archimedes.ooo th of a grain of m illet in relation to a sphere of one foot in diam eter.then. they will not therefore prevent the whole of earth and sea from truly being a sphere. when the cube of the diam eter of the circle equals 14. seconds are 10. the square of the diam eter being 49.6 Furtherm ore. as we see them. T h e above n u m b er is w ritten.000 tim es 10. The highest m ountains of 10 stades have the same relationship with the earth. and. thirds are 10. Thus. the circum ­ ference is 22. 8296 and the fraction u /a i.ASTRONOMY 85 m ountain of 10 stades in diam eter has the value of nearly 524 cubic stades. and if we double this in order to make the V2 disappear. It is thus th at one finds volumes expressed in numbers of the ter­ restrial sphere and of the highest m ountain. in o u r form o f enum eration: 270. A quarter of this circumference is 5 + V2. for the circum ference of the circle equals three times the diam eter plus a seventh part of this diam eter. will not produce any difference in form. and the whole earth as a sphere. expressed in the sm allest prim e terms.000.000 tim es 100. the square of the diam eter being 98.

.. Some of “F o r the rectification we have m ade o f the values of the different results..297 and “ A t8 IV.. de­ scribe parallel circles......429. . that it occupies but a point in this universe.. T hat the volum e of the earth has no perceptible relationship with the expanse of the universe.... and of earth’s central position as well as its size.043.... It is for this reason that half of the world.502.124 square stades. a fourteenth of this c u b e ..... A lthough we might say many other things about the form of the universe and of the earth. the diam eter..508..025......... straight lines drawn from any point at the extrem ities of the celestial sphere would not be equal.... 80...040 and 4A ths...182 stades..568 cubic stades...821.. one cannot observe any perceptible parallax...... the cube.. all the points on earth appear to be this center..... The product of this num ber by *Vs is equal to the volum e of the earth which therefore has the value in cubic stades of 270. is shown by the points of the sundials in every inhabited place on earth.. See note X V II... Here is w hat he next says: ON THE C ELESTIAL CIRCLES V.. If it were removed from this position it would not have half the sky above it and half below... 252. .596. that is to say circles everywhere equidistant..788. They can in fact be taken for the center of the solar orbit. One can count the circles described by the stars. perpendicular to the axis..842.......... and the unknown size of its relation to the universe... 36.. or nearly so.000 stades. 515... what has been dem onstrated by Adrastus in the m anner shown above will be sufficient for the exposition of w hat follows.. at the m iddle of which is fixed the earth... Furtherm ore...... The earth is spherical and placed at the center of the world.. .355.. but the circles described by the other points are innum erable. is always apparent to our eyes.6. and drawn from the poles of the universe as centers...... and all the stars carried by this sphere and all the points of the sky.86 ASTRONOMY The encircling of the earth therefore is valued... The celestial sphere turning around its im mobile poles and the axis which joins them.. It is then evident that the whole earth is only a point with respect to the entire sphere of the sun and even more so with respect to the sphere of the stars. for in changing location.153.... If therefore there is necessarily a center for the ensemble of all spheres. the square of the diameter......

on the opposite side. and is called the antarctic circle. situated for us on this side of the equatorial circle. Phosphorus. O f these parts the one above the earth is the visible hemisphere. the durations of the day and night are equal when the sun describes this circle. around the always apparent and visible pole. Between the equatorial circle and the two arctic circles there are the two tropics. when one "Literally m eaning th e light-bringer. it also cuts the great circles such as the equator and the zodiac into two equal parts. The zodiac is in fact obliquely extended between these two circles. moon. the tropic of winter. M orning — bringer o f dawn "2 . which the planet of Saturn is called by some. the planet of Jupiter. The zodiac is also a great circle. (Mercury) VII. Phaethon. If two stars are diam etrically opposed.9 which is also called Venus or also Lucifer1 0 and Hesperus.ASTRONOMY 87 these circles have been given particular names which it is useful to know in order to take into account what happens in the heavens. It touches each tropic at one point: the tropic of summer at a point in C ancer and the other tropic at a point in C apricorn. VI. like the Sun. Pyrois. It is in this zone that the sun. “ the shiny one.1 1 and close to these planets Stilbon. It cuts the equatorial circle into two equal parts and is itself also divided by this circle at a point in Aries and at a point in Taurus. The sun. . It is called the arctic circle. there is an equality between the days and nights. which is a large circle. (Toulis) l0l. because of the constellations of the Bears which it crosses. Evening — Bringer o f evening. A nother. sometimes moves near to one and some­ times to the other. one w ho brings light.” which is also called Hermes. As it is also a great circle of the sphere. because on these corresponding regions of the earth. is itself always invisi­ ble to us. in its revolution. and other planets move: Phenon. circles the pole which we never see. and on the other side. The circle which is the boundary of our vision and divides the sky as a whole into two equal parts — the earth being the obsta­ cle from our viewpoint — is called the horizon. divides the whole sphere into two equal parts and is called the equator. for other places in which one sees the sun rise and set ac­ cording to the general m ovement of the universe. the planet of Mars or as others claim of Hercules. There is one above us. The one in the middle. and the other below is the invisible hemisphere. the tropic of summer. equal to the first.

are the equatorial circle and the cir­ cles situated on either side of it. nor the same meridian. that is. it is said that surfaces. For there is another great circle. The zodiac is a circle given in size and position with respect to the sky. we cannot determ ine them. because of its obliquity in the universe. it is not in our power to render them as this or that. '“O ne w ould call the arctic circle in each location the p a ra lle l lim it o f the stars always visible in th a t place. is hidden from us. VIII. It is sometimes called “ truncated” 12. given in size and position. they are naturally so. Those which are naturally given. but they change in position according to the earth zones and are different in different locations on the earth. which are fixed and exist by themselves. the horizon and the m eridian being equal to the equatorial circle. and the tropic of sum m er being equal to the tropic of winter and reciprocally. for us it is not fixed. This is why they are always given. The equatorial (circle) and the two tropics situated on either side of it are circles which are given and fixed in size and position.88 ASTRONOMY rises. for they are the great circles of the celestial sphere. which to us shows it changing in place. Now the equatorial circle and the two tropics placed on either side of it a l­ ways have the same position. Indeed. and the an tarctic circle the p arallel lim it of the alw ays invisible stars. they are given. But those which it is in our power to render as this or that are not naturally given. they are not given in either size or position. It is said that points and lines are ‘given’ in position when they a l­ ways occupy the same place. and one could find equal circles: the zodiac.1 3 but according to the differences in m ore northerly or southerly zones. lines and angles are given in size when equal sizes can be found. but in relation to us. being at the highest point of its course above the horizon. The m eridian and the horizon are also given in size. that which is on the side of the invisible pole. called the m eridian. which passes through the two poles of the world. IX. because one of its parts. The horizon divides the m eridian into two equal parts. they are seen to be larger or ‘*Colurc from K otoipo? truncated. It is called m eridian because the sun cuts it at the m iddle of the day. and which is conceived as perpendicular to the horizon. In fact we do not all have the same horizon nor the same zenith. they are always fixed. the other sets. it is not given in position. As for the arctic and the an­ tarctic circles which are neighbors of the poles. .

and m aintain the same order between each other and do not experience any change of form or movement. X. Each of the other circles is a true circle term inated by a single line. THE STARS XI. just like the fixed stars. The circle in the m iddle of these signs is called the great circle which touches the two tropics at one point on each of them. For. They always have the same relative position on the sphere. while accom plishing their course in the contrary direction to the m ovem ent of the universe. and cuts the equatorial circle into two equal parts. they go toward the zodiac signs which follow them (in the diurnal movem ent) and not to the zodiac signs which precede them. And within the breadth of the zodiac. that is for the zone which is found on the equatorial line where one cannot live because of the heat. carried along in the contrary direction of the universe in a course which is called m ovem ent in longititude. they are carried together by a uni­ que and sim ple circular movement. and it is sometimes said that the sphere is right because in this region of the earth all the parallel circles are per­ pendicular to the horizon. nor of size or color. But apart from this movement. THE PLAN ETS XII. m oon and other stars which are called errant are carried with the universe in the diurnal m ovem ent from east to west. like the cylinder of a drum. The anim al figures are imagined on the inside of this cylinder. they are sometimes seen further north from the m iddle circle. as if they were fixed to it and as if they were moved by it. from north to south and reciprocally. M ost of the stars are fixed. and sometimes further south.ASTRONOMY 89 smaller. A tten­ tive observers see them moved from the tropic of summer to the tropic of w inter and reciprocally. But for the m iddle region of the earth. The two circles which define the width of the zodiac on either side are sm aller circles. . through a m ovem ent of their own. each day they appear to have several other com plicated motions. through the obliquity of the zodiac. they have a m ovem ent in latitude. The sun. with the first sphere which is the largest. but the one called the zodiac shows a certain breadth. it is not the same: the two poles appear at the end of the horizon. In addition.

and Saturn in a lit­ tle less than 30 years. The moon. and it can be said that they have the same speed as the sun. others less so. having a more rapid m ovem ent than the sun towards the zodiacal signs which follow. that these planets always set in the evening and rise in the morning (after the conjunction). the moon. The distance covered on the zodiac is slight for the sun. sometimes being further distant. since they are always seen beside it. it is larger. Jupiter and Mars. which have a movem ent equal to that of the sun. Mars achieves its course in a little less than 2 years. sometimes preceding it. while it disappears and sets in the morning. The other planets do not deviate equally from it. they vary in size. Inversely. are preceded and overtaken by it. the appearances and disap­ pearances which are called the risings and the settings. Venus and Hermes. from one fixed point to this same point. but are more north­ ward in one sign. after its conjunction with the sun. Besides. and sometimes being closer to the earth in the depths of space. F or the moon. since it is just about one degree out of 360. and they go less fast when they appear sm aller because of their greater distance. they go faster when they appear larger because of their lesser distance from earth. As for the length of the circle of the zodiac. sometimes they appear in the evening and disappear also in the evening. The moon and the sun each appear to deviate equally in latitude from the circle of the m iddle of the zodiac. that is to say. appears first and rises in the eve­ ning. Jupiter in about 12 years. since it is about 12 degrees. The conjunctions with the sun. sometimes following it. XIII. Mars and Jupiter about 5.90 ASTRONOMY some are lower down. and more southward in another. and for Venus. travels it in 27Vsdays. and Saturn nearly 3. but with little difference in duration. Hermes covers about 8. going towards the same zodiacal signs and not towards the preceding ones. the sun in a year having the approxim ate value of 365‘A days. sometimes they precede it. sometimes they appear . They do not cover the same distance in space in the same am ount of time. are not the same for all the planets. in fact. Saturn. as the ancient astronom ers have said. always appear near to it. which arrive less quickly than the sun at the following signs. It is for this reason that the speed of their movem ent through the zodiacal signs appears unequal. Venus and Hermes travel in an unequal movement. sometimes these two stars follow it.

The rising belongs to the evening when the star begins to appear after the setting of the sun.ASTRONOMY 91 at the earliest dawn and disappear with the day. about two thirds of a zodiacal sign. as with the rising of Canis Major. up to the point where they are diam etrically opposite. ceases to appear at its approach. which is properly called a disappearance. Similarly the first setting is the descent below the horizon. It is called “ night-edge” because it oc­ curs at the edge of the night. Hermes is about 20 degrees away from it. Among the risings and the settings depending on the sun and its rays. but at dawn. Rising means several things. properly and com ­ monly. First. being very close to a star in the west. i. for their shining to begin to distinguish itself from the rays of the sun. There still remains the rising called rising at “ night-edge” u . which is produced in the east after the setting of the sun. next. that is. e. the setting is of the evening when the sun. when the sun rises. causes that star to become invisible because of the radiance of its neighbor. that is to say among the phenom ena of appearance and disap­ pearance. e. XIV. like the moon. these two stars are on the contrary always seen near the sun. at early dawn and early sunset. The rising of the star belongs to the morning when the star preceeding the rays of the sun appears before it in the east. some occur in the morning. Similarly. THE ORDER OF THE PLANETS A N D THE C ELESTIAL CONCERT XV. i. that of l4“ N ight-edge” here applies to the early beginning and early end o f the night. as we have said of the new moon. (Toulis) . at every interval. The circle of the moon is closest to the earth. which is still properly a m anner of rising. Here are the opinions of certain Pythagoreans relative to the position and the order of the spheres or circles on which the planets are moving. for the sun and the other stars. Next is the setting pro­ duced by the diffusion of the brilliance of the star by the luminous rays of the sun. either to the east or to the west. at its beginning. in the part of the sky diam etrically opposite. by their elevation above the horizon. a star disappears in the part of the horizon diam etrically opposite. which in the preceding days was rising before the sun. others in the evening. There still remains the setting called again night-edge. W hile the other planets are far from the sun. Venus is about 50 degrees to the east or to the west. the setting belongs to the morning when the star.

from wintry to torrid. the second is Stilbon. star of the deadly Mars of Thrace. star of Hermes. and finally. Jupiter diverges as much from Saturn as from the terrible Mars. joy of mortals. then comes that of Venus. next comes Phosphorus. near the distant stars. Hermes. the inventor of the lyre. They determ ine. because of the in­ tervals which separate them from one another. as to the most glacial cold. The son of Jupiter. complete the octave. Pyrois. . shining star of Jupiter is sixth. create. ‘the shining one’. next comes those of Mars and Jupiter. star of Saturn. the starry sphere gives the conjunct nete. that the orbit of the sun occupies the m iddle place between the planets as being the heart of the universe and most able to com ­ mand. the earth at the center gives the fifth with respect to the sun.92 ASTRONOMY Hermes is second above. Here is a declaration of A lexander of Aetolia: “ The spheres rise higher and higher. the corres­ ponding harmonic sounds. and that of Saturn is last and closest to that of the distant stars. represents a Siren to us. Venus differs from the dazzling sun by a trihemitone. accomodating itself to the most intense heat. the celestial bodies which are distant from one another according to the proportions of consonant sounds. then comes the moon which gives to nature such varying hue. above is the sun whose chariot is drawn by horses. is one tone below. that of the sun is fourth. the sun. the world being indeed harmoniously ordained. by the m ovement and speed of their revolutions. which contain six tones. the divine moon is the nearest to the earth. an octave). in fact. and this position has five regions. Phaeton. The heavens. Saturn is lowest by a half-tone. occupying the fourth rung. is fifth. It is for this reason that A lexander thus expresses himself in the following verse: “The earth at the center gives the low sound of the hypate. Hermes continues with a half-tone lower than Venus. The seven spheres give the seven sounds of the lyre and produce a harmony (that is to say. and Phenon. is seventh. the sun placed in the middle of the errant stars gives the mese.” According to the doctrine of Pythagoras. brilliant star of the goddess of Cythera (Venus). the crystal sphere gives the fourth in relation to it.

.....” 1 5 In these verses A lexander has indicated the order for the spheres that he has determ ined.............. I would answ er that it is not m elodious to have more than tw o half-tones following one another................^ h alf tone I fourth Sphere o f J u p i t e r ... But all of this is unclear to those who are not initiated into music.. A fter the moon which is above the earth....... Eratosthenes....... . but being im m obile at the center. the image of this divine w orld.............. but with the nete of disjuncts.................... and places the seven sounds of the planets betw een the two............. include only six tones................. tone 1 Sphere o f the E arth giving the h y p a te . He attributes the sound o f the m ese to the sun........................................... exposes the harmony pro­ duced by the revolution of the stars............. tone / Sphere o f the sun giving the m ese......ASTRONOMY 93 having a seven-stringed lyre................ It is true that he attributes the sound of the hypate... then he established the harmony of the w orld with nine sounds which................. H e says that in fact Mercury. and nearly all the rest...................<^ half tone f ................................. and that it gives the consonances of the oc­ tave..... he was astonished that the har­ monies produced by the speeds of their revolutions was the same as l5This. The system does not conform to the diatonic type...... but he does not assign the same order to them................ according to A lexander...................... the m elody does not include the unbroken tone. but that of the fourth. for in the chrom atic gender....... -4 ^ half tone > fourth Sphere o f the m o o n . was constructed by Hermes................... having invented the lyre.... afid pass­ ing near the stars called “ errant” .. as being lower than the others................ nor tw o half-tones one after the other......... the image of the universe........... Indeed...... Then he gives the sound of the con­ ju n ct nete to the sphere of the stars. half tone | Sphere o f M a rs .. It is evident that he arbitrarily imagined the intervals which separate them. is the o rd er o f the spheres and the intervals of the sounds made by these spheres: Sphere o f the stars...... then.. and it is not with the nete o f the conjuncts that it gives the consonance of the octave...... first rose up to the sky. however............. to the earth....... still young.. he says th at the seven-stringed lyre..... it renders absolutely no sound.... N either is it chrom atic.... Sphere of H erm es....... since the song of that gender allow sfo rn eith eraco m p letetrih em ito n e interval............. The hypate does not give the sound o f the fifth with the m ese............... in a sim ilar manner.......\ Sphere o f S a tu rn .......... trihem itone \ Sphere of V e n u s....................... giving the n e te . he gives the second place to the sun........ If it be said that the system is form ed o f the tw o genders...............................

and others put Venus. A t the extremities of this link was held the spindle of Necessity. like the undergirders of triremes (in order to pre­ vent the structure from falling apart). at the end of the Republic. These vertebra are none other than the spheres carrying the seven planets. this author appears to leave the earth immobile and determines that there are eight sounds produced by the starry sphere and by the seven spheres of the planets which he makes circle around the earth. and some put Hermes beyond it.In the epic verses. he says that an axis traverses the celestial pole like a pillar.. The shaft and the hook of this spindle were of diamond. The last sphere being that of the stars. Plato.94 ASTRONOMY that of the lyre which he had constructed. but according to the description given by IK Plato. The m athem aticians establish neither this order nor a like order among the planets. A fter the moon. they place the sun. then Hermes. It is for this reason that he made an eight-stringed lyre in­ cluding the consonances of the octave. This band is the link of heaven and embraces its whole circumference. and saw. He shows the order of these spheres with respect to the distance of each of the stars. then Venus.. straight like a pillar.. it is this which gives the oscilla­ tion to all the revolutions of the spheres. wishing to exhort justice and virtue. to their color and to the speed of their movement in the op­ posite direction to that of the universe. they had to depart from it on the eighth and continue further through a four day journey to a place from which one could see a light extending over the whole surface of the sky and earth. This explanation fares bet­ ter than that of Alexander. recounts a fable in which. They arrange the other planets in the order we have men­ tioned. the ends of its fastenings attached to heaven. THE M Y T H OF P A M P H Y L IO N IN PLATO ’S REPUBLIC XVI. in the middle of this luminous band. He adds that there is another spine-like axis with hollow vertebra nested one next to the other. This is what he says'6: “After each of these souls had passed seven days in the meadow. Republic X 616b. “This is how it was made: in its form it resembled the spindlewheels of our world. the spindle was formed of the same substance and of other precious materials. . envelopes all the others. They made still another day’s journey to arrive there. speaking of the arrangem ent of the celestial bodies. quite similar to a rainbow but brighter and more pure.

that of the eighth (sphere of the moon) bor­ rowed its color and its brilliancy from the seventh. the movements of the seventh. the third had only the fourth speed and the second had only the fifth. to be heard. that it would be useless work to wish to expose these phenom ena w ithout the images which speak to the eyes. eight spindle-wheels in all.ASTRONOMY 95 Pamphylian. Finally the sixth (Venus) occupied second place in brilliancy and whiteness. the poets often call all the . which itself received a third. then that of the sixth. W e explain this passage in the Commen­ taries on the Republic. and they presented the continuous curved surface of a single spindle around the shaft passing through the center of the first.” The complete exterior spindle made its revolution in the same direction as the universe. resulted a perfect harmony (that is to say a complete octave). the seventh. as it appeared to them. appears to be derived from the w ord “ Sirius” . the eighth. On each of these circles a Siren was seated. thus some designate the planets themselves by the word “ Siriazein.1 7 O f the others. (Toulis) . meaning burning. “ The rim of the largest spindle (the sphere of the stars) was of different colors. in fact. the rim of the seventh (sphere of the sun) was of a very brilliant color. eight in number. There were. in the interior. it should be represented as containing in its hollow another smaller spindle-wheel. it m eans either the star Sirius o r the flam ing burning heat o f any star. There was thus a third. Plato says. always the same. the third and of the second. from Sirius: a star th a t burns hotly — a burning s tar — also applies to the burning sun when the tw o words are used in conjunction like “T he Sirionic Sun” — w hen the word is used alone. therefore. The color of the circles of the seventh and the fifth (Saturn and Hermes) was nearly the same and they were more yellow than the others.” This is what Plato says. From all these sounds. shining. like large vessels fitted one inside the other. and. the third (Jupiter) had a very white color. that of the fourth (Mars) was slightly red. the fourth which has a more rapid retrograde movement than the other spindles is third in speed. the fifth. after Adrastus. the fourth. the seven concentric spindles moved slowly in the opposite direction. placed one within the other. sixth and fifth were less of an equal speed. diminishing in width in that order. who turned with it and emitted one sound.7T he w ord “ Siriazein” . He says that Sirens are seated on the circles. Their circular rims could be seen from above. w hich is neither in the dictionaries nor in the Thesaurus o f H enri Estienne. The circular rim of this exterior spindle was the widest. The movement of the eighth was the most rapid. a fourth and yet four more of them. The spindle turned on the knees of Necessity. Also.” to b u rn . we have constructed a sphere accord­ ing to his explanations.

