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International Journal of Scientific Research in Knowledge (IJSRK), 1(4), pp. 60-73, 2013 Available online at http://www.ijsrpub.

com/ijsrk ISSN: 2322-4541, ©2013 IJSRPUB

Review Paper Recent Developments of Textile Waste Water Treatment by Adsorption Process: A Review
Mohamad Anuar Kamaruddin1, Mohd Suffian Yusoff1*, Hamidi Abdul Aziz1, Christopher O. Akinbile2
2

School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, MALAYSIA Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704, Akure. Ondo State. NIGERIA *Corresponding Author: suffian@eng.usm.my
Received 26 February 2013; Accepted 24 March 2013

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Abstract. Adsorption has been known as the most acceptable method for removal of refractory compounds in textile waste water treatment. Owing to its ability in terms of physical and chemical sorption, a wide range of precursors origin from natural resources, synthesized materials and agricultural wastes as the starting materials for adsorbents purpose have been tested via adsorption technique. Over the years, scientists have begun searching for a sustainable replacement of the conventional adsorbents due to expensiveness, poor mechanical properties and limited applications. Lately, focus has been paid on the potential of locally available materials, inexpensive, easier to obtain, good mechanical properties and high adsorption capacities that can be converted into adsorbent. The present article highlights recent developments of textile waste water treatment by adsorption process. A critical discussion with regard to textile waste water characteristics, textile operation and adsorption by various adsorbent were also included in this review. Key words: Adsorption, adsorbent, composite, textile, waste water.

1. INTRODUCTION Rapid expansion in industrial activities and exponentially increasing of development activities always causes severe impacts to the environmental receptors just to meet of global demand. The quest for inherent water consumption, land utilization and energy procurement has triggered imbalance of ecological sensitive areas. This phenomenon is inevitable because a national development is dependent on the sensible consumption of available resources to foster the country’s unity for peaceful coexistence. Indeed, water is the most basic requirement in order to sustain earth ecological process. However, deteriorating quality of clean water source has become a major concern because clean and hygienic water source is the only way to ensure healthy lives of human being and ecosystem longevity. The astronomical increase in world population, modern industrialization and civilization, domestic and agricultural activities and other geological, environmental and global changes are responsible for water pollution (Ali, 2010). Accordingly, the major industrial activity that consumes large amount of water is the textile industry. Textile industry involves various operations and activities by which, different amount of water, chemicals, solvents and surfactant are used in order to produce high quality fabrics (Syeda et al., 2012). With the increasing demands of

textile products, the generation of highly polluted textile waste water was also increasing exponentially (dos Santos et al., 2007). Zaharia and Suteu (2012) reported that the textile industry is a high consumer of water mainly as process water (90–94 %), and cooling water (6–10 %) and finally loaded with different pollutants: dyes, surfactants, acids or bases, salts, heavy metals, and suspended solids. Consequently, the generation of textile waste water is very difficult to treat considering vigorous types of substances emitted from these processes. Although textile dyes contribute only a small portion of the total volume of discharged wastewater, it makes the water deeply colored. Heavy metals, dyes, color, organic and inorganic pollutants are the common pollutants present in textile waste water streams and largely influenced on the textile operation regimes. These pollutants, if not properly treated are responsible for introducing hazards into the receiving water bodies including aquatic lives, human beings and ecosystem stability. Many reports have discussed in details about the hazards of improper treatment of textile waste water ancillaries to human beings. It has been a major talking point where a long term exposure of the hazardous substances could result in becoming a cancer promoter, acute toxicity, skin diseases, allergenic and mutagenic (Akar et al., 2008, Binupriya et al., 2007, Firmino et al., 2010, Gnanapragasam et al., 2010, Gomaa et al., 2012).

