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Annotated Bibliography Alex Dardinski and Ryan Cole April 1, 2013 Revision 7 Internet Secondary Sources N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Araya, Agustin A. "Internet." Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics. Ed. Carl Mitcham. Vol. 2. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 1048-1052. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 28 Jan. 2013. The Internet topic overview in the Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics provides a broad range of information ranging from the creation and public emergence of the Internet, to ethical issues, global issues, and intellectual property issues. The editor, Carl Mitcham is a philosopher of technology and Professor of Liberal Arts and International Studies at the Colorado School of Mines. This article provides useful information for technical details for the creation of the Internet, as well as useful analysis of the effects of the Internet on society. "Internet, Impact on Politics." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Ed. William A. Darity, Jr. 2nd ed. Vol. 4. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 107-109. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 29 Jan. 2013. This excerpt examines what effect the Internet has had on politics in the United States. It discusses how the Internet has led to more involvement with both local and national government, and has allowed for easier communication between politicians and voters. This is helpful because it shows how important the Internet has been, and continues to be, and how it can have an impact on things as important as politics. Easttom, Chuck. Computer Security Fundamentals. Pearson Certification, 2011. EPUB file. This book contains a section on the Internet’s development from its conception in 1957 to the modern day. This was used to create a timeline that outlines the creation of the Internet. “Internet.” Britannica. 15th ed. Vol. 6. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2005. 354-56. Print. This Edition of the Britannica Micropaedia Encyclopedia contains a brief two page overview of the history of the Internet and how it works. This was used to lay a groundwork for our further research on the Internet’s creation and how it has impacted society. "Internet: Impact on Drug and Alcohol Use." Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior. Ed. Pamela Korsmeyer and Henry R. Kranzler. 3rd ed. Vol. 2. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2009. 307-311. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. This source details the impacts of the Internet on drug and alcohol use, both positive and negative. The Internet has provided useful information about drugs to help people be more

informed, but it has also provided information on how to make drugs, and allowed for easier access to drugs. This is useful because it shows how big of an effect the Internet has had and continues to have over almost every aspect of society. "Internet." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Ed. William A. Darity, Jr. 2nd ed. Vol. 4. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 104-107. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. This article gives a broad overview of how the Internet works, its history, and its economic, cultural, and social implications. This article will provide information for explaining how the Internet works in a simple overview, and will provide ideas for areas in which we can add more detail. "Internet Revolution." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker and Sarah Hermsen. Vol. 4. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 769-773. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 6 Feb. 2013. This source gives information on the work Berners-Lee did on the World Wide Web, the improvement and advancement of the Internet, economic effects with the dot com bubble and web 2.0, as well as a fifteen year overview. This is all great information to include, as well as ideas for more areas to explore. "Internet Security." Encyclopedia of Small Business. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2007. 620622. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 7 Feb. 2013. This source is useful because it allows us to make counter arguments against the Internet being “bad” because hackers can access private information with malicious intent from nearly anywhere they have a network connection. According to this source, local based security breaches (through corporate espionage or viruses hidden in purchased programs-hardware not downloaded) account for as much as three or four times the amount of Internet based security breaches as of the mid 2000s. This source also details the effectiveness of taking simple precautions. This will help make our argument that the Internet is beneficial to society because the Internet hackers and virus are not as dangerous to our data as locally based ones, and that the spread of information via the Internet is not the cause of all malicious digital behavior. Cotropia, Christopher A. "Internet." Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court of the United States. Ed. David S. Tanenhaus. Vol. 2. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 490-492. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 7 Feb. 2013. The Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court of the United States give specific examples of court cases and how they have influenced how free speech and intellectual property is defined on the Internet. This is helpful to us because it proves how the Internet has aided in the expression of free speech, and allowed for intellectual property to be more easily turned into patents. Fredrickson, Caroline. "The Internet Should Not Be Censored." Censorship. Ed. Lauri S. Friedman. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2009. 37-47. Writing the Critical Essay: An Opposing Viewpoints Guide. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 Feb. 2013.

This source discusses how the very nature of the internet encourages free speech and the publication of ideas. This is helpful to us because it gives us an idea for focusing our thesis, and it helps prove that the internet is beneficial to society because of it’s encouragement of free speech. It shows how the free publication of ideas is beneficial to everyone. Ball, Patrick. "Free Software." Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics. Ed. Carl Mitcham. Vol. 2. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 793-796. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 Feb. 2013. This source talks about how free software has led to an explosion in creativity, and productivity. This is especially true with open source software in which anyone can access and edit the source code. This free software has led to sharing of ideas which has developed even greater ideas which are overall beneficial to society. "Internet and Society." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 10: 1990-1999. Detroit: Gale, 2001.Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 Feb. 2013. Document URL This source talks about how telepresence has taken off with the internet. Telepresence is very beneficial to society because it allows for people to share ideas quickly, even if they are on the opposite side of the world.