R etrograde motion is the apparent return of a planet from its station in the opposite direction of its first movement.96 ASTRONOMY stars burning “ Siriuses” stars. 6-7. says Adrastus. The contrary movement is an appropriate motion. for example. XX. It is for this reason that they necessarily appear sometimes to stop. ac­ cording to Adrastus. from C ancer into Leo. of a planet which seems always to go towards the signs which follow at the east. Forward m ovement is the apparent m otion of a planet which seems to go towards the preceding zodiac signs to the West. also these planets never have stations nor retrograde motion. there are some which are always lagging behind. THE M O VEM EN TS OF THE PLANETS X VII. the sounds and the accords are produced by their revolutions. Such are the sun and moon which never go towards the zodiac signs which precede. 1 9 Euripedes. but that. Iphigenia at Aulis. “W hat then is this shining ‘Sirionic’ star which passes above our heads”? Some authors pretend that the stars cannot be taken for the Sirens. but this is an appearance. But according to Plato. As for the planets. The station is the apparent state of a planet which seems to stop and remain some time near one of the fixed stars.” Others designate only particularly rem arkable and brilliant stars. Phenomena. . There are others which move towards the preceding zodiac signs and towards the following signs. Aratus uses the ‘condition’ “ Sirius” to indicate that one star in the constellation of the Dog burns with a lively flame IK and a tragic poet said of a planet. these are all the other planets. this is not an appearance. v 331. and sometimes to move in retrograde motion. It all ap­ pears to be produced in this way. The l8A ratus. according to the Pythagorean doctrine. but which are always seen going towards those which follow. from C ancer to Gemini. Thus one reads in Ibycus: “flam ing as the ‘Siriuses’ which shine in the long night. XIX. X V III. for example. XXI. from which results a perfect harmony. it is in reality the true movement of a star which goes to the east in consecutive zodiac signs. v.

circular. must lie the others. in such a way that that which happens here below com pletely follows this motion. and also that fire must occupy the opposite place from the etheric es­ sence which moves in a circle. m ortal and perishable. moves in a circular m ovement proper to its spherical form. And in the sublunar world. and as the poet says: “ Here below one sees only wrath and killing and all the other evils. 19 o r 21 . One would not say that that which is the most precious. Between the two elements thus sepa­ rated. it is regular and uniform. the eternal. and that which is here only follows the motion of higher things incidentally. because of the superposition. in that it is composed of parts as numerous and as diverse as we have singled out. all is change and m o­ tion. be circular and always sim ilar to itself. relative to the zodiacal zone which is above. Em pedocles. the non-engendered and incorruptible. follow that which is lesser. it is true. It is indeed through these revolutions of the stars that come and go that all things in our world are also changed. vs. And as Adrastus explains. but ap­ pear to be neither simple and unique nor uniform and regular. are the cause of all these phenomena.ASTRONOMY 97 cause is that each planet moves below the stars in a circle or in a sphere of its own. alteration in every kind and changing of place. The planets. water and air. A nd it is necessary that it be below. most blessed. and that this m otion has been initiated by a first propulsion. The motion of the planets is. This being 2 0 Cf. and seems to us. these are only the different hypotheses on the planets. growth and decline. of the divine. but these things are cer­ tainly thus because of that which is best. to be carried back. this is why the world has been arranged by the grace of a superior and benevolent cause. He says that the world. says Adrastus. hypotheses rendered probable through their accord with the phenomena. X X II. most beautiful.”'20 Indeed there is nothing but generation and decay. it is necessary that the earth occupy the center around which the m otion is produced. In order th at the m otion of the universe which results from an ac­ tive force and from a divine cause. in proportion. The cir­ cular m otion of the stars is sim ple and unique. around us and up to us. The m o­ tion of the planets has been diversely arranged for the calculation of time and for their return to the perigee and to the apogee.

but from which results.98 ASTRONOMY so. In fact. A double m otion is the cause o f the apparent varied m ovem ent in both directions the starry sphere is conveyed from east to w est around the axis which passes through the poles. Change is made by the varied m otion of the planets. bring forth the different seasons and produce all transform ations and all genera­ tions and all alterations in our world. because the nature of things is profoundly changing and is subject to contrary forces. 1823 (W izards 1974) . by thought. under the zodiac oblique to the three parallel circles. if the planets were conveyed following parallel circles by the same m o­ tion as the fixed stars. The m otion takes place around another axis. however. but will appear to be accom plished regularly as we have shown through the construction of P lato’s sphere. X X III. by Samson A rnold M ackey. by a slow er m otion. It takes the planets along with it and describes the parallels that the stars follow. the arrangem ent of all the bodies being universally the same. it is still necessary that there be a change in all things here below. the planets. are conveyed from setting to rising in unequal tim es. supposing the world to be immobile. On the other hand. The variety presented by the revolutions of the planets. Here is w hat Adrastus says of the position of the circles or spheres. comes from the fact that. perpendicular to the zodiac which diverges from the axis o f the stars by the value o f the side of the regular penFo r an explanation o f the spiral precession o f the equinoxes as shown in the zodiacs of the tem ­ ple of D endera (now in the Louvre in Paris) see: Mythological Astronom y o f the Ancients D em on­ strated. and in the rapid m otion which is appropriate to it. But the solstices and the equinoxes. they are conveyed through the zodiac. there would be no change. Their movem ent then will no longer appear varied and unequal. an apparently varied and irregular motion. a position which saves the appearances. particularly the sun and the moon. the movements forward and the returns in height and in latitude. if. the equatorial circle and the tropic o f sum m er. like the fixed stars. by a simple motion which is appropriate to it. no vicissitudes here below. we imagine that the planets move below the im mobile (by hypothesis) zodiac. was the first to understand that the planets move accord­ ing to a regulated revolution. Norwich. fixed to the cir­ cles themselves or the spheres themselves whose m otion they follow. sim ple and equal. by chance. but also of the other planets. the tropic o f w inter. Pythagoras. It is natural and necessary that. each of the other celestial bodies be conveyed uniform ly and regularly. I say this will be evident.

describe several and varied circles. and O as the center of this circle and of the universe. A rie5 C ancer B O C a p ric o rn D F ig 3 C L ib ra 2. THE M O V E M E N T OF THE SUN XXVI. they appear to m ove on the zodiac as we have already said. The motion is regular when the moving object has neither a station nor a retrograde movement. Adrastus says that the m otion is uniform when the spaces travelled in equal times are equal. as has been said above. then C is at the beginning of Libra and D is at the beginning of C apricorn. Let us take ABCD as the zodiac.ASTRONOMY 99 tadecagon. By chance. all the planets appear to us to have something irregular.T h e angle a t the cen ter o f the regular pentadecagon has a value o f a fifteenth of 360 o r 24. 2 1 Plato calls the axis of the planets the ‘shaft of the spindle’ and also the ‘spindle’. It is now 23° 27’. the sun. This will become clear for us if we con­ sider the most brilliant and largest of these planets. W hat then is the cause of such an apparent behavior? The chief cause is that. but is carried along equally in always the same direction. T his angle is not constant. XXV. which have nevertheless a sim ple movem ent of their own. B is at the beginning of Cancer. and certain of them even have some­ thing unruly in their movement. but its variation is less th an a half-second p e r year. being on the spheres or the different circles by which they are carried. If point A is at the beginning of Aries. However. The angle o f the tw o axes is then 24° according to T heon. . which is at the same time the earth. the seven planets. and AC and BD will be two perpendicular diam eters passing through this point. XXIV. w ithout ever increasing or dim inishing in speed.

the appearances will be explained. BC. or it will be on the circum ference itself. and from the winter solstice to the spring equinox in 90Vs days. If we suppose that point O is at the interior of the solar circle. W e will dem onstrate that the planets describe by chance these three kinds of circles. at B at the sum m er solstice. if point O is exterior there is an epicycle. in unequal times. The point O will be interior to the circum fer­ ence. who look at it from point O of our circle ABCD. from the summer solstice to the autum n equinox in 9 2 1 /z days. which is absurd. will appear to us. that is to say point O. to move irregularly.100 ASTRONOMY The sun is found at A at the spring equinox. and one would not see the sun turn around the earth at all. for the sun would m eet the earth and then some of the ea rth ’s inhabitants would have only daytim e. or an eccentric circle or an epicyclic circle. the four equal arcs AB. It is natural and necessary as we have said. and for this reason one can con­ sider as futile the discussions of m athem aticians who say that the planets are conveyed only on eccentric circles. It is therefore evident that the cause of this appearance is a different m ovem ent which does not occur around the center O. having a regular and uniform course on its own circle. W hichever hypothesis one chooses. but not at the center. a circle around the center of the universe. N ow it is im possible that the solar circum ference passes through the point O. so that it travels yearly the entire circle in approxim ately 365'A days. in Virgo and Pisces it has an average speed. others only night time. it is said that the circle is ec­ centric. It is then clear th at the sun. and its greatest is in Sagittarius. that all divine crea­ tions (the stars) have a uniform and regular motion. DA. or it will be ex­ terior. we would still be em barrassed by this equality o f the angles at the center and by the sim ilitude o f the arcs. It travels irregularly. If then this circle were to have the same center as that of the universe. it would be divided in the same relationships by the diam eters AC and BD. T here would be neither rising nor setting. Indeed it moves from the spring equinox to the summer solstice in 9 4 1 A days. CD. at C at the autum n equinox and at D at the winter solstice. It remains then to suppose the point O to be at the interior or at the exterior of the solar circle. from the autum n equinox to the winter solstice in 88 Ve days. Its slowest speed is on entering Gemini. or on epicycles or around the same center as the starry sphere. .

at point M. equal to the preceding one. it will be found at G and will still appear to us in C. it will a r­ rive at F. as many days as there are divisions of the arc. to us that is who see it at a straight line from point O. Let us suppose first of all that the eccentric solar circle EFGH is situated in such a way as to have its center under the arc EF. it will appear to us at A. regularly passing through the arc EF which is the largest of the four divisions of its own circle. Then. irregularly. There it will appear to us at B and it will seem to have ir­ regularly travelled by a num ber of days different (from a quarter of 365 74 days) the arc AB which is a quarter of the zodiac. and that arc EF contains 9 4 7 a . and HE 9 0 7 s . in the space of 927a days which corresponds to the num ber of divisions in the arc. a quarter of the zodiac. Likewise when it travels the arc FG. It will seem to us that it travelled the arc BC.ASTRONOMY 101 c THE EC C ENTRIC CIRCLE XX V I (1). the second in size of its own circle. in fewer days. Let us again suppose that the circle is divided into 36574 equal parts. for example. GH 88 Vs. It is evident that when the sun is at E. . in the space of 9474 days. FG 9272.

we will have MV = MW. It is found by the consideration of the dis­ tances and sizes. it will be at its sm allest distance from the earth and it will appear to have its maximum size and speed. The circle EFGH is being divided into 365 V < parts. each of the arcs sp. as are the arcs qF and sH. and is equal to the angle OMt. It is in this way that all the appearances will be explained. furtherm ore.102 ASTRONOMY Similarly. the num ber equal to the divisions of the arc. for the same reason. and extending this line to both sides. it will seem to us that in 90 and Vs days it tra­ velled the arc DA. it appears to have its minimum size and speed. and for us who are at point O. The angle rMV is therefore given. that the relationship of the line OM to MV is nearly that of 1 to 24. respectively parallel to the lines AC and BD. because one of these points is at the greatest distance from the earth and the other at the smallest. It is for this reason that travelling its circle uniformly. equal to the preceding arc. the sm allest of the four divi­ sions of the circle. when it travels HE in 90 and Vs days. And with reason it appears to have an average size and speed when it oc­ cupies the same degrees in Pisces and in Virgo. Finally. it is evident that the arc EFG contains 187 parts and the arc G H E contains 178V» parts. The circle EFGH is therefore given in position and in size. when it travels the arc GH. and returning to E.Let us now extend through point M the straight lines rp and qs. that is to say from M t to Ot is given and the triangle MtO is given in form. joining the centers O and M by a straight line. perpendicular to each other and joining FM and ME. “ Because 91 + + Vie is a q u arter o f 365 X U• . The position and size of circle EFGH is given. but the arc Er and pG are equal. But if. the number of days equal to the number of divisons of the arc. The line OM joins the centers of the universe and of the solar circle. in a fewer num ber of days. Arriving at W. Thus. it will seem to travel the zodiacal circle irregularly. This phenom enon appears to be produced at about 5V2 degrees of Gemini. qr is repre­ sented by 91 divisions + + V ie2' 2. pq. equal to the others and that it returned to A. the sun at V will be at its greatest distance from the earth. in 88 Ve days. The latter seems to occur at 572 degrees of Sagittarius. But the center O of the universe is also given in relation to the two points V and W. since M is the center of the circle EFGH. it will be at H and it will appear to be in D to us who ob­ serve it from point O. It will seem to us to have travelled the arc CD. a treatm ent which saves (explains) all the phenom ena. Such is the treatm ent by the eccentric circle.

its setting. The circle then moves. The circle EFGH will be either immobile or it will itself move while the sun turns around it. If it turns in the same direction. In fact. it would appear to travel through all the signs. but would always produce day for those who are above the earth and always night for those who are below. In relationship to ourselves and in a single (diurnal) revolution of the universe. This is contrary to the facts. Then. and when carried on to H it will appear to be at N.ASTRONOMY 103 THE EPIC YC LE XX V I (2). W hen it travels through the arc FEH. it will appear to de­ scribe the arc VAN towards the signs which precede. The starry sphere moves from rising B to meridian A. when it . then from point A to D. arriving at F. it is with an equal speed or a greater or lesser one. let us draw lines OFV and OHN tangent to the circle EFGH. Again let us take the zodiac ABCD and the solar circle EFGH which is exterior to the center of the universe O. H e re is now the ex p lan a tio n acco rd in g to the epicycle. it would appear to be at V and when at E it would appear to be at A. If it were im mobile it is clear that the sun would appear neither to rise nor to set. The sun will al­ ways appear to come and go within the arc VAN of the zodiac. and in moving it is carried either in the same direction as the universe or in the opposite direction. Supposing that it moves with the same speed.

with a "Cf. above. let us describe the circle M rVW from the center O with the radius OM . so that it ap­ pears to have a movement of its own contrary to that of the universe. It is then evident that the circle EFGH moves in the same direc­ tion as the universe with a lesser speed. or that it m oves in an inverse direction to that of the universe. However. this is not what happens.104 ASTRONOMY travels the arc HGF. transverses it in the space of one year. This is why it appears to be left behind and to pass into the signs which follow. that is from Aries to Pisces and Aquarius. A and that it is left behind because o f its slow er speed. it will appear to move through the arc NAV towards the signs which follow. It is thus that it appears to pass into the signs which follow. which appears to P lato as more probable. Furtherm ore it does not have a greater speed. because then it would appear to overtake the stars and travel through the zodiac in an inverse direction. and let us suppose that the circle E FG H is carried from east to w est at the sam e time as the universe. . being in some way left behind. which is not the case. The solar circle EFGH is not carried therefore in the same direc­ tion as the universe with the same speed. XVIII. How then does this save (explain) the phenom ena? Taking M as the center o f the solar circle. everything being conveyed each day in the same direc­ tion. from rising to setting.23 so that the center. regularly carried on the circle M rVW . and the sun also achieves its revolution in the same am ount o f time.

