INTERNATIONAL COOKERY

Africa
Gumbo-A thick Creole soup or dish thickened with okra; the word gumbo is derived from an African word for okra

China
1. Abalone- A mollusk whose large adductor muscle connecting its single shell is edible; used in both Chinese and Japanese cooking, either fresh, dried, or canned; found throughout the Pacific Ocean, off the coast of California, and in the English Channel where it is called ormer 2. Chao fan- Chinese fried rice with scrambled eggs and various bits of savory foods, leftover cold white rice, and seasoning such as soy sauce 3. Chinese Parsley- Coriander 4. Chin-chin- A toast, originally Chinese but now international 5. Dan- Chinese for egg 6. Dan hua tang- Egg drop soup in Chinese - American restaurants, literally “egg flower soup”, chicken stock into which beaten eggs are whisked to form silky strands that resemble flower petals, garnished with sliced scallions. 7. Dian Xin- Mandarin for dim sum Dim sum- In Chinese cooking, small dishes such as various dumplings, fried shrimp balls, spareribs, or fried spring rolls, eaten for snacks during the day; served in restaurants specializing in these dishes, which are from Canton; in Mandarin it is dian xin; the term means “close to the heart”. 8. Fu rong dan- Eggs beaten and scrambled with shrimp and garnished with scallions in Chinese – American cooking where it may be known as egg foo young. It is often more like an omelet with sauce but no shrimp 9. General Tso’s chicken- A favorite dish in Chinese- American cooking; chicken cubes cut from the leg, marinated and deep-fried, with a sauce of dried hot chili peppers. There was a General Tso in nineteenth-century in Hunan, but his association with the dish is obscure 10. Gu lao rou- Sweet and sour pork, a favorite Chinese-American dish. In the classic Chinese version, pork cubes are battered and fried, then served with a sauce of stir-fried scallions, peppers, and other vegetables. The American version includes a sweet and sour sauce with pineapple chunks, ketchup, and vegetables 11. Hua jiao- Hot peppercorns from Sichuan, reddish brown in color; roasted, crushed, and added to salt as a dipping sauce 12. Hoi sin jiang- In Chinese cooking, hoisin sauce; a thick, rich, dark brown sauce made from fermented soy beans, garlic, sugar, and salt, and used to flavor sauces and marinades 13. Ho yao- In Chinese cooking, the Cantonese term for oyster sauces consisting of oysters, salt, and seasonings concentrated into a thick paste. 14. Hun dun- Chinese for wonton; egg dough wrapper, literally “swallowing cloud”. 15. Ji- Chinese for chicken

16. Jiang- Chinese for sauce. The word also means ginger 17. Jiang you- Chinese for soy sauce in light, medium, and dark grades. Light soy sauce, saltier and thinner, is used with soup, seafood, and chicken. Dark soy sauce, thick, rich, and strong, is best with red meat roasts, stews, and barbecues. 18. Kuai zi- Chinese for chopsticks 19. Kumquat- A small oval citrus fruit, native from China 20. La jiao jiang- Chinese for hot chili sauce; a condiment made from chili peppers, vinegar, and seasoning; red in color, red hot in taste 21. Niu rou- Chinese for beef

Denmark
1. Danish Pastry- A yeast pastry filled with nuts, fruit, custard, or cheese; originally from Denmark but much traveled since France 1. Abatis- French for external poultry trimmings, such as wing tips, necks, and feet; sometimes used interchangeably with abats for giblets 2. Abricot- French for apricot 3. Agneau- French for lamb 4. Ail- French for garlic 5. Aioli- A garlic mayonnaise from France, thick and strongly flavored, usually served with salt cod and poached vegetables 6. Airelle rouge- French for cranberry 7. Albufera- In classic French cuisine, a Supreme sauce with meat glaze and pimento butter, named after the lagoon near Valencia in Spain 8. Allemande- Veal veloute reduced with white wine and mushroom essence, flavored with lemon juice, and bound with egg yolks. It means "German sauce" and it is a basic classic sauce in French cuisine 9. Amandine- French for garnished with almonds; often misspelled almondine 10. Amuse-gueule- French slang for cocktail appetizer, "taste tickler"; amusebouche is more polite 11. Ananas- French and German for pineapple 12. Anchois- French for anchovy 13. Andalouse- In French, garnished with tomatoes, sweet red peppers, eggplant, and sometimes rice pilaf and chipolata sausages or ham 14. Angel food cake- A sponge cake made with stiffly beaten egg whites but no yolks, producing a light and airy texture and white color 15. Anglaise Anglaise- In French cuisine, English style that is plainly boiled or roasted, or coated with an egg-and-breadcrumb batter and deep-fried 16. Animelles- The French culinary term for testicles of animal, especially rams; animelles are less popular in Europe today than formerly but still common in the Middle East. In Italy, animelle means sweetbreads 17. Arachide- French for peanut 18. Artichaut- French for artichoke

19. Aubergine- French for eggplant, also the word for eggplant in many places but not North America 20. Aurore- In French cuisine, bechamel sauce colored pink with a small amount of tomato puree; "dawn" implies a rosy hue 21. Baguette- A long cylindrical loaf of French white bread, literally a "stick" 22. Bain-marie- French for a container of warm water over which a smaller pot or pots rest, to provide slow, even, indirect heat and protect the contents from overheating; a hot water bath used on the stove or in the oven. A double broiler is a simple type of bain-marie 23. Baraquille- French for a triangular stuffed pastry hors d'oeuvre 24. Batard- A long loaf of French bread thicker than a baguette but shorter 25. Bavarois- In French cuisine, Bavarian cream 26. Bearnaise- A sauce of the warm emulsion type in classic French cuisine; wine vinegar is reduced with shallots and tarragon, then cooled; egg yolks and butter are beaten in and the mixture is strained and finished with chopped tarragon and perhaps chervil 27. Bechamel- In French cuisine, a basic white sauce of milk stirred into a roux and thickened; one of the "mother" sauce of classic cuisine 28. Beignet- French for food dipped in batter and fried in deep fat. Also a yeast fritter, common to New Orleans, deep-fried and dredged in sugar or occasionally savory 29. Bercy- A classic French fish sauce of white wine and fish fumet reduced with shallots and finished with butter and parsley; also made with meat glaze and beef marrow for grilled meat 30. Beurre blanc- A French sauce of white wine and shallots reduced and thickened with butter, and served warm with seafood, poultry, or vegetables 31. Beurre noir- A French sauce of butter cooked until brown, often flavored with chopped parsley, capers, and vinegar; served with fish and brains 32. Bigarade- A Seville or bitter orange; in French cuisine, a classic brown sauce for roast wild duck or game made of caramelized sugar, lemon, and orange juices, stock, and demi-glace with blanched zest 33. Blanquette- A French stew of veal, chicken, or lamb braised in stock, thickened with egg yolks and cream, and garnished with mushrooms and small white onions; the sauce is always off white 34. Bleu- In French, very rare 35. Bonbon- French for candy 36. Bordelaise- In French, garnished with a reduction sauce of red or white wine with bone marrow and chopped parsley 37. Bouillabase- This specialty is from Marseilles, originally a hearty fisherman's stew, is made from a wide variety of native fish and shellfish and flavored with saffron 38. Bourguignonne- In French cuisine, in the style of Burgundy; often beef braised in a red wine sauce garnished with mushrooms, small onions, and diced bacon 39. Brouille- French for scrambled 40. Brulé- French for burned or flamed, as in crème brulee

