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2013 World War II Casualties According to en.wikipedia

2013 World War II Casualties According to en.wikipedia

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World War II

casualties

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

World War II casualties
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history. Over 60 million people were killed, which was over 2.5% of the world population. The tables below give a detailed country-by-country count of human losses.

Total dead World War II fatality statistics vary, with estimates of total dead ranging from 50

million to over 70 million.[1] The sources cited in this article document an estimated death toll in World War II that range from approximately 60 to 80 million, making it the deadliest war in world history in absolute terms of total dead but not in terms of deaths relative to the world population. When scholarly sources differ on the number of deaths in a country, a range of war losses is given, in order to inform readers that the death toll is disputed. Civilians killed totaled from 38 to 55 million, including 13 to 20 million from war-related disease and famine. Total military dead: from 22 to 25 million, including deaths in captivity of about 5 million prisoners of war.

Recent historical scholarship
Recent historical scholarship has shed new insight into the topic of Second World War casualties. Research in Russia since the collapse of the Soviet Union has caused a revision of estimates of Soviet war dead.[2] Estimated USSR losses within postwar borders now stand at 26.6 million.[3] In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers estimated Poland's dead at between 5.6 and 5.8 million.[4] The German Army historian Rüdiger Overmans published a study in 2000 that estimated German military dead and missing at 5.3 million.[5] War dead totals in this article for the British Commonwealth are based on the research of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.[6] Casualties listed here include about 4 to 12 million war-related famine deaths in China, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, India that are often omitted from other compilations of World War II casualties.[7][8]

Classification of casualties Some nations in World War II suffered disproportionally
more casualties than others. This is especially true regarding civilian casualties. The following chart gives data on the number of dead for each country, along with population information to show the relative impact of losses. Military figures include battle deaths (KIA) and personnel missing in action (MIA), as well as fatalities due to accidents, disease and deaths of prisoners of war in captivity. Civilian casualties include deaths caused by strategic bombing, Holocaust victims, Japanese war crimes, population transfers in the Soviet Union, other War Crimes and deaths due to war related famine and disease. Compiling or estimating the numbers of deaths caused during wars and other violent conflicts is a controversial subject. Historians often put forward many different estimates of the numbers killed during World War II.[9] The distinction between military and civilian casualties caused directly by warfare and collateral damage is not always clear cut. For nations that suffered huge losses such as the Soviet Union, China, Poland, Germany and Yugoslavia, our sources can give us only the total estimated population loss caused by the war and a rough estimate of the breakdown of deaths caused by military activity, crimes against humanity and war related famine. The footnotes give a detailed breakdown of the casualties and their sources, including data on the number of wounded where reliable sources are available.

Human losses by country
Total deaths

Human losses of World War II by country
(when the number of deaths in a country is disputed, a range of war losses is given) (the sources of the figures are provided in the footnotes) Civilian deaths due to military activity and crimes against humanity 700 120,000 75,900 1,000 3,000

Country

Total population 1/1/1939

Military deaths

Total deaths

Deaths as % of 1939 population

AlbaniaA AustraliaB Austria (Germancontrolled)C BelgiumD BrazilE Bulgaria Burma (British)G CanadaH China I CubaJ Czechoslovakia (in 1938 borders)K DenmarkL Dutch East IndiesM
F

1,073,000 6,998,000

30,000

30,000 40,500 120,000 88,000 2,000 25,000

2.81 0.57 (see table below) 1.05 0.02 0.38 1.69 0.40 (1.93 to 3.86) 0.00 2.12 0.08 (4.3 to 5.76)

39,800 Included with 6,650,000 German Army 8,387,000 40,289,000 6,458,000 16,119,000 11,267,000 12,100 1,000 22,000

22,000 250,000 272,000 45,400 45,400 3,000,000 7,000,000 10,000,000 517,568,000 to 4,000,000 to 16,000,000 to 20,000,000 4,235,000 100 100 15,300,000 3,795,000 69,435,000 Included with the Soviet, 1,122,000 German, and Finnish Armies 17,700,000 3,700,000 41,700,000 24,600,000 69,850,000 7,222,000 9,129,000 119,000 378,000,000 14,340,000 3,698,000 87,000 200 500 5,000 95,000 217,600 including colonies 25,000 2,100 300,000 1,100 325,000 3,200

3,000,000 3,000,000 to 4,000,000 to 4,000,000

Estonia (within 1939 borders)N EthiopiaO Finland FranceQ French IndochinaR GermanyS GreeceT HungaryU Iceland
V P

50,000

50,000

4.44

95,000 2,000 350,000

100,000 97,000 567,600

0.6 2.62 1.35 (4.07 to 6.1) (see table below) 4.5 6.35 0.17 (0.42 to 0.68) 0.00 0.01

1,000,000 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 to 1,500,000 1,500,000 7,000,000 5,500,000 to 3,500,000 to 9,000,000 20,000 320,000 300,000 to 35,100 to 335,100 300,000 280,000 200 580,000 200