It is therefore evident that in its move24See III. the sun will be carried on the circle EFGH. the sun will move on the circle EFGH in the same direction as the universe and this would explain the phenomena. In addition. The sun. but in the same direction as its own circle. its circle will be carried to XR and the sun. hav­ ing described a quarter of the circumference. that is to say from E to F . a quarter of its own circle. from point H to point E and from point E to point F. Then also it will seem to have described an arc KDA of zodiac.ASTRONOMY 105 regular movement. arriving at E . Now. a quarter of the circum ­ ference. a q u arter of the circum ference o f the circle M rVW . and to be slowly coming from point C. and to be slowly ap­ proaching point C. describes by a regular m ovem ent the arc M r. and seeming to have traversed the arc sC. A fter point V has traversed the quarter VW of the circumference. and to be rapidly moving from point A. . describing the arc W M . and the sun itself having described a sim ilar arc X R will return to E and will appear to be at A.will re-establish the circle HR on EFGH. and the circles Np and yV will be formed and the sun will travel through the arc pt. being carried on the circle MrVW in a m ovement contrary to that of the universe. Finally the center W. will be at point R. L et us first of all suppose that it be carried in a m ovem ent contrary to that of the universe. It will therefore be at point p and appear to us as being at s. it will appear to have traversed the arc ABs which is greater than a quarter o f the zodiac. L et us suppose that point M. that is to say. (Fig. therefore C will be at 5Vi degrees of Sagittarius. and since it will have described the arc E F . and to be hastening to arrive at A. sometimes in the same direction as the universe and some­ times in the opposite direction. in the same direction as its own circle. 6) and from F to G and from G to H. it will be furthest away from us. a quarter of the cir­ cumference. will describe the arc EF of the circum ference o f the circle E F G H . less than a quarter of the circumference. larger than a quarter of the circumference. less than a quarter of the zodiac. the cen ter of the solar circle. T hen. while appearing to be at point K and seeming to have described the arc CK. a quarter of the circumference. arriving at V while appearing to us to be at C. regularly conveyed in the same direction. and th at the whole of the circle E FG H is carried to N pt. X X V I. The cen ter r will next describe the arc rV . I assert that the circle EFGH. It is clear that A will be at 5l / i degrees o f Gem ini24.

having travelled through an arc equal to a quarter of its own circle. and the sun moves on it in the same direction as the fixed stars. This is. It will then be at i and appear to be at C. the sun therefore cannot move on the epicyle in the same direction as this circle and in an inverse direction to the universe.106 ASTRONOMY ment it will appear to have a greater speed in Gemini and a slower speed in Sagittarius. It would seem to have travelled at an increasing speed towards C. a quarter of the circumference of the concentric circle. let us suppose that the center of the epicycle describes the arc Mr. 7) Then the center r will describe a quarter of the circum ference rV and the sun will describe the sim ilar arc Np of the epicycle. greater than a quarter of the circumference. the arc VW being a quarter of the circumference. In this way the phenom ena will be explained. The sun will have to de­ scribe the arc sim ilar to EH on the epicycle. however.(saved. (Fig. If V were transported to W. and will therefore be at N and will appear to us to be at s. the contrary of what is ob­ served. W hile the solar circle is carried on the circumference of the concentric circle MRVW in an inverse direction to that of the universe. and if the circle iy .) A Indeed. the arc of the zodiac sBC. It remains to examine the case in which the epicycle has a move­ ment contrary to that of the universe. and that it carries the epicycle with it to Np. But on the zodiac it will seem to have travelled the sm aller arc As at a low speed starting from point A.

This relationship is the inverse of the preceding25 since it is equal to the relationship of 24 to 1. It will appear to be at A and will seem to have travelled the arc KA sm aller than a quarter of the circum ­ ference. will appear to accomplish its path on the zodiac slowly. the smallest distance is OV and the difference between these two distances is equal to the diam eter of the epicycle. the epicycle XR will return EFGH and the sun. If the center travels the remaining arc WM. will be at X. and will appear to be at K. transported in a contrary direction to that of the movement of its own circle. X X V I. following this hypothesis. In this way A drastus shows that the phenom ena are explained by the tw o hypotheses. One can find the size of the epicycle and the relationship of the distance betw een the centers to the diam eter EG of the epicycle EFG H . In this way. ap­ pears to advance on the zodiac in a movement which is in some way coincident with its own. transported from V to y during the time that the epicycle passes from V to W. Similarly. and to be slowly approaching A. (1). obtained by the consideration of the distances and sizes. the sun. In moving to p during the time that the epicycle passes from r to V. The greatest distance from the sun to the earth is O E. H ipparchus m ade the rem ark that the reason why the 2 5 Cf. for the sun will appear to move more slowly and to be sm aller towards 5 V2 degrees of Gemini and to move more quickly and be larger towards the sam e degree of S agittarius. . that o f the eccentric circles and that o f the epicycle. in passing from X to R while the epicycle passes from W to M. the sun. But on the other hand. and to have passed rapidly from C to D. This in conform ity w ith the phenom ena.ASTRONOMY 107 were applied on the circle XR. It would seem to have travelled the arc CDK of the zodiac. all the phenom ena are explained. in describing the arc Vy sim ilar to the preceding one. . for if it passes from point E to point H while the center o f the circle itself passes from M to r having a m ovem ent contrary (to that of its own circle) . which goes in the same direction as the epicycle. as if overtaking its own circle. . the circle EFG H of the planet moving on a concentric circle which is MrVW. it will appear to increase speed in the zodiac. the sun. Such is the explanation using the epicycle. larger than a quarter of the circumference. describing the sim ilar remaining arc XR will be reestablished at E.

V. Let us take the zodiac ABCD with O as the center of the universe. travelling the epicycle EH G F at the same time in a uniform m ovement in the same direction as the universe. with the radius OM the circle MrVW . and EFGH the epicycle of the sun with M as its center. it will happen that the sun. A drastus has shown that the hypothesis of the eccentric circle is a consequence of that of the epicycle. draw the circles Npt. that of eccentric circles and that of concentric circles and of epicycles. but I say further that. will also describe the eccentric circle equal to the concentric circle MrVW. and carrying with it the epicycle. is w orthy o f the attention of the m athem atician. Let us de­ scribe from the center O. iqy and X Rz perpendicu­ .108 ASTRONOMY same phenom ena follow from such different hypotheses. and from the centers r. perpendicular to each other. Let us then draw the diameters of the zodiac AC and BD. and W. the hypothesis of the epicycle is also a consequence of that o f the eccentric circle. in such a way that the point A is on the 5 V2 degree of Gemini and C is on the same degree of Sagittarius. I assert that if the center M uniformly travels the circum ference of the hom ocentric circle MrVW in a movement contrary to that of the universe.

Therefore si = OV. moving as has been supposed. and the point which is projected at A. Finally. But it has been shown that each of the lines Ns and sX is equal to the radius o f the circle.ASTRONOMY 109 lar to the diam eter BD.26 26A ssum ing th at the sun uniform ly describ es the epicycle in the direction of the diurnal m ovem ent. this is w hat it was necessary to p ro v e. And since line Os is equal to rN . during the time that point V describes arc VW. the sun having described the arc Xz will return to E. It will be eccentric. rV and the sun travels the similar arc Nt of the epicycle. and the point which is projected at C. will naturally describe the eccentric circle ENiX. while point W travels the arc WM. the sun will travel the similar arc iy o f the epicycle. In fact. Lines Ns and sX are therefore respectively equal to the lines rO and OW which are the radii of the circle MrVW. . It will be divided into four equal parts by the diam eters Ei and NX. sN . And finally let us draw the straight line NX. The center once more describes the quarter of the circum ference. at 5Vi degrees of Gemini. T h eo n d em o n strates th at the sun is found on the eccentric circle at points E . The lines NX and rW are equal and parallel to each other. Thus the circle described from the center s with a radius equal to one of these lines will pass through points ENiX and be equal to the circle MrVW . it will also be equal to both line iV and ME. therefore it will be at i and consequently describe the sim ilar arc Ni of the eccentric circle. It will therefore describe at the same time the remaining sim ilar arc XE of the eccentric circle. But Ov = OM . and will then be at X. w hile the c e n te r o f the epicycle uniform ly describ es the concentric circle in the opposite d irectio n . Similarly. I assert that the sun. and the sun at the same time will describe the sim ilar arc EH of the epicycle and will arrive at N and then from E to N . Let us describe this circle and suppose that it be ENiX. having consequently described the sim ilar arc iX of the eccentric circle. N . Both line Es and line si are there­ fore equal to the radius o f the arc VW. at 5Vi degrees o f Saggitarius. on the epicycle E F G H . si. Thus in travelling the whole epicycle uniform ly while the epicycle is carried on the concentric circle. having travelled through the quarter En of the eccentric circle. therefore it also equals sE and Os = iV and line Oi is com m on. but he does not d e m o n strate th a t the sun is on the eccentric circle at the interm ediary points. will be the furthest point from earth . X. sX are equal and perpendicular to each other. will be the nearest. therefore the four lines sE. a qu arter of the circum ference. the sun describes an eccentric circle. the center of the epicycle described the arc M r. i.

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The same proposition is dem onstrated in this manner: we have the zodiac ABCD and the solar epicycle EFH having its center on the circumference of the circle MrVW which is concentric around the center O of the universe. We also have point E, the point furthest from the earth, at 5 Va degrees of Gemini. I propose that the epicycle HE, being carried on the circumference of the circle MrVW by a uniform movement which is opposite to that of the universe, and the sun, travelling the epicycle EFH at the same time in a uniform movement which is opposite to that of the epicycle and consequently in the same direction as the universe, will then describe an eccentric circle equal to the concentric circle MrVW. Let us now suppose that the center M has described any arc Mr, and that the epicycle has arrived at pqX. The sun, starting from point E, that is to say from point q, will have described at the same time arc qp, sim ilar to arc Mr. Let us take the line OG, equal to the radius M E and draw the lines G p and Oq. Since the arc qp is sim ilar to the arc rM, the angle y is equal to the angle t. 27 Thus line pr is parallel to OG, and is also equal to it; the line pG is then equal and parallel to line rO. Now line O r is equal to line GE. Thus line Gp is equal to line GE. Therefore the circle described from the center G with radius GE, will pass through p and will be equal to the circle MrVW. Let us describe the circle EpNiW (from the center G, with Gp = GE for radius); this circle will be eccentric. Since pG is parallel to
27T heon designates the angle q rp by y and the angle rOM by t.

ASTRONOMY

qO, angle y will be equal to angle t, that is to say to pGE, the arc Ep is therefore sim ilar to arc pq (of the epicycle pqX). The sun, start­ ing from point E, will consequently describe the sim ilar arc Ep of the eccentric circle. One could likewise dem onstrate that it is al­ ways thus, so that the sun, having travelled the entire epicycle, pro­ pelling itself on a concentric circle, describes also a whole ec­ centric circle. This is what had to be demonstrated. The converse proposition can also be dem onstrated. Let us again take the zodiac ABCD whose diam eter is AC and whose center is O, and again the eccentric circle of the sun ENiW, point E being furthest from the center of the earth, under 5 V2 degrees of Gemini, and its center G on the line AO. 2 B Let us describe from the center O, with the radius GE, the circle MrVW , and from the center M with the radius ME, the circle EFH. It is clear that this will be the same as the epicycle. I propose then that the sun uniformly de­ scribes the circumference ENiW of the eccentric circle, and will consequently also describe the epicycle EFH carried uniformly at the same time on the concentric circle MrVW. Let us indeed suppose that the sun has described any arc Ep of the eccentric circle. Let us draw line pG and its parallel Oq. W e take rq equal to OG and draw pr. Since the lines Gp and Or are equal and parallel, lines GO, and pr will also be equal and parallel. But we have OG = ME, therefore rq = rp, thus the circle described from the center r with radius rq will pass through point p and will be the same as the epicycle EFH. Let us describe this circle pqX. Because of the parallelism of the lines (rp and OG) the angles t and y are equal But in circles, sim ilar arcs correspond to equal angles, and in equal circles, equal arcs correspond to equal angles, whether these angles be at the center or the circumference. Therefore, the arcs qp, Ep and M r are equal. Therefore, in the same time as the sun travels the arc Ep of the ec­ centric circle, the center M of the epicycle, describing the arc Mr, will carry the epicycle EFH to pqx, and the sun having travelled the arc Ep of the eccentric circle starting from point E, that is to say from point q, will describe the sim ilar arc qp of the epicycle. It can be dem onstrated that it is thus for the whole movement. Therefore, in travelling the entire eccentric circle, the sun also describes the entire epicycle. This is what it was necessary to demonstrate. X X V II. The same dem onstrations can be applied to the other planets. The sun appears to make all these movements, in both hy28R efer again to Fig. 9.

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potheses, with regularity, for the times of its return to the same longitude, to the same latitude, and to the same distance which produces the irregularity called anom aly, are so little different from each other that most m athem aticians regard them as equal 365 l/i days. Thus, when one attentively considers the time of the return in longitude during which the sun travels the zodiac, going from one point back to the same point, from one solstice to the same solstice, or from one equinox to the same equinox, it is very close to the time noted above, so that at the end of four years, the return to a point at the same longitude occurs at the same hour. As for the time of the anom aly after which the sun, at the point furthest from the earth, appears smallest and slowest in its move­ ment towards the following zodiac signs, or after which, at the point closest to the earth, it appears to have the largest diam eter and the greatest speed, it is close to 365 V2 days, so that at the end of two years the sun appears to return to the same distance at the same hour. Finally, the time of its return in latitude, the time after which, starting from the extreme north or south point, it returns to the same point in such a way as to give the same shadow-lengths on the sundials, is 365 Vs days. Consequently, it might be said that at the end of eight years, it will return at the same hour to the same point of latitude. X X V III. R egarding each of the other planets, we have said that their various times vary greatly, some are longer, some are shorter. The durations of the returns appears so much the more variable and changing in one hypothesis as in the next, that it is not in the same lapse of time that each planet travels its epicycle and the epicycle its concentric circle (in the zodiac): the movements are more rapid for some and slower for others by reason of the ine­ quality of the circles, of the inequality of the distances from the center o f the universe and of the differences of obliquity with respect to the circle of the middle of the zodiac signs, that is to say, o f the differences o f inclination and o f position. XXIX. As a result, it happens that for all the planets, the stations and the returns, whether towards the preceding zodiac signs or the following zodiac signs, do not occur in a sim ilar manner. One ob­ serves the phenom enon for the five planets, but in a m anner which is not absolutely similar. For the sun and the moon, it does not oc­ cur at all; indeed these two never appear to advance, nor to remain stationary, nor to retrogress. As we have said, the sun appears to be

Thus I understand that the concentric circle MNVW moves around O. but carried in the same direc- . move around their own centers in the direction contrary to the universe. and that the epicycles carrying the planets also move around their own cen­ ters. (fig. In this way we can safely arrive at an explanation of these phenomena. I understand in addi­ tion that the concentric circle carries on its circumference the center M of the epicycle EFGH and that this epicycle which carries the planet to point E. if it is a question of the sun and the moon. that the planets move on circles or whether the circles which carry these stars move around their own centers. in the opposite direction from the universe. turns around the center M in the same direc­ tion as the universe. or in the opposite direction if one considers the other planets. carrying the centers of the epicycles. we have the eccentric cir­ cle ENiW which has point H for its center. this circle ENiW. m 4 h G \ O V F ig 10 According to the other interpretation. and carrying the sun fixed at point E. moving uniformly in the space of one year around the center H. Considered in relation to the sun.ASTRONOMY 113 carried on its own circle in the same time as the epicycle on the concentric circle. w hether one says. whereas the epicycle of the moon is carried more rapidly on the concentric circle through the zodiac. 10) which is its own center and that of the universe. It is clear that it m atters little for interpreting the phenom ena. XXX. not in the opposite direction from the universe. I understand that the con­ centric circles. if the center H moves by itself. than it itself travels the epicycle. as it has been explained. ex­ plains the phenomena.

C onsidering only the . but the circle turns around the center H. is the farthest from the earth. the point E of the eccentric circle. From the center O of the universe and from the radius OH.114 ASTRONOMY tion. and the sm allest at the same degree of Sagittarius. indeed. The largest. the sm allest and the mean distances from the earth. then that the con­ centric circle equal to the epicycle of the hypothesis turns around the center O of the universe and that it carries with it the center H of the eccentric circle in a movement contrary to the universe and in a determ ined time. where the sun is placed. let us imagine that one describes the circle Hpq. the sm allest or the mean distance from the earth. the point E. and the m iddle at the same degree of Virgo and Pisces. All of this carries us too far away under the pretext of reconciling the argum ents o f m athem aticians. as has been said. If one takes the correct and particular times of each planet. As for the other planets. and that they can have their minimum. seen under Gemini. occurs at 5 V2 degrees of Gemini. carried to where point i is now. In fact. carrying the fixed star on its circumference at point E. the phenomena will be explained. Between these two extreme points it will be found at the middle of the distance in Virgo and Pisces. will appear to us in Sagittarius at the sm allest distance from the earth. In this way. in this position of the circle. the sun will always present at the same respective places. it is at every place in the zodiac that they can be at the greatest. and finally that the eccentric circle ENiW moves in a different time around its center H. maximum or mean speed. and if each day it describes the circle Hqp equal to the circle in the other argument.

1073 b. How could it indeed be that such bodies w ere attached to incorporeal circles? According to the phenom ena. X II. in his treatise On the H eavens*1 speaks a great deal of the stars in general and shows that they neither move across the tranquil ether nor with the ether in any independent or separate way. I. others sm aller. treatise On the H eavens II. for it is necessary also to discuss the facts from the physical point of view.ASTRONOMY 115 phenom ena and the planetary movements produced according to the course of things. 9. p. giving his own words. . the planets are put in m otion with the aid o f certain spheres. 199. He again says in the X lth book33 that according to E udoxus and C allipus. in carrying the various stars fixed to their circum ferences. 3.3 1 XXX I. and th at they neither turn nor revolve. Chaldea and in Egypt. some are hollow. J o u rn a ld e s S a v a n ts. but rather. Through an effect which is the 2 U Cf. B iot. Meteorology. 987 a. II. 7. V I. X I. the Egyptians by graphic methods. the Chaldeans with the aid of arithm etic methods. Cf. som e moving in the opposite direction. A ristotle. the exterior sphere.2S Thus they came to confirm the observed facts and to predict the coming phenomena. other full ones are inside them. nor do these circles rotate around their centers. 3lEpinom is p. the spheres of the fifth body 34 move in the depths of the sky. are carried by a sim ple m ovement but with unequal speeds depending on the location. some are larger. these m athem aticians investigated with ardour the principles and the hypotheses which would explain the phenom ena. 1 and Meteorology. I. 1850. 3 3 A risto tle. P lato says so in the Epinomis. that the num erous fixed stars are carried on one and the same sphere. 34This fifth body is the ether. Aristotle. some are less high. some are higher. after having observed them for a long time under favorable conditions in Babylonia. 32Treatise On the Heavens. A ristotle. as we shall see a little further on. Those who have studied astronom y with the Greeks have tried to do so by utilizing their principles and their observations. and each planet is carried by several spheres. M e ta p h y sic s . 3 0 Cf. and the planets which are fixed there in the m anner of the stars. som e moving in the sam e direction as the universe.™ all by imperfect methods and w ithout a sufficient science of natural laws. W hat in fact concurs with natural science is that the stars are neither carried in the sam e m anner by certain circular or spiraling curves in a contrary m ovem ent to that of the universe.