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Generally, textile industries utilize various kinds of commercial dye stuff including anionic, cationic, basic, reactive and non ionic dyes that are present in textile waste water. Apart from that, various toxic chemicals such as agents, sizing, wetting, softening, anti-felting, and finishing agent, wetting agents, biocides, carriers, halogenated benzene, surfactants, pesticides are type of auxiliaries’ chemicals are commonly used in wet processing activities which are known for their potential toxicity and poor biodegradability. The primary concern of untreated spent dye is aesthetically unpleasant as well as harmful for aquatic life (Gupta et al., 2011). According to Syeda et al. (2012), the concentration of unused dyes in the waste water depends on the nature of the dye and dying process. Inefficient dying process may lead to 10–25% of all dye stuffs lost directly to the wastewater. Latif et al. (2011) claimed that reactive dyes are soluble anionic dyes that mostly contain one or more reactive groups which are capable of forming covalent bond. The bond was capable to react with the hydroxyl groups in the fiber and unsuitable for recycling. Apart from spent dyes, Sarayu and Sandhya (2012) reported that the waste water generated from the textile industry are associated with the final products characteristics, quality origin of the raw material and dye-auxiliaries chemicals. Interestingly, many reports have established extensive characteristics of textile waste water emitted as a result from textile activities (Badani et al., 2005, Jovančić and Radetić, 2008, Lau and Ismail, 2009). Considering both the volume generated and the waste water composition, the textile industry wastewater is rated as the most polluting amongst all industrial sectors (Sandhya et al., 2008). 1.1. Textile operation and its waste water Typically, a common process of textile manufacturing activity includes spinning, weaving, mercerizing, dyeing, bleaching and finishing. In order to implement an ideal treatment process, it is therefore necessitates to understand the actual nature of these processes and its emission. The explanation of each of the common process involved and byproducts emitted from these activities are summarized in Table 1. A usual textile operation can vary from day to day and may be even several times a day based on fabrics desired to be produced and batch wise nature process. Therefore, frequent changes in these processes cause considerable variation in the waste water characteristics particularly pH, 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color. Table 2 shows major characteristics of textile waste water. The most obvious source of pollution among various processes stages are

pretreatment which include singeing, desizing, scouring, bleaching and mercerizing in order to produce fabric for further process. Generally, desizing involves all the sizes used in weaving are removed from the fabric and discarded into the waste water. Sizing agents such as ammonia, enzymes, starch and waxes are the common chemicals used in this process (dos Santos et al., 2007). Ren (2000) reported that highest BOD5 (>50%) were accounted when associates desizing chemicals were withdrawn at desizing stage compared to other steps. Sarayu and Sandhya (2012) whereas reported that once the sizing process has completed, the waste water was highly loaded with water-soluble sizes, synthetic sizes, lubricants, biocides, and antistatic solvents. These chemicals are mainly utilized in the sizing process in order to acquire wrapped yarn. In scouring, impurities, oil, waxes from fibers are removed from the fabrics and washed into waste water stream. At this point, a high temperature of waste water is commonly exerted (Wu and Chang, 2003) because of strong alkali consumption to breakdown and emulsifies natural oils. The common types of alkalis are sodium hydroxide and surfactants whereby high consumption of these chemicals contributes to high organic loads emitted in the waste water streams. Apart from this, sodium-hexa-meta-phosphate, as a chelating agent, together with the sandopan, used as both non-ionic detergent and wetting agent during the scouring process (Ibrahim et al., 2008). Bleaching process normally utilizes bleaching agent such as sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide to remove unwanted colors and decolorizes the colored impurities that are not removed by scouring. Due to environmental concerns, sodium hypochlorite and sodium chlorite are not in favor because incomplete rinse during bleaching will slowly degrading fibers of the fabrics and reduces it lasts. In contrast, bleaching of cotton based fabrics with hydrogen peroxide requires alkaline medium (normally NaOH), stabilizer and either high temperatures or long treatment times (Abou-Okeil et al., 2010). The most anticipated process of textile fabrics is in the dyeing stage. Textiles are dyed by a wide range of dyestuff, techniques and equipment. They usually requires large amount of water to impart color on to fabrics surfaces’ in the dyebath. Typically, there are two types of dyeing method which are batch and continuous. In the continuous technique, fabric is fed into a dyebath containing dyestuff solution and squeezed through a set of padder. The padded fabric was then immersed with dye fixation either with heat or chemical treatment based on dye selection. In batch technique, a known quantity of fabric is loaded into dyeing machine with a solution containing dyes and chemicals. The dye molecules leave the solution and

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enter the fabric due to affinity to the fiber (Dhas, 2008). Accordingly, dyeing and rinsing processing contributes about 91-129 m3 of waste water per ton of product whereby it higher generation of waste water can be observed when reactive and direct dyes are being used in the dyeing process which accounted about 113-151 m3 per ton of product (Riera-Torres et al., 2010). In addition, utilizing disperse dyes during dyeing process have caused higher percentage of fixation on the fibers as compared to acid and reactive dyes (Verma et al., 2012). The final stage of textile fabrics manufacturing is the finishing process. A common process of finishing utilizes chemicals such as resins, softeners, stiffeners and auxiliaries to penetrate special properties onto the fabric surfaces.

