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Design and Implementation of IIR Filter

Design and Implementation of IIR Filter

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Published by Saurabh Shukla
IIR FILTER
IIR FILTER

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DESIGN

AND
IMPLEMENTATION OF
IIR FILTER
By-
SAURABH SHUKLA
M.Tech (CE)
ICE2012005
CONTENTS
 Introduction
 Two Approaches
 The Main Problem
 Characteristics of Prototype Analog Filters
 Design of IIR Filter from Analog Filter
 Different Methodologies to Design IIR Filter
 Finite Difference Approximation Technique
 Impulse Invariance Transformation
 Bilinear Transformation
 The Matched z- Transform
 Different IIR Filters Design Using MATLAB
 GUI For Digital Filter Design
 Implementation of IIR Filter
 References
2
INTRODUCTION
 IIR filter have infinite-duration impulse responses,
hence they can be matched to analog filters, all of
which generally have infinitely long impulse
responses.

 The basic technique of IIR filter design transforms
well-known analog filters into digital filters using
complex-valued mappings.

 The advantage of this technique lies in the fact that
both analog filter design (AFD) tables and the
mappings are available extensively in the literature.
3
 The basic technique is called the A/D filter
transformation.

 However, the AFD tables are available only for low
pass filters. We also want design other frequency-
selective filters (high pass, band pass, band stop, etc.)

 To do this, we need to apply frequency-band
transformations to low pass filters. These
transformations are also complex-valued mappings.
4
TWO APPROACHES
Design analog
lowpass filter
Apply Freq. band
transformation
s-->s
Apply filter
transformation
s-->z
Desired
IIR filter
Design analog
lowpass filter
Apply filter
transformation
s-->z
Apply Freq. band
transformation
z-->z
Desired
IIR filter
Approach 1, used in Matlab
Approach 2, study
5
THE MAIN PROBLEM
 We have no control over the phase characteristics
of the IIR filter.

 Hence IIR filter designs will be treated as
magnitude-only designs.

 It doesn’t mean that we consider the phase
response unimportant.

 We specify the desired magnitude characteristics
and accept the phase response that is obtained
from the design methodology.
6
CHARACTERISTICS OF PROTOTYPE ANALOG
FILTERS
 IIR filter design techniques rely on existing analog
filter to obtain digital filters. We designate these
analog filters as prototype filters.

 Three prototypes are widely used in practice
 Butterworth lowpass
 Chebyshev lowpass (Type I and II)
 Elliptic lowpass
7
IIR Filter Types
Butterworth Chebyshev Type I
Elliptic
Chebyshev Type II
8
 Basic idea behind the conversion of into is to
apply a mapping from the s-domain to the z-domain so that
essential properties of the analog frequency response are
preserved.

 Thus mapping function should be such that

 Imaginary ( ) axis in the s-plane be mapped onto the
unit circle of the z-plane.(Thus there will be a direct
relationship b/w the two frequency variables in the two
domains. )

 A stable analog transfer function should be mapped into
a stable digital transfer function (the left half of s-plane
should map into the inside of unit circle in the z-plane)
9
) (s H
a
) (z H
O j
DESIGN OF IIR FILTER FROM ANALOG FILTER
 An analog filter can be described by


-----(1)


where and are the filter coefficient.

 An analog filter can also be described by the linear constant
coefficients differential equation


----(2)

where x(t) denotes the input signal and y(t) denoted the output of
the filter.


10
¿
¿
=
=
= =
N
k
k
k
M
k
k
k
a
s
s
s A
s B
s H
0
0
) (
) (
) (
o
|
{ }
k
o
{ }
k
|
¿ ¿
= =
=
M
k
k
k
k
N
k
k
k
k
dt
t x d
dt
t y d
0 0
) ( ) (
| o
 Maximum passband deviation=
 maximum stopband magnitude = 1/A
 Pass band Frequency (normalized)
 Stop band Frequency (normalized)
11
2
1
1
c +
s
p
p
F
O
= e
s
s
s
F
O
= e
DIFFERENT METHODOLOGIES TO DESIGN IIR
FILTER
 The transformations are derived by preserving different
aspects of analog and digital filters.

 Finite difference approximation technique
 Convert a differential eq. representation into a
corresponding difference eq.