41. Buche de Noel- Literally "Yuletide log"; the traditional French gateau for Christmas, made of genoise and buttercream; decorated to look like a log 42. Cajun- Originally, this term pertained to the French Canadian settlers in Louisiana. Cajun cooking combines French methods with rural southern ingredients and a strong African influence; it is often confused with Creole. Typically, many dishes use a dark roux and pork fat and begin with sauteing of green peppers, celery, and onions. Other common seasonings are garlic, chili peppers, black pepper, mustard, and file powder for thickening. Gumbo and Jamblaya are typical dishes of this unique cuisine 43. Calmar- French for squid 44. Canapé- A small piece of bread garnished with savory food and served as an hors d'oeuvre, originally French 45. Champignon- French for mushroom 46. Chanterelle- French name for a wild mushroom, common also to the United States, that is yellow and trumpet-shaped with a ruffled edge. Before being used in cooking, chanterelles are sauteed first to disgorge their liquid and then drained 47. Chantilly- French sauce of whipped cream, sweetened and sometimes flavored with vanilla or liqueur; also hollandaise or mayonnaise with whipped cream folded in the last minute; a kind of Mousseline 48. Chowder- A thick soup usually made of seafood or perhaps vegetables, with a milk base 49. Choron- In French cuisine, Bearnaise sauce colored pink with a little tomato puree 50. Chou- French for cabbage 51. Cheveux d’ Ange- French for angel hair pasta, the thinnest vermicelli. See also CAPELLI D' ANGELO 52. Chevre- French for goat 53. Chemiser- In French, literally "in a shirt," means any food in a coating, such as potatoes in their jacket or ice cream covered with a thin brittle layer of chocolate 54. Chaud-froid- French for poultry, game, or meat that is cooked but served cold 55. Chateaubriand- In French cooking, beef cut from the fillet, grilled, and garnished with chateau potatoes and Bearnaise sauce 56. Chasseur- A classic French sauce of sliced sauteed mushrooms and shallots reduced with white wine, enriched with demi-glace and butter, and finished with chopped parsley; chasseur is the French word for hunter 57. Charcuterie- In French cuisine, the art of making cured and prepared pork 58. Charcutiere- In French cooking, sauce Robert with julienne of gherkins added just before serving; served primarily with grilled pork chops and other meats 59. Cochon- French for pig 60. Compote- A dish or fresh or dried fruit stewed slowly in syrup to keep its shape, often with liqueur and spices and served cold 61. Confit- Pork, goose, duck or other meat, cooked and preserved in its own fat; a specialty of Gascony in southwestern France; also a fruit and vegetables

cooked and preserved in a brandy or liquor syrup. The term is now also used to connote a vegetable stewed in fat 62. Confiture- French for preserve or jam 63. Coq au vin- In French cooking, a dish of chicken cut up, sauteed and braised in red wine with onions, mushrooms, and bacon 64. Coquillage- French for shellfish 65. Coquille Saint-Jacques- French for scallop; the apostle of St. James wore the shell as his emblem; also the name of a creamy scallop dish 66. Crecy- Dish with carrots, from the town of the same name, where the finest French carrots were grown 67. Crème a l’anglaise- French for custard 68. Crème brulee- French for rich custard topped with a brittle layer of sugar (usually brown sugar), caramelized under the broiler just before serving 69. Crème fraiche- French for heavy cream with a lactic culture introduced; the culture acts as a preservative and gives a tangy flavor 70. Crème patissiere- French for pastry cream; a custard of eggs, flour, milk, and sugar used to fill cream puffs, lime tarts underneath fruit, and garnish various pastries 71. Creole- In Louisiana, food cooked in the Creole style usually begin with sauteed tomatoes, onions, celery, and sweet peppers and often includes rice; it combines the many local influences – French, Spanish, African and Indian in a unique way; see also Cajun. In classic French cuisine a la creole designates a dish garnished with rice and containing sweet peppers, onions, and tomatoes cooked in oil 72. Crevette- French for shrimp 73. Croissant- A light yeast dough pastry layered like puff pastry, rolled into crescent shape and sometimes stuffed and baked; an indispensable part of the traditional French breakfast 74. Croque monsieur- The French version of a grilled ham and cheese sandwich; a croque madame is a cheese and chicken and fried egg sandwich 75. Croquette- Chopped meat or vegetables bound with a white sauce, coated with bread crumbs, and fried into a crisp, brown cylindrical shape 76. Crouton- French for a small piece of bread or dough used for garnish; sauteed bread cubes 77. Cuillere- French for spoon 78. Dacquoise- A French pastry made of meringue combined with finely ground nuts, baked in discs, and filled with flavored whipped cream or butter cream and often fresh berries 79. Dauphine- In French cooking, potato puree mixed with pate a choux and deep-fried in balls or baked in piped shapes 80. Dauphinoise- In French cooking, in the style of Dauphine; potatoes a la Dauphinoise are sliced and baked with milk, eggyolk, nutmeg, Gruyere, and garlic 81. Diable- In French cooking, deviled; food usually meat or poultry, spiced with mustard, vinegar, or hot seasoning, coated with bread crumbs, and grilled

82. Dijon- The capital of Burgundy; Dijon mustard has a white wine base; a la Dijonnaise means with a mustard-flavored sauce 83. Duchesse- In French cuisine, potatoes boiled and pureed with eggs and butter and often piped as a garnish or border 84. Duxelles- In French cooking, finely chopped mushrooms and shallots slowly cooked in butter to form a thick, dark paste that is used for seasoning sauces, as a spread for toast, and in other preparations 85. Éclair- Choux pastry piped in finger shapes and filled with flavored cream 86. Entrecote- In French, a steak cut from between the ribs 87. Entremets- In French, literally “between courses”, this vague term can denote side dishes, such as vegetables, salads, or desserts served after the cheese course 88. Epice- French for spice 89. Epinard- French for spinach 90. Escalope- French for scallop of meat or fish; a thin slice possibly flattened by pounding 91. Escargot- French for snail 92. Estouffade- In French, a brown stock used to dilute and moisten braised dishes 93. Farce- French for stuffing; means a stuffed dish 94. Flamande- It means, “Flemish style”, garnished with braised cabbage, carrots, turnips, sliced pork belly, sausage, and potatoes 95. Flambé- A French word for flamed; used to describe food that is ignited with a small amount of heated liquor poured over it, the burning alcohol enveloping the dish in flame 96. Florentine- In French cuisine, “Florentine style” with spinach; a garnish, especially for eggs fish, of a bed of spinach, the whole dish is often masked with Mornay sauce 97. Foie gras- In French cuisine, the enlarged livers of force-fed geese and ducks 98. Fondant- French for icing mixture used as a coating in confectionery or pastry 99. Fondue- From the French word for melted, fondue has several meanings; in Switzerland, it refers to a Swiss cheese, melted with white wine and seasonings in a special earthenware pot over a flame 100. Frais or Fraiche- French for fresh 101. Fraise- French for strawberry 102. Framboise- French for raspberry 103. Francaise- In the French style 104. Frappe- French for chilled, iced, or surrounded by crushed ice 105. Fricassee- A French stew of white meat, usually poultry or veal, first sauteed in butter, then braised in a white sauce 106. Froid- French for cold 107. Fromage- French for cheese 108. Fruits de mer- French for assortment of seafood 109. Fume- French for smoked