Apart from that, since finishing process utilizes various types of chemicals, its wastewater can be characterized as chemically intensive and highly colored containing the unfixed dyes (Kurt et al., 2012). Considering the adverse impacts of untreated textile waste water to the environment, therefore this article aims to discuss the current developments of textile waste water treatment associated with it characteristics, treatment available and precursors used in adsorbent. In addition, the latest updates of composite-based adsorbents are also included in the discussions which emphasizes in depth about the materials selection and techniques applied in adsorption process, respectively.

Table 1: Process involved in textile manufacturing and its byproducts (Dhas, 2008)
Process Spinning Mercerizing Weaving Process description Polymer chips dried to emit moisture and ready for melting. Increase the strength and stability of cotton fiber Converting yarns to textile fabrics by either interlacing length-wise or cross-wire Cleaning process to remove oils and waxed contacts with fabrics Yarns and fabric acquire color Chemicals used Sizing agent Caustic soda Starch, polyvinyl alcohol, acrylic size, wax Strong alkali such as sodium hydroxide and surfactants Disperse, reactive, sulphur dyes. vat Byproducts emitted High BOD5, COD and SS (loose fibers) High alkaline spent water High pH, alkaline, oil and grease High BOD5, COD, SS, high alkalinity, high pH Spent dyes, dissolved colors, high salt, SS, heavy metals High alkaline, pH and spent waterbath Residues of resins, softeners, stiffeners, High BOD5, COD, SS and color

Scouring

Dyeing

Bleaching

Whitens the fabrics to removes natural colors impurities and foreign matters on fabric. Impart final touch and special properties to fabrics either mechanically or chemically

Hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, sodium chlorite Resins, stiffeners, fluorocarbon, softeners, catalysts,

Finishing

Table 2: Major characteristics of textile waste water
pH 13 COD (mg/L) 4800 BOD5 (mg/L) TSS (mg/L) TDS (mg/L) 12918 Color 1479.9 (400600nm) 314 ADMI 600 nm 490 nm 510 nm 2477 Co PtTurbidity (NTU) 252 Reference (Aouni et al., 2009)

8.0 12 8.2 12.43 7.8 9.5 12.8 8.32–9.50

67 1000 6760 5380 7960 1632 1600 1411 278-736

8 30 670 885 548 175 455 137

1040 92 1276 5496.71 420 137 85-354

8770 7989 9820 2512.56 3520 2563 1715-6106

48 405 294 -

(Qian et al., 2013) (Khlifi et al., 2010) (Jadhav et al., 2010) (Pakshirajan and Kheria, 2012) (Phugare et al., 2010) (Ali et al., 2009) (Senthilkumar et al., 2011) (Yigit et al., 2009) (Phalakornkule al., 2010) et

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2. Textile waste water treatment by adsorption process Over the years, various physical and chemical treatment processes have been used by numerous researchers to remediate textile waste water. Normally, selection of ideal treatment system is dependent on the characteristics of the textile waste water generated and the ability of the textile operator to equip their treatment facilities based on economic evaluation and effectiveness of the proposed system. In general, every treatment option has their advantages and drawbacks. Biological treatment for instance is capable to render the concentration of organic compound that presence in the waste water. In addition, the low cost implications and environmentally safe techniques have been seen as the main option for the treatment method (Khelifi et al., 2008, Balamurugan et al., 2011, Ulson de Souza et al., 2008). However, a few biological treatment option namely aerobic processes were inefficient to degrade most of azo dyes (Işık and Sponza, 2008). To make it worse,
Treatment process Fenton reagents Ozonation Photochemical Technique applied Oxidation reaction using mainly H2O2–Fe(II) Oxidation reaction using ozone gas Oxidation reaction using mainly H2O2-UV Oxidation reaction using Cl+ to attack the amino group Oxidation reaction using electricity Dye removal by adsorption Physical separation Ion exchange resin Addition of ferrous sulphate and ferric chloride