Primary Sources Luckett, Hubert P. “Electronic Mail Delivery Gets Started.” Popular Science Mar. 1973: 85. Google Books. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. <http://books.google.com/books?id=cKSqa8u3EIoC&pg=PA85#v=onepage&q&f=false> . This is an article written in 1973 by the editor in chief of Popular Science magazine that discusses the potential uses of email. This is helpful because email revolutionize the way people communicate. Marill, Thomas, and Lawrence G. Roberts. Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers. N.p.: n.p., 1966. Print. This source was used to learn about the process of packet switching and its potential applications. Packet switching is the manner in which machines communicate over networks and was vital in the creation of the Internet. This helps us gain knowledge and educate people reading our website about how the Internet works Mockapetris, P. “Domain Names - Concepts and Facilities.” Nov. 1987. Digital file. This is a memo written about the creation of the Domain Name System, which increased the functionality of the Internet by assigning URL’s to the locations of the machines on the network. This helps us gain an understanding and educate viewers of our website on what URLs are and

how they work. This is useful background knowledge that will help us to better understand future information. Tomlinson, Ray. “The First Email.” BBN Technologies. Raytheon, n.d. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. <http://openmap.bbn.com/~tomlinso/ray/firstemailframe.html>. This interview with Ray Tomlinson, who developed the first email system, discusses how it was created and its impact on technology. This is helpful because technology that connects to the Internet is a huge part of people’s lives. Roberts, Lawrence G. "Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication." June 1967. MS. This source by Lawrence G Roberts discusses many things about the creation of the internet. It discusses why a worldwide network would be helpful. It also discusses the hardware and software requirements of such a network. Finally, it discusses the advances made towards a worldwide network in the past few years (as of 1967) and tells what was learned and why it was important. Social Media Advances 'Revolution' in Egypt. National Public Radio. NPR, 17 Jan. 2012. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. <http://www.npr.org/2012/01/17/145326759/ revolution-2-0-social-medias-role-in-removing-mubarak-from-power>. This article/audio clip contains an interview with Wael Ghonim, who was involved in the Egyptian Revolution in early 2011. He discusses how Facebook was beneficial to the revolution, which we used in our page on how the internet has affected societal changes. Web Site Sources: https://www.google.com/takeaction/ Videos and Images: http://0.tqn.com/d/webclipart/1/0/a/x/4/Stack-of-Books.png Book stack cover art http://fc06.deviantart.net/fs71/f/2010/181/a/a/Linux_Wallpaper_1_by_technokoopa.png Linux image http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_VcD_UQuOKcI/S74UuSSp39I/AAAAAAAAAMY/b9sZHd5vdv0/s1 600/Huffington+Post+Guide.JPG Huffington Post image http://cdn4.aweber-static.com/images/features-pages/bbc-blogs.jpg Blog cover art http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-gkWrx3b2iuQ/T0ozzDdjkI/AAAAAAAAABY/f1zqWuK9HXs/s1600/rss+announcement.jpg Megaphone man + wifi bars picture

http://trailblazersblog.dallasnews.com/files/2012/08/ObamaTwitter.jpg Obama in front of John Boehner tweet http://www.datarave.net/zfh/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/takeaction.png End Piracy Not Liberty graphic http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=bZxs09eV-Vc Obama Big Bird YouTube ad http://www.oecd.org/media/oecdorg/topics/internet/48405289.jpg Connections front page photo http://www.nchannel.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/amazon-logo.jpg Amazon Logo http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/02336/Facebook_2336015b.jpg Facebook http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SAjIVgWauHI Oscar Mayer Ham Commercial http://1.bp.blogspot.com/ViDSckvvMcU/UT1TON3WphI/AAAAAAAABQo/Q8WNQ8llTfg/s1600/FlatWorld.gif Background for “what is the internet” page

http://www.packet.cc/files/toward-coop-net.html http://www.packet.cc/files/multi-net-inter-comm.html http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1034 http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc781 http://books.google.com/books?id=cKSqa8u3EIoC&pg=PA85#v=onepage&q&f=false http://openmap.bbn.com/~tomlinso/ray/firstemailframe.html http://www.newsdemon.com/first-official-announcement-usenet.php http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/students/purdy/index.htm http://www.aans.org/bulletin/pdfs/fall00.pdf

http://www.socialmediaexaminer.com/how-free-speech-and-social-media-fit-together/ http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/ilaw/Speech/

http://westford.mvlc.org/eg/opac/record/35969?query=internet%20history;qtype=keyword;locg= 77 http://westford.mvlc.org/eg/opac/record/1191834?query=internet%20history;qtype=keyword;loc g=77;page=1 http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/fall01/McGrath/ http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/SocialSciences/ppecorino/CISESHV_TEXT/Chapter-12-PoliticalChange/Study.html http://politicsandthenewmedia.commons.yale.edu/2011/02/25/internet-tools-in-politicalcampaigns/ http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/mgi/research/technology_and_innovation/internet_matters http://www.wpi.edu/academics/facultydir/cs2.html http://www.wpi.edu/academics/facultydir/cew.html http://mitnicksecurity.com/contact.php http://sciencepolicy.colorado.edu/about_us/meet_us/carl_mitcham/ Extra sources:
"Internet and Society." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 10: 1990-1999. Detroit: Gale, 2001.Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 Feb. 2013. Document URL http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX3468303573&v=2.1&u=mlin_n_westford&it=r&p=GV RL&sw=w "Computers: Science and Society." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Ed. William A. Darity, Jr. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 59-62. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 Feb. 2013. Document URL http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX3045300414&v=2.1&u=mlin_n_westford&it=r&p=GV RL&sw=w Watson, Stephanie. "The Internet Explosion." Science and Its Times. Ed. Neil Schlager and Josh Lauer. Vol. 7: 1950 to Present. Detroit: Gale, 2001. 523-525. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 Feb. 2013. Document URL http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX3408504655&v=2.1&u=mlin_n_westford&it=r&p=GV RL&sw=w

http://www.forbes.com/sites/erikkain/2012/01/19/4-5-million-people-signed-googles-anti-sopapetition/ http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2012-01-19/business/35440878_1_protest-against-antipiracy-sopa-and-pipa-internet-piracy