110. Fusion cuisine- A style of cooking that combines the traditions of two or more separate regions, such as French and Chinese, Polynesian, Chinese and Spanish. As chefs become familiar with techniques and ingredients from different parts of the world or combine them in their own heritage, this style becomes more popular. The danger, however, is that the culinary distinctions become not fused but confused, the roots neither recognized nor appreciated 111. Galantine- In French cuisine, boned poultry, or occasionally fish or meat, stuffed, rolled, or shaped, poached in gelatin stock, and served cold surrounded by its own aspic 112. Ganache- A rich chocolate icing or filling for French pastry, made of sweet or semi-sweet chocolate melted with heavy cream which sets when cool 113. Garibaldi- In classic French cuisine, a demi-glace sauce seasoned with mustard, cayenne, garlic and anchovy butter 114. Garniture- French for garnish 115. Gateau- French for cake; plural is gateaux 116. Gaufre- French for waffle; pommes gaufrette are potato chips cut like waffles in mandoline 117. Genevoise- A classic French sauce of salmon stock reduced with red wine and herbs and flavored with anchovy butter 118. Genoise- In French cuisine, a sponge cake made with well-beaten unseparated eggs, the only leavening to produce a dry, light base with a tight crumb, for buttercream, petit fours, lining for molds, and various other elaborate pastries 119. Gourmand- French for one who appreciates fine food and drink 120. Grandville- A classic French white wine sauce with truffles, mushrooms, and shrimp 121. Gratin or Au gratin- In French, topped with a crust of bread crumbs and sometimes grated cheese and browned in the oven or under a grill 122. Grecque- French for vegetables, particularly Greek ones such as artichokes and mushrooms, stewed in olive oil, lemon juice, water, and seasonings 123. Grenouille- French for frog; cuisses de grenouille means frog legs 124. Girbiche- A French sauce for chilled fish, based on mayonnaise with capers, chopped gherkins and herbs, and hard-boiled egg whites 125. Hachee- A classical French sauce of chopped shallots and onions reduced in vinegar, mixed with demi-glace and tomato puree, and flavored with duxelles, capers, diced ham, and parsley 126. Henry IV- Garnished with artichoke hearts filled with potato balls and Bearnaise sauce mixed with meat glaze 127. Hochepot- A thick French stew, sometimes more of a soup, made from less desirable cuts of meat and winter vegetables; the English and Scottish hotch-potch, hodge-podge, and hot pot are all derivatives 128. Hollandaise- In classic French cuisine, a thick emulsion sauce of reduced vinegar whisked with egg yolks into which melted butter is gradually beaten. It is then flavored with lemon juice and kept warm in bain-marie 129. Homard- French for lobster

130. Hors d’oeuvre- Light and stimulating finger food eaten before the main meal (in French, literally “outside the works”) as an appetizer; the term is often misspelled: when used as a collective noun it has no final s, but a group of specific appetizers takes the plural s 131. Huile- French for oil 132. Huitre- French for oyster 133. Italienne- A classic French sauce of finely chopped mushrooms with diced ham and chopped parsley 134. Jalouise- In French cooking, a pastry strip with a sweet filling, whose top layer is cut into parallel strips like a Venetian blind (hence its name) 135. Jambon- French for ham 136. Japonaise- In French cuisine, garnished with Chinese or Japanese artichokes and potato croquettes 137. Jus- French for juice; au jus means meat served with its natural juices; jus de viande means gravy 138. Lait- French for milk; au lait means with milk 139. Laitue- French for lettuce 140. Langoustine- French for a small lobster, a saltwater crayfish; also called Dublin Bay prawn (British), Norway lobster, and scampo (Italian) 141. Limon- French for lime; lemon is citron 142. Limousine- “In the style of Limousin”; in French cuisine, garnished with red cabbage 143. Maison- In French, literally “house”; designates a dish made in a restaurant’s own style, such as pâté maison 144. Maitre d’hotel- French for the person in charge of a restaurant dining room, who must command every aspect of service to patrons; originally, in royal or noble households, it was a position of great importance; the informal maître d’ is often used today. Maître d’hôtel butter is seasoned with chopped parsley and lemon juice 145. Maltaise- A classic French sauce of Hollandaise flavored with grated orange zest and orange juice; the cold sauce maltaise is mayonnaise similarly flavored 146. Maquereau- French for mackerel 147. Marengo- Chicken pieces browned in olive oil, braised with tomatoes, garlic, and brandy, and garnished with fried eggs, crayfish, and sometimes croutons. This famous French dish was devised by Napoléon’s chef Dunand after the defeat of the Austrians at Marengo in 1800, when no other food could be found, and was commemorated by Napoléon 148. Marguery- A classic French sauce of Hollandaise flavored with oyster, liquor, and garnished with poached oyster 149. Mariniere- Literally “sailor style” in French; seafood cooked in white wine with chopped shallots, parsley, and butter and garnished with mussels 150. Marjolaine- A famous French pastry created by Fernand Point of almond and hazelnut dacquoise layered with chocolate, praline, and buttercream. Marjolaine also means sweet marjoram

151. Medaillon- French for a small round “medallion” or scallop of meat, such as beef, lamb, veal, or even a slice of foie gras 152. Melanger- To mix in French; the word melange means a mixture or blend 153. Miel- French for honey; in Italian the word is miele 154. Mikado- French for Japanese style 155. Mornay- Bechamel sauce with butter, grated parmesan, and gruyere cheese, possibly with egg yolks beaten in Ex. Lobster and Prawn Mornay 156. Moule- French for mussel 157. Mousseline- A French dish or sauce with whipped cream or egg whites folded in; it often designated hollandaise or mayonnaise with whipped cream added. The term can also mean a “little mousse” in a small mold or in spoonfuls, especially for seafood preparation. 158. Nantua sauce- In classic French cuisine, Bechamel sauce reduced with cream, beaten with crayfish butter, and garnished with crayfish tails 159. Napolitaine- In French cuisine, “in the style of Naples”; veal scallops dipped in beaten eggs and bread crumbs mixed with grated Parmesan, fried, and garnished with spaghetti, tomato sauce, and Parmesan 160. Noisette- French for hazelnut, or food that is shape or colored like a nut. The word also mean a cut of meat from the rib, usually of lamb, trimmed, rolled, tied in a small round, and served in an individual portion. Pommes noisette are potato balls, small, round, and browned in butter, beurre noisette is brown butter sauce 161. Noix- French for walnut 162. Normande- In French cuisine, fish Veloute with mushrooms and oyster liquor, thickened with egg and creams, and enriched with butter 163. Naugat- In French cuisine, a confection of roasted nut (usually almond or walnuts) with honey or syrup; there are many varieties. Naugatine, a vague term, can mean almond brittle or naugat combined with chocolate 164. Nouillies- French for noodles 165. Nouvelle Cuisine- Literally “new cooking”, a movement starting in the 1970s that feature fresher, lighter food in innovative combinations, served in small portion with striking presentations, reduction rather than flour or egg yolk thickened sauces, but still by classic French techniques 166. Oeuf- French for egg 167. Oignon- French for onion 168. Pain- French for bread 169. Paloise- In French cuisine, “in the style of Pau”; classic Bearnaise sauce but with mint in place of tarragon 170. Palourde- French for clam 171. Panache- French for mixed or multicolored; used to describe salad, fruit, or ice cream 172. Papillote- A paper frill used to garnish the end of the rib bone on chops and crown rib roasts; en papillote means an individual portion of fish, poultry, or meat that is wrapped in paper (usually parchment)with seasonings and liquid to