India (British)W IranX Iraq'Y

1,500,000 1,587,000 to 2,500,000 to 2,587,000 200 500

IrelandZ

2,960,000 301,400 (includes 10,000 African conscripts) 2,120,000

200

200

0.00

ItalyAA

44,394,000

153,200

454,600

1.03

JapanAB Korea (Japanese Colony)AC Latvia (within 1939 borders)AD

71,380,000 23,400,000

500,000 2,620,000 to to 1,000,000 3,120,000 378,000 378,000 to 483,000 to 483,000 230,000 230,000

(3.67 to 4.37) (1.6 to 2.06) 11.78

Lithuania (within 1939 borders)AE LuxembourgAF Malaya (British)AG Malta (British)AH MexicoAI Mongolia Nauru (Australian)AK Nepal
BG AJ

Included with the Soviet 1,951,000 and German Armies Included with the Soviet 2,442,000 and German Armies 295,000 4,391,000 269,000 19,320,000 819,000 3,400 Included with 6,000,000 British Indian Army 8,729,000 300,000 17,000 300

350,000 2,000 100,000 1,500 100 500

350,000 2,000 100,000 1,500 100 300 500

14.33 0.68 2.28 0.56 0.00 0.04 14.7

NetherlandsAL Newfoundland (British)AM New ZealandAN Norway Papua and New Guinea (Australian)AP Philippines (U.S. Territory)AQ Poland (within 1939 borders)AR Portuguese TimorAS Romania (within 1939 borders)AT Ruanda-Urundi (Belgian)AU Singapore (British)AV South Africa
AW AO

284,000 100

301,000 100 11,900

3.45 0.03 0.73 0.32 1.17 (3.48 to 6.6) (16.1 to 16.7) (8.00 to 14.00) 4.01 (0.00 to 7.1) 6.87 0.12 3.00 (see table below)

included with the U.K. 1,629,000 11,900 2,945,000 1,292,000 16,000,000 34,849,000 500,000 19,934,000 4,200,000 728,000 10,160,000 1,900,000 168,524,000 11,900 300,000 57,000 240,000 3,000

6,500 15,000

9,500 15,000

500,000 557,000 to 1,000,000 to 1,057,000 5,380,000 5,620,000 to 5,580,000 to 5,820,000 40,000 to 70,000 500,000 40,000 to 70,000 800,000

0 to 300,000 0 to 300,000 50,000 50,000 11,900 57,000 57,000

South Pacific Mandate (Japanese)AX Soviet Union (within 1939 borders) AY SpainAZ

9,000,000 13,000,000 23,000,000 to 11,000,000 to 15,000,000 to 24,000,000 Included with 25,637,000 the German

Army Sweden
BA

6,341,000 4,210,000 15,023,000 17,370,000 47,760,000 5,600 200

600 100 2,000

600 100 7,600 200

0.01 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.94

SwitzerlandBB Thailand TurkeyBD United KingdomBE
BC

United StatesBF

131,028,000

YugoslaviaBG Approx. Totals • • • •

15,400,000 2,000,000,000

383,800 including 67,100 450,900 colonies 416,800 (includes Merchant Marine 1,700 418,500 (9,500) and Coast Guard (1,900)) 446,000 581,000 1,027,000 22,000,000 38,000,000 60,000,00 to 25,000,000 to 55,000,000 to 80,000,000

0.32

6.67 (3.17 to 4.00)

• • • • • •

Figures for the individual nations are rounded to the nearest hundredth place. Population in 1939 is taken from Population Statistics website.[10] War losses are for the national boundaries of 1939. Military casualties include deaths of regular military forces from combat as well as non-combat causes. Partisan and resistance fighter deaths forces are included with military losses. The deaths of prisoners of war in captivity and personnel missing in action are also included with military deaths. The armed forces of the various nations are treated as single entities, for example the deaths of Austrians, Soviets, French and ethnic Germans in the Wehrmacht are included with German military losses. The official casualty statistics published by the governments of the United States, France and the UK do not give the details of the national origin or race of the losses. The BBC has provided background on the Colonial contributions to the British Empire war effort.[11][12] Civilian casualties include deaths caused by strategic bombing, Holocaust victims, Japanese war crimes, population transfers in the Soviet Union, Allied war crimes and deaths due to war related famine and disease. The exact breakdown is not always provided in the sources cited. Total Soviet losses in the postwar 1946–91 boundaries[13][14] were 26.6 million (13.5% of the total population of 196.7 million).[15] Total Polish losses in the postwar 1946 boundaries[14] were about 3,600,000 (15.8% of the total population of 23.3 million).[16] Total Romanian losses in the postwar 1946 boundaries[17] were 500,000 (2.5% of the total population of 15.9 million).[18] Total losses of Czechoslovakia in the post war 1946–1991 borders were about 250,000 (1.9% of the total population of 14.6 million).[19]

Third Reich Main article: German casualties in World War II
Human losses of the Third Reich in World War II (included in above figures of total war dead) Country Austria Germany (within 1937 borders) Ethnic Germans from other nations Soviet citizens in the German military Approx. Totals Population 1939 6,650,000 69,300,000 6,700,000 800,000 84,000,000 Military deaths 260,000 Civilian deaths Total deaths Deaths as % of 1939 population 5.7 7.9 to 10.0 9.7 to 19.4 27.5 8.0 to 10.5