wheels rotating around their axes. sometimes more to the south. The third rotates around the axis perpendicular to the circle. are necessary for each of the planets. Such is his opinion or that of the others (Eudoxus and Callippus). can. it follows that they appear more or less far from earth. they appear to describe spirals in consequence of which the m athematicians. other lesser spheres than one of the spheres that carries the rotating ones. As we see them carried each day by the motion of the universe from east to west and passing through the consecutive zodiac signs in their course along the obliquity of the zodiac. He also thinks that. by their own movement. The second moves around the axis perpen­ dicular to the circle of the m iddle of the zodiac signs. one supposed that in the intervals of the conferring spheres (that is to say those carrying the planets). cause the conferring spheres they contact to turn in the opposite direction. A ristotle says that those before him supposed them each to be carried by several spheres. By the latter. A ristotle says that C allippus added new spheres to the other planets. Eudoxus says that the sun and the moon are supported on three spheres: the first is that of the fixed stars which rotate around the poles of the universe and forcibly draws all the others with it from the rising to the setting. sometimes at a greater distance. that is to say two to the sun and the moon. sometimes higher. sometimes lower. one nevertheless saw the planets going in the opposite direction. except to Saturn and Jupiter. or else placed on other circles. by their . misled by the retrograde movement. Each of the other planets is carried by four spheres. there are some evidently solid spheres which. and only one to each of the others. each star appears to have its own movement in latitude. oblique to that of the m iddle of the zodiac signs. one of which produces the m ovement of the planet in height. if one wants to account for the phenom ena. also. sometimes more to the south of the circle which passes through the m iddle of the zodiac.116 ASTRONOMY consequence of all these movements. It is by this sphere that each planet appears to execute a m ovem ent in longitude towards the zodiac signs that follow. in the same way that with mechanical gears. sometimes more to the north. If one thought that it is natural that everything be carried in the same direction. think that they were transformed. they appear to move variously and describe certain eccentric circles. sometimes at a sm aller. sometimes more to the north.

their place and their size. but by an appropri­ ate movement. It is quite natural that all the spheres move in the same direction. AE. is its thickness. carried along by the exterior sphere. XXX II. that they appear to accom plish combined. irregular and varied movements. the hollow sphere Eqst. AC and BD its two (perpendicular) diameters. others eccentric or epicycles. some concentric. it is time for a short elaboration on the figure which appears to us to be necessary for the construction of the spheres. others less so and in the opposite direction. W e have underneath the first. because of the level which they occupy. some are carried more quickly. Thus the stars that they carry are brought along by the simple and regular m ovement of the spheres and it is only through an effect. then pXiR of a planet . around their own axes oblique to that of the sphere of the stars. A Let us take ABCD as the hollow sphere of the stars around the center O of the universe. For the understanding of what we say. cause a turning and rotating in the opposite direction of the bodies adjacent and in con­ tact. Let us suppose that ABCD is a large cir­ cle and that it passes through the m iddle of the zodiac.ASTRONOMY 117 own m ovement and by the aid of geared teeth. which is the consequence of the m ovement of the spheres. they describe several circles.

carried in the same direction as the starry sphere. comes back to the same point. turning regularly around its own axis. the center M of the solid sphere will travel the con­ centric circle MNVW. the solid sphere EFpG carrying an errant star a t­ tached at point E. equal to the concentric circle. and from the center H. It is evident that in the time that the hollow sphere of the planet. Further the sphere of the stars turns very rapidly. It is also evident that the planet placed at point E on the solid sphere will describe (in the same am ount of time) the circle EGpF which becomes the epicycle of the concentric circle MNVW and turns in the same direction as the universe. carrying the solid sphere. or that it will have left it more or less behind. Taking M for the center of the sphere. eccentric with regard to the universe. travelling in it in the direc­ tion contrary to that of the universe.118 ASTRONOMY having the same center and Ep for thickness. Let us first of all suppose that it returns in the same am ount of time. It will consequently also describe the eccentric circle ENiW. it has travelled the entire sphere of the stars in this opposite direction. it can be seen that the sphere of the stars turns around the axis perpendicular to the plane of the equatorial circle. A ll are carried regularly in the same direction by the simple movements from east to west. And now. The solid sphere. moving in the opposite direction. and that which produces the m ovement of the planet in latitude alone turns in the opposite direction or in the same direction provided that it remains behind due to its slowness. with the radius HE. or it is left behind as others would have it — we have said elsewhere that this is the most likely opinion — and it carries the solid sphere supporting the errant star. in such a way that in a determ ined time. appearing to be conveyed in the opposite direction and carrying along this solid sphere. for the two hypotheses account for the phenomena. w ith­ in this thickness. the hollow sphere of the planet turns more slowly and in the opposite direction. will have left the sphere of the stars behind. and obli­ que to that which passes through the middle of the zodiac. in the same time that the hollow sphere of the planet will have tra­ velled. describe the circle ENVW. and ) that the hollow sphere of the planet turns around the axis perpen\ dicular to the circle producing the m ovement in latitude. let us describe from the center O the circle MNVW having the radius OM. the entire sphere of the stars. Let us divide the line Ei in two equal parts at point H. . Finally we have.

A single sphere moves in the opposite direction. to the same latitude. are found to be equal to one another or nearly so — I speak of the duration of its returns to the same longitude. the center of the solid sphere will be at point V of the line OC and the planet it­ self will be seen at point C. advancing towards the following zodiac signs in the op­ posite direction from the movement of the universe. com plex and unequal. and the planet itself being at the point E. as far as our senses can perceive them. it will be at point i.ASTRONOMY It will therefore appear to observers at O to describe the zodiac ABCD. It is always at the same place that it will be the furthest from earth and that it will appear to move the most slowly: this is at point A of the zodiac. are the same as N and W which divide the eccentric circle ENiW and the con­ centric circle MNVW into two equal parts and appear in the zodiac between the points A and C at B and D. The hollow sphere turning in the opposite direction. either actually or by conse­ quence of a slower displacement. These points are F and G which. it is this which bears the solid sphere called the epicyle. at the same places and appear in the same zodiac signs. and to the same d istance— the sim ilar points of the two spheres are always found. that is to say at y and K. that is to say. through sim ilar movements. the planet appears sometimes further away and consequently . the m otion appears varied. However. All this is apparent for the sun. but it is oblique to the zodiac and. It appears oblique to the zodiac and because of the rotation of the solid sphere around its own axis. It will have mean distances and mean movements at two places: when it is at the points which divide the epicycle EFpG and the concentric circle MNVW into two equal parts. and orderly. A t the opposite point it will always be least far from the earth and will appear to move most rapidly: this is at point C of the zodiac. the center of the solid sphere being at point M of the line AO. because of its slowness the planet appears to be left behind by the sphere of the fixed stars. Such a m ovem ent of the planets and the spheres is naturally regu­ lar. simple. or because of their lesser movement. It is produced towards the following zodiac signs. because of the changing of the spheres into the op­ posite direction. since the times of its returns. the axes of these spheres being respectively perpendicular to these planes. It will also ap­ pear to move in latitude and in proportion to the inclination of its plane on the circle which passes through the middle of the zodiac signs.

For the other planets there is not the same exactitude. and sometimes nearer and consequently anim ated by a greater speed. around which would be that of . in the contrary direction. that of the epicycle. because the solid sphere of the planet does not return in the §ame time to the same position. therefore. latitude and distance being unequal and variable. X X X III. In a word. although they occur at the same points of the spheres. the obliquity of the spheres not occurr­ ing at the same latitude. and that of Venus being still larger. the movement appears unequal. since the m otion of its spheres is accom plished in exactly equal times. In addition. Venus and Hermes. and the times of the returns to the same longitude. it is possible that each of these stars has two spheres of its own. anim ated at the same speed.120 ASTRONOMY slower. the planets in their movements by chance do not even ap­ pear to describe circles. it is made following the epicyle and then it appears to be made following the eccentric. the sim ilar movements appear. travel in the same time. although accom plished on sim ilar points of the spheres. and that the solid sphere in turn carries the star on its surface. It evidently conforms to reason that there be an accord between the two hypotheses of the m athem aticians on the motions of the stars. th at of Herm es being larger. It is necessary. to change place. which was the object of H ipparchus’s adm iration. are not always made at the same places. to believe that each planet has its own hollow sphere which carries a solid sphere in its thickness. It could also be possible that there be a single hollow sphere common to the three stars and that the three solid spheres in its thickness have one and the same center. and that of the eccentric circle: both accord by chance with w hat is in conform ity with the nature of things. and the largest. the sphere of the sun being the sm allest. but ceaselessly changing place. The sm allest w ould be the truly solid sphere of the sun. The hollow sphere remains behind that of the stars or goes in the opposite direction more or less rapidly. sometimes at one point. and that the hollow spheres of the three stars. and likewise the variable speeds will be produced in all the signs of the zodiac. sometimes at another. but spirals. as we have said. the sm allest and the mean distances. the sphere of the fixed stars and that of the solid spheres have their centers on the same straight line. particu­ larly for the sun. so that their sim ilar movements. As for the Sun.

and for the world. the cause of life and of all m ovement from one place to another. vaunts the hypothesis of the epicycle as his ow n and says that it is probable that all the celestial bodies are uniform ly placed with respect to the cen ter of . judging it as world and as a living thing. is different from the center of the body. It is clear then. H ipparchus. is the w orld’s hearth. Hermes has a distance from the sun of at most twenty degrees on one or the other side of it at the setting and rising. will be in the sun which is in som e way the heart of the universe and in w hich it is said the soul o f the world took birth in order to p enetrate and extend itself to its furthest ends.ASTRONOMY 121 Hermes. This is why these three stars are left behind on the zodiac. the life center. F or the epicycle is a large circle o f the solid sphere. They always appear neighboring. essentially hot. for us who are. but the cen ter o f the world. and because of this the source of all the faculties of the soul. The center of our body is different: it is situated towards the navel. persuaded that the phenom enon was produced in this way. the center of life is in the always warm and always moving heart. that for the reasons explained. Likewise. it is so to say the heart of the universe. as we have said. if we judge the largest. m ost universal and m ost consistent with the nature of things. of the two hypotheses. w hereas the eccentric circle differs entirely from the circle which is in conform ity with nature and is rath er described by chance. the one which a planet describes in its m ovem ent on this sphere. each of which is a consequence of the other. as with an anim al. then that of Venus would come after encircling the other two and filling up the whole thickness of the common hollow sphere. or execute a motion in longitude in the opposite direction to the diurnal movement and at the same speed without having other sim ilar motion. F or exam ­ ple. the center of the body of the universal w orld will be the cold and im mobile earth. the source of our desires. X X X IV . its size and the common course of the surrounding stars. fortuitous and m ortal. F or in anim ate beings. as a living thing. of the anim al. and Venus of 50 degrees at most. mutually passing each other and eclipsing each other. like the sm allest. most worthy and most divine things. of our im agination and intelligence. that of the epicycle appears m ost com m on. It will be understood that this position and this order are all the more true as the sun. that is to say. both humans and alive. because of its movement.

are carried in a simple movement. Some are high­ er. and the planets. m athem aticians.] XXXV. [According to the appearances. Through an effect which is the consequence of all these movements. as he indicates at the end o f the Republic in imagining spindle-wheels inside one another. which are fixed to them in the m anner of the stars. not knowing sufficient natural science. for they appear to do all these things. they appear to move diversely and to describe certain eccentric circles. It is necessary to show how it is that several planets ap­ pear sometimes to advance. some are larger. H e hypothesizes that the epicycle of each planet moves on the concentric circle and that the planet moves on the epicycle. but of unequal speeds according to the location. deceived by the retrograde m ovement thought they were transform ed into. but of circles which carry the planets. others less so.122 ASTRONOMY the world and that they are similarly united. the spheres of the fifth body (the ether) move in the depths of the sky. some are hollow. sometimes to be stationary. with other full ones inside them. . others sm aller. did not understand which is the true m ovement of the stars in accord with the nature of things. they appear to describe the spirals follow ­ ing which. and around the poles instead o f around the axes. Plato appears also to prefer the hypothesis o f the epicycle. placed on other circles. and which is the m ovem ent which is by chance and is but an appear­ ance. He uses these term s in com ­ mon: he often says circles instead of spheres. or else. and some­ times in retrograde movement. He thinks that it is not of spheres. But he himself. says Aristotle.

such as O E. the c e n te r o f the u nive rse . are s o m e tim e s m a d e in o n e z o d ia c sign. a n d the m o v e m e n ts f o rw a r d a n d b a c k w a r d o f ea ch p la n e t. O V N to the e p icy c le a n d th r o u g h the c e n te r M o f the epicycle. w h e th e r this m o v e m e n t be real. a n d E F G th e epicyc le o f a pla n et. If. THE M E A N DISTANCES OF THE PLANETS X X X V I. let us d r a w the ta n g e n ts O F H . the line O M E A . T h e stations. a n d w h a t the d is p l a c e m e n t o f the epicyc le o r of the e c c e n tric circle is. it is c l e a r th a t th e s ta r F a p p e a r s to us to be at H. Since we see in a str a ig h t line.ASTRONOMY 123 W e h a v e the z o d ia c A B C D a r o u n d p o in t O. a n d then . in the epicycle hypoth esis. it w ill a p p e a r to us to describe the a rc H A to w a r d s the p re c e d in g signs o f the zodiac. in a p p r o a c h in g p o in t V a n d in b e g in n in g to m o v e aw ay again. o r w h e th e r the epicyc le is sim p ly left behind. we ta k e the g r e a te st d ista n c e fro m the sta r to the e a rth . th e n w h e n it tra v e ls the a rc FE. It is useful fo r o u r subject to k n o w w h a t the a v e r a g e d is ­ ta n c e o f a p la n e t is. F ro m the p o in t w h ich w e o b se rv e . so m e tim e s in a n o t h e r a n d in d iffe ren t p arts o f the z o d ia c signs. r e tr o g r a d e m o v e m e n ts. it w ill ag a in a d v a n c e . it w ill a p p e a r to be s ta tio n a ry a n d finally to m a k e a r e tr o g r a d e m o tio n . b ec au se the e picyc le o f e a c h o f th e m is alw a y s m o v in g to w a r d s the f o llo w in g signs. N ext. D urin g the tim e it a p p r o a c h e s p o in t F.

Since we naturally see in a straight line. Hermes and Venus hide the stars which are beyond them when . it is clear that it is the concentric cir­ cle on which the epicycle of the other hypothesis is carried. it will be furthest away from us. If we describe. then by being placed directly betw een them and ourselves. and can itself hide all the stars except the m oon. and the mean distances will be at the points of intersection N and W of the eccentric and concentric circles in whatever place these points fall through the displacement of the eccentric circle. it is clear that the mean distance will be OM. on the path of the epicycle. CONJUNCTIONS.124 ASTRONOMY such as OV. To fulfil the requirem ent of our subject. EV. let us take the ec­ centric circle ENrW. The sun can be hidden by the moon. we describe the concentric circle M NrW . disappearances and eclipses. from the center O and w ith the radius OM . first in approaching and drowning them in its light. For the hypothesis of the eccentric circles. de­ scribed from the center M with the radius ME. it will be least far at point i. can pass in front o f all the planets and several stars and hides them from us. If therefore. the sm allest and the mean distances are the same. w hen it is placed in a straight line betw een our view and these stars. from the center O the circle MNrW equal to the eccentric circle. it remains to speak briefly of conjunctions and occultations. the center of which is H and O is the center of the universe. that the sphere of the stars is highest and that the planetary spheres are placed below in the order that we have indicated. and from the center M with the radius M E we draw the epicycle EFVG. in whatever place this happens. Let us take the line of the centers OH and extend it on both sides. When the planet carried by the eccentric circle arrives at E. M. and we find the middle. as well as the distance between the largest and the smallest. it is clear that the moon being the planet closest approaching the earth. it is evident that the star carried on the epicycle will be furthest away from us at point E and least far at point V. It is evident that there is an agreement between the two hypotheses: the greatest. that is to say. and it cannot be hidden by any o f them . and at a mean distance at the two points F and G on the intersec­ tion of the concentric circle and the epicycle. OCCULTA TIONS AN D ECLIPSES XXX V II.

will not seem to be eclipsed. or of twelve degrees as most m athem aticians think. the longitude counted on the zodiac being the same for the two stars. in the same way that the moon is not eclipsed at all full m oons. X II. The circle of the sun appears conveyed as we have said 35 under that which passes through the m iddle of the zodiac signs on which it is a little inclined. This does not happen every month. in some way. and the sun not being hidden. their common intersection will be a straight line which touches the center of the two circles. so that it appears to be separated by five or six degrees to the north or to the south of the circle which passes through the m iddle of the zodiac signs. as Hipparchus has found. in particular. . will be their common diameter. But if the monthly conjunction does not occur near a node. to be extended. If the conjunction of the sun and moon occurs near the nodes. one of the two stars will appear further north. because the two planets turn around the sun. and the sun is not eclipsed at every junction of the moon or neomenia. the other further south. but the latitude being different. for it is separated from it by a half degree on each side. and H erm es. the other descending. Mars som etim es eclipses the two planets which are above it. They are carried towards the following signs of the zodiac. the two stars appear close to one another and to our eyes the moon will hide the sun which will be more fully eclipsed the more the moon covers it. “ See III. and Jupi­ ter can eclipse Saturn. The moon disappears when. If we suppose the planes of the two circles. diam etrically opposite the sun. and the circle of the moon has an obli­ quity of ten degrees in latitude.ASTRONOMY 125 they are similarly placed in a straight line betw een them and ourselves. This line. They even appear to eclipse each o ther when one of the tw o planets is higher than the other or because of their sizes. or the obliquity or position of their circles. The extrem e points where the circles appear to be cut are called the nodes. one ascending. ECLIPSES OF THE SUN AN D MOON X X X V III. is the sun’s neighbor and is drow ned out by it and is rarely apparent. The fact is not easy to observe. the solar and the lunar. because their circles are perceptibly inclined to one another. it enters into the shadow of the earth. which is only a small star. Each planet eclipses in addition the stars underneath which it passes in its course.

the shadow pro­ duced is a cylinder that extends to infinity. one luminous and the other lit by the first. the shadow XMNV will have the form of an indefinite truncated cone. The rays of light such as AC and BD extend in a straight line. if two spherical bodies. Let us now see w hat evidently happens for the moon. envelop an obscure region. for the diam eter XN being larger than the diam eter GO. It is eclipsed. such as GO and the illum inated body is larger. B D F Fig 15 If. such as XN. the luminous body is sm aller. therefore the diam eters AB and CD being equal and perpendicular to the tangents A C E and BDF. As this occurs at all the points it is evident that the sphere CD will produce an indefinite cylindrical shadow. extended indefinitely. extended indefinitely. the luminous body. it is clear that these rays will be parallel and that the lines C E and D F. The luminous rays which extend in a straight line. AB. will not m eet each other. such as W r and the illum inated . and CD the illum inated body. are equal. will move further and further apart from one another. as we have often said. and it will be thus in every case (total eclipse). Let us show how it happens that the eclipse does not take place each month. the luminous rays XM and NV. on the contrary. Let us take. for exam ­ ple.126 ASTRONOMY XXX IX. If the luminous body is larger. and suppose them to be equal and spherical. when it enters into the shadow of the earth.