moisten it, cooked in the oven, and served while still in the puffed-up paper, slit at table to release the aromatic steam 173. Parfait- A French mousselike dessert originally a coffee cream, but now any fruit, nut, or flavored syrup into which whipped cream is folded, then chilled or frozen 174. Parmentier- Any dish with potatoes, after Antoine-Augustin Parmentier, the French agronomist who was able to recognized the potential of the tuber, previously believed to be poisonous, championed its acceptance by the French 175. Paté- French for a rich mixture usually savory, of meat, poultry, game, seafood, or vegetables cooked in pastry (pate en croute) or earthenware dish (pate en terrine) 176. Petit four- A very small cake or cookie, often elaborately garnished; also a sweetmeat served at the end of dinner (in French, literally “little oven”) 177. Piquante- A classic French sauce of chopped shallots reduced with white wine and vinegar, demi-glace added, strained, then garnished with chopped gherkins, parsley, chervil, and tarragon 178. Poivrade- A French sauce, usually for game, of mirepoix cooked in butter with game trimmings, reduced with crushed peppercorns and herbs, moistened with the marinade and vinegar, demi-glace and game essence added, then strained and finished with butter 179. Poivre- French for pepper 180. Pomme- French for apple 181. Pommes anna- A French dish of layered potato slices baked with butter in a special casserole; brown and crisp on the outside, soft on the inside 182. Porto- A classic French sauce of demi-glace and port 183. Portugaise- A classic French sauce of chopped onions cooked in butter or oil, with chopped tomatoes, tomato sauce, meat glaze, garlic, and chopped parsley 184. Potage- French for soup 185. Pot-au-feu- In French cuisine, meat and vegetables cooked together in water; the resulting broth is served first, followed by the meat and vegetables as the main course; this classic provincial dish can contain several different meats 186. Potiron- French for pumpkin 187. Poularde- French for a fat hen or chicken 188. Profiteroles- Choux pastry puffs with a sweet or savory filling 189. Puits d’amour- In French, a “wishing well”, a small round pastry with sweet filling of pastry cream, jelly, or fruit 190. Quiche- A French custard tart, usually savory, from Alsace and Lorraine. In the United States it has come to mean quiche lorraine, which is filled with eggs, cream, bacon, and Gruyere cheese 191. Ragout- French stew of meat, poultry, or fish, which may contain vegetables; a ragout literally “restores the appetite” 192. Ramequin- French for a small flameproof dish, a ramekin; also a small cheese tart

193. Ratatouille- A vegetable stew from Provence of diced eggplant, tomatoes, zucchini, green peppers, onions, and garlic all cooked in olive oil; there are many variations, and it can be eaten hot or cold 194. Remoulade- Mayonnaise seasoned with mustard, anchovy essence, chopped gherkins, capers, parsley, chervil, and tarragon 195. Robert- A classic French sauce of sautéed onions reduced with white wine and vinegar, demi-glace added, and finished with mustard 196. Rosbif- French for roast beef 197. Roulade- French for a rolled slice of meat or piece of fish filled with a savory stuffing; the term can also mean a sheet of sponge cake or the like spread with a suitable filling, rolled up, and perhaps garnished 198. Sabayon- The French version of zabaglione in which various wines or liqueurs can be substituted for marsala 199. Table d’hote- French for a full meal at a fixed price 200. Tapenade- Mixture of mashed capers, anchovies, black olives, garlic, and perhaps tuna and other foods, thinned to a paste with olive oil 201. Tartare- In French cuisine, sauce tatare is mayonnaise with hard-boiled egg yolks and garnished with finely chopped onions, chives, and capers; boeuf a la tartare is chopped lean raw beef served with capers, chopped onions, and parsley, with raw egg 202. Terrine- A French cuisine, a mixture of meat, game, poultry, or vegetables, and seasonings cooked in a dish lined with bacon or pork 203. Timbale- French for a drum-shaped mold, usually metal, or the food prepared in such a mold 204. Tournedos- French for thick slices from the middle of the beef fillet, sautéed or grilled 205. Vacherin- In French cuisine, a shell made of a solid disc of meringue and separate rings stacked on the circumference to form a container; the baked vacherin shell is decorated with piped scrolls, then filled with ice cream, crème chantilly, berries, etc 206. Vichyssoise- Cream of potato and leek soup, served chilled and garnished with chives; the 1917 creation of Louis Diat, chef of the Ritz-Carlton in New York, and named for his native French city 207. Vinaigrette- A basic French sauce or dressing of oil and vinegar, usually in a proportion of three to one 208. Vol-au-vent- Puff pastry cases, literally “flight of the wind” in French; either large or small round shells with caps, used to hold savory or sweet fillings

Germany
1. Aal- German for eel 2. Apfel- Geman for apple; Apfelstrudel is thin strudel dough filled with apples, white raisins, and spices; very popular dessert in Germany and Austria 3. Auflauf- German for souffle 4. Auster- German for oyster 5. Biskote- German for ladyfinger 6. Frucht- German for fruit

7. Garnele- German for prawn 8. Geflugei- German for poultry 9. Gewurz- German for spices, condiments, and seasonings 10. Hackbraten- German for meat loaf 11. Haselnuss- German for hazelnut 12. Hauptgerichte- German for main course 13. Hausgemacht- German for homemade 14. Obst- German for fruit served in a dish 15. Pelkartoffeln- German for potatoes boiled in their skins 16. Pfeffer- German for pepper 17. Pilz- German for mushroom 18. Reis- German for rice 19. Rosti- Potatoes (sometimes with onions) grated and fried in a pancake, from Switzerland 20. Schnitzel- German for a cutlet, slice, scallop, chop, or steak 21. Schokolade- German for chocolate 22. Schwarzwald- German for black forest 23. Sosse- German for sauce 24. Spatzle- German for a type of noodle or dumpling 25. Streusel- German for sprinkling, as of sugar or bread crumbs; Streuselkuchen is a yeast cake topped with a cinnamon and sugar crumble 26. Strudel- Very thin pastry sheets with a sweet or savory filling, rolled up and baked; originally from Bavaria 27. Wurst- German for sausage; a wurstchen is a little sausage 28. Zucker- German for sugar 29. Zwiebel- German for onion

Greece
1. Ambrosia- Food of the gods that, in Greek mythology, they eat with nectar; a Southern fruit dessert, often citrus, topped with grated coconut 2. Avgolemono- A Greek soup made from egg yolks and lemon juice combined with chicken stock and rice, that is very popular in the Balkans; also a sauce made from egg yolks and lemon juice 3. Feta- A goat’s or ewe’s milk cheese originally from Greece 4. Phyllo- Very thin sheets of dough. Made from flour and water, layered, and filled with savory or sweet foods. In Greek the word means “leaf,” and phyllo is, in fact, similar to the French mille-feuille; sometimes spelled filo 5. Spanakopita- A Greek spinach pie wrapped in phyllo dough 6. Taramosalata- A Greek salad of a cured pink fish roe, usually gray mullet, cod, or carp, cured and mashed with bread that has been moistened with a little milk, olive oil, lemon juice, and garlic and served with crusty bread

Hawaii
Mahi mahi- Hawaiian name for dolphin (no relation to the porpoise mammal “dolphin,” causing confusion); its flesh is usually skinned and cut into

steaks or fillets that are versatile in cooking: rich, sweet, moist, firm, with a large flake.