120,000 380,000 1,100,000 to 5,500,000 to 4,400,000 2,500,000 6,900,000 200,000 to 800,000 to 600,000 900,000 1,500,000 200,000 5,500,000 200,000 1,500,000 to 7,000,000 to 3,500,000 9,000,000

• •

Sources for figures and details are listed in the footnotes for Germany and Austria [6] Figure of 5.3 million military dead for Germany, Austria and the Ethnic Germans is taken from the study by the German military historian Rüdiger Overmans.[5] Earlier estimates based on the wartime records compiled by the German High Command (OKW) put total military dead and missing at about 4.0 million men.[20] The estimated total of about 200,000 deaths of Soviet citizens conscripted by Germany was made by the Russian military historian Grigoriy Krivosheyev.[21] Figure for Germany (within 1937 borders) of 5.5 million total deaths are those directly related to the war, the higher figure of 6.9 million is demographic estimate of the total population loss caused by the war.[22] The lower figure of 1.1 million civilian deaths are those losses directly related to the war, persons killed in air raids and wartime evacuations, as well as victims of Nazi persecution. The higher figure of 2.5 million includes a combined total of 1.4 million civilian deaths due to war-related disease and famine in Germany during 1945–46 as well deaths in the flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950) and the forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union. The figures for expulsion losses in pre war German borders are currently disputed[23][24] and range from 400,000 confirmed deaths[25] to 1,225,000 which is a demographic estimate made in 1966 by the West German government.[26] Figures for civilian deaths of Ethnic Germans from other nations are those deaths due to the flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950) and the forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union. The figures for these losses are currently disputed,[23][24] estimates of the total expulsion deaths of the ethnic Germans range from about 200,000 confirmed deaths[25] to 886,000 which is a demographic estimate made in 1966 by the West German government.[26]

USSR Main article: World War II casualties of the Soviet Union
Human losses of the USSR in World War II (included in the above figures of total war dead)
Country Soviet Union (within 1939 borders)[7] Estonia (within 1939 borders) Latvia (within 1939 borders) Lithuania (within 1939 borders[27][28]) Poland, Eastern Regions (figures included with Poland) Romania Bessarabia and Bukovina (figures included with Romania) Czechoslovakia[8]– Carpathian Ruthenia (figures included with Czechoslovakia) Less: population transfers – net[29][30][31] Deaths as % of 1939 Population populatio n 9,000,000 13,000,000 23,000,000 13.6 to 168,524,000 to 11,000,000 to 15,000,000 to 24,000,000 14.2 Military deaths Civilian deaths Total deaths 1,122,000 1,951,000 2,442,000 11,591,000 50,000 230,000 350,000 2,000,000 50,000 230,000 350,000 2,000,000 4.5 11.6 14.5 17.2

3,700,000

300,000

300,000

8.1

700,000

50,000

50,000

7.1

(1,237,000)

Growth of population 1939–mid1941 Soviet deaths included in the German military Approx. Totals • •

7,923,000 220,000 197,000,000 220,000 13.5

9,000,000 16,000,000 26,000,000 to 11,000,000 to 18,000,000 to 27,000,000

Sources for figures and details are listed in the footnotes for the Soviet Union.[9] Total population of USSR in June 1941 was 196.7 million within postwar 1946–1991 borders.[32] The territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union included the Western Ukraine, Western Belarus and the Vilnius region, not including the Białystok region (population 1,392,000) which reverted to Poland after the war. The formal transfer of the territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union occurred after the war in a treaty of August 1945. The source for population of the annexed regions of Poland, Romania, the Baltic States and Czechoslovakia is League of Nations' Yearbook 1942– 1944.[33] The borders of the USSR in 1941 are de facto not de jure, the occupation of the Baltic States by the USSR was considered illegal and never recognized by the United States. The various sources published in Russia during the Glasnost era estimated from 26.0 million up to 46.0 million total war dead.[34] A study published by the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1993 estimated total population losses of 26.6 million from mid-1941 to 1945. This is the official Russian government figure for total deaths due to the war.[32][35] In 1993 the Russian Ministry of Defense issued a report authored by G. I. Krivosheev that put Soviet military dead at 8,668,400. This is the official Russian government figure for total military deaths due to the war.[36] S. N. Mikhalev of the History department of Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University maintained that the official figures cannot be reconciled to the total men drafted and that POW deaths were understated, he put the total military deaths at 10,922,000.[37] An alternative method to determine Soviet war losses is the Russian Military Archives data base of individual war dead. S. A. Il'enkov, an official of the Central Archives of the Russian Ministry of Defense, maintains: We established the number of irreplaceable losses of our Armed Forces at the time of the Great Patriotic War of about 13,850,000.[38] Deaths as % of 1940 population 9.1% 13.6% 25.3% 7.6% 8.3% 10.7% 7.8% 13.7% 12.7% 6.9% 12.7% 7.8% 7.7% 8.4% 16.3% 13.7%