W hen the centers of the sun. that is following the same straight line as we have described it. such as pq and both are spherical. and it is said that it is eclipsed. W hen the sun is at a node and the moon at another node. H ipparchus shows that the volum e of the sun contains that of the earth about 1880 times. the earth. it is clear that the shadow of the body pq. and the moon will be further to the north or further to the south than the shadow of the earth. at the time of the full moon. there is not always a total eclipse. the moon penetrating to the m iddle of the shadow. But most often. and that the sun is much further away than the moon. will m eet at point s. Dercyllides has not written on this . the earth. It is then evident that the shadow of the earth will have the form of a cone. extended in a straight line. it becomes invisible. W hen the three cen­ ters are not totally in a straight line. the m oon necessarily enters into the shadow of the earth. As it does not enter into the shadow cone it would be known that there could be no eclipse. will have the form of a cone and will be finite. that it will ex­ tend following a common diam eter of the sun and of the earth (that is to say following the line which joins their centers). and as it is sm aller and has no brilliancy by itself. pqs. there is a total eclipse. is less than the width of the shadow projected by the earth.ASTRONOMY 127 body sm aller. This phenom enon will be produced from every point. the sun. and that the volum e of the earth contains that of the m oon more than 27 times. since the diam eter pq is smaller than the diam eter Wr. for the rays Wp and rq. the sun and the moon do not pass through their nodes. Fig 17 Through the consideration of the distances and of the diam eters of the sun and moon. even at its maximum. and the moon are exactly placed following a diam etrical line. and the moon being in a straight line. and that the diam eter of the moon. that is to say. T hat is what Adrastus says.

128 ASTRONOMY subject in any convenient order. (Toulis) . Before all else. and that the axis of the stars and that o f the planets are separated from one another by the side of the pentadecagon. that the planets move around the axis perpendicular to the zodiac. According to him. A naxim enes has show n that the m oon receives its light from the sun and the m anner in which it is eclipsed. if their state were not eternal. He then says that. The second principle is that the risings and the settings of the divine bodies are not made because these bodies light up and ex­ tinguish themselves successively. Thales was able to see that the eclipses of the sun and the returns of this star to the solstices do not always occur after the sam e lapse of time. ASTRO N O M IC AL DISCO VERIES AN D THEIR AU TH O RS XL. without making hypotheses. The third princi­ ple is that there are seven planets. also in astronomy it is convenient to establish hy­ potheses first in order to be able to speak of the movements of the planets. O thers have added new discoveries to these: that the stars m ove around the immobile axis which passes through their poles. and consequently by an angle o f 24 degrees. in his books On Astronomy. a truth 36The obliquity o f the zodiac is attributed to Pythagoras but O enopides claim s it as his ow n dis­ covery. he says. is what he indi­ cates in the book in which he treats The Spindles with which the Re­ public o f Plato is Concerned. The first is that the com position of the world is or­ dered and governed by one sole principle and that reality is found at the bottom of things which exist or seem to exist. Eudemus. it is necessary especially to consider principles which should serve in the study of mathematics. Here. A S T R O N O M IC A L H Y P O T H E SE S XLI. just as in geometry and in music it is im­ possible. neither more nor less. to deduce the consequences of the principles. and that one must not say that the world is infinite or our vision becom es lost. but that it has its limits. however. A naxim ander m aintains that the earth is suspended in space and m oves around the center o f the world. tells that O enopides36 found the first obliquity of the zodiac and recognized the existence of the great year. there would be no order preserved in the universe. as everyone agrees.

. He thinks that all that moves in the sky is carried around a unique center of movement and of the world. although we can be deceived on this point. The first cause of the spiral movement is the movement which occurs following the oblique circle of the zodiac. Next. regular and uniform. but since som e are in m ovem ent and others immobile. . it is necessary to find out that which is necessarily at rest in the universe and that which is in movement. are in movement. as contrary to the bases of m athematics. one side concave at the interior. in distance and in latitude. the opinion of those who believe that the bodies which appear to be in movement are at rest and that the bodies.. he says. it is not first. that the planets are car­ ried slowly by a m ovement contrary to that of the fixed stars. hearth of the house of the gods. Therefore. he does not believe that the eccentric circles are the cause of the m ovement in depth. The spiral movement is in fact. Phaedrus. He then says that the planets have a circular movement. in such a way that the interior movem ent is produced by the exterior movement. in longitude. 247 A. in such a way that it is not by a consequence and not by an antecedent movement. For these things come about by chance. as we have said above. P ut­ ting aside anything disorderly and contrary to reason in such a movement.ASTRONOMY 129 resulting from long observation. He does not think that it is necessary to take spirals or the sim ilar lines of a meandering horse-path as the first cause of these move­ ments. For each sphere has a double surface. the other convex at the exterior. In addition. This is why he believes that the different successive risings depend on a movement in longitude and he rejects the weak and facile reasons given by the seniors according to which the planets would be left behind. it results from the double movement of the planets. The fourth is the following: since it does not conform to reason that all things be in m ovem ent or th at they all be in repose. adventitious and posterior. the spiral movement is a consequence. he energetically rejects. He adds that one should believe that the earth. it is correct to believe. that the planets de­ scribe the epicycles or the eccentric circles within the thickness of the concentric circles. in the interval between which the stars move following the epicycles and 3 7 Cf. the movement following the oblique circle must be re­ garded as first. according to Plato 37 remains in repose and that the planets move with the whole celestial vault which envelops them. im mobile by nature and by situation.H ejudges it so.

The circumference of the universe being divided into 360 degrees. then the 24 degrees comprising from the tropic of sum­ mer to the equitorial circle. and from the arctic cir­ cle to the pole of the sphere of the stars there are 36 degrees. add several other spheres to their spheres and their circles. . He agrees to add the 30 degrees comprising from the arctic circle to the tropic of summer. p. There remain 12 degrees from the pole of the axis of the planets to the glacial arctic circle. thus A ristotle . also divides the 180 degrees into two equal parts. Indeed the zodiac being a great circle. divides the world into two equal parts. He further says that. he thinks that the sky moves with all the stars around the im mobile earth.130 ASTRONOMY concentric circles. but 30 degrees are counted from the tropic of summer to the arctic circle. The m ovement is simple and natural for all: there is but a small num ber of displacem ents on the spheres ar­ ranged with order. He shows. as Hipparchus teaches. following a very small num ber of circular. according to our im pressions. 38 and among m athem ati­ cians Menaechmus and Callippus. A fter having established all this. in a movement which causes them to describe the eccentric circles as an apparent consequence. if 24 degrees are subtracted from it. In order to com plete the 90 degrees which extend up to the pole of the sphere of the planets. He reproaches those philosophers who. these hypotheses account for the appearances. that. The axis of the zodiac itself being perpen­ dicular. the move­ ments of the planets are irregular. the rem ainder is 12. The two axes are separated by the value of the side of the pentadecagon (and consequently by an angle of 24 degrees). In summing them up. con­ sidering the stars as inanim ate. have proposed different spheres and spirals. Now the zodiac extends obliquely from the parallel of w inter to the parallel of summer. and the planets around the axis perpendicular to the zodiacal circle. 6 6 degrees are then counted from the tropic of summer to the pole of the fixed stars. M eta p h ysics 8 . The stars move around the im mobile axis which passes through the poles. uniform. 1073b. and again the 24 degrees comprising from the equitorial circle to the tropic of w inter to which the 38Cf. harmonious. XLII. it is necessary to add 24 degrees to this sum. the zodiacal circle separates it into 180 degrees on each side. concentric and independent movements. according to Plato. but that in principle and in reality they are regular. for the entire arc of the zone is 36 degrees. then the axis of the planets is perpendicular to the zodiac.

in such a way that in passing from one parallel to another they describe spirals sim ilar to the tendrils of a vine. such were the straps wound on the staffs of Sparta and on which the overseers39wrote their dispatches. any message so w ritten was m eaning­ less. they do not pass in a straight line from one parallel to another. In other terms. They used a w ooden staff of exact dim ensions. representing the parallel circles and that the planets move on these parallels in the same direction as the sphere to the fixed stars. But 24 degrees form a fifteenth of 360 degrees of the circumference of the universe. We then have reason to say that the two axes.around w hich a leather strap or paper strip was w ound in the m ode o f a spiral. XLIII. and again to that o f the first. but as could be drawn on a plane surface. Then they w rote across the length of the staff w hatever message they w anted d ispatched to th eir generals a t w ar in far away lands. B ecause of the incessant and continuous m ovem ent around the sphere on the parallel circles.ASTRONOMY 131 zodiac is tangent. they will appear to us to describe a helix w ithout end. for 15 times 24 makes 360. they unw ound the strap and sent the w ritten message by special dispatchers to the general concerned who then read it after w inding it around his staff of exact dim ensions as the one at headquarters. Since from an infinite time they pass in a circle parallel to the other. It was a way o f coding and decoding m ilitary and other classified data because to som eone who was not in possession o f this w ooden staff. In fact. as they are rapidly pulled along each day in the opposite direction under the sphere of the stars. but are pulled around the sphere o f the fixed stars. the path-w ay travelled will be similar to that which 39T he overseers w ere a body o f five lords in ancient Sparta w ho had jurisdiction over even the king. as they are carried by their own move­ ment from the tropic of summer to the tropic of winter and reciprocally. are separate from one another by the value of the side of the pentadecagon inscribed in (a great circle of) the sphere. that of the stars and that of the planets. it is as though one were to wind a strap around a cylinder from one end to the other. that is to say in consequence of their two movements in opposite directions from one another. in order to go from one point A to another point B on the zodiac. but it becomes at the same time circular around the sphere of the fixed stars. but this one is not as might be drawn on a cylinder from one end to the other. going slowly. som etim es tow ards the tropic of w inter. and this w ithout interruption and w ithout end. their mo­ tion does not only occur following a straight line of the zodiac. if we suppose straight lines. som etim es tow ards the tropic o f sum m er. It so happens that the planets describe spirals. A fter the w riting was dry. (Toulis) . The planets describe still another spiral. arranged in an infinite num ber.

XLIV. p. . 2 and II. then.132 ASTRONOMY would be made following straight lines extended to infinity. END OF T H E TRANSLATION OF TH E W ORKS OF THEON OF SMYRNA AS THEY H A V E COME DOWN TO US. stereometry and astronom y 42 — we are going therefore to show summarily what Thrasyllus exposes on this sub­ ject at the same time as our own previous work. 530 D. for Plato assigns the fifth step in m athem atics to this music of the spheres. ‘"These figures are missing from the m anuscript. m athem atical music and the harmony of the spheres 41 and that we would report all that necessarily exists of harmony in the world. However. « Republic VII. we have said that we were going to con­ sider instrum ental music. after arithm etic. and after which look at astronomy. I. as the figures show . the other as on a plane surface. All of this is very necessary and very useful for reading the works of Plato. that the planets describe two spirals. 40 It so happens. one is around a cylinder. 4'See I.

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. parallel to the other fixed one. the first mean x is the side of the double cube. 1892) Note I. Taking (a) and (b) as the two lines between which the two propor­ tional means are to be inserted.. Dupuis. w hich they m anaged w ith great facility. glided between the grooves of the two uprights FG. starting from their point of intersec'T h e ancient geom eters w ere not ab le to avail them selves o f the resources o f algebra which they did not know. o f d iv is io n .NOTES — (by J. 5) The problem of the duplication of the altar. . but proportions. even though they had no p articular notation.Problem o f the duplication o f the cube. He em ployed an instrum ent formed of two rulers. and in sim plifying the relationships of the final p roportion. in fact. they arrived a t conserving only one unknown in Questions which called for several. by definition: < a x v ^3 cixv 1 i ^ = y = 2a from which follows 2 i ^ = 2 and x" = 2a'! Plato first resolved the problem of the two proportional means. We have. . H ippocrates of Chio found that if two continuous proportional means x and y are inserts between the side (a) of a cube and the double (2 a) of this side. of which one m oveable one. and M H perpen­ dicularly attached to it. with the condition that the new altar be sim ilar to the first. KL and GH. In com bining proportions by means o f m u ltiplication. we draw two perpendicular lines AE and CD on which we take. goes back to the duplica­ tion of the cube of one edge. Mechanical solution o f Plato (Introduction p. furnished them w ith very sim ple and very ingenious procedures of c alcula­ tion.

and I divide it into several parts which I successively throw away one by one. One of the most celebrated sophisms is that of Z eno of Elea who lived in the Vth century before our era. since it requires the utiliza­ tion of an instrument other than the ruler and the compass. and we have: AB BD BD BE BE BC Thus BD and BE are two proportional means between AB and BC. between a and b. AB = a and BC = b. 2 Note II. and CDE being right triangles. as one. in-fol. is without parts and in­ divisible” (I. Continuing in this way. I have a tangible object. It has been transm itted to us by Eutocios of Ascalon. I always arrive at one. as One. a geom eter of the V lth century.Oxonii M D C C X C II. the extensions of the lines AB and BC pass at the same time through the apexes of the rectangle which forms the instrument.. and at the same time turn the instrum ent on the surface of the figure until the edges of the two rulers again pass through points A and C. “One. Archim edis quae supersunt om nia cum Eutocii Ascalonitae commentariis ex recensione Josephi Torelli Veronensis. the height of each of them is the proportional mean between the segments of the hypotenuse. — On the sophism. The reasoning of Theon is a sophism. he says. p. Then we apply the instrum ent on the figure in such a way that the edge of one ruler passes through point A. W e then separate the moving ruler more or less from the fixed one. and the edge of the other through point C. The two triangles ADE. — Problem o f Achilles and the Tortoise. It is called Achilles.136 NOTES tion. This solution of Plato is m echanical.. 135 .. that is to say. I again divide this one tangible ob­ ject into several parts which I throw away one by one. in a com m entary on book II of the treatise On the Sphere and the Cylinder by A rchim edes . therefore one. III). is w ithout parts and indivisible. until there remains no more than one object. There will come a m om ent in which there re­ mains only one tangible object. It is stated as follows: *Cf.

but we bring to the a tten tio n o f the philosophic reader the interesting work recently published M . as Theon verifies. F rontera. XVI). 1891. 4.NOTES 137 Achilles travels ten times faster than a tortoise which is one stade ahead o f him. and thus the slower will constantly preserve a certain advance. The error of Z eno is evident. the tortoise. two successive unequilaterals. Let us take |(n . and the arithm etic mean between two numbers is larger than their geom etric mean. plus the space which sep­ arated them. Therefore. the tortoise.” Lesson in Physics. who goes ten times slower.l)n = n2 1and n(n 4. of necessity. the infinite num ber of these suc­ cessive moments represents a finite time. he said. during the time he travels these *%ths of a stade.n and n 2 + n is n2. H achette. now the space travelled by Achilles is then equal to the space travelled in the same tim e by the tortoise. In fact. the square contained 3 T he stadia has the value o f 185 metres. 4 Note III — On unequilateral numbers (I. travels Vsth of a stade.1) = n 2 + n. equal to 1 stade and V» th or *%ths of a stade. and that. who travels ten times slower. for Achilles reaches the tortoise at a distance from its point of departure. “ that the slower while he is travelling. br. Now n 2 is the arithm etic mean between n 2 . and so Achilles will never catch up with the tortoise. and while Achilles travels this hundredth.G . will never be reached by the faster considering that the pursuer must. therefore they meet each other. first pass by the point from which the one who flees his pursuit started. in the case of the uniform movement. 0 0 1 and so forth. IX.01 of a stade. Z eno did not see that the sum of the spaces travelled during the infinite num ber of successive moments of the m ovement of Achilles and the tortoise represents a finite distance. V I. 1 of a stade. and while Achilles travels this tenth.n and n 2 + n. Therefore an infinite num ber of moments will pass before he reaches it. the tortoise will advance by 0 . do cto r o f sciences. while Achilles was travelling the stade which sep­ arated him from the tortoise. in 8e- . will advance by 0. says Aristotle. This comes back to the affirm ation. the latter advanced 0 . under the title: Edude sur les argu­ m ents de Zenon d'Elee contre le mouvem ent. Will he catch up with it and at what distance?3 Z eno claim ed that Achilles would never reach the tortoise because. Paris. (606' + ) 4 W e do not insist upon it. The square contained between n 2 .

If it is of the form 36n.. it is divisible neither by 3 nor by 4. from which it follows that x = n (n + 1 ). since the two factors differ by one unit. it is divisible by 4 and not by 3 . 4 + 6 d.) W e shall sum m arize this theory of polygonal numbers and add some explanations. 8 + 28d. Note V. XX). 7 + 21d. 2. plus 4 or plus 5 is of the form 6 n. 3. . and those of the first series are called gnomons. (I.. 1 + 4d. Finally. in fact x. the first terms will be 1. 2. starting from unity. thus x 2 = n 2 (n + l ) 2. 1 + 6 d. plus 2. X IX . an unequilateral number. Taking d as the rate of a progressing by difference beginning with unity... .we will obtain the following gnomons and polygonal numbers: . but the subtraction of one unit gives the rem ainder 36n2 + 36n + 8 . If it is of the form 36n2 + 36n + 9. if it is of the form 3 6 n ± 1 2 n + 1. 6 + 15d.. 1. 6 n ± 2. 2 + d. Every num ber being a m ultiple of 6 or a m ultiple of 6 plus 1. If we take the successive sums of the terms. If. in the two series. The term s of the second series are called polygonal numbers.1 is not so. but the subtraction of one unit gives the re­ m ainder 36n2 ± 12n which is divisible by both 3 and 4. 1 + 5d. Thus any square is of the form 36n2 36n2 ± 1 2 n + 1 36n2 ± 2 4 n + 4 or 36n2 + 36n + 9. 6 . it is divisible by both 3 and 4 and con­ sequently 36n2 . 3. But the geometric mean between two successive squares is an unequilateral. 5. 5 + lOd. we give to d the successive values 1. which is divisible by 4. or 6 n ± 3 . Note IV. 4. 4.On Polygonal Numbers (I. it is divisible by 3 and not by 4.X X V II. 1 + 7 d . If it is of the form 36n2 ± 24n + 4. — On Square Numbers.138 NOTES between two successive unequilaterals is not the geom etric mean between these two numbers. 1 + 2d. 3 + 3d. plus 3. but the subtraction of one unit gives the rem ainder 36n2 ± 2 4 n + 3. which is divisible by 3. W e have. 1 + d. 1 + 3d. the geom etric mean between two successive squares n 2 and (n + l ) 2. 6 n ± 1. we will obtain the corresponding numbers 1.