India
1. Achar- Pickle in Indian cuisine; also a special curry that is piquant with blended pickle spices 2. Adrak- Fresh ginger in Indian cuisine 3. Aloo- Potato in Indian cuisine; also spelled alu 4. Am- Mango in Indian cuisine. Dried green mango powder is amchoor, for use as a souring agent like tamarind or lemon juice, especially in vegetarian dishes 5. Baigan- Eggplant in Indian cooking 6. Basmati rice- A high-quality, long-grain rice with an aromatic, nutty flavor that grow in the Himalayan foothills 7. Bhendi- In Indian cooking, okra 8. Biryani- In Indian cooking, a substantial, elaborate, and spicy rice dish layered with meat or fish and vegetables 9. Brinjal- In Indian cooking, eggplant 10. Chapati- An Indian whole-wheat flatbread cooked on a griddle, then turned over (or out on coals) to puff up; roti is another name 11. Ghee- Clarified butter; in India, ghee is usually made of buffalo butter 12. Gobi- Cabbage in Indian cooking; phul gobi, cauliflower 13. Haidi- Turmeric in Indian cooking 14. Jhinga- Shrimp or prawn in India cooking; also spelled ginga 15. Kari- In Indian cooking, curry seasoned sauce; also the aromatic leaves of the kari plant 16. Kesar- Saffron, in Indian cooking 17. Korma- In northern Indian cooking, meat and vegetables slowly braised with yogurt cream, usually rich in spicy but moist or necessarily hot 18. Lassi- A refreshing Indian yogurt drink, salted or sweet 19. Lassoon- Garlic in Indian cooking 20. Mithai- Indian sweets or desserts 21. Murgh- Chicken in Indian cooking 22. Naan- Indian flatbread bake on the side of tandoor oven until puffed; sometimes flavored with savory or sweet ingredients; from the Punjab 23. Nimboo- Lemon or lime in Indian cooking 24. Palak- Spinach in Indian cooking 25. Piaz- Onion in Indian cooking 26. Podina- Mint in Indian cooking 27. Pudina- Mint in Indian cooking 28. Roti- The generic word for bread in Indian cooking; also another word for chapati. In the Caribbean, roti means a wheat pancake with curried meat or fish filling of Indian origin 29. Samosa- A triangular savory pastry filled with vegetables or meat spiced with curry or chilies from India and Pakistan 30. Tandoor- An Indian clay oven, usually recessed in the ground; tandoori, the food roasted in it at high temperatures, is first marinated in yogurt and spices

Indonesia
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Asam manis- Indonesian for sweet and sour Ayam- Indonesian for chicken Bumbu- An Indonesian sauce, usually a spicy peanut sauce, as for sate Ikan- Indonesian for fish Kelapa- Indonesian and also Malaysian for coconut Laos- Indonesian for galangal (ginger family root) Mee- Indonesian for noodles Nasi- Indonesian for rice

Iran/Persia
Abgusht- Stew in Persian cooking, usually of lamb and vegetables

Italy
1. Acciuga- Italian for anchovy 2. Aceto- Italian for vinegar 3. Aglio- Italian for garlic 4. Agnello- Italian for lamb 5. Amaretto- Italian for macaroon, made from sweet and bitter almonds; also the liqueur, Amaretto de Saronno, made from apricot kernels 6. Antipasto- In Italian, literally "before the pasta," an antipasto is an appetizer or starter 7. Aragosta- Italian for lobster 8. Arancia- Italian for orange; arancini means "little oranges“, are rice croquettes flavored with saffron and butter and wrapped around savory fillings before frying 9. Arborio rice- A short, fat-grained starchy Italian rice variety used for cooking risotto 10. Arrabbiata- A spicy Italian sauce of toamatoes and hot chili peppers 11. Arsella- Italian for mussels 12. Bagna cauda- An Italian dipping sauce, literally "hot bath“, of garlic and anchovies in olive oil and butter or sometimes cream, served warm with raw vegetables on festive occasions 13. Balsamic vinegar- A very fine and expensive type of Italian vinegar, aged in a series of special wooden casks for a dark, mellow, subtle flavor, to be used with discretion. Industrial balsamic, with added caramel for color and flavor, is now widely available and affordable for more general uses 14. Basilico- Italian for basil 15. Burro- Italian for butter 16. Cacciatora- Italian for hunter's style; in a sauce of mushrooms, onions, tomatoes, and herbs with wine 17. Calamari- Italian for squid. 18. Caldo- Italian for hot; in Spanish and Portuguese, caldo means broth

19. Calzone- A turnover made of pizza dough, literally "pant leg“, stuffed with various fillings, usually in individual portions; originally from Naples and now popular in the United States 20. Cannelloni- Italian pasta squares usually boiled, stuffed, rolled, and baked in a sauce 21. Cantaloupe- The true cantaloupe named for the town of Cantelupo near Rome, is a small, round, segmented melon with aromatic and flavorful orange flesh; what Americans call cantaloupe is a muskmelon 22. Carpaccio- Very thin slices of beef fillet served with mustardy mayonnaise, created by Arrigo Cipriani, of Harry's Bar in Venice, in 1961. The term is now used loosely for raw beef dressed with olive oil, lemon juice, and truffles or Parmesan, or perhaps capers and onions 23. Casalinga- Italian for homemade 24. Cassata- An Italian dessert of ice cream molded in layers of contrasting colors with candied fruits soaked in liqueur; also a rich chocolate dessert from Sicily combining layers of sponge cake and ricotta with candied fruits 25. Cavolfiore- Italian for cauliflower 26. Cavolo- Italian for cabbage 27. Cena- Italian and Spanish for supper 28. Cetriolo- Italian for cucumber 29. Cioccolata- Italian for chocolate 30. Cipolla- Italian for onion 31. Cipollina- Italian for small onion; plural is cipolline. Those sold in farmers and specialty markets are small and flat, with a full, mellow, complex flavor 32. Cozza- Italian for mussel 33. Crudo- Italian and Spanish for raw and fresh 34. Dente, Al- In Italian, literally “to the bite”; refers to pasta or vegetables cooked only until firml, not soft and overdone 35. Dolce- Italian for sweet; dolci, means dessert 36. Espresso- Strong Italian coffee made with a special machine that forces steam through the coffee grounds 37. Farcito- Italian for stuffed 38. Farina- Italian for flour; farina is also a grade of wheat finer that semolina 39. Fatto in casa- Italian for homemade 40. Fegato- Italian for liver; fegatelli means pork liver; fegatini, chicken liver 41. Fetta- Italian for slice or fillet 42. Focaccia- A flat, round Italian peasant bread flavored variously but always with olive oil 43. Formaggio- Italian for cheese 44. Fragola- Italian for strawberry 45. Freddo- Italian for cold 46. Fresco- Italian and Spanish for fresh 47. Frittata- An Italian omelet 48. Frutti di mare- Italian for mixed food especially seafood, can be very elaborate and can also include a wide variety, such as meat, offal, and vegetables served together