The estimated breakdown for each Soviet Republic of total war dead is as follows Population Military Civilian Soviet Republic Total 1940 dead dead Azerbaijan 3,270,000 210,000 90,000 300,000 Armenia 1,320,000 150,000 30,000 180,000 Belarus 9,050,000 620,000 1,670,000 2,290,000 Estonia 1,050,000 30,000 50,000 80,000 Georgia 3,610,000 190,000 110,000 300,000 Kazakhstan 6,150,000 310,000 350,000 660,000 Kyrgyzstan 1,530,000 70,000 50,000 120,000 Latvia 1,890,000 30,000 230,000 260,000 Lithuania 2,930,000 25,000 350,000 375,000 Moldova 2,470,000 50,000 120,000 170,000 Russia 110,100,000 6,750,000 7,200,000 13,950,000 Tajikistan (See Note 1,530,000 50,000 70,000 120,000 Below) Turkmenistan 1,300,000 70,000 30,000 100,000 Uzbekistan 6,550,000 330,000 220,000 550,000 Ukraine 41,340,000 1,650,000 5,200,000 6,850,000 Unidentified – 165,000 130,000 295,000 Total USSR 194,090,000 10,700,000 15,900,000 26,600,000 •

The source of the figures on the table is Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 pp. 23–35 Erlikman notes that these figures are his estimates. Figure of 15.9 million civilian war dead includes 3–4 million deaths due to war related famine and disease in the interior regions not occupied by Nazi Germany.

Figures for Belarus and the Ukraine include about 2 million civilian dead that are also listed in the total war dead of Poland. • The Russian News Agency RIA Novosti puts the military losses of Tajikistan at 90,000 killed.[39] Holocaust deaths Further information: The Holocaust Included in the above figures of total war dead are the victims of the Holocaust. Jewish deaths The Holocaust is the term generally used to describe the genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II. Martin Gilbert estimates 5.7 million (78%) of the 7.3 million Jews in German occupied Europe were Holocaust victims.[40] Other estimates for Holocaust deaths range between 4.9 to 6.0 million Jews.[41] Statistical breakdown of Jewish dead: • In Nazi extermination camps: according to Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers 2,830,000 Jews were murdered in the Nazi death camps (500,000 Belzec; 150,000 Sobibor; 850,000 Treblinka; 150,000 Chełmno; 1,100,000 Auschwitz; 80,000 Majdanek).[42] Raul Hilberg puts the Jewish death toll in the death camps, including Romanian Transnistria at 3.0 million.[43] • In the USSR by the Einsatzgruppen: Raul Hilberg puts the Jewish death toll in the area of the mobile killing groups at 1.4 million.[43] • Aggravated deaths in the Ghettos of Nazi-occupied Europe: Raul Hilberg puts the Jewish death toll in the Ghettos at 700,000.[43] [44] • Yad Vashem has identified the names of four million Jewish Holocaust dead. [45] The figures in the table below are from The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust.
Country Austria Belgium Czech Republic[46] Denmark Estonia France Germany Greece Hungary (borders 1940)[47] Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Poland (borders 1939) Romania (borders 1940) Slovakia Soviet Union (borders 1939) Yugoslavia Total Pre-war Jewish population Low estimate deaths High estimate deaths.[45] 191,000 50,000 65,000 60,000 25,000 29,000 92,000 77,000 78,300 8,000 60 116 4,600 1,500 2,000 260,000 75,000 77,000 566,000 135,000 142,000 73,000 59,000 67,000 725,000 502,000 569,000 48,000 6,500 9,000 95,000 70,000 72,000 155,000 130,000 143,000 3,500 1,000 2,000 112,000 100,000 105,000 1,700 800 800 3,250,000 2,700,000 3,000,000 441,000 121,000 287,000 89,000 60,000 71,000 2,825,000 700,000 1,100,000 68,000 56,000 65,000 9,067,000 4,869,860 5,894,716

Non-Jews persecuted and killed by the Nazis Some scholars maintain that the definition of the Holocaust should also include the other victims persecuted and killed by the Nazis.[48][49] Estimates of the death toll of non-Jewish victims vary by millions, partly because the boundary between death by persecution and death by starvation and other means in a context of total war is unclear. Donald Niewyk maintains that the Holocaust can be defined in four ways: first, that it was the genocide of the Jews alone; second, that there were several parallel Holocausts, one for each of the several groups; third, the Holocaust would include Roma and the handicapped along with the Jews; fourth,

