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Teacher Name: Ryan Duffy (observers: Kelly Maisel and Dee Eberle) Class and Grade Taught: Pre-Calculus, 12th grade Lesson Date: 1/24/12 Lesson Logistics and Setting Unit Topic: Graphs of Trigonometric Functions Previous Lesson Topic: Solving Real-World Problems with Trigonometry Current Lesson Topic: Graph of the Sine function Next Lesson Topic: Graph of the Cosine, tangent, and cotangent functions

Lesson Goal: Students have previously transformed a prototypical function from a larger family of functions (e.g., transforming y=x^2 to graph other quadratics). This lesson is designed to help students make connections to these prior experiences and conceptually understand how to shift, stretch, shrink, reflect, or otherwise transform a sinusoid. Lesson Objectives: (The learner will know/understand/be able to ) - Understand that the sine graph oscillates due to the increasing and decreasing y-value that one obtains while moving around the unit circle - Define the term sinusoid - Understand and explain how changing the constants a, b, c, and d in the equation f ( x ) = a sin(bx + c ) + d affects the graph of f(x). Standards Addressed: ! - F-TF-4. Use the unit circle to explain symmetry and periodicity of trigonometric functions. How will I know students have met the objectives? Student work will be collected at the end of the hour to assess what they learned during group work. Selected students will present their findings to the class during whole-group discussion.

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Materials Needed: - 1 copy of Sinusoids: Part 1 for each student (attached at end of document) - 1 copy of Sinusoids: Part 2 for each student (separate link on Wiki) appropriate graphs should be drawn on the blank axes before making copies, and the sheets for each constant should be copied onto a distinct color of paper. - 1 copy of Activity Sheets a, b, c, and d for every four students (separate link on Wiki) - Scientific calculators - 1m long piece of string Introductory Routines (announcements, homework review, etc.) Students will be told to grab a calculator and clear their desk of all other materials.

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Lesson Activities Students are working Lesson Launch (15 minutes)

Pass out Sinusoid: Part 1 notes. Ask students to recall as much as they can about functions. After students conclude that a function takes every number from a set (domain) and maps it to one and only one value in another set (range), ask students if f(x) = sin(x) would be considered a function. Once students reach the correct consensus, turn to graphing: Ask; What do our input values, or our x values, represent in the function f(x) = sin(x)? What would be the best way to label our x-axis? By 2s? 5s? Look at the unit circle to think about what might be most helpful. Eventually, label axis with multiples of pi/2. As a class, have students identify values for the sin(x) function at the quadrantal angles (i.e., multiples of pi/2) and plot these points on the graph. Have students make observations about the graph. Define sinusoid as a function that is a transformation of f(x)=sin(x). That is, the function can be written as f(x)=asin(bx+c)+d., and

(details about how students are configured, what work they are doing and how they are recording their work)

Teacher Moves I will ensure students are following along by walking around and observing students as they complete their notes. I also hope to ensure that students are making sense of what we are doing by asking students to calculate and plot the points of the function sin(x), Kelly will make note of any questions that are asked during this discussion. It will be important to determine whether these initial confusions were cleared up throughout the course of the lesson.

While the class is collectively Why does the graph repeat completing the chart and itself? graph on the whiteboard, Demonstrate how sin(x) is students will be completing positive around Quadrants I their own copies in their and II of the unit circle, notes. becomes negative in Prior to this, however, Quadrants III and IV, and students will need to consider then repeats. how to label the x-axis. They may need to refer to the unit Is this still a function? circle or to their prior Multiple points are mapped knowledge to consider how to the same value. angles are typically Open question to class measured (i.e., as multiples what makes a function a of pi). For this question, function? students will be asked to participate in a quick thinkStudents will likely be pair-share activity. confused as to what this Once the graph is complete, new graph represents. They students will make have been focused on the observations about the unit circle graph for weeks graph, including: whenever they need to - The graph is in the shape identify the sine of an angle. of a wave I will emphasize that the unit - The graph repeats every circle shows angles, while 2pi units the sinusoid graph shows a - The graph is restricted graph of the function sin(x). between -1 and 1 on the y-axis. 3/7