49. Fungo- Italian for mushroom 50. Gelato- Italian for ice cream or water ice; a gelateria is an ice cream parlor 51. Glornoo, del- Italian for “of the day”; du jour in French 52. Gnocchi- Italian dumplings made from choux paste, semolina flour, or pureed potatoes, poached in water, served covered with cheese or other sauce or in a soup 53. Granchio- Italian for crab 54. Granita- Italian fruit ice or sweetened coffee that is frozen, so that its ice crystals intentionally form a grainy texture 55. Gremolada- in Italian cooking, a mixture of chopped parsley, garlic, and grated lemon zest sprinkled over osso buco as an aromatic garnish 56. Grissino- Italian for breadstick 57. Lampone- Italian for raspberry 58. Latte- Italian for milk 59. Lattuga- Italian for lettuce 60. Manzo- Italian for beef 61. Marinara- Literally “sailor style” in French; term often meaning a simple tomato sauce flavored with garlic and herbs, usually served with fettucine or other pasta 62. Mela- Italian for apple 63. Melanzana- Italian for eggplant 64. Meringue- Pastry made of stiffly beaten egg whites with sugar, shaped variously, and baked in a slow oven. In an Italian meringue, hot sugar syrup is beaten into stiffly whipped egg whites, for lightening patries and buttercreams, soufflés, and sorbets 65. Minestra- Italian for soup or sometimes pasta served as the first course 66. Mortadella- A large Italian sausage of ground pork with white cube of fat, pistachio nuts, wine, and coriander; the best are from Bologna 67. Napoletana- In Italian cooking, a meatless spaghetti sauce made with tomatoes, onion, garlic, and olive oil, in the style of Naples 68. Nostrale/Nostrano- Italian for native or homegrown 69. Osso buco/Ossobuco alla Milanese- In Italian cooking, veal shanks or shin bones (literally “bone with a hole”), preferably from the hind, slowly braised with onions, garlic, tomatoes and other vegetables, stock and white wine, and traditionally garnished with gremolata before serving 70. Pane- Italian for bread; panino is a roll or biscuit 71. Panforte- Italian for fruit cake 72. Panna- Italian for cream 73. Peperonata- Italian for dish of sweet bell peppers, tomatoes, onions, and garlic cooked with olive oil and served cold 74. Peperoncino- Italian for a hot red chili pepper, fresh or dried 75. Peperoni- Italian for green or red sweet bell peppers; also an Italian sausage of pork and beef highly seasoned with hot red peppers 76. Pesce- Italian for fish 77. Pesto- A sauce from Genoa of crushed basil, garlic, pine nuts, and Parmesan or Pecorino in olive oil

78. Pizzaiola- Italian fresh tomato sauce with herbs and oregano, like pizza topping, often served with meat dishes; pizzaiolo means pizza maker 79. Polenta- Coarse-ground cornmeal and also an Italian pudding made from the meal, eaten as a peasant porridge or more often cooled, sliced, and fried, grilled, or baked with various other foods. Polenta is a specialty of Venice 80. Pollo- Italian and Spanish for chicken 81. Polpetta- Italian for meat patty croquette; polpettone is meat loaf; polpetta is meatball 82. Polpo/Polipo/Polipetto- Italian for octopus 83. Pomodoro- Italian for tomato (literally “golden apple”), so named because the first tomatoes in Europe, in the sixteenth century were yellow 84. Prosciutto- Fresh Italian ham cured by salting and air-drying but not generally by smoking 85. Puttanesca- Italian pasta sauce “in the style of the prostitute”, that is, quick, pungent, and satisfying; with garlic, anchovies, black olives, capers, parsley, and tomatoes 86. Quaglia- Italian for quail 87. Risotto- Italian for a dish of starchy short-grain rice cooked in butter and or olive oil with a little chopped onion to which stock is gradually added as it is absorbed 88. Saffron- The deep orange dried stigmas of a particular crocus, which must be gathered by hand, hence the spice’s exorbitant price. Since ancient times and in many cultures, saffron has been used as a medicine, aphrodisiac, dye, and spice; it colors and flavors classic dishes 89. Saltimbocca- An Italian veal scallop with a sage leaf and a thin slice of prosciutto laid on top, braised in butter and marsala or white wine; this dish, whose name means “jump in the mouth”, comes from Rome 90. Semolina- The coarsely milled endosperm of wheat or other flour, from which the bran and germ have been removed; durum semolina, made from a special kind of hard wheat, is excellent for (commercial) pasta because it has few loose starch granules to soften the dough 91. Semifreddo- Italian for a chilled or frozen mousselike dessert including cream, custard, cake, and fruit; the Spanish version is semifrio 92. Tiramisu- A rich Italian dessert, literally “pick me up”, created in the 1960’s, that the layers sponge cake soaked in brandy and espresso with mascarpone custard cream flavored with chocolate 93. Tonno- Italian for tuna 94. Verdura- Italian and Spanish for vegetable; the Italian plural is verdure, the Spanish verduras. In French, verdure means greenery or foliage, not green vegetables 95. Zabaglione- An Italian dessert custard in which egg yolks, flavored with marsala and sugar, are beaten over simmering water until they foam up into a frothy mass; the French version is sabayon 96. Zuppa- Italian for soup

97. Zuccotto- A dome-shaped Italian dessert of cake moistened with liqueur and filled with sweetened whipped cream, chocolate, and nuts; originally from Florence 98. Cos- Romaine lettuce 99. Zuppa Inglese- Literally “English soup”, this is a rich Italian dessert of rumsoaked sponge cake layered with custard and cream-like a trifle

Japan
1. Abura- Japanese for oil; aburage means deep-fried tofu 2. Age- Japanese for deep-fried 3. Aemono- Japanese for salad or dressed foods; with tofu or miso based dressing 4. Amai- Japanese for sweet 5. Bento box- A black lacquered box with compartments used to serve meals, especially lunch, in Japan; it is the Japanese version of the lunch box commonly sold to commuters at railroad stations 6. Bonito- A small member of the tuna family; often used in Japanese cooking, dried, salted, or flaked 7. Butaniku- Japanese for pork 8. Daikon- A large mild white radish 9. Dashi- Japanese fish stock made of dried bonito and seaweed 10. Donburi- In Japanese cooking, a porcelain footed bowl with lid, and the food that goes in it. This is hot boiled rice with a topping of meat, fish, vegetables, and eggs with condiments and garnishes 11. Ebi- Japanese for shrimp 12. Furai- In Japanese, to fry 13. Gohan- Japanese for rice 14. Goma- Japanese for sesame seeds 15. Gyuniku- Japanese for beef 16. Hakusai- Japanese for Chinese cabbage 17. Hashi- Japanese for chopsticks 18. Hiyashi- Japanese for cold or chilled 19. Horenso- Japanese for Spanish 20. Ika- Japanese for squid 21. Kake- Japanese for noodles; used in combination with another word, such as kake-jiru (noodle broth) 22. Kani- Japanese for crab 23. Katsuo-bushi- Japanese dried bonito flakes, essential in making dashi 24. Kudamono- Japanese for fruit 25. Maki- Japanese for rolled 26. Mirin- Japanese rice wine, syrupy and sweet, used for cooking 27. Miso- Japanese fermented bean paste made from soybeans and grain (Barley, Rice, or Soybeans)- A nutritious high-protein staple used extensive as a flavoring and condiment, with regional preferences; shinshu is yellow, mellow, thin, salty, and all-purpose; shiro is pale, sweetish, used in salad dressing; sendai or inaka is red, sweet, or salty; and hatcho is dark brown, thick, salty, and strong.