it would include all racially motivated German crimes, such as the murder of Soviet prisoners of war, Polish and Soviet civilians, as well as political prisoners, religious dissenters, and homosexuals. Using this definition, the total number of Holocaust victims is between 11 million and 17 million people.[50] According to the College of Education of the University of South Florida Approximately 11 million people were killed because of Nazi genocidal policy.[51] R. J. Rummel estimated the death toll due to Nazi Democide at 20.9 million persons.[52] Timothy Snyder put the victims of the Nazis killed only as result of deliberate policies of mass murder such as executions, deliberate famine and in death camps at 10.4 million persons including 5.4 million Jews.[53] The German scholar Hellmuth Auerbach puts the death toll in the Hitler era at 6 million Jews killed in the Holocaust and 7 million other victims of the Nazis.[54] Dieter Pohl puts the total number of victims of the Nazi era at between 12 and 14 million persons, including 5.6–5.7 million Jews.[55] [50][56][57] • Roma Most estimates of Roma (Gypsies) victims range from 130,000 to 500,000. Ian Hancock, Director of the Program of Romani Studies and the Romani Archives and Documentation Center at the University of Texas at Austin, has argued in favour of a higher figure of between 500,000 and 1,500,000 Roma dead.[58] Hancock writes that, proportionately, the death toll equaled "and almost certainly exceed[ed], that of Jewish victims".[59] In a 2010 publication, Ian Hancock stated that he agrees with the view that the number of Romanis killed has been underestimated as a result of being grouped with others in Nazi records under headings such as "remainder to be liquidated", "hangers-on" and "partisans".[60] [61] • Handicapped persons: 200,000 to 250,000 handicapped persons were killed. A 2003 report by the German Federal Archive put the total murdered during the Action T4 and Action 14f13 programs at 200,000.[62][63] [64] • Prisoners of War: POW deaths in Nazi captivity totaled 3.1 million including 2.6 to 3 [65] million Soviet prisoners of war. • Ethnic Poles: 1.8 to 1.9 million ethnic Polish civilians were victims during the German occupation (see Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles).[66] • Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians: According to Nazi ideology, Slavs were useless sub-humans. As such, their leaders, the Soviet elite, were to be killed and the remainder of the population enslaved or expelled further eastward. As a result of these racist fantasies, millions of civilians in the Soviet Union were deliberately killed, starved, or worked to death.[67] The Cambridge History of Russia puts overall civilian deaths in the Nazi occupied USSR at 13.7 million persons including 2 million Jews. There were an additional 2.6 million deaths in the interior regions of the Soviet Union. The authors maintain "scope for error in this number is very wide". At least 1 million perished in the wartime GULAG camps or in deportations. Other deaths occurred in the wartime evacuations and due to war related malnutrition and disease in the interior. The authors maintain that both Stalin and Hitler "were both responsible but in different ways for these deaths", and "In short the general picture of Soviet wartime losses suggests a jigsaw puzzle. The general outline is clear: people died in colossal numbers but in many different miserable and terrible circumstances. But individual pieces of the puzzle do not fit well; some overlap and others are yet to be found".[68] Bohdan Wytwycky maintained that civilian losses of 3.0 million Ukrainians and 1.4 million Belarusians "were racially motivated".[69][70] According to Paul Robert Magocsi, between 1941 and 1945, approximately 3,000,000 Ukrainian and other non-Jewish victims were killed as part of Nazi extermination policies in the territory of modern Ukraine.[71] Dieter Pohl puts the total number of victims of the Nazi policies in the USSR at 500,000 civilians killed in the repression of partisans, 1.0 million victims of the Nazi Hunger Plan, c. 3.0 million Soviet POW and 1.0 million Jews (in pre-war borders).[72] Soviet author Georgiy A. Kumanev put the civilian death toll in the Nazi-occupied USSR at 8.2 million (4.0 million Ukrainians, 2.5 million Belarusians, and 1.7 million Russians).[73] A report published by the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1995 put the death toll due to the German

occupation at 13.7 million civilians (including Jews): 7.4 million victims of Nazi genocide and reprisals; 2.2 million persons deported to Germany for forced labor; and 4.1 million famine and disease deaths in occupied territory. Sources published in the Soviet Union were cited to support these figures.[74] Contemporary Russian sources use the terms "genocide" and "premeditated extermination" when referring to civilian losses in the occupied USSR. Civilians killed in reprisals during the Soviet partisan war and wartime-related famine account for a major part of the huge toll.[75] [76] • Homosexuals: 10,000–15,000 gay men perished in Nazi concentration camps. [77] • Other victims of Nazi persecution: Between 1,000 to 2,000 Roman Catholic clergy, about 1,000 Jehovah's Witnesses,[78] and an unknown number of Freemasons[79] perished in Nazi prisons and camps. "The fate of black people from 1933 to 1945 in Nazi Germany and in German-occupied territories ranged from isolation to persecution, sterilization, medical experimentation, incarceration, brutality, and murder."[80] During the Nazi era Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, and trade union leaders were victims of Nazi persecution.[81] • Serbs: (See World War II persecution of Serbs.) The numbers of Serbs persecuted by the Ustaše is the subject of much debate and estimates vary widely. Yad Vashem estimates over 500,000 murdered, 250,000 expelled and 200,000 forcibly converted to Catholicism.[82] The estimate of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is that the Ustaše authorities murdered between 320,000 and 340,000 ethnic Serb residents of Croatia and Bosnia during the period of Ustaše rule, out of which between 45,000 and 52,000 were murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp.[83] Roma losses by country Included in the figures of total war dead are the Roma victims of the Nazi persecution, some scholars include the Roma deaths with the Holocaust. The following figures are from The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust.[84]
Country Austria Belgium Czech Republic[46] Estonia France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands Poland Romania Slovakia Soviet Union (borders 1939) Yugoslavia Total Pre-war Roma population Low estimate High estimate 11,200 6,800 8,250 600 350 500 13,000 5,000 6,500 1,000 500 1,000 40,000 15,150 15,150 20,000 15,000 15,000 ? 50 50 100,000 1,000 28,000 25,000 1,000 1,000 5,000 1,500 2,500 1,000 500 1,000 200 100 200 500 215 500 50,000 8,000 35,000 300,000 19,000 36,000 80,000 400 10,000 200,000 30,000 35,000 100,000 26,000 90,000 947,500 130,565 285,650