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Explore Description of Task(s) (20 minutes) Students will be divided into pairs. Each pair will receive an Activity Worksheet on one of the four constants in the general sinusoid equation: f(x) = asin(bx+c)+d. Students will follow the directions on the worksheets to explore the behavior of their constant. Ultimately, students will have to use their observations to make a conjecture about the specific role of each constant in determining the shape and location of a sinusoid graph. Students will be working together to calculate and graph various sinusoids according to the directions on the worksheet. They will then have discussions in which they discuss the general behavior that their assigned constant produces in the graph of a sinusoid. As they complete the activity, they will be recording their responses on the worksheet and raising their hands if they have any difficulties or questions. How can I calculate these values without a calculator? Write it out and follow the order of operationsusing a calculator can be helpful, but you shouldnt rely on one! You can use a calculator only after you can demonstrate you know what youre doing. How should I label my yaxis? Well look at the data youve generatedwhat would make sense? How high and how low does your graph need to go? I see how the graph has changed, but I cant put it into words. Try your best. Its okay if your observations are not entirely mathematical. Just write what you see.

Exact question that you will pose to students to begin the exploration. I will walk around and assist students as they engage in this exploration. To initiate the activity, I will say: There are four constants in this equation for a sinusoid function: a ,b, c, and d. Your job is to figure out what each of those constants does. Remember when you learned about quadratic equations last year, for instance, that you could look at the a constant to determine whether a parabola opens up or down? Were looking for similar observations here. During this explore phase, Kelly will be observing each pair of students and noting a) if they are on task, b) what each partner is contributing to the activity, and c) any frustrations or roadblocks they are encountering. Dee, my mentor teacher, will be noting the observations that students make. Are they making the appropriate conclusions? Are they expressing these conclusions colloquially or mathematically? Are there any disagreements between partners?

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Summarize/Share and Discuss (25 minutes and possibly into next days lesson After each pair has had a chance to make a conjecture about their constant, I will choose one pair for each letter to present their findings to the class. As they present their findings, the rest of the class will copy their work into the Sinusoid: Part 2 note packet. After they present their conjecture, the class will discuss its validity, and an agreed upon conclusion will be written in the notes. As the terms amplitude, period, and frequency, become necessary to introduce, I will briefly lecture on these concepts and ask how they relate to the constants we have Summary Statement: recently discussed.

Presentation mode Sharing solutions, teacher-led discussion, student led discussion, etc. Students will be selected based on the thoroughness and accuracy of their observations. They will copy their work onto an overhead transparency and explain what they are doing as they fill it out. The remaining students will ask questions of the presenting pair if they do not understand what they did or how they obtained certain values. I will likely have to challenge students to express their observations mathematically, which will help them to connect graphical observations to mathematical ideas. How is a any different than d? They both change values along the y-axis Open up the question to class what is different? How do I keep these organized in my head? How do I remember which variable does what? The worksheets are color coded to help you with this. But more importantly, we can look at the algebra to see. For instance, we know that the d value is just added on to our function once everything else has been calculated. So its just going to shift the graph that we already have up or down a few units. I dont understand the difference between period and frequency. The period is how long it takes for the graph to complete one cycle. The frequency is how many cycles it can complete in a single unit in this case 2pi. (If necessary, I will make an analogy to speed if speed is 60 mph, then 60 is frequency, and 1/60 is period). What will you say or do to set up the discussion of the big math ideas? As we begin the discussion, I will say, As each group presents their findings, I want you to think about two things: a) do you agree with their conclusion? And b) have they expressed it mathematically? If not, how can we better word their thoughts? During the class discussion, Dee will continue to note the observations and conclusions that students are making. Are the conjectures correct? Are students convinced? What type of justification is presented? Are explanations mathematical? If not, are other students able to make them mathematical? Are they able to make connections between the numbers in the equation and the numbers on the graph?

Kelly, meanwhile, will sit at the front of the class and note the questions students ask and any confusion that arises. She will tally the number of students who participate in the discussion and make note of any off-task behaviors that are distracting the activity. Today we explored a new type of graph a sinusoid and determined different ways that we could change itsstudents location from and characteristics. We explored why these graphs are wavelike in nature and how this shape relates to the period and frequency of the function.

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