Miso-shiru is a soup thickened with red bean paste eaten for breakfast and other meals 28. Moyashi- Japanese for bean sprouts 29. Mushi- Japanese for steam; mushimono means steam food 30. Nasu- Japanese for eggplant 31. Nori- In Japanese cooking, thin black sheets of seaweed, used either toasted or untoasted for wrapping sushi, rice balls, and crackers, and for coating food to be deep-fried 32. Ocha- Japanese for green tea 33. Ramen- Japanese soup noodles 34. Ryori- Japanese for food 35. Sakana- Japanese for fish 36. Sake- Japanese rice wine, sweet or dry, usually drunk warm in small cups and also used for cooking 37. Sashimi- Literally “fresh slice”, in Japanese; this really means raw fish expertly sliced according to the particular variety and served with garnishes, condiments, and spices 38. Shabu-shabu- In Japanese cuisine, meat and vegetables cooked at table in stock, served with a seasoned sesame sauce 39. Sushi- Vinegared rice formed into fingers or rounds, seasoned with wasabi or other condiment, perhaps rolled in seaweed, and garnished with raw seafood or fish and sometimes a vegetable. In Japan, sushi is eaten as a meal; in the United States, it is also eaten as an appetizer 40. Tamago- Japanese for egg 41. Teriyaki- Japanese for poultry, meat, or fish marinated in a sweet soy sauce preparation and grilled over charcoal so that the marinade forms a glaze 42. Tonkatsu- In Japanese cooking, pork marinated in a spicy sauce, dipped in egg and bread crumbs, and fried 43. Udon- Japanese wheat noodle 44. Unagi- Japanese for eel 45. Wasabi- A plant, often called Japanese horseradish though botanically unrelated, whose root is used as condiment for raw fish dishes; it comes fresh, powdered, and as a paste, and is very hot in flavor and green in color 46. Yaki- In Japanese, to grill or broil; yakimono means grilled food; yakitori is chicken pieces and vegetables skewered, marinated in a spicy sauce, and grilled

Korea
1. Bibimbap- A Korean dish, a mixture of rice and stir-fried beef strips, bean sprouts, scallions, seaweed, sesame seeds, and a fried egg, all cooked together in a clay pot; made in many variations 2. Bulgogi- Korean barbecue of marinated beef or less commonly chicken or squid, cooked over a wood fire or more recently, a gas grill 3. Doo-boo- Korean for tofu 4. Kalbi jim- Beef or pork ribs braised with some mushrooms and optional chestnuts in a spicy sauce

5. Kimchee- A pungent Korean condiment of pickled shredded vegetables including Chinese cabbage, radishes, cucumbers, greens, onions, garlic, and chili peppers seasoned with fermented shellfish and salt 6. Naeng myon- A cold noodle soup, a popular Korean one-dish summer meal, assembled at table; it includes buck wheat noodles in cool beef broth with vegetables and seasoning on top, finished with hard-boiled egg

Malaysia
1. Balachan- A Malaysian condiment of fermented shrimp or other seafoods with chilies; salty and pungent 2. Durian- The fruit of Malaysian tree with prickly rind and edible pulp and seeds; its highly offensive smell keeps most Westerners from tasting its flesh, considered exquisite by its advocates

Mexico
1. Burrito- A taco of wheat rather than maize (tortilla), folded to enclose a savory filling such as shredded meat, refried beans, and grated cheese 2. Chipotle- A dull brown chili pepper, actually a smoked and dried jalapeño with wrinkled skin; often canned in adobo sauce, this chili is very hot and has a distinctive smoky flavor 3. Chimichanga- A deep-fried burrito 4. Enchilada- In Mexican cooking, a tortilla, fried and filled variously, often with meat, chilies, or cheese 5. Guacamole- In Mexican cooking, mashed avocado, usually served as a dip; may be flavored with onions, garlic, chilies, lime juice, seasonings, and perhaps tomato 6. Jaiba- Mexican for crab 7. Jalapeño- A hot chili pepper from Mexico, a favorite in the United States, about 2 inches long; usually eaten bright green and fresh, often stuffed, also pickled and even candied; when dried and smoked, it becomes a chipotle 8. Jícama- A root vegetable, crisp and slightly sweet, that resembles the turnip; used both raw and barely cooked in Mexican and Asian cooking 9. Quesadilla- A Mexican tortilla turnover filled with a savory stuffing and toasted or fried 10. Tamale- A Mexican dish of corn dough made with lard, filled with a savory stuffing, wrapped up in a piece of corn husk, and steamed; the filling can be savory or sweet. Tamales are traditionally for holidays and special occasions, and their history is an ancient. In South America, banana leaves serve as tamale wrappers 11. Tex-Mex- A style of cooking that combines elements of Texan and Mexican food such as chili con carne. This indefinable style is more an American perception of Mexican food as that offered by Mexican restaurants north of the border, as opposed to authentic Mexican food found in Mexico

Pacific Ocean

Lox- Salmon, usually from Pacific Ocean; cured (but not smoked, as it used to be) with salt, then soaked in water to remove some of the salt; often eaten with cream cheese on bagels

Portugal
1. Azeite- Portuguese for olive 2. Queijo- Portugese for cheese

Russia
1. Beef Stroganoff- Strips of beef sauteed with chopped onions and mushrooms, thickened with sour cream; perhaps named after the Russian diplomat Count Paul Stroganov 2. Piroshki- In Russia, small turnovers or dumplings filled with a savory sweet stuffing

Scandinavia
Gravlax- Scandinavian raw salmon fillets cured for a day or so in sugar and salt and seasoned with dill

Spain
1. Aceite- Spanish for oil, often but not necessarily olive oil 2. Aceituna- Spanish for olive 3. Adobo- Spanish for marinade; the word extends to the method of preparing meat or seafood in a marinade and to the dish itself; the Mexican version is hot with chilies, the Philippine is pungent with vinegar 4. Aguacate- Spanish for avocado 5. Ajo- Spanish for garlic 6. Albondigas- Spicy Spanish or Mexican meatballs made of pork, beef, etc.; also a dumpling 7. Alcachofa- Spanish for artichoke 8. Alioli- Spanish for aioli 9. Almeja- Spanish for clam 10. Almendra- Spanish for almond; in Portuguese, amendoa 11. Almuerzo- Spanish for lunch 12. Asado- Spanish for roasted or broiled 13. Azafran- Spanish for saffron 14. Azucar- Spanish for sugar 15. Batata- Spanish and Portuguese for sweet potato 16. Budin- Spanish for pudding; the Italian word is budino 17. Calabacita- Spanish for zucchini 18. Caldereta- A Spanish meat or fish stew, whose name derives from the cauldron in which it is cooked 19. Caliente- Spanish for hot 20. Camaron- Spanish for shrimp 21. Cebolla- Spanish for onion