Japanese war crimes Main article: Japanese war crimes Included with total war dead are
victims of Japanese war crimes. • R. J. Rummel estimates the civilian victims of Japanese democide at 5,424,000. Detailed by country: China 3,695,000; Indochina 457,000; Korea 378,000; Indonesia 375,000; MalayaSingapore 283,000; Philippines 119,000, Burma 60,000 and Pacific Islands 57,000. Rummel estimates POW deaths in Japanese custody at 539,000 Detailed by country: China 400,000;

French Indochina 30,000; Philippines 27,300; Netherlands 25,000; France 14,000; UK 13,000; UK-Colonies 11,000; US 10,700; Australia 8,000.[8][85] • Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian deaths at 20,365,000. Detailed by country: China 12,392,000; Indochina 1,500,000; Korea 500,000; Dutch East Indies 3,000,000; Malaya and Singapore 100,000; Philippines 500,000; Burma 170,000; Forced laborers in Southeast Asia 70,000, 30,000 interned non-Asian civilians; Timor 60,000; Thailand and Pacific Islands 60,000.[86] Gruhl estimates POW deaths in Japanese captivity at 331,584. Detailed by country: China 270,000; Netherlands 8,500; U.K. 12,433; Canada 273; Philippines 20,000; Australia 7,412; New Zealand 31; and the United States 12,935.[86] • The historian Chalmers Johnson has written that "the Japanese slaughtered as many as 30 million Filipinos, Malays, Vietnamese, Cambodians, Indonesians and Burmese, at least 23 million of them ethnic Chinese".[87] • Out of 60,000 Indian Army POWs taken at the Fall of Singapore, 11,000 died in captivity.[88] • There were 14,657 deaths among the total 130,895 western civilians interned by the Japanese due to famine and disease.[89][90] Repression in the Soviet Union The total war dead in the USSR includes victims of Soviet repression. The number of deaths in the Gulag labor camps increased as a result of wartime overcrowding and food shortages.[91] The Stalin regime deported the entire populations of ethnic minorities considered to be potentially disloyal.[92] Since 1990 Russian scholars have been given access to the Soviet-era archives and have published data on the numbers of persons executed and those who died in Gulag labor camps and prisons.[93] The Russian scholar Viktor Zemskov puts the death toll from 1941–1945 at about 1 million based on data from the Soviet archives.[94] The Sovietera archive figures on the Gulag labor camps has been the subject of a vigorous academic debate outside Russia since their publication in 1991. J. Arch Getty and Stephen G. Wheatcroft maintain that Soviet-era figures more accurately detail the victims of the Gulag labor camp system in the Stalin era.[95][96] Robert Conquest and Steven Rosefielde have disputed the accuracy of the data from the Soviet archives, maintaining that the demographic data and testimonials by survivors of the Gulag labor camps indicate a higher death toll.[97][98] Rosefielde believes that the release of the Soviet Archive figures is disinformation generated by the modern KGB.[99] Rosefielde maintains that the data from the Soviet archives is incomplete; for example, he pointed out that the figures do not include the 22,000 victims of the Katyn massacre.[100] Rosefielde's demographic analysis puts the number of excess deaths due to Soviet repression at 2,183,000 in 1939–1940 and 5,458,000 from 1941–1945.[101] Michael Haynes and Rumy Husun accept the figures from the Soviet archives as being an accurate tally of Stalin's victims, they maintain that the demographic data depicts an underdeveloped Soviet economy and the losses in World War Two rather than indicating a higher death toll in the Gulag labor camps.[102] In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers estimated 150,000 Polish citizens were killed due to Soviet repression. Since the collapse of the USSR, Polish scholars have been able to do research in the Soviet archives on Polish losses during the Soviet occupation.[103] Andrzej Paczkowski puts the number of Polish deaths at 90,000–100,000 of the 1.0 million persons deported and 30,000 executed by the Soviets.[104] In 2005 Tadeusz Piotrowski estimated the death toll in Soviet hands at 350,000.[105] The Estonian State Commission on Examination of Policies of Repression put civilian deaths due to the Soviet occupation in 1940–1941 at 33,900 including (7,800 deaths) of arrested people, (6,000) deportee deaths, (5,000) evacuee deaths, (1,100) people gone missing and (14,000) conscripted for forced labor. After the reoccupation by the U.S.S.R., 5,000 Estonians died in Soviet prisons during 1944–45.[106] The following is a summary of the data from the Soviet archives: Reported deaths for the years 1939–1945 1,187,783, including: judicial executions 46,350; deaths in Gulag labor camps 718,804; deaths in labor colonies and prisons 422,629.[107]