 Impulse invariance transformation
 Preserve the shape of the impulse response from A to
D filter

 Bilinear transformation
 Preserve the system function representation from A to
D domain

 The Matched Z transformation
 Try to match the impulse response from A to D filter.
12
1-FINITE DIFFERENCE APPROXIMATION
TECHNIQUE
 One of the simplest methods for converting an analog
filter into digital filter.
 For the derivative at time t=nT. we do,





 In this we replace

13
T
T nT y nT y
dt
t dy
nT t
) ( ) ( ) ( ÷ ÷
=
=
T
n y n y ) 1 ( ) ( ÷ ÷
=
dt
t dy ) (
k
k
T
z
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
÷1
1
 Thus

and if we substitute s=jΩ in the above eq. we find


 As Ω varies from -∞ to ∞, the corresponding locus of points in the
z-plane is a circle of radius ½ and with a center z= ½ as shown
below









14
sT
z
÷
=
1
1
T j
z
O ÷
=
1
1
(
¸
(

¸

=
= O
frequency digital
frequency analog
e
 The mapping takes points in the LHP of the s-plane
into corresponding points inside the circle in the z-
plane and points in the RHP of the s-plane are
mapped into outside this circle.

 Thus this mapping has the desirable property that a
stable analog filter is transformed into a stable digital
filter.

 The possible location of poles of the digital filter are
confined to relatively small frequencies and the
mapping is restricted to design of lowpass filters and
a bandpass filters having relatively small resonant
frequencies.
15
2-IMPULSE INVARIANCE TRANSFORMATION
 Our objective to design an IIR filter having a unit sample
response h(n), that is the sampled version of the impulse
response of the analog filter.
h(n)=h(nT) n=0,1,2,…..
where T is the sampling interval.

 for mapping




 Thus for σ<0 (i.e. LHP) 0<r<1 & σ>0 (i.e. RHP) r>1.

 When σ=0 (imaginary axis) r=1.

 Therefore the LHP in s is mapped inside the unit circle in z and
the RHP in s is mapped outside the unit circle in z.
16
T
e e e r
T j j T
O = ¬
= = ¬
O
e
e o

and
sT
e z =
T j T j
e e re
O
= ·
o e

 Also s=j Ω axis is mapped into the unit circle in z.
 We have the following transformation from the s-plane to the
z-plane: z=e
sT


 Many s to one z mapping: many-to-one mapping
 Every semi-infinite left strip (so the whole left plane) maps
to inside of unit circle.
 Since ω is unique over the range (-π,π), the mapping
ω=ΩT implies in general


17
¿
·
÷· =
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
k
a
k
T
j s H
T
z H
t 2 1
) (
Frequency-domain aliasing
formula
T k T k / ) 1 2 ( / ) 1 2 ( t t + s O s ÷
 Causality and Stability are the same without changing.

 Aliasing occur if filter not exactly band-limited

 So, The digital filter impulse response is similar to that of a
frequency-selective analog filter.

 Advantages
 It is a stable design and the frequencies Ω and w are linearly
related.

 Disadvantage
 We should expect some aliasing of the analog frequency
response, and in some cases this aliasing is intolerable.

 Consequently, this design method is useful only when the
analog filter is essentially band-limited to a lowpass or
bandpass filter in which there are no oscillations in the stopband.

18
MATLAB PROGRAM FOR IMPULSE INVARIANCE
TRANSFORMATION
 Program-1
[b,a] = butter(4,0.3,'s');
[bz,az] = impinvar(b,a,10);
sys = tf(b,a);
impulse(sys);
hold on;
impz(10*bz,az,[],10);

19
Zooming the resulting
plot shows that the
analog and digital
impulse responses are
the same.
 Program-2
clc
disp(' Impulse invariance transformation'); disp(' ');
Wp = input('Enter passband edge frequency in rad/sec = '); %1500
Rp = input('Enter passband ripple in dB = '); %.5
Ws = input('Enter stopband edge frequency in rad/sec = '); %3000
Rs = input('Enter stopband ripple in dB = '); %60
Fs = input('Enter the sampling frequency = '); %7000
[n,Wn] = cheb1ord(Wp,Ws,Rp,Rs,'s');
disp('The order of the filter is n = ');
disp(n); %display order of the filter%
[num,den] = cheby1(n,Rp,Wn,'s'); % calculates coefficients of analog filter%
[b,a] = impinvar(num,den,Fs) %applies IIT%
freqz(b,a,512,Fs); %frequency response %
grid on;
xlabel('Frequency in Hz');
ylabel('Gain in dB');
title('Frequency Response of the filter'); 20
21
3- BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION
 The above two discussed design techniques have severe
limitation in that they are appropriate only for LPF and a limited
class of BPF.