. d = 5 . plus d times the (n .1) j = n + 2 2 ’ the sum o f th e (n ... g n o m o n s... e n n eag o n s. 2.. d = 7 ....... d = 6 .. o f which the first term is n.... .. . . g n o m o n s. d o d e c a g o n s.. n... w e h a v e th e n these tw o th eorem s: 1. triangulars. g n o m o n s. p e n ta g o n s. + [1 + ( n .. .... d = 9 . d = 2 . . . . h ex ag o n s. n. o c to g o n s . .. d = 10...... . ..l)d] = n + d [ l + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 ..l ) t h t r ia n g u la r n u m b e r.. .. en d ec ag o n s... ( n . n.. . d = 3 ...l ) d and j = 1 + (1 + d) + (1 + 2d) + (1 + 3d) + ( + 4d) + (1 + 5d) .....NOTES d = 1.... and o f which the rate is the (n .... . n. g n o m o n s. . form a progression by difference. g n o m o n s.l)th triangular number.. The nth polygonal number equals n. n..l ) J fro m w h ic h it fo llo w s t h a t Now n (n .. n.. .. n.l)th triangular number. d e c a g o n s. ... n. is the (n ... gnom ons.. . .1) first n u m b e rs s ta rtin g fro m unity.. ... gnom ons. gnom ons. w e have: k = 1 + (n .. (d) being the rate o f the progression o f the gnomons. . h e p ta g o n s. 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 3 6 5 9 7 12 9 15 11 18 13 21 15 24 17 27 19 30 21 33 4 5 10 15 7 9 16 25 10 13 22 35 13 17 28 45 16 21 34 55 19 25 40 65 22 29 46 75 25 33 52 85 28 37 58 95 31 41 64 105 6 21 11 36 16 51 21 66 26 81 31 96 36 1 11 41 126 46 141 51 156 7 28 13 49 19 70 25 91 31 112 37 133 43 154 49 175 55 196 61 217 8 36 15 64 22 92 29 120 36 148 43 176 50 204 57 232 64 260 71 288 9 45 17 81 25 117 33 153 41 189 49 225 57 261 65 297 73 333 81 369 10 55 19 100 28 145 37 190 46 235 55 280 64 325 73 370 82 415 91 460 11 66 21 121 31 176 41 231 51 286 61 341 71 396 81 451 91 506 101 561 139 12 78 23 144 34 210 45 276 56 342 67 408 78 474 89 540 100 606 1 11 672 By d es ig n a tin g the n th g n o m o n as K a n d th e n th p o ly g o n a l nu m b e r by j. n.. ... d = 4 . . . . gnom ons. quadrangulars... The polygonal numbers from the same row n. gnom ons. n. d = 8 ..

1 )st triangular number. (See I. for d = 2 .l)st is composed. XIX). triangular figures result. they can therefore be figured in the following manner: . then place on either side of this line the unity-marks of which the triangular num­ ber (n . The figure of the square numbers can also be obtained by the for­ mula j = n + d n(n which. three times the (n . (See I. if they are ar­ ranged one below the other with the addition of the gnomons decomposed into units. XXV). becomes W e shall write on a line the n units of the num ber n.140 NOTES The triangular numbers are so named because. The square numbers are so named because a square form can be given to the groups of unit-m arks of which these numbers are com­ posed. W e will obtain the following quadrangu­ lar figures (replacing the unity-marks with points): 4 9 16 25 36 The pentagonal numbers are given by the form ula j =n+ We will then obtain their representation by adding to n.

This is the form ula which gives the perfect numbers when the factor 2 k + 1 . each of them equals n (2n .l)st triangular number. are all hexagonal and consequently triangular. be dem onstrated that the nth hexagonal num ber is fequal to the ( 2 n . Thus .1). W e will have j = 2 k (2k+ 1 . they can therefore be given in this form: It can be noted that the natural series of hexagonal numbers is equal to the series of triangular numbers of every other row. Indeed the nth hexagonal num ber j = n (2n . A nother thing to be noted is that the perfect numbers. Let us suppose that n = 2k.1 is first.1). that is to say those equal to the sum of their aliquot parts. It can. for according to the general for­ mula (A) given above.l)st triangular number. in fact.1). therefore the perfect numbers are hexagonal and consequently triangular.NOTES 141 12 22 35 W e will have hexagonal numbers by adding to n four times the (n .

and the 31 s t triang.1 9 1 s t triang.(p 1 . 16th hexag.144 x 5 2 4 .3 The truncated pyramidal num ber is obtained by evaluating the total pyramid and that which has been taken off and taking the difference between the two values.071 is the is the is the is the is the is the 2nd hexag.191 65. 4th hexag.07 1st triang. the truncated pyramidal num ber will have the value of n(n + l)(n + 2 ) . It can be shown to be equal to n(n + 1 ) (2 n + 1 ) 1 .144th hexag. and the 5 2 4 . having a square base.2 8 7 is the 262. XXX).056 = 2x3 4x7 16x31 64 x 127 4.589.691.536 x 131.2 8 7 th triang. 64th hexag. 65.142 NOTES 6 = 28 = 496 = 8. 4.869. and the 8 . and the 1 2 7 t h triang. The nth pyramidal number. and the 1 3 1.328 = 262. and the 7th triang. Note VI. 3 1 ) p(p + 1 ) . having a triangular base. 137.096 x 8.536th hexag. — On the Pyramidal numbers (I. is the sum of the first n square numbers. the nth pyramidal number. and the 3rd triang.128 = 33.438. It is dem onstrated to be equal to n(n + 1 1 ) (n + 2 ) .336 = 8.3 Likewise.550. 2. is the sum of the first n triangular numbers. If we have a triangular trun­ cated pyramid whose lower base side has the value of n and the up­ per base p. 2. 2.096 hexag.

By this rule.2x 2 = ± 1. therefore y '2. Theon explains it thus: he first takes the side 1 and the diagonal 1 . an infinity of other solutions can be concluded. that it gives in whole numbers the solutions of the equation y2 .that we have a 2 . Let us suppose that y = a and x = b as a solution to the equation. square of the numbers of the sides diagonal numbers 1 2 -1 1 2 9 8+ 1 8 3= 1 + 1x2 49 50-1 7 = 3 + 2x2 50 1 7 = 7 + 5x2 288 289 = 288 + 1 41 = 17 + 1 2 x 2 1682 1681 = 1682 . according to the rule given by Theon. The lateral and diagonal numbers are defined by their genera­ tion. with this condition.1 etc + 1 + 3 + 7 + 17 + 41 + 99 This rule of Theon gives. and he determines the other diagonal numbers by adding twice the corresponding side to the preceding diagonal. .a2. then he successively determines the other sides by adding the diagonal to the preceding side. that is to say.2 x '2= ± 1. (I. Now a 2 -2b 2 = ± 1 by hypothesis. the resolution of the right isosceles triangle.2b are also a solution of it. the following table is ob­ tained. Therefore.1 say that x' = b + a and y' = a 4. that the difference be­ tween the square of the hypotenuse and the double square of the side of the right angle is only one unit. com pleted by the addition of the double square of the sides and the squares of the diagonal numbers: sides 1 2= 1 5 = 2 12=5 29 = 12 70 = 2 9 169 = 7 0 diagonal double sqr.2x 2 = -1 .2x ' 2 = 2b 2 . — On Lateral and Diagonal Numbers. in whole numbers. But y = x = 1 is a first solution to the equa­ tion y 2 .2b 2 = ± 1 . It can indeed be deduced that these two last relations y ' 2 . that is to say.NOTES 143 Note VII.1 9801 = 9800 + 1 99 =41 + 29 x 2 9800 239 = 9 9 + 70 x 2 57122 57121 = 57122 . XXX I).

3 represented the first surface (the triangle defined by its three apexes).144 NOTES Note VIII. and C three sounds such that the interval from B to A is. b. from which it follows that x = 3A : 4A = 7s = one tone. B. C = 2A. W e will call the numbers corresponding to these three sounds as A. therefore C is Vs rds of 3A nds of A. and 4 represented the first solid (the tetrahedron defined by its four apexes). we have 3A = 4A x. Although the interval of C to B is the quotient of the interval of A to C by the interval of B to A. — On the Addition and Subtraction o f the Consonances (II. Note IX. and the interval of C to A is a fifth. for example. the decad 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 symbolized all that exists. B and C. X X X X II). Now 1 was the principle of numbers. 2 represented the first line (the straight line which is defined by two of its points). (The tetractys) The num ber 10 = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 . Even though the interval of C to A is the product of the two intervals which it includes. three sounds such that the interval from A to B is. According to the preceding remark. C is Vs rds of B. C. X III. for example. Thus it is said that the tone is the excess of the fifth over the fourth. W e shall take a. it is said that it is the difference between these two intervals.) Let us call A. a fourth. c as the numbers corresponding to these sounds and x as the interval between c and b. — On the Perfection o f the Number Ten (I. Therefore. and B is 3A nds of A. but the num ber which measures the oc­ tave is the product of the two numbers which measure the fourth and the fifth. a fifth and the interval from C to B a fourth. but the num ber which measures the tone is the quotient of the two numbers which measure the fifth and the fourth. . Let us again call A. in other words. B. it is said to be the sum of these two intervals: thus the octave is said to be the sum of a fifth and a fourth.

The first sound of the first octave being represented by 1 . 4. 8 and 1. 1.) These sm all systems were called tetracords because the sounds were given by the four-stringed lyre. X III. It was formed of four sm all systems each composed of four sounds. The strings of the instrum ent and the sounds that they made bore the same name. The result is 27. — The musical diagram o f Plato contains fo u r octaves. 3. 27 and stops at 27. H alf of the tone 1 + Vs is not 1 + V is. 9. described by Theon. a fifth and a tone. the last term of P lato’s diagram. It was a descending series of two octaves. XIV).256 The leimma is less than a half-tone. the fourth and the fifth octaves are respectively represented by 2. which contains consequently four octaves plus a fifth and a tone. 8 . XXX V) The musical scale of the ancient Greeks. the first sounds of the second. the third. 1) P lato ’s musical diagram indeed contains the sounds correspond­ ing to the terms of the two progressions 1. — On the Perfect Musical System form ed o f Two Octaves. as it is easy to verify: ( 2 56V>-9 . 34 d— 35 d . This h alf x is given by the equation x 2 = 9/s from which it follows that x =V%~ But it must be noted that the value of 1 + Vie = 1 7 /ie is closely approxim ated. 2 . the governing consonance from which the others were derived (II. The fifth of this fifth octave is expressed by 16 x 3A = 24. The two ex5 C f . 5 Note XI. the extremes of which gave the fourth. en­ compassed an extension of the human voice. because we have.NOTES 145 Note X. 16. — On the Value o f the Half-Tone (II. for in calculating the square one obtains which differs only by V256 from the tone 9/ _ 9 x 3 2 8 x 32 _ 288 .Timaeus.4 . X III. (II. (II. In order to add a tone to this fifth. he m ultiplies 24 by Vs. 256 ^ [9 \ 2 4 3 J 8 therefore 243 8 Note XII.

which was lower by one tone and which was called the proslam banom enos. from index finger: the lichanos indicated the type which was diatonic. was the third string of the disjunct tetrachord. The fourth and the fifth were the nete and the paranete of the dis­ juncts. The first and the second tetracord having a common string. called the trite of the disjuncts which. 'k iya v o s indicator. they received different degrees of tension constituting three principal types of harmony: the diatonic. that is to say. The second was called the disjunct tetrachord or tetrachord of the disjuncts. a fifteenth sound was added below the lowest sound of the tetracord of the hypates. .T he fourth was called the tetracord of the lows or the hypates. The ninth was the lichanos of the mese 7 8N 17£77 fo r Nea^r). The first tetracord was called the tetracord of the upper tones or hyperboles. the whole of four tetracords made only fourteen sounds. The seventh and eighth were the paramese vapa/ueaxy. The two first tetrachords had a com m on string. In order to com plete the two octaves. and The sixth. These two tetracords had a com m on string: the lowest string of the tetracord of the meses was at the same time the highest of the tetracord of the hypates. that is to say. the neighbor o f the nete. which is implying an addition. . and the mese. was separated from the first or highest o f the following tetrachord. it differed from it by one tone. or tetracord of the meses. a tone and a half. because its last chord.146 NOTES tremes of each tetracord were invariables or unmoving. according to whether the interval from the sound o f this string to the sound o f the preceding string had the value o f a tone. The highest was the nete of the hyperboles or the extreme. the strings were desig­ nated by names relating to their position in each tetracord.” In the same way that the tetracords were designed by names relat­ ing to their position in the musical scale. “ it is an added sound”. as well as the third and the fourth. The third was the mean tetracord. 6 The second was the paranete. or the neighbor of the mese. which is at the extremity.from m ost extreme. or “ added string. the chrom atic and the enharmonic. or two tones. chromatic or enharmonic. the lowest string of the tetrachord of the hyperboles was at the same time the highest string of the tetrachord of the disjuncts. the two in­ term ediary ones were variable or mobile. The third was called the trite of the hyperboles. that is to say. or third. the low est.

Xlxav0^ v v u t c o v . that is to say the paranete of the hyperboles. of the dis­ juncts. diatone. the half-tone or leimma being equal to “ V ms. The tw elfth was the hyperhypate. the paranete of the disjuncts. chrom atic and enharm onic. according to type. The thirteenth and the fourteenth were the parhypate of the hy­ pate and the hypate of the hypates. viKpvnarj] or lichanos of the hypates. or enharm onic. Finally the fifteenth was the proslam banom enos. with indications of the successive intervals in the three types. .NOTES 147 The tenth and eleventh were the parhypate and the hypate of the meses H a p v T m r r ] and vttcctt). of the hyperboles. were also called. The following is a table of this perfect system. of the meses or of the hypates. The second string of each tetrachord. diatonic. chrom atic. the lichanos of the meses and the hyperhypate.

........ H y p a te ..................) .. chromatic..... % P aram e se... 1 P a r h y p a t e ...... 60-61 is bounded by strings 5 and 8........... form ed o f two octaves....... . T r i t e ...... l" '........... Tetracord fl 2 1st Tetrachord (hyperboles) Strings or sounds N e t e ..................................... containing o f three types: diatonic.......7 8 9 3rd Tetrachord (meses) • 10 J 1 12 4th Tetrachord (hypates) ■ 13 14 15 Nete of the disju n cts.■ 1 Hyperhypate or diatone ..... 1 Lichanos or d i a t o n e ............. Types i% 2 f ' ......148 NOTES The Perfect System.............L L L 1 1 (The conjunct tetrachord w hich Theon discusses on pp........................*% >4 5 2nd Tetrachord (disjuncts)6 ............... 1 Paranete or d ia to n e................................ enharmonic........... vSi f ? ”% "vf-' -y4 l‘ A 2 1/ 74 \% 2 'A 1 1 V i 1% 2 w ■ V * P roslam b anom enos.. H y p a te ......................... J 1 Mese............. 1 " P a r h y p a t e . 1 Paranete or diatone....................................... .................................................

or the product of the two numbers by their half-sum.x = a : b.b ) so that this mean between the two numbers is obtained by divid­ ing the double product of these two numbers by their sum. 27. and the other is such that it is greater than one extrem e and less than the other by the same fraction of the extremes. 2. equals their half-sum. — The Musical Diagram o f Plato (II. 2. 4. in order to explain the form ation of the soul of the world. adm its that God first divided the essence into seven parts which were related to one another as the terms of the two progressions 1. that is to say. two terms such that the relationship of each of them to the preceding is also 9/s ths. therefore 2ab _ ab a -I. the first of which having the ratio of 2 and the other the ratio of 3. gives the results contained in the follow ing table: . 8 and con­ tinued until arriving at the term 27. as well as between the arithm etic mean and the following term. the following numbers are ob­ tained (read horizontally): 1 2 4 % % % 3 6 2 4 8 In this progression. He then says that God inserted two means between the successive terms of these two progressions. in the Timaeus. then x . This is called the harmonic mean.NOTES 149 ' Note XIII.b y2 (a-t. This operation is m ade on the progression 1. if x is the mean inserted be­ tween a and b. 8 and 1 . X X X V I) The Probably Intentional Error o f Timaeus o f Locris. P lato next inserts between each term of the double progression and the harm onic mean which follows it. of which one. 3 .a : b . the relationship of the arithm etic mean to the harm onic mean equals ®/s: this is the value of the tone. which we call the arithm etic mean. 4. Plato. By means of this double insertion. 9 .

150 NOTES TABLE I (to be read vertically) 1 % H arm onicl means J A rithm etic _____ means 81/6 4 2 % 8 1 /S2 % 3 2% 2 “ %4 4 4 % % *1 % 6 2% 243/3 2 8 9 * 3% 12 27/2 16 18 81/4 ________________ y3 % 27/ie * 24 27 243/l2 8 2 8 * 16 In order to substitute whole numbers for these which are mostly fractions. they can be reduced to the sm allest common denom ina­ tor. thus ob­ taining the following table: TABLE II 384 432 486 512 576 648 729 768 4535 v 768 864 972 1024 1152 1296 1458 1536 8302 1536 1728 1944 *2048 2304 2592 2916 3072 16604 j 3072 3456 3888 *4096 4608 5184 5832 *6144 6144 6912 7776 *8192 9216 10368 Total 29441 If one likewise inserts a harm onic mean and an arithm etic mean between the successive terms of the triple progression. and all m ultiplied by this denom inator. these num­ bers will be obtained (to be read horizontally): 1 3 9 % % 2% 2 6 18 3 9 27 . 128 x 3 = 384.

" Proclus in Timaeum. * 72% 4 384 1152 3456 Harmonic" icl means J— * -D 2 7 A * 4 % *% > 6 2 1 A 8 9 12 2% “V ie * 2187/ l 2 8 18 ey4 A rithm etic means * ™/a 24 27 1296 3888 432 1458 *4374 486 1536 4608 512 5184 1728 576 1944 5832 648 729 *2187 *6561 2304 6912 768 864 2592 7776 8748 972 2916 1024 3072 9216 1152 3456 10368 Sum 76923 W e’ve placed an asterisk beside the terms of the triple progres­ sion (Tables III and IV) which are not part of the progression of doubles. like those of the double progression. we find the following: (end of C hapter I). The operation thus effectuated gives the results which can be m ultiplied by 128 x 3 = 384. In the treatise On the Soul o f the World and on Nature which bears the name Timaeus of Locris. the sm allest common m ultiple of the denom inators. in order to have those of 3 to 9. p. and that he then tripled the terms obtained from 1 to 3. in order to substitute whole num ber proportions for them. and tripled the terms of 3 to 9 in order to have those of 9 to 27. and the term s of the double progression (Tables I and II) which are not part of the progression of triples. 3 to 9 and of 9 to 27 being those of the oc­ tave and the fifth. 193 and the follow ing from the edition de Bale.rr< MHffi NOTES 151 The intervals of 1 to 3. . Thus the two following tables are obtained: Table IV Table III (to be read vertically) 3 2% " % 4 9 8 1 /. Proclus 8 admits that Plato first filled the inter­ val of 1 to 3. 1534.