previous studies reported that direct anaerobic process would easily transformed it into aromatic amine. However, these aromatic amines were mostly resists and inhibit further the anaerobic degradation process (Chung and Stevens, 1993). Incomplete destruction of organic compound during biological treatment has caused the transfer of the dye onto biomass via adsorption (Gomaa et al., 2012). On the other hand, physical-chemical process has been shown as a promising technique which allows almost complete removal of organic and inorganic pollutants in textile waste water. However, these techniques are only effective and economic when the solute concentrations of the textile waste water are relatively high. Table 3 summarizes some of the available techniques of physical-chemical process in terms of advantages and drawbacks by Robinson et al. (2001). From the table, it shows that although physicalchemical process is viable for the remediation of textile waste water pollution, ultimate removal could not be achieved via stand alone method as single process is only capable to treat selected type of pollutants such as dyes.
Advantages Effective decolorisation of both soluble and insoluble dyes Application in gaseous state: no alteration of volume No sludge production Formation of by products Initiation and acceleration of azo-bond cleavage Breakdown compounds are nonhazardous Good removal of a wide variety of dyes Removal of all dye types Regeneration: no adsorbent loss Economically feasible Drawbacks Sludge generation Short half-life (20 min) Photochemical Oxidation reaction using mainly H2O2 Release of aromatic amines High cost of electricity Very expensive Concentrated sludge production Not effective for all dyes High sludge production

Table 3: Advantages and drawbacks of available techniques of textile waste water treatment (Robinson et al., 2001)

NaOCl Electrochemical destruction Activated carbon Membrane filtration Ion exchange Electrokinetic coagulation

Among physical-chemical process, adsorption has widely received significant attention over the years due to its vast advantages in terms of operational, technicality and feasibility (Zhu et al., 2011b, Zhao et al., 2012). Principally, adsorption is a process by which a substance is transferred from a liquid state to the surface of a solid compound and bound by either physically or chemically reactions. In general, adsorption of textile waste water laden with concentrated color mainly occurs based on the affinity of various dyes to interact with adsorbent by physical and chemical factors such as surface area, particle size, temperature, pH and contact time (Patel and Vashi, 2010). According to Sharma et al. (2011),

depending on the nature of the interactions between ionic species and molecular species carrying functional group, the reactions may be held to the surface though electrostatic attraction to sites of opposite charge at the surface of physiorbed due to van der Waals forces or chemisorptions by strong adsorbent-adsorbate bonding. Besides, Singh and Arora (2011) reported that high adsorption occurs with basic and direct dyes which are usually have higher relative molecular mass and high to medium for disperse dyes which are hydrophobic in character. According to Jovančić and Radetić (2008), adsorptive separation in adsorption process normally occurs in three mechanisms which are steric, kinetic, or

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equilibrium effect. Steric effect occurs when only small and a properly shaped molecule diffuses into the sorbent whereas other molecules are totally excluded. In contrast, kinetic separation is achieved of the difference in diffusion rates of different molecules., the equilibrium separation occurs based on the selection of targeted molecule that is to be adsorbed mainly polarizability, magnetic susceptibility, permanent dipole moment and quadrupole moment. Historically, activated carbon has been long recognizes as one of the most versatile adsorbent to treat textile waste water. Owing to its advantages in terms of highly porous structure and relatively larger surface area, activated carbon shows higher efficiency for the adsorption of low molecular weight compounds and larger molecules (Sharma et al., 2011). Activated carbon is the oldest known adsorbent and usually prepared either by physical or chemical activation. The source of the precursor of commercial activated carbon could be from coal, coconut shell, lignite, woods (Gupta and Suhas, 2009) whereby almost any carbonaceous material may be used as precursor for the preparation of carbon adsorbents (Demirbas, 2009). Although activated carbon is a preferred means for adsorption process, the high cost and complex preparation limit its use in treatment process (Li et al., 2012) because it is usually derived from natural materials such as bituminous coal, lignite and petroleum coke which would increase the overall production cost (Gupta and Suhas, 2009). Furthermore, according to Singh and Arora (2011), activated carbons are difficult to separate from the solution and have been discarded with the process sludge after use in water and wastewater treatment, resulting in secondary pollution. Many reports have investigated the potential in employing wide range of alternative adsorbents for the adsorption of textile waste water either from industrial byproducts, mineral deposits and agricultural wastes as the replacement of commercially expensive activated carbon. The search for an alternative adsorbent is motivated by their abundance, inexpensive, require little processing and very effective in textile waste water treatment. Consequently, researchers have conducted numerous attempts to come out with a new and novel adsorbent which has superior performance in terms of higher adsorption capacity, larger surface area and improved mechanical stability of the adsorbent. Table 4 summarizes some of the major works pertaining to the preparation and performance of alternative adsorbent in textile waste water treatment. Because extensive reports have been published on the efficiency of alternative adsorbents over the years, the aim of this article is to highlight recent but major breakthroughs in research and development of the latter in terms of