 This bilinear transformation is a mapping that transforms the jΩ
axis into the unit circle in the z-plane only once.

 Thus it avoids aliasing of frequency components.

 Furthermore all points of the LHP of s are mapped inside the
unit circle in the z-plane and all points in the RHP of s are
mapped into corresponding points outside the unit circle in z-
plane.

 This mapping is the best transformation method.

22
23
 The complex plane mapping is shown as below-









 Relation of ω to Ω is nonlinear-
Ω=2tan(ω/2)/T ω= 2tan-1(ΩT/2)

 Therefore due to this highly nonlinear mapping, we observe a
frequency compression or frequency warping.


2 / 1
2 / 1
1
1 2
1
1
sT
sT
z
z
z
T
s
÷
+
= ¬
+
÷
=
÷
÷
 The entire range in Ω is mapped only once into the range






 Frequency Warping
 Because of the non linear mapping, the amplitude response of
digital IIR filter is expanded at lower frequencies and compressed
at higher frequencies in comparison to analog filter.



24
t e t s s ÷
 The H
a
(jΩ) compressed in frequency by this
transformation.

 But the characteristics of H
a
(jΩ) are preserved in H(z).

 If |H
a
(jΩ)| is equiripple in passband or stopband, then
|H(z)|is also. This property is the most important feature of
bilinear transformation and made it most widely employed
transformation for classical designs.

 Advantages
 It is a stable design.
 There is no aliasing.
 There is no restriction on the type of filter that can be
transformed.

25
MATLAB PROG FOR BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION
 Program-1
clc
Wp = input('Enter passband edge frequency in rad/sec = ');
Rp = input('Enter passband ripple in dB = ');
Ws = input('Enter stopband edge frequency in rad/sec = ');
Rs = input('Enter stopband ripple in dB = ');
Fs = input('Enter the sampling frequency = ');
[n,Wn] = buttord(Wp,Ws,Rp,Rs,'s');
disp('The order of the filter is n = ');
disp(n); %display order of the filter%
[num,den] = butter(n,Wn,'s'); %calculates coefficients of analog filter%
[b,a] = bilinear(num,den,Fs) % apply bilinear transformation%
freqz(b,a,512,Fs); %frequency response %
grid on;
xlabel('Frequency in Hz');
ylabel('Gain in dB');
title('Frequency Response of the filter'); 26

27
4-THE MATCHED Z TRANSFORM
 In the matched z-transform digital filter design method we
try to “match” the impulse response of the analog filter with
that of the digital filter being designed.

 To match the impulse responses, we take the inverse
Laplace transform of the analog filter H(s)h(t), then
sample the impulse response h(t)h[n], then take the z-
transform of the sampled impulse response to get the z-
transform transfer function h[n]H(z).
28
 Example-



And

thus

 Note-
 Poles obtained from the matched z-transformation are
identical to the poles obtained with the impulse invariance
method.

 But the two techniques results in different zero location

29
s
s H
1
) ( =
) ( ) ( t u t h = ] [ ] [ n u n h =
1
1
1
) (
÷
÷
=
z
z H
1
1
1
) (
) (
) (
÷
÷
= =
z z X
z Y
z H
) ( ] 1 )[ (
1
z X z z Y = ÷
÷
] [ ] 1 [ ] [ n x n y n y = ÷ ÷
DIFFERENT IIR DIGITAL FILTERS DESIGN USING
MATLAB
 Program-1 (Elliptic IIR Lowpass Filter Design)
%---N-filter order& Wn= Frequency scaling factor---%
Wp = input('Normalized passband edge = ');
Ws = input('Normalized stopband edge = ');
Rp = input('Passband ripple in dB = ');
Rs = input('Minimum stopband attenuation in dB = ');
[N,Wn] = ellipord(Wp,Ws,Rp,Rs)
[b,a] = ellip(N,Rp,Rs,Wn);
[h,omega] = freqz(b,a,256);
plot (omega/pi,20*log10(abs(h)));grid;
xlabel('\omega/\pi'); ylabel('Gain, dB');
title('IIR Elliptic Lowpass Filter');

(in case of elliptic filter Wn=Wp)
30
31
 Program-2 (Type-1 Chebyshev IIR HPF Design)