22. Cerdo- Spanish for pork 23. Churro- Spanish for a finger or loop of dough, similar to bunuelo fried in hot olive oil for breakfast or a merienda 24. Cilantro- Spanish for fresh coriander leaf 25. Cocido- Spanish for stew; also means cooked, as opposed to fresh 26. Codorniz- Spanish for quail 27. Col- Spanish for cabbage 28. Comida- Spanish for meal, usually meaning lunch 29. Desayuno- Spanish for breakfast 30. Dulce- Spanish for sweet 31. Ensalada- Spanish for salad 32. Entremeses- Spanish for appetizers 33. Escabeche- Spanish and Portuguese for cooked fish, sometimes poultry, marinated in vinegar or wine (which pickles it) and other seasonings 34. Estofado- Spanish for stew 35. Fiambre- Spanish and Portuguese for cooked cold food 36. Flameado- Spanish for flambé 37. Frambuesa- Spanish for raspberry 38. Fresa- Spanish for strawberry 39. Frio- Spanish for cold 40. Fruta bomba- Spanish for papaya 41. Gamba- Spanish for shrimp 42. Gazpacho- A light, refreshing but thick peasant soup from Andalusia in Spain. Made of raw tomatoes, garlic, olive oil, and vinegar, and sometimes bread crumbs, mashed together. There is also white gazpacho, with green grapes, garlic, and almonds 43. Guisantes- Spanish for peas 44. Guiso/Guisado- Spanish for stew 45. Helado- Spanish for ice cream 46. Higado- Spanish for liver 47. Horno- Spanish for oven; al horno means baked 48. Huevo- Spanish for egg 49. Jamon- Spanish for ham 50. Leche- Spanish for milk; the word can also mean custard 51. Lechuga- Spanish for lettuce 52. Legumbres- Spanish for vegetable 53. Mantecado- Spanish for rich vanilla ice cream with whipped cream folded in 54. Mantequilla- Spanish for butter 55. Mariquitas- Spanish for chip, as in plantain or potato chip 56. Mariscos- Spanish for scallops, shellfish, or seafood; mariscada is a shellfish soup 57. Mojo- A pungent Creole garlic sauce from Cuba, made with lard, olive oil, citrus, and onion, often served with pork and chicken 58. Nuez- Spanish for nut; the plural is nueces 59. Ostra- Spanish for oyster

60. Paella- A Spanish dish of short-grain rice cooked with a variety of meats and fish (usually chorizo, chicken, rabbit, and shellfish) and an assortment of vegetables, including garlic, scallions, peas, and tomatoes, flavored with saffron and served in the pan in which it is traditionally made. The exact ingredients vary widely according to region and season; originally from Valencia and usually made with Valencia rice 61. Pan- Spanish for bread 62. Parrilla- Spanish for grill 63. Pastel- Spanish for pie, cake, or pastry; a pastelaria is a pastry shop 64. Pechuga de pollo- Spanish for chicken breast 65. Peregrinos- Spanish for scallops 66. Pescado- Spanish for fish 67. Picadillo- In Spanish cooking, a hash made of ground beef sautéed with chopped vegetables and savory seasonings 68. Pimienta- Spanish for black pepper; pimiento means capsicum red pepper, either sweet (pimiento dulce) or hot. 69. Pollo- Italian and Spanish for chicken 70. Queso- Spanish for cheese 71. Ranchero- Spanish for country style 72. Res- Spanish for beef 73. Romesco, salsa- A classic Spanish sauce for fish, from Catalonia, made of crushed tomatoes, chilies, garlic, hazelnuts, and almonds with olive oil and vinegar 74. Uva- Spanish for grape

Syria
Fattoushi- A Syrian salad, with pita or other Middle Eastern flatbread toasted and soaked with chopped cucumber, tomatoes, onions, herbs, lemon juice, and olive oil

Thailand
1. Ba mee- Thai for egg noodles 2. Dee la- Thai for sesame weeds 3. Gaeng- Thai for curry paste 4. Gai- Thai for chicken 5. Haw mok- A Thai fish dish with green curry paste, coconut milk, chilies, lemongrass, and onions wrapped in banana leaves and steamed 6. Kai- Thai for egg 7. Kanom- Thai for cake or cookies 8. Kha- Thai for ginger family root 9. King- Thai for ginger 10. Kluay- Thai for banana 11. Kong- Thai for snack 12. Mak mak- Thai for tamarind 13. Malakor- Thai for papaya 14. Mamuang- Thai for mango

15. 16. 17. 18.

Manao- Thai for lime Moo- Thai for pork Nam- Thai for water Nam pla- Thai fish sauce

USA
1. Arugula- American term for rocket, a salad herb with peppery, piquant flavor, eaten raw or barely wilted; the Italian name is rucola, the French roquette 2. Oysters Rockefeller- Oysters on the half shell, resting on a bed of rock salt, each topped with a spoonful of pureed seasoned spinach, quickly browned; originally from Antoine’s in New Orleans and named for John D. Rockefeller; apparently first made with absinthe and watercress rather than spinach 3. Tabasco- A fiery hot commercial sauce made of the Tabasco variety of chili pepper, vinegar, and salt aged in oak barrels and bottled; made since the Civil War in Cajun, Louisiana 4. Waldorf salad- Chopped apples, celery, and walnuts in mayonnaise; created in Waldorf-Astoria in New York before the turn of the twentieth century, although the walnuts were added later

Saudi Arabia
1. Bamia- Arabic for okra. 2. Gyro- Kebab

United Kingdom
1. Caster sugar- British for superfine (granulated) sugar; also spelled castor sugar 2. Courgette- British for zucchini 3. Cumberland sauce- Red currant jelly dissolved with port and flavored with shallots, orange zest, and mustard 4. Demerara sugar- Partially refined raw cane sugar, naturally light brown in color from molasses, less moist than muscovado sugar. 5. Scone- A traditional Scottish cake 6. Yorkshire pudding- A British savory pudding made from a batter of milk, eggs, and flour, originally baked under a roast beef on an open spit or rack to catch the drippings, puffing up in the process. The pudding is cut into squares for serving 7. Worcestershire sauce- A highly seasoned commercial sauce, made originally by Lea & Perrins of Worcester, England for 160 years and used widely as a savory condiment. The recipe, of Indian origin, includes soy sauce, vinegar, molasses, anchovies, onion, chilies, and other spices with lime and tamarind juices. The sauce is fermented and cured before bottling

Vietnam
1. Banh- Vietnamese for dough or cake 2. Cha- Vietnamese for rolls

3. La chuoi- Vietnamese for banana leaves, used for steaming dumplings, coconut rice, fish, and other foods, also for lining steamers 4. Nuoc mam- Vietnamese fermented fish sauce based on anchovies

Hanukkah
Kugel- A baked casserole or pudding associated especially with the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah

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