precursors selection, pollutants studied and removal rate of the adsorbents between 2010 to 2012. 2.1 Development of composite based adsorbent While many attempts have been made to successfully developed a high performance adsorbent for a wide range of pollutants removal in aqueous or real waste water, attention has been paid to synthesis an adsorbent which comprises of different properties of single adsorbent with other compound such as zeolite, fly ash, activated carbon, bentonite, polymeric isomers, chitosan, montmorrillonite, activated clay, and other mineral based precursors. The main objectives of the composite adsorbent are to enhance the uptake of various pollutants in textile waste water with high hydrophobic and hydrophilic attributes with improved mechanical stability and chemical resistant. However, these materials require some modification and shaping process for laboratory and industrial purposes (Leboda et al., 2006). Accordingly, the employment of various types of mineral had proven the possibilities use of various mineral and carbon substances to produce complex sorbents and hybrid materials (Szychowski and Pacewska, 2012). Most of the time, mineral carbon based adsorbents receives special attentions because they have mosaic character that can adsorb both organic and inorganic substances (Leboda et al., 2006). The earliest discussion about the carbon-mineral adsorbent was reported by Leboda (1992). In his report, he summarized that among the methods of preparation, mechanical mixing, incorporation, carburization of organic substances bonded either by chemically or physically with the surface of mineral adsorbent, as well as deposition of the carbon on catalyst and adsorbent surfaces during different adsorption and catalysis processes were could be realized. From there, authors began to exploreand investigate various type of precursors for the development of composite based adsorbent. Putyera et al. (1994) investigated the properties of montmorillonite and hydrotalcite matrices by nitrogen adsorption isotherm and inverse gas chromatography; they concluded that adsorption capacity per unit mass of these composite adsorbents was larger in the case of hydrotalcite than in montmorillonite-based materials. In other studies, Yanagisawa et al. (2010) conducted an experiment of the magnesium and coconut shell activated carbon composite to remove heavy metals ions in aqueous solution. They concluded that the magnesium composite adsorbed greater amount of amount of Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions than the no magnesium counterpart. It was further concluded that loaded magnesium was estimated to be combined with carbon surface via oxygen bridge.

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Meanwhile, Ai and Jiang (2010) investigated fast removal of dyes by AC/ferrospinel composite. They found that adsorption of Methyl orange (MO) and basif fuchsin (BF) followed the Langmuir model whereas the adsorption capacities were 95.8 and 101.0 mg/g for MO and BF. Sandeman et al. (2011) carried out a comparison on activated carbon, PVA hydrogels, and PVA/AC composite towards cationic methylene blue (MB),

anionic methyl orange (MO), and Congo red (CR) removal from aqueous. They claimed that the interactions with the ACs or PVA/AC composites were dependent on the properties of the dyes themselves (size, symmetry, charge sign, and value) and on the nature of the AC or PVA/AC surface available for adsorption, and its structural and textural characteristics.

