.INTRODUCTION      Optical fiber is basically a solid glass rod light travels like an electromagnetic wave total internal reflection Core and cladding refractive index of the core must be greater than the refractive index of the cladding.

.RAY MODEL  MERIDIONAL RAYS . It gives high optical intensity at the center of the core of the fiber  SKEW RAYS .rays essentially will spiral around the axis of fiber.the rays will always cross the axis of the fiber. It has low optical intensity at the center and high intensity towards the rim of the fiber.

MERIDIONAL RAYS • A ray is launched from outside (air) at an angle θ0. from the axis of the fiber The ray makes an angle θ1 with the axis of the fiber inside the core • .

the angle θ1 also increases   Applying Snell’s law at the launching point and at the core-cladding interface for the maximum launching angle θ0max. Let Ø2 be the angle of refraction in the cladding Now as we increase the launching angle θ0 . Let the ray make an angle Ø1 with core -cladding interface.  θ 0max is called the numerical apperture .

Acceptance angle  Acceptance angle is the maximum angle at which the core of the fiber will take in light that will be contained within the core   It is designated as It is given by d formula .

.Skew rays    Skew rays are transmitted without passing through the fiber axis They greatly outnumber meridional rays and follow helical path They propagate only in the annular region near the outer surface of the core.

dispersion  In optics. dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency  It causes distortion for both digital and analog transmission along optical fibers It has to be small since the data rate is inversely proportional to the pulse broadening  .

Conclusion  The ray model of light is more generic and explicitly explains the path taken by light. It also explains phenomena like sunbeams coming through holes in clouds .

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