Wp = input('Normalized passband edge = ');
Ws = input('Normalized stopband edge = ');
Rp = input('Passband ripple in dB = ');
Rs = input('Minimum stopband attenuation in dB = ');
[N,Wn] = cheb1ord(Wp,Ws,Rp,Rs)
[b,a] = cheby1(N,Rp,Wn,'high');
[h,omega] = freqz(b,a,256);
plot (omega/pi,20*log10(abs(h)));grid;
xlabel('\omega/\pi'); ylabel('Gain, dB');
title('Type I Chebyshev Highpass Filter');
32

33
 Program-3 (Butterworth IIR BPF Design)

Wp = input('Passband edge frequencies = ');
Ws = input('Stopband edge frequencies = ');
Rp = input('Passband ripple in dB = ');
Rs = input('Minimum stopband attenuation = ');
[N,Wn] = buttord(Wp, Ws, Rp, Rs);
[b,a] = butter(N,Wn);
[h,omega] = freqz(b,a,256);
gain = 20*log10(abs(h));
plot (omega/pi,gain);grid;
xlabel('\omega/\pi'); ylabel('Gain, dB');
title('IIR Butterworth Bandpass Filter');
Note-
(the i/p data are the vector of passband edges Wp= [0.45 0.65], the vector of
stop band edges Ws=[0.3 0.75])
34

35
 Program-4 (Butterworth IIR LPF/HPF Design)
clc;
clear all;
close all;

disp('enter the IIR filter design specifications');
rp=input('enter the passband ripple');
rs=input('enter the stopband ripple');
wp=input('enter the passband freq');
ws=input('enter the stopband freq');
fs=input('enter the sampling freq');

w1=2*wp/fs; w2=2*ws/fs;
[n,wn]=buttord(w1,w2,rp,rs,'s');
c=input('enter choice of filter 1. LPF 2. HPF \n ');
if(c==1)
disp('Frequency response of IIR LPF is:');
[b,a]=butter(n,wn,'low','s');
end
CONTD…..
36
if(c==2)
disp('Frequency response of IIR HPF is:');
[b,a]=butter(n,wn,'high','s');
end

w=0:.01:pi;
[h,om]=freqs(b,a,w);
m=20*log10(abs(h));
an=angle(h);

figure,subplot(2,1,1);plot(om/pi,m);
title('magnitude response of IIR filter is:');
xlabel('(a) Normalized freq. -->');
ylabel('Gain in dB-->');
subplot(2,1,2);plot(om/pi,an);
title('phase response of IIR filter is:');
xlabel('(b) Normalized freq. -->');
ylabel('Phase in radians-->');

37

38

39
GUI FOR DIGITAL FILTER DESIGN
 There are some inbuilt function in MATLAB i.e. “fdatool,
sptool, fvtool”.
 Filter Design with FDATOOL-
40
 GUI Window -2
41
IMPLEMENTATION OF IIR FILTER
1- Through TMS-320 C6713 DSP starter KIT
 Set up the DSK kit as shown below and load with the c-program
(implementing IIR HPF with 7kHz cutoff Frequency) and the i/p is
given by function generator sinusoid of 11kHz and the o/p is also
shown below:-
42
2- By LABVIEW Digital Filter Design Toolkit
 The following figure illustrates the magnitude responses of a
typical LPF designed by the four IIR filter design methods. Each
filter has the same numerator and denominator order values.

43
REFERENCES
 Digital Filters and Signal Processing: 3
rd
edition- By Leland B. Jackson
 Digital signal processing: 3
rd
edition by John G. Proakis & Manolakis.
 Digital Signal Processing-A computer based approach: 2
nd
Edition- by Sanjit
K Mitra
 Multirate System & Filter Banks- By P.P. Vaidhyanathan
 Digital Signal Processing- By R A Barapate
 http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/video.php?subjectId=117102060 (NPTEL Online Video
Course)
 Mathworks Webpage
(http://www.mathworks.in/products/signal/description4.html)
 Mikroelektronika Webpage
(http://www.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/)
 TMS-320 C6713 DSP Starter KIT User Manual
 Wikipedia
 National Instrument (http://zone.ni.com/reference/en-XX/help/371325F-
01/lvdfdtconcepts/design_methods/)
 EE TIMES (http://eetimes.com/electronics-news/4164517/Practical-
applications-of-digital-filters)
44
45

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