Table 4: Summary of alternative adsorbents used in treating textile waste water
Source Industrial product by Coal fly ash Color COD Turbidity COD COD color Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS) Furnace Bottom Ash (FBA) Silica gel waste Cement kiln dust +coal filters Acid Yellow 99 and Acid Red 183) Actual cationic surfactant Color Turbidity BOD5 COD PO43Basic Red 29 (BR29) And Basic Yellow 11 (BY11) Methylene Blue (MB) Methyl Green Methylene Blue (MB) Methyl Green Light Green SF (Yellowish) Methylene Blue (MB) Congo Red (CR) Methylene Blue (MB) Congo Red (CR) Methylene Blue (MB) Acid Black 26 (AB26), Acid Green 25 (AG25) and Acid Blue 7 (AB7) Methylene Blue ( MB) Light Green SF (Yellowish) Methylene Blue (MB) Safranin Methylene Blue (MB) Congo Red (CR) Methylene Blue (MB) 55.42–83.00 % 44.44–61.11 % (inferior to 1 NTU 75% 75% 90% <1% 50% 87% 97% 76% 84% 77% 94% >95% 88.74% 60-80% 36-63% 70-98% 18-38% 94.6 to 99.7% 93% 97% 94.5% 89.65 >93% 95% 14.4-98.4% at dose of 0.5 to 10.0 g L−1, 57.63% to 91.65% at doses from 0.500 to 2.000 g L−1 90.27% 98.52% (Mittal et al., 2010) (Vieira et al., 2012) (Genc and Oguz, 2010) (Genc and Oguz, 2010) (Mahmoued, 2010) (Jedidi et al., 2009) (Jedidi et al., 2011) (Zaharia and Suteu, 2012) Precursor Pollutants Removal rate Reference

Teflon scrap Timber saw dust Alkaline treated analog Bottom ash Natural Macauba palm Heat treated Macauba palm Agricultural Pistachio hull waste Pine Cone

(Goel et al., 2011) (Djilali et al., 2012)

(Moussavi and Khosravi, 2011) (Mahmoodi et al., 2011b)

Silkworm exuviae Deoiled soya Sugar beet pulp Kenaf fibre char Cattail root Sesame hull

(Chen et al., 2011) (Mittal et al., 2010) (Malekbala et al., 2012) (Mahmoud et al., 2012) (Hu et al., 2010) (Feng et al., 2011)

Moringa oleifera seed powder Mineral deposit Natural clay

Methylene Blue (MB) Congo Red

(Raj et al., 2013)

Sea shell powder

BOD5 Suspended matter, COD Spectral absorption coefficient Basic Green 4 (BG 4),\

97% 93% 95% 76% 96.25% at dose of

(Errais et al., 2010)

(Chowdhury

and

Saha,

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2.0 g/L Activated clay Kaolin Methylene Blue (MB) Basic Yellow 28 (BY28) Methylene Blue (MB) Malachite Green (MG) Acid green 25 Methlyene Blue (MB) Acid Red 88 (AR88) 65–99% at initial dye =10 mg/L and kaolin loadings = 0.8– 2.5 g/L 90-99% 98.10 ± 0.34%

2010) (El Mouzdahir et al., 2010) (Tehrani-Bagha et al., 2011)

Bentonite Ghassoul, natural clay Natural clay

(Koswojo et al., 2010) (Elass et al., 2010) (Akar and Uysal, 2010)

Yang et al. (2008) synthesized magnetic Fe3O4activated carbon from rice husk. When they tested the adsorption capabilities of the prepared media towards Methylene Bue (MB) from aqueous, the found out that the maximum adsorption capacities was 321 mg/g with the composite having a relatively large pore diameter of 3.1 nm, high surface area of 770 m2/g with 23 wt.% F Fe3O4. In contrast, when Zhu et al. (2011a) employed magnetic cellulose/Fe3O4/activated carbon composite, the maximum removal of Congo red from aqueous was obtained at 66.09 mg/g due to super paramagnetism phenomenon. In other investigation, Singh et al. (2011) developed a magnetic carbon-iron oxide derived from the coconut shell. From the statistical model approach, the found that, the optimum conditions were achieved at concentration 240 mg/l; temperature 50°C; pH 8.50; dose 1 g/l, whereby the maximum adsorption capacities of crystal violet (CV) was obtained at 81.70 mg/g based on Langmuir model. Apart from that, numerous studies have proposed a variety of adsorbent materials for the removal of a wide range of pollutants from textile waste water. Accordingly, this article highlights current development of compositebased materials towards the adsorption of various textile waste water pollutants mostly in aqueous system. While many techniques are possible to

synthesize the individual precursor into composite based materials, the majority of the works remain optimistic about the advantages of composite based materials because of vast advantages it can contribute in the adsorption in liquid-phase system. Table 5 summarizes recent development of composite materials for the removal of textile ancillaries’ waste water which emphasizes on the techniques applied and adsorption capacities of the media. 3. CONCLUSION From the literature reviewed, it has been revealed that adsorption process is undoubtedly the most acceptable technique for purification process in textile waste water. However, the applications of adsorption process in large scale operation still remain a major challenge for industrial players to apply. While extensive efforts are on by scientists to come up with various kinds of adsorbents for commercial use, only a few of them have been commercialized and used by industrial operators. Therefore, the applicability of the adsorbent products should be encouraged in the actual waste water streams via adsorption and therefore the operational of these products will be more reliable and marketable.