Deported to special settlements: (figures are for deportations to Special Settlements only, not including those executed, sent to Gulag labor camps or conscripted into the Soviet Army. Nor do the figures include additional deportations after the war). Deported from annexed territories 1940–41 380,000 to 390,000 persons, including: Poland 309– 312,000; Lithuania 17,500; Latvia 17,000; Estonia 6,000; Moldova 22,842.[108] In August 1941, 243,106 Poles living in the Special Settlements were amnestied and released by the Soviets.[109] Deported during the War 1941–1945 about 2.3 million persons of Soviet ethnic minorities including: Soviet Germans 1,209,000; Finns 9,000; Karachays 69,000; Kalmyks 92,000;Chechens and Ingush 479,000; Balkars 37,000; Crimean Tatars 191,014; Meskhetian Turks 91,000; Greeks, Bulgarians and Armenians from Crimea 42,000; Ukrainian OUN members 100,000; Poles 30,000.[110] A total of 2,230,500[111] persons were living in the settlements in October 1945 and 309,100 deaths were reported in special settlements for the years 1941–1948.[112] Russian sources list Axis prisoner of war deaths of 580,589 in Soviet captivity based on data in the Soviet archives (Germany 381,067; Hungary 54,755; Romania 54,612; Italy 27,683; Finland 403, and Japan 62,069).[113] However some western scholars estimate the total at between 1.7 and 2.3 million.[114]

Military casualties by branch of service
Casualties of World War II by Branch of Service Country Germany Branch of service Army[115] Air Force (including infantry units)[115] Navy[115] Waffen SS[115] Volkssturm and other Paramilitary Forces[115] Soviet citizens in German military service[21][116] Unidentified by branch of service (see note below) Total Germany Army (1937–1945) Navy (1941–1945) POW dead after Surrender.[121][122][123] Total Japan All branches of service Number served 13,600,000 2,500,000 1,200,000 900,000 Killed/missing Wounded 4,202,000 433,000 138,000 314,000 231,000 Prisoners of Percent war killed Captured 30.9 17.3 11.5 34.9

215,000

6,035,000[117] 11,100,000[118] 18,200,000 6,300,000 2,100,000 5,533,000 1,326,076 414,879 381,000 2,121,955 3,430,000[124] 291,376[125] 136,945 34,476,700 8,668,400 320,000 1,300,000[126] 205,924 14,685,593 4,050,000 25.1 8.49 6,035,000 85,600 8,900 11,100,000 30,000 10,000 30.4 24.22 19.76

Japan

[119][120]

Italy Soviet Union (1939–40)

All branches of service[127] All branches of Soviet Union (1941–45) service[128] Conscripted Reservists not yet in active service (see note below)[129]

500,000

Civilians in POW camps (see note below)[130] Paramilitary and Soviet partisan units[131] Total USSR All branches of British Commonwealth[6][132][133] service United States[134] Army[135] Air Force (included with Army)[136] Navy Marine Corps United States Coast Guard[137] United States Merchant Marine[138] Unidentified by branch of service[139] Total US 11,115,000 11,260,000 (3,400,000) 4,183,446 669,100 241,093 243,000

1,000,000

1,750,000

400,000 10,725,345 580,497 318,274 (88,119) 62,614 24,511 1,917 9,521 12,000 c.130,000 16,596,639 416,837 683,846 c.130,000 2.5 14,915,517 475,000 565,861 (17,360) 37,778 68,207 5,750,000 318,000 5.2 2.8 2.5 1.5 3.66 0.78 3.9

Germany 1. The number killed in action was 2,303,320; died of wounds, disease or accidents 500,165; 11,000 sentenced to death by court martial; 2,007,571 missing in action or unaccounted for after the war; 25,000 suicides; 12,000 unknown;[140] 459,475 confirmed POW deaths, of whom 77,000 were in the custody of the U.S., UK and France; and 363,000 in Soviet custody. POW deaths includes 266,000 in the post-war period after June 1945, primarily in Soviet captivity.[141] 2. Rüdiger Overmans writes "It seems entirely plausible, while not provable,that one half of the 1.5 million missing on the eastern front were killed in action, the other half (700,000) however in fact died in Soviet custody".[142] 3. Soviet sources list the deaths of 474,967 of the 2,652,672 German Armed Forces POW taken in the war.[143] USSR 1. Estimated total Soviet military war dead from 1941–45 on the Eastern Front (World War II) including missing in action, POWs and Soviet partisans range from 8.6 to 10.6 million.[131] There were an additional 127,000 war dead in 1939–40 during the Winter War with Finland.[144] 2. The official figures for military war dead and missing from 1941–45 are 8,668,400 comprising 6,329,600 combat related deaths, 555,500 non-combat deaths.[145] 500,000 missing in action and 1,103,300 POW dead and another 180,000 liberated POWs who most likely emigrated to other countries.[146][147][148] Figures include Navy losses of 154,771.[149] Non-combat deaths include 157,000 sentenced to death by court martial.[150] 3. Casualties in 1939–40 include the following dead and missing, Battle of Khalkhin Gol in 1939 (8,931); Invasion of Poland of 1939 (1,139); Winter War with Finland (1939–40) (126,875).[127] 4. The number of wounded includes 2,576,000 permanently disabled.[151] 5. The official Russian figure for total POW held by the Germans is 4,059,000; the number