. 163... The difference (6...... 108....” Now the evident intention of P lato was to not go beyond 8 in the progression of doubles and 27 in the progression of triples......... p...... by taking in the mixture which he had formed...29. t..695 given by Timaeus of Locris...... V incent. V. Sim on........... from 384 to 3072..........-J. Du commentaire du Timee de Platon par Proclus.... See A bbe Roussier..... 4. the sum of which is 108.. M em oirsur la Musique des anciens.... 2. 1847..... T ranslation o f the Oeuvres de Platon.......76.... Paris 1839...... in -8 ........551 and not 114.. .......923 Sum.. X II...... This first number found. 9...... 1 term of the triple progression including.. following the intentions of Plato......... 335.-H .. 2. com prised of 1 x 384 to 8 x 384 that is to say..... If. 27...... 8 and 1..........695........144) of the two results is the term 16 x 384 of the progression of doubles (Table II).. 22 terms of the double progression...... If it is counted it is necessary to count also the two terms 4096 and 8192 of the double progression..... are 36 in number and give a total sum equal to 1 14..695...... in 8e .. 2e partie... p. 3.... Therefore his diagram contains: 1... one does not go further in making the insertions than the cubes of 8 and 27 in the respective progressions 1. Paris 1839.. in 4C..... less by 6144 than the sum of 114.... All these terms arranged according to the intervals of tones and half-tones.........9 5 1T he e rro r o f Tim aeus o f Locris is reproduced by all the com m entators............. which have the value of .... the musical diagram of P lato contains 35 terms.... 176 onw ards etc. 12 terms of the triple progression...441 2....... t. 3........ There is then an error in the treatise bearing the name of Timaeus of Locris.... a term which he does not take into account..................... X V I. it is easy to calculate the terms of the double progression and of the triple progression.. which do not take part in the triple progression. p. com prised of 9 x 384 to 27 x 384........... Notices et extraits des m anuscrits de la Bibliothkque Royale........ from 3456 to 10368 (Table IV) which have the value o f . from 384 to 3072 (Table II)....... A ... the diagram of Plato contains (22 + 1+12) or 35 different terms (and not 36)... that is to say.......187 and finally...... Cousin...... since it is greater than 8 x 384 in the progression of doubles and does not take part in the triple progres­ sion.152 NOTES “ God made the soul first.....551 Thus. a part equal to 384 units... which i s .. J..... and the sum of these 35 term s is 108............. 551...... and the divisions of the soul are themselves 114.... Paris — 1770.................. which is not part of the double progression (see Tables IV and II).... p...695 in number..... 248 onw ards.......

“ If each of them are divided into units. 4. that is 36. 3.. and furtherm ore its side 6 was a truly perfect number. we firmly believe th at the error of the Pseudo-Tim aeus was not in­ tentional. The odd numbers were considered as m ale and the even numbers as female. — Why the Number Six was called that o f Marriage (II. 2. Note XIV. The num ber 35 was certainly endowed with perfection. that is to say. in order to com plete the great quaternary 36. like 6144. The num ber 36 had another virtue if we listen to Plutarch: “ . they (the Pythagoreans) have the opinion that the even has more resem blance to the fem ale and the odd to the m ale:” (Questions romaines.. in other words equal to the sum of its aliquot parts.” says Plutarch (translation of Am yot). it was itself a square.3 + 5 4. xxx. 288) . p. it was the product of the septenary num ber by the half-decad. would have added the term 6144 corresponding to the sound 16.NOTES 153 Knowing in what veneration the Pythagoreans held the tetraktys.7 ) + (2 + 4 + 6 + 8 ) = 16 + 20 = 36 (from. being the product of the first even square by the first odd square. and for this reason. XLV) It was also called m arriage because it is the product of the first even num ber 2 by the first odd num ber 3. to the 35 terms of P lato’s musical diagram. ” (1 4. but the num ber 36 was still more perfect. celebrated by the Pythagoreans. seems to have the adm irable quality that it is the sum of the first four even numbers and the first four odd num­ bers. If the Pseudo-Tim aeus did not also add to P lato’s diagram the two term s 4096 and 8192. . CII. . Timaeus.) W hile the Pythagorean philosophers wanted to find quaternaries everywhere. “ the even will show an empty place at the middle. for 6 = 1 + 2 + 3. do not con­ stitute part of the terms inserted in the progression of triples. and consequently. there where the odd always has the m iddle filled with one of its parts.This tetraktys. . the octave of the sound 8 which is the last term of the progres­ sion 1. The Creation o f the Soul. a harmony. in the Tim aeus. it is because then the total num ber of terms would have been 38 instead of 36. which are respectively the highest fifth and the lowest fourth of 6144 and which.

so deadly to boat­ m en. The name euripes is given to the currents which are produced in channels or straits (narrows). where a draw-bridge connects the island of Evea to the m ainland. that the euripes vary seven times per d ay.a A fact verified now as it happens this present day and anyone can observe. X X X IX . article entitled: “On the Ebb-Tide of Evea” . p 447. c) 1 0 The com m entator of Stobea rightly attributed the alternative movements of the euripe of Chalcis to the effort of the waves to surm ount the channel. like the euripe. The effect of this phenom enon can be best observed from the w aterfront of the town of Chalkis. and nothing remains for a mom ent in the same sta te . “ N either in things nor in argum ent is there anything true and stable. 235-236) The superstitious idea attached to the num ber seven appears to explain T heon’s hypothesis. (Toulis) .” 1 1 — (La Pharsalia. Heeren. ed.1 2 10 T his island can be reached by c ar from A thens after a tw o-hour drive.” says Pliny. vs. t.” (Natural History II. . The most famous was that of Chalcis. but all is in continual ebb and flow. and seven times per day in the Euripe near Evea.) The variations of the flux of the euripes were very irregular. and this inconsistency was very well known. .154 NOTES Note XV. " It is indeed im possible to control a row -boat at the m om ent the ebb-tide changes direction w hile in th e straits o f Evea. Plato says in the Phaedo. at Tauromenius. XLVI). . (See Eclogae physicae. whose direction changed seven times per day. 90 c) Lucian also says in the Pharsalia: “ the inconstant tides of the euripe drag the vessels of Chalcis towards Aulis. ” (Phaedo . II. between the island of Evea and Boeotia. — On the Euripes (II. accord­ ing to most ancient authors: “There are particular tides in certain places. “ thus the flux occurs several times in the strait of Messina. song V.

and when a = 3c. . a. b. LVII) that in the har­ monic proportion. translated by the for­ mula b = + c. we are surprised that he did not conclude from this equality the value of the harm onic mean. the first rule of Theon.c = a : c. being the three numbers which give the harm onic propor­ tion a .NOTES 155 Note XVI. The author having made the remark (II. The second rule is translated by the form ula b = ^ ^ + c. 18 and 6. a value equal to It is therefore general. (II. a solution to be rejected. Theon actually gives the second rule for the numbers in triple relation­ ship. w hatever be the relationship of a to c. the product of the sum of the extrem e numbers by the harm onic mean is equal to the double product of the ex­ trem e numbers.b : b . LXI). this value is equal to only when a = c. — The determination o f the harmonic mean between two numbers. c.

350 myriads.5 0 8 .596.568 V14 d 3 = 36.821. H enri M artin. Not only this frac­ tion is illusory. at the most. has the value of 270 third. . but one can count. 4. The diam eter d of the earth being equal to 80. 0 4 3 .341.429.142.502. evaluated in cubic stades.153 . It is the expression of this volume that we have restated.810.788.568 instead of 515.156 NOTES Note XVII. 250 second myriads.153. gave H. 8. III) The passage is altered and the manuscripts have a blank gap at the end. for 1 / u d3 and for “ A of 1 /u d3.043. we have d 2 =6. which expresses the volum e of the sphere from the diam eter d.991.821 + % Thus the volum e of the earth.0 2 5 . pp85 and 86 (of text). in trying to reconstitute it.842.941. made an error of calculation. on the two or three first numbers of the result. according to the measure of the arc of meridian made by Erathosthenes. myriads. of the hundreds of thousands. substituted for the correct figure 9.317.124 instead of 6.270.124.182 stades. M artin inexact values for d3. — On the Measure o f the Earth’s Volume (III. T he in co rrect num ber 7.427.040 + 4A instead of 36.612 n A i d 3 = 2 7 0 .355. 2 9 7 4 ” Ai instead of 269.297 monads and n A i. It is necessary that d 3 = 515. supposing that the relationship of the circumference to the diam eter is equal to “ A.788.

the sixth Venus. XVI). the fifth Hermes. and the unequal widths of the colored edges correspond to the unequal separation of the planets in their course through the zodiac and sometimes beyond.NOTES 157 Note X V III. The slightly yellow shade of the second and fifth is also that of Saturn and Hermes. the seventh the Sun. the third carries Jupiter. that of the sun. the second is that which bears Saturn. An equal speed is attributed to Hermes. The sphere of the fixed stars is indeed of varied color. . 616 B — 617 B. It results from P lato’s tale that of the eight concentric globes. Venus and the Sun: the Sun. the eighth. the first exterior one is that of the fixed stars. — On the Myth o f Pamphylian in Plato’s Republic. indeed pulls along M ercury and Venus. is very brilliant. that of the moon borrows its light from it. the sixth circle is given as the most brilliant following the sun. The seventh circle. The earth is at the center of the system. in its apparent course around the earth. Finally. since the stars have diverse nuances. (Ill. and the eighth the moon. which is true of Venus. The colors and speeds of the spindle-wheels correspond to those of the stars which they carry. the fourth Mars. The whiteness of the third and the redness of the fourth perfectly characterize the aspects of Jupiter and of Mars.

X a UJ .

B rook­ line. w /su p p l. Oliver. Sham bhala. L ondon. G uthrie. N icholas H ays L td . . 1976. The Tem ple in M an. N Y C . Philadelphia. Burgess. rp r W eiser. C. U . _______ T h e M a th e m a tic a l P re a fa c e . T hes. K enneth Sylvan. Skinner. 1972. ______ The Tem ple O f M an. rpr AM S P ress.32 1767) (K ircher w rote 23 incredible w orks . a etate. Tons. Cyril. C lark. rpr W izards Bookshelf. copy in H oughton L ibrary. W alter E. sa c r. in. 1965. Taylor. Staniland. N Y C. W eiser. R.D . N Y C . tr by R obert L aw lor. T he Pythagorean Plato. Thom as L. 1967. K ey to the H ebrew E gyptian M ystery in the Source of M easures. Rom e. — L iber philologicus de sono artificioso sive m usica. Thom as. M inneapolis. N . v. 1946.Y . (in. A ntw erp. (see also: N ational U nion Catalog. copy in Bibliotheque N ationale. N Y C . N Y C . Paris. 1975. 1934. a T ext Book o f H indu A stronom y. 1919. Pythagorean triangle. vicissitudine. ______ L iber diacriticus m usurgia antiquo-m oderna in qua tam de varia utriusque m usicae ratione disputatur. . (50 copies in folio) T ran s­ lated from L atin m ss. (translation o f technical astronom ical w ork o f 499 A . 500 copies. 1979. G reek A stronom y. N ew H aven. H eath. 1969. D. Paris. 1932. 3 vols. B oulder. S ecrets o f A ncient G eom etry. L ondon. 2 vols. 1930. ______ M edicina M entis: O r. 1876. W. e tc. C rane-R ussak C o. 194? W ake. (translators) Surya Siddhanta. rpr W izards B ookshelf. 535 copies. the above but a sam ple. antiq. Platonist P ress. B runts. N Y C . H arvard U. sive ars m agna consoni et dissoni.) M cClain. A utum n P ress. L ondon. 1978. Scott. John. 1933. M onas H ieroglyphica. extraordinary. 1973. pvt printing.. K ircher. M usurgia universalis. 1875. A. A thanasius. C openhagen. L 'A rch itectu re N aturelle. E. & 1975. Music: Its S ecret Influence T hroughout the Ages. 1650. 1937. rp r Phoenix P ress (M anly Hall) L os A ngeles.. 1975. International Science Pubs. C hicago. Pythagoras Source B ook and L ibrary. 1978. Supplem ent. Schwaller de Lubicz. rp r W atson N eal A c a d e m ic . M anuscript o f 21 pages.. for o v e r 40 m ore such listings) . N orth Y onkers. C incinnati. a Specim en o f Theological A rithm etic. 1978. (m onthly periodical) C hicago. rpr W eiser. E rnest G .160 S U P P L E M E N T A L REA D IN G (Anonymous). 1860. 1564. J . (1758-1835) T heoretic A rithm etic. ejusque prim a institutione. T he A ryabhatiya o f A ryabhata. 1570. Ralston. N Y C . ______ The M yth o f Invariance. Physics o f M usical Sounds. Music. N Y C. M usical Tone and Color. o f Chicago P ress. Taylor. Autum n Press. 1977. A. 1894 (all d istroyed by fire). L ondon. 1896. 1816. George. 1875. C. T r by R obert L aw lor from French.) Dee. Gulielm us Silvius. 1975. & W hitney. propagatione. Published in quarterly periodical Shrine of Wisdom. Brookline. 415 pages.

the second in ordinary numerals indicates the section. I. A rithm etic is a gift of God. 8. 23. 6.Index Authors and principal m aterial cited in Theon The first number. 5. I. arithm etic is the most necessary. II. 4. 22. Ill. Aristotle. 13. 5. I. 24. 15. special treatise. Adrastus. 16. Ill. 41. 14. 41. Archytas. Ill. I. O f all the sciences. 18. a circumference of a cir­ cle. Ill. Ill. 51. Archimedes. A lexander of A etolia. 13. 17. A naxim ander says that the earth is suspended in space and moves around the center of the world. 34. According to Archimedes. in Roman numerals. consonant intervals: the octave and the double octave. Anaxim enes has shown that the moon receives its light from the sun and in what m anner it is eclipsed. indicates the book o f Theon. 13. opened out as a straight line. Intro. 19. Ill. 3. 34. Aristoxenes. A rithm etic. 31. 40. 40. 16. 1.39.4. 22. Aristoxenians. II. I. Ill. Aratus. II. II. . 21. 5. A ntiphon. Intro. 50. 12. 12. has a value of 3 and nearly a seventh times this diameter. Ill. 2-32. 31.

are sister sciences. id. 41. where this star begins to be visible. Ill. and note IX. II. as world and anim al. I. C h aldeans. 10. For man the center of the anim ated creature is the heart and the center of volume is in the umbilicus. The first of all the consonances. . is different from the center of volume. 8. Intro.o -k o ? ” s ma l l a l t a r ) r e c t a n g u l a r parallelopiped having three unequal sides. 1-44. Plato. This other axis. III. Ill. makes an angle with the stellar zodiac equal to the angle to the center of the regular pentadecagon. the others are found through it. 40. Discovery of the numerical laws of con­ sonances. II. as anim al. II. Consonance. In anim ated bodies. the center of the body. per­ pendicular to the zodiac. special treatise. F or the world.i. the center is in the sun which is in some way the heart of the universe and the center of the volume is the cold and immobile earth.41. II. Why the chrom atic type is thus named. Ill. that is to say of the anim al. by definition. 30. The m anner in which Astronom y has been treated by different peoples. Callippus. of a half-tone. M easure of the circum ference according to Archimedes. followed by another half-tone and a com plete trihem itone. in the myth of the Pam phylian. 31. 3. C ircum ference. II. O ther consonances. II. III. B o m isq u e ( f r om “ Bw/u. 16. 13 I. Usefulness of Astronom y. 40. A ddition and Subtraction of consonances. 13 I. 37. III. says that there is another axis than that of the stars. III. Center. 2. It is composed by going from low to high. In­ tro. the fifth. 30. II epurxr). Axis. III. id. is the fourth. id. They used arith m etic m ethods for expl ai ni ng astronom ic phenom ena. 111. 33. the octave. 33. 6. Astronom y and harmony. Intro. Circuit. 23. R atios of the consonances. Ill. says Plato. 42. 29. III. II. 12 I. The relationships which represent the con­ sonances are all found in the quaternary of the decad. 7. I. Astronom ical discoveries. Hypothesis of Astronom y.162 INDEX Astronom y. III. Consonance of the fourth. C hrom atic type. C olure or m eridian circle. A stronom y is the science of the solid in movement. Canopus. according to the Pythagorean doctrine.

referring to the spin­ dles of P lato’s Republic. I. X X X IX . Ill. Egyptians.. It is only a point in relation to the size of the Universe. 3. Decad. It gives the fifth in relation to the sun. III. 15. Dercyllides. III. the moon is at the other node. and note VIII. Eclipse of the other planets. id. rectangular parallelopiped having two equal sides with the third larger. I. 38. 12. 22. 37. Duplication of the Cube. and the diam eter of the earth is 80. ( 8oxtssmall beam). 39. 41. and the planets move with the whole celestial vault which envelops them. 40— 49. 54. 39. III. The Earth is a spheroid placed at the center of the world. Diopter. Dicaerchus. the circle of the earth m easured as a great circle has the value of nearly 252. the earth gives the low note of the hypate in the celestial concert. 30. The Pythagoreans brought back all the numbers to the decad. II. According to A lexander of A etolia. III. id. 32. id. The volum e of the earth is cubic stades. Diesis. 29. There is an eclipse of the moon when. . Ill. Intro. It con­ stitutes the quaternary. III. and II. Proofs of the sphericity of the earth. id. III. 3. III. Properties of the numbers contained in the decad II. I. II. According to Eratosthenes.182 stades. A ll the cubic numbers are similar. the volum e of the earth contains that of the moon more than 27 times. III. 39. III. See Duplication of the Cube. Earth. the sun being at one node. and Note I on P lato’s solution. III. The earth.000 stades. and note XVII. 37. The A ristoxenian definition. Docide. 1 and 4.INDEX 163 Cube. A uthor of the book The Spindles. O f the sun and of the moon. 3. II. The Aristoxenians considered the diesis m inor or quarter-tone as the sm allest appreciable interval. Pythagorean definition. Eclipse. The decad is a perfect number. entrance of the house of the gods. According to Hipparchus. 2. The problem of the duplication of the Cube. Total eclipse. They em ployed graphic methods in order to explain astronom ic phenom ena. is in repose.

164

INDEX

Enharm onic type. In the enharm onic gender, the voice, starting from the lowest sound, progresses by a diesis (a quarter-tone), another diesis and a double tone, II, 11. Why the enharm onic gender is so named, II, 12. The enharm onic gender is very difficult and demands much art and study, id. Epicycle. The hypothesis of the circle of the epicycle, posed in order to explain the phenom ena, III, 26. This hypothesis is a consequence of that of the eccentric circle and reciprocally, id. Hipparchus boasts of the hypothesis of the epicycle as his own and poses in principle that the planet moves on the epicycle; III, 34. Plato also appears to prefer the hypothesis of the epicycle to th at of the eccentric, id. He thinks that it is not spheres but solid circles which carry the planets, id. Epinomis, dialogue of Plato. Intro. — II, 31— III. 30. Equality. Equality is the principle and elem ent of proportions, II, 51. Reciprocally, proportions are resolved in equality, II, 52. Equinoxial. Ill, 5. Eratosthenes. Intro. — II, 30, 3 1 , 4 7 , 51, 52, — III, 3, 15. Eudemus. W rote On Astronomy. III. 40. Eudoxus. II, 13 — III, 31. Euripes. The ebb and flow of the sea in straits. They are generally produced seven times per day, II, 46 and note XV. Evander, II, 47. Eccentric. The hypothesis of the eccentric circle posed in order to explain the appearances, III, 26 I. The hypothesis of the ec­ centric circle is a consequence of that of the epicycle and reciprocally, III, 26. According to Plato, hypothesis of the epicy­ cle is preferable to that of the eccentric, III, 34. Expiations, Treatise of Empedocles, II, 46. Figure. Definition of planar and rectilinear figures, II, 53. G nom on (arithm etic). The ratio of the gnomons, the sum of which gives a polygonal number, is always less by two units than the num ber of angles of the polygon, I, 20. G eneral definition of gnomons, X X III, 63. G nom on (astronomic). Astronom ic gnomons show that the earth is but a point in relation to the universe, III, 4. They also show the m ovem ent of the sun in latitude, III, 27. Gods. There are eight gods, masters of the Universe, II, 47.