Table 5: Summary of composite materials adsorbent
Composite type Chitosan-g-poly (acrylic acid)/vermiculite hydrogel composites Chitosan intercalated montmorillonite Technique applied Polymer/Hydrogel method Dispersing sodium montmorillonite (Na+MMT) into chitosan solution Microemulsion process Water-in-oil emulsification Embedding of HAp into CS Aqueous suspension Adsorbate Methylene Blue (MB) Adsorption capacity 1685.58 mg/g (Highest R2 coefficient 48.9 mg/g 48.2 mg/g 45.9 mg/g 34.9 mg/g 34.29 mg/g 769 mg/g 18.6 mg 16.0 mg 0.36 mg * Based on 1 g REC-Fe3O4 105.3 mg/g Reference (Liu et al., 2010)

Basic Blue 9 (BB9) Basic Blue 66 (BB66) Basic Yellow 1 (BY1)

(Monvisade and Siriphannon, 2009)

Chitosan/kaolin/γ-Fe2O3 composites Fe2O3/SiO2/chitosan composite Hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite (Hap-CS) Magnetic rectorite/iron oxide nanocomposites (REC-Fe3O4)

Methyl orange (MO) Methylorange (MO) Congo red (CR) Methylene blue (MB) Neutral Red (NR) Methyl Orange (MO)

(Zhu et al., 2010) (Zhu et al., 2011b) (Hou et al., 2012) (Wu et al., 2011)

Magnetic MnO–Fe2O3 composite— Magnetic halloysite nanotubes/iron oxide

Co-precipitation Suspension -dropwise

Acid Red B (ARB) Methylene Blue (MB)

(Wu et al., 2005) (Xie et al., 2011)

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composites halloysite nanotube (HNT) HNT HNT–Fe3O4 Neutral Red (NR) HNT HNT– Fe3O4 Methyl Orange (MO) HNT HNT– Fe3O4 Direct Red 23 (DR23) 37.38 mg/g 18.44 mg/g 31.21 mg/g 13.62 mg/g 0.68 mg/g 0.65 mg/g 172.4 mg/g

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes-Fe3C nanocomposite Cationic starch intercalated clay composite Cobalt-hectorite composite Biocompatible composite (alginate/titania nanoparticle) SA/n-TiO2 Biocompatible composite (Chitosan–zinc oxide nanoparticle) CS/n-ZnO Sodium alginate/Na+-rectorite composite Immobilized-polymer/bentonite composites

chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process Dry reaction Ion exchange method Titania nanoparticles were immobilized onto SodiumAlginate in aqueous suspension Zinc oxide nanoparticles were immobilized onto Chitosan in aqueous suspension Inverse suspension system Direct polymerization

(Konicki et al., 2012) (Xing et al., 2012) (Ma et al., 2012) (Mahmoodi et al., 2011a)

Brilliant blue X-BR Methylene Blue (MB) Direct Red 80 (DR80) Acid Green 25 (AG25

122.0 mg/g 0.5 g/L at 293 K 163.934 mg/g 151.515 mg/g

Direct Blue 78 (DB78) Acid Black 26 (AB26)

52.63 mg/g 34.48 mg/g

(Salehi et al., 2010)

Basic Blue 9 Malachite Green (MG) Methylene Blue (MB) Crystal Violet (CV)

493 mg/g, at 2 wt% Na+REC 442.9 μmol/g 419.3 μmol/g 354.4 μmol/g * Initial concentration from 400 – 1000 μmol /g 85.7 mg/g 202 mg/g

(Yang et al., 2012) (Anirudhan et al., 2009)

Cellulose acetate–organo-montmorillonite composite (CA/OMMT) Silver thiocyanate – tetrabromo-tetrachlorofluorescein (TBTCF) Calcium alginate/organophilic montmorillonite) (CA/OMMT) nanocomposite Calcium alginate/multi-walled carbon nanotubes Polyacrylamide/bentonite composite (PAAB)