INDEX

165

Gymnastic. Gymnastics should be taught to children. Intro. 21. Harm ony. Astronom y and harmony, according to Pythagorean doctrine, are sister sciences, Intro. — Defin. of harmony, II, 4. Lydian, Phrygian, Dorian harmony, id. C elestial harmony — according to the Pythagoreans, the stars by their movements produce sounds whose intervals are equal to those of an octave. Ill, 15. H erophilus. II, 46. Hipparchus, III, 16, 32, 34, 38, 39, 42. Hippasus of M etapontus II, 12 I. Horizon, definition, III, 7. Hypotheses. Hypotheses of astronom y, III, 41. Ibycus, III, 16. Initiation to the mysteries. Intro. Interval. Definition, II, 3. System of intervals, C onsonant and dis­ sonant intervals, II, 5. Difference between intervals and rela­ tionships II, 30. Jupiter, circles the zodiac in approxim ately 12 years, III, 12. It can eclipse Saturn, III, 37. Lasus of Herm ione. II, 12. Laws, dialogue of Plato. Intro. Laws, Num erical laws of sounds, determ ination of the laws with the harm onic canon; in striking two equal vases, one empty, the other successively filled with liquid to the half, to the third, and to the fourth; with flutes; with weights. I, 13. II, 12a. Leimma. According to Plato, the interval of the fourth contains two tones and a rem ainder (leim m a) which is in the ratio of 256 to 243; determ ination of this relationship, II, 14 and 34. The leimma is less than the half-tone, II, 14 and note XI. Ao-yos logos. How many meanings are given to this word, II, 17. According to P lato it is m ental thought, spoken discourse, the explanation of the elem ents of the universe and proportional reason. Line. Definition of the line, of the straight line, of the curved line, II, 53. Definition of straight parallel lines, id. Lucifer. Star of Venus, III, 6. Lybics. Lybic tales, II, 18.

166

INDEX

Lyre. On the eight-stringed lyre, the hypate, which is the lowest sound, and the nete, which is the highest sound, are accorded by opposition and give the same consonance, II, 6. Lysias. II, 18. Mars. C ircling the zodiac in a little less than two years, III, 12. It sometimes eclipses the two planets above it, III, 37. M athem atics, the utility of. Intro. The knowledge of mathem atics is not useless and w ithout fruit for the study of the other sciences, id. It is impossible to be perfectly happy without the study of mathematics, id. the order in which one should study mathem atics, I, 2. M ean. ixeaoTT]<;. The geom etric, the arithm etic and the harm onic m ean. II, 50. General definition of. II, 54. In the arithm etic m ean, the m ean term is equal to the half-sum o f the extrem es. II, 55. In the geom etric m ean the square o f the m ean term is equal to product o f the tw o extrem e term s. II, 56. In the harm onic m ean, the product of the m ean term by the sum o f the extrem es is equal to the double product of the extrem es. II, 57. The mean subcontrary to the harm onic. II, 58. Fifth mean. II, 59. Sixth m ean. II, 60. H ow to find the m ean term of a m eans w hen the o ther tw o term s are know n; determ ination o f the arithm etic m ean, the geom etric m ean and the harm onic m ean. II, 61. M enaechm us, III, 41. Hermes (Mercury) (god), lyre of Hermes, image of the harmony of the world, III, 15. Hermes (M ercury) (planet), rarely visible, III, 37. It is separated by about 20 degrees from the sun on both sides, that is to say about two-thirds of a sign, III, 13 and 33. The planets Hermes and Venus eclipse the stars which are directly above them; they can even eclipse one another, depending on w hether one of them is higher than the other, the two planets turn around the sun, III, 37. M eridian or colure, III, 8. Monad. Why it is so named, I, 3. It differs from that which is one, id. The monad is odd, I, 5. It is not a number, but the principle of numbers, I, 8. M oon. Its eclipses are not observed at the same hour at all places on earth, III, 2. It circles the zodiac in 27 l/s days, III, 12. The M oon, which is the planet closest to earth, eclipses the planets

it comes after arithm etic.. and cannot be eclipsed by any of them. I.INDEX 167 and the stars under which it passes. 10. G eneration of unequilateral numbers by the sum m ation of the successive even numbers beginning with two. Definition of regular movement. I. id. 38. 44. 3. Definition of uniform movement. The unequilateral numbers are necessarily even. 2 — There are three parts in music. towards the signs which follow them in their passage through the meridian. III. If the m onthly conjunction of the sun and the moon occurs near the nodes. 13 I and Note X. I. I. Triangular numbers. 35. III. 44. I. III. Intro. II. Usefulness of music. the principle. U nequilateral numbers. On even and odd numbers. 12. 38. I. P lanar numbers. I. Nine. III. M ovement. M ovements of the nodes of its orbit. 7. must occupy the fifth stage in the study of m athe­ matics. But the m athem at­ ical principles of music are connected to the theory of abstract numbers and must come im mediately after arithm etic. On evenly-odd numbers. On evenly-even numbers. Node. Prom ecic num­ bers. euthym etric and oddly-even. I. Parallelogram m atic numbers. I. Special treatise. as it were. I. In the natural series of num ­ bers. linear.. 1 and III. id. Com posite numbers to each other. 25. geometry. II. a fifth and a tone.. The musical diagram of Plato contains four oc­ taves. 1 — 36. 17. Eclipses of the moon. II. and 39.. stereometry and astronomy. 7. descendent. C elestial music. According to the Pythagorean doctrine. solid numbers. the numbers are. I. The nodes move towards the following sign of the zodiac. 2. III. which results from the movement and concert of the stars. Music. 24. ascendent. III. Prime numbers are also called incomposite. Com posite numbers. Intro. I. id. 4 . id. Prim e numbers to each other. Musical Diagram. there is an eclipse of the sun. id. Sim ilar planar numbers. id. The philosopher alone can truly be a musician. 6. II. id. T hat of Aristoxenes contains only two octaves and a fifth. the source and the reason of all things. Musician. 1. that is to say. 8. 19. The sum of two successive . Number. 2. Direct and retrograde movement. 5. 5.The successive relationships of a term to that which preceded it are in a diminishing sequence. 19. On the num ber nine. 14. 13. 38. I. I. 18. I. that is to say. Ill.

III. II. The Chaldeans. Students of A ristotle. On the order in the universe and the disorder in the sublunar world. Perfect. Parallelogram . Definition of the parallelopiped and of the rec­ tangular and cubic parallelopipeds. Name given by the Pythagoreans to the Universe con­ sidered as an anim ated W hole. 28. Oenopides. 25. II. star of Jupiter. 15. 15. . Perfect musical system formed of two octaves. lyre of 15 strings. 20. 20. Parallelopiped. III. 38. Phenon. abundant and deficient num­ bers. III. I. as squares. 14. Oath of the Pythagoreans. Lateral and diagonal numbers. 54. Peripatetians. II. cited in a sermon of Orpheus. Octave. I. 14. id. their generation. id. Order. II. III. One as One is w ithout parts and indivisible. II. Also given to the sun.168 INDEX triangular numbers is a square. Star of Saturn. cubic from three in three. In the progression of double and triple numbers beginning with unity. 5. 30. 6. 18. Pentagonal numbers. I. Also see note XII. 25. I. 47. Phanes. One is the first of the odd numbers. Pentadecacord. I. the Egyptians. 24. Phaeto. 20. II. I. in the latter case. 5. it includes two octaves.. 53. 3. On One and the monad. I. to the god of light and some­ times to Love. 13. I. 30 and note VI. 22. I. I. and note II. their generation. I. Pyram idal numbers. II. 31. Found the first obliquity of the zodiac and believed in the existence of a great year. II. id. 32. One. C ircular. Observations. See note V. Parallelogram ic number. spherical or recurrent numbers. 6. Parallelogram ic figure. and note VII. their sides are of cubic numbers. II. Heptagonal and octagonal numbers. It is the sum of a fourth and a fifth. 40. the terms are squared from two in two. III. Paraphone. and as cubes their sides are of square num­ bers. G eneration of perfect numbers. Square numbers. and squared and cubic from six in six. and the following. C onsonant paraphonic interval: the fifth and the fourth.

III. neither more nor less. The planets move themselves on their own circuits. Jupiter. 41. Forward m ovem ent of the planets. being further away or closer to the earth. I. 30. that is to say. 18. id. 41. They vary in apparent size. There are seven planets. and a latitudinal m ovem ent from the summer tropic to the w inter tropic and reciprocally. 28. Plane. Definition. 21 and 35. — II. dialogue of Plato. by an effect which is the consequence of other movements. Mars. an octave. III. 36. in the opposite direction to the m ovement of the universe. 43. 40. id. Hermes. III. 32. Station of the planets. 22. 27 — 28. III. III. R etrogradation of the planets. M ovem ent of the planets in the opposite direction to the diurnal movement. III. to the same distance. from East to West. id. M ovem ent of the planets by chance. ac­ cording to the Pythagoreans: M oon. III. 12. C o lo r of the planets. 15. Tim e of the return of the planets to the same longitude. The speed of their m ovem ent through the signs seems unequal. 31. They are carried with the universe in its diurnal m ovement. to the same latitude. id. that is to say. they also have a longitudinal m ovem ent. O rder according to certain m athem aticians. III. 4. O rder of the distances of the planets. Philolaus. The apparent spiral m ovem ent of the planets. Mean distance of the planets in the hypothesis of the epicycle and in that of the eccentric cir­ cle. the Sun. Planets. he believes th at there are eight sounds produced by the starry sphere and by the seven spheres of the planets which he says turn around the earth. III. III. I. 20. id. The planets move around a perpendicular axis of the zodiac. 34. 6. 29. Sim ilar planar numbers. III. 49. 37. id. id. The spheres of the seven planets give the seven sounds of the lyre and produce a har­ mony. 53. a truth which results from long observation. P lanar number. III. Venus. I. 24. The order of the planets ac­ cording to Eratosthenes gives second place to the Sun. . and Saturn.INDEX 169 Philebus. I. 30. or the circuits which carry them move them around their own centers. III. III. 4 . 16. Duration of their revolutions. 43. III. 22. III. Each planet eclipses the stars beneath which it passes in its course. II. There is an agreem ent between the two hypotheses. 22. All events here below follow the m ovem ent of the planets and all things change in the same time as that movement. III.

Platonist. city). 31. In like manner. 60. IV. family. cube). It is neither by m ultiplication nor by addition that the point forms a line. 2. science. sense): IX. 29 and II. see triangular. Definition. the line forms the surface and the surface forms the volum e. C ontinuous and discontinuous pro­ portions. lost work of Eratosthenes. neighborhood. 4. Proportion. 2. 31. 34. 11.. II. earth). Lost work of Aristotle. II. The. 46. 12 I. 4. There are three classes of promecic numbers. opinion. 39. V.170 INDEX Plato. Polygon. Pythagorean. length. 44. hexagonal numbers. and 1. Proportional Mean. (The Tetraktys). Definition. 4 quaternary. 4. 32. the elements (fire. 38. Intro. but by continuous movement. 32. the . 6. 12. Q uadrilateral. the quaternary form ed of two progressions. V III.33. icosahedron. — III. II. 59.. I. Every proportional num ber is a mean number. The 1. II. 8 and 1. 27. 2. Plinthe. 53. II. 12 I. 53. line. star of Mars. Quaternary. Prom ecic figure. 3 1 . 2. Intro. 54. 16. 12. Promecic number. the irascible. There are eleven quaternaries: I.. the parts of the anim al (the reasoning part of the soul. — II. I. 46. 18 . II. id. Pythagorean. 61. 30. Arithm etic. 51 and note. 1. octahedron. II. See Pythagoreans. 21. 2. 15. engendered things (seed. II. 53. water.. rectangular parallelopiped having two equal sides and the third side sm aller. — II. II. Intro. 3. VI. 23. quaternary includes all the consonances. III. 42. VII. geom etric and harm onic propor­ tions. 1. 3. II. II. I. Point. societies (M an. the magnitudes (point. the 1. II. the figures of the elem ents (pyramid. Poseidonius. Definition of the point. — I. 57. 9. 3 8 . 18. Definition. Pyrois. pentagonal. 46. height). the faculties of judgm ent (thought. — III. the square and the cube. The. 53. surface. air. 1. II. 4. solid). 44. — III — 16. Pythagoras. 30. unity. that is to say. the side. Definition. but every mean num ber is not a proportional mean. A drastus’s rule for deducing any three term s in con­ tinuous proportion in as many continuous proportions as one wishes. 5. III. 22. 21. 14. II. 3. 6. Polygonal number. width. square.

adolescence.. Six. 3. It happens in several ways. 28. II. III. Ill. 16. The air being struck and put into move­ ment. the relationship of two successive terms unceasingly decreases. if it is slow. 27. 16 and 34. It is perfect. Epim er relationship. the ages (childhood. Why the Pythagoreans called it M inerva (Athena). The noise of thunder is not an enharm onic sound. of the quater­ nary (tetraktys) of Pythagoras. It is impossible to find the relationship between two things which are not of the same species. M ulti-superpartial relation­ ship. II. Rectangle. III. All the numbers can be con­ sidered as having their justification in the quaternary. Seven days are necessary for the diag­ nosis of an illness.id. id. Sounds differ from one another through tensions. 22 and 25. P lato and other authors thus designated the planets. id. 45. id. High. 22. II. II. 2. Sirens. Definition. II. R etrograde m otion of the planets. II. 16. Hypopolyepim er relationship. Circles the zodiac in a little less than thirty years. Sound. 4. The sounds belonging to . The . the sound produced is low. Intro. R elationship of num ber to num­ ber. Enharm onic sound. The terms of these quaternaries correspond to the numbers 1. Base of a relationship. old age). medium and low sounds. the seasons. 3. 53. W hat is the difference between the interval and the relationship. 12. 53. Right angle. id. 2. for the sesquitertian or epitrites it is */a. II. and 24. Rising of the stars. II. maturity. III. 6. Relationship. On the num ber seven.INDEX 171 lustful. 38. Superpartial or sesquipartial relationship. 14. Sub-m ultiple and subsesquipartial relationships. The base of the sesquilateral relationships is 3A . 29. id. II. III. Dialogue of Plato. 39. 21. II. 30. 4. II. — III. II.. I. X. 5. Definition. In the series of numbers 1. II. II. M ultiple relationship. 22. and the body).. 26. of the promecic rec­ tangle. if the m ovem ent is rapid the sound produced is high. Definition of the square rectangle. id. Solid. II. Saturn. 46. Seven. id. 35. and note XIV. II. XI. II. II. 53. 4. On the num ber six. 2. Com m on name given to any brilliant star (star or planet). It is called the num­ ber of marriage. Definition given by Thrasyllus. Republic. 19. id. id. II.

14 and 34. The sounds which give the sharp or half-tone are in the rela­ tionship of 256 to 213. Ill. the sun gives the mese. III. 22. 2. I. The sun has neither stationary nor retrograde movement. 11. III. Starry sphere. that two successive heterom ecics do not have one as the proportional mean. the sun being as the heart of the universe. the starry sphere gives the nete of the conjuncts in the celestial concert. id. 25. by an epicycle. 29. The Pythagoreans believe that its orbit is in the m iddle of those of the other planets. of the Oceans. and note IV. Spiral. at the same distance which pro­ duces the inequality called anom aly. that is to say. Measure of its volume. According to A lexander of A etolia. 16. 26. I. Star of Hermes. or become so after the subtraction of one unit. 12. The squares are divisible by three. And equally equal number. Ill. 20. 19. According to A lexander of A etolia in the celestial concert. 23. 3. The reciprocal is not true. Ill. Square. of the earth. or become so after the subtraction of one unit. III. Stars. M ovem ent of the sun explained by an eccentric circle III. I. or simply a relationship of num ber to number. III. Sphere of Plato. III. 25. The sun can be eclipsed by the m oon and can itself hide the other stars. The visible stars are not the same in different countries. first by drowning them in its light. Stilbon. 15. A pparent m ovement of the planets in a spiral. III. I. id. 15. III. id. 40. The various modes of the appearance and disappearance of the stars. The square which is neither divisible by three nor by four admits these two divisors after the subtraction of one unit. 6. III. id. and gives the fourth in relation to the sun.. A ll squares are sim ilar. and second in coming directly bet­ . III. 27. Sphericity of the Universe. 20 and 35. III.172 INDEX m odulation have certain m ultiple or sesquipartial relationships to one another. Sphere. 3. they are also divisible by four. III. III. Station of the planets. 14. II. id. The geom etric mean between two suc­ cessive numbers is a heterom ecic number. 15. 2. Tim e taken by the sun to return to the same latitude. G eneration of square numbers by the addition of successive odd numbers beginning with unity. Sun. 1. It circles the zodiac in about 365 V» days.

II. Definition of the surface. I. III. Theon. 2. The geom etric mean between two successive squares is an unequilateral number. The fifth surpasses the fourth by a tone. but the square contained between two successive unequilateral numbers is not their geom etric mean.46. The unequilaterals are necessarily even. O rder in the universe and disorder in the sublunar world. of the planar surface and the curved surface. Ternary. . Thales. II. II. see quaternary. 44. Venus. I. Dialogue of Plato. See monad. III.INDEX 173 ween them and ourselves. I. Three. Tetraktys. id. II. 47. Timothy. 32. II. II. Surface. I. Tone. How this relationship was determ ined. Two. Tropics of summer and winter. 6. II. The ternary is a perfect number. See Hermes. 39. 38. Triangular numbers. 19 and 23. Thrasyllus.. Term. 15. 121. III. The. XX. Triangle. the volum e of the sun would contain the earth about 1880 times. The ancients found that the tone is in the ratio of 9 to 8. 33. III. Unity. 53. reason for this perfec­ tion. G eneration of unequilaterals by the addition of successive even numbers. III. Timaeus. Two is the only even num ber which is prime. id. II. 40. Definition. 35. According to Hipparchus. III. 42. H ad w ritten Commentaries on the Republic. See decad. 5. Ten. II. 14. Definition. The tone cannot be divided into two equal parts. 19. 7 and 14. and the sun is further away from the earth than the moon. Ill. starting with two. I. II. — III. 22. 16. I. 13 and 33. II. U nequilateral number. Universe. See Ternary. Deviates from the sun about 50 degrees to the east and to the west. Definition. The num ber three. 53. 16. 8. and 16. 36. 37. 13.

V alue of the tropical year. III. Obliquity of the zodiac. III. 38. 10. III. M ovem ent has been given to it by a first motor. moon and planets are carried in the zodiac. W orld. The center of the world as world and as creature is the sun which is in some way the heart of the universe. 40. like the lateral surface of a drum. 60. The sun. 22. Egyptian. The whole world is spherical. 1. G reat year. III. 12. III. Ill. The world finite and ordered. Zodiac. The zodiac has a certain breadth. II. III. 41. 47. Year. 42. 6. 23.174 INDEX W riting. III. . III.

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