Ion exchange method Embedment of TBTCF with precipitation of Ag+ and SCNPolymerization using rays irradiation as initiator Wet spinning

Acid Scarlet G (ASG) Ethyl violet (EV)

(Zhou et al., 2012) (Wang et al., 2009) (Abou Taleb et al., 2012) (Sui et al., 2012)

Acid green B Direct pink 3B Methylene blue (MB) methyl orange (MO) Malachite Green (MG) Methylene Blue (MB) Crystal Violet (CV)

-

606.1 mg/g 12.5 mg/g 199.4 μmol/g 193.4 μmol/g 87.5μmol/g * Initial concentration 400 μmol /g 0.5775 mmol/g 0.4748 mmol/g 322.58 mg/g 357.14 mg/g 303.03 mg/g 17.33 mg/g 13.80 mg/g 380.65 mg/g 193.39 mg/g 227.02 mg/g 111.85 mg/g

Intercalative polymerization of acrylamide with Nabentonite

(Anirudhan and Suchithra, 2009)

Polyaniline/bacterial extracellular polysaccharides composite Pn/EPS composite Polyaniline/chitosan composite Pn/Ch composite Alginate/ Polyvinyl Alcohol - Kaolin Composite Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) Poly(vinylalcohol)/chitosan composites

Polymerization

Polymerization

Polymerization Direct used IPN and foaming process

Reactive Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) Reactive Orange 16 Congo Red, Coomassie Brilliant Blue Remazol Brilliant Blue R Methylene Blue Methylene Blue (MB) Single system Malachite Green (MG) Cu2+ Binary system MG Cu2+

(Janaki et al., 2012b) (Janaki et al., 2012a) (El-Latif et al., 2010) (Umoren et al.) (Li et al., 2012)

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Mohamad Anuar Kamaruddin is a Ph.D candidate in waste water engineering at Universiti Sains Malaysia and a recipient of Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia scholarship. He received his first degree from Universiti Sains Malaysia in 2009 awarded with Bachelor of Science in civil engineering. He obtained degree in Master of Science in civil engineering from Universiti Sains Malaysia in 2011 with major in landfill technology. His current research is focuses on alleviating problems associated with waste water and solid waste management. To date, he has published several scientific articles related to environmental engineering field.

Associate Professor Dr Mohd Suffian Yusoff obtained his first degree from Universiti Putra Malaysia in agricultural science in 1995. He later pursued master degree in mineral resources engineering in Universiti Sains Malaysia and graduated in 2000. Dr. Yusoff received his doctorate from Universiti Sains Malaysia in 2006 with major in solid waste management. Currently, Dr Yusoff serves School of Civil Engineering Universiti Sains Malaysia as anacademic programme chairperson (environmental and sustainability). He has published numerous refereed articles in professional journals. Dr Yusoff’s field of expertise’s are solid waste management, landfill technology and leachate treatment. Dr Yusoff also has conducted numerous consultancies and research works at national and international level. His vast experience in landfill operation and management has enabled him to conduct numerous talks and seminars at national and international level.

Dr Aziz is a Professor in environmental engineering at the School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Dr. Aziz received his Ph.D in civil engineering (environmental engineering) from University of Strathclyde, Scotland in 1992. He is the Editor-in-chief of CJASR, IJSES and the Managing Editor of IJEWM, IJEE. He has published over 200 refereed articles in professional journals/proceedings and currently sits as the Editorial Board Member for 8 International journals. Dr Aziz's research has focused on alleviating problems associated with water pollution issues from industrial wastewater discharge and solid waste management via landfilling, especially on leachate pollution. He also interests in biodegradation and bioremediation of oil spills.

Dr Christopher Oluwakunmi Akinbile obtained his first degree from the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria in Agricultural Engineering in 1999. He later bagged his Master’s and Doctorate degrees in Soil and Water Engineering from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria in 2001 and 2009 respectively. Dr. Akinbile undertook his Post-doctoral research study in the School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia from 2010 through 2011. At present, Dr. Akinbile is the Postgraduate coordinator for his department in FUTA, Nigeria and has published numerous refereed articles in professional journals and conference proceedings. Dr Akinbile’s field of expertise’s are in irrigation and drainage, climate change for food security, solid waste management and leachate treatment.

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