of Soviet POW who survived the war was 2,016,000, including 180,000 who most likely emigrated to other countries, and an additional 939,700 POW and MIA who were redrafted as territory was liberated. This leaves 1,103,000 POW dead. However, western historians put the number of POW held by the Germans at 5.7 million and about 3 million as dead in captivity (in the official Russian figures 1.1 million are military POW and remaining balance of about 2 million are included with civilian war dead).[146][152] 6. Conscripted reservists is an estimate of men called up, primarily in 1941, who were killed in battle or died as POWs before being listed on active strength. Soviet and Russian sources classify these losses as civilian deaths.[153] British Commonwealth 1. Number served: UK and Crown Colonies (5,896,000); India (2,582,000), Australia (993,000); Canada (1,100,000); New Zealand (295,000); South Africa (250,000).[154] 2. Total war related deaths reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission: UK and Crown Colonies (383,786); Undivided India (87,032), Australia (40,464); Canada (45,383); New Zealand (11,929); South Africa (11,903).[6] 3. Wounded: UK and Crown Colonies (284,049); India (64,354), Australia (39,803); Canada (53,174); New Zealand (19,314); South Africa (14,363).[132][155][156] 4. Prisoner of war: UK and Crown Colonies (180,488); India (79,481); Australia (26,358); South Africa (14,750); Canada (9,334); New Zealand (8,415).[132][155][156] 5. The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars.[157] U.S. 1. Battle deaths were 292,131: Army 234,874 (including Army Air Forces 52,173); Navy 36,950; Marine Corps 19,733; and Coast Guard 574. (185,924 deaths occurred in the European/Atlantic theater of operations and 106,207 deaths occurred in Asia/Pacific theater of operations.)[158][159] 2. The United States Merchant Marine war dead of 9,521 are included with military losses. U.S. Merchant Mariners in "ocean-going service" during World War II have Veteran Status.[160] 3. During World War II, 1.2 million African Americans served in the Armed Forces and 708 were killed in combat. 350,000 American women served in the military during World War II and 16 were killed in action.[161]

Commonwealth military casualties The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual

Report 2010-2011[6] is the source of the military dead for the British Empire The war dead totals listed in the report are based on the research by the CWGC to identify and commemorate Commonwealth war dead. The statistics tabulated The Commonwealth War Graves Commission are representative of the number of names commemorated for all servicemen/women of the Armed Forces of the Commonwealth and former U.K. Dependencies, whose death was attributable to their war service. Some auxiliary and civilian organizations are also accorded war grave status if death occurred under certain specified conditions. For the purposes of C.W.G.C. the dates of inclusion for Commonwealth War Dead are 03/09/1939 to 31/12/1947.

Charts and graphs

Deaths per country by number and percentage of population, with piechart of percentage of military and civilian deaths for the Allied and the Axis Powers

Military and civilian deaths during World War II for the Allied and the Axis Powers.

Axis Military personnel killed, percentage by country.

Military deaths during World War II for the Allied and the Axis Powers by alliance, theater, year.

Huge population losses of Russia influence the country's population pyramid. Russian male to female ratio is one of the lowest in the world (especially, in older generations), and pyramid shows distinctive age fluctuations due to the loss of a generation during the war.

See also
• • • • • •

World War II casualties of Poland World War II casualties of the Soviet Union German casualties in World War II Equipment losses in World War II World War I casualties List of wars and disasters by death toll

Footnotes
1. ^A Albania No reliable statistics on Albania's wartime losses exist, but the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration reported about 30,000 Albanian war dead. Albanian official statistics claim somewhat higher losses.[162] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 200, these Jews were Yugoslav citizens resident in Albania. Jews of Albanian origin survived the Holocaust.[163] 1. ^B Australia The Australian War Memorial[164] reports 39,761 military deaths. This figure includes all personnel who died from war-related causes during 1939–47. The Australian government does not regard merchant mariners as military personnel and the 349 Australians killed in action while

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

crewing merchant ships around the world,[165] are included in the total civilian deaths. Other civilian fatalities were due to air raids and attacks on passenger ships. The preliminary 1945 data for Australian losses was 23,365 killed, 6,030 missing, 39,803 wounded and 26,363 POWs.[156] ^C Austria Military war dead reported by Rüdiger Overmans of 260,749 are included with Germany.[140] The Austrian government provides the following information on human losses during the rule of the Nazis. For Austria the consequences of the Nazi regime and the Second World War were disastrous: During this period 2,700 Austrians had been executed and more than 16,000 citizens murdered in the concentration camps. Some 16,000 Austrians were killed in prison, while over 67,000 Austrian Jews were deported to death camps, only 2,000 of them lived to see the end of the war. In addition, 247,000 Austrians lost their lives serving in the army of the Third Reich or were reported missing, and 24,000 civilians were killed during bombing raids.[166] These figures include the genocide of Romani people of 6,500 persons[167] and Jewish Holocaust victims totaling 65,000.[163] ^D Belgium Belgian government sources reported that military war dead included 8,800 killed, 500 missing in action, 200 executed, 800 resistance movement fighters and 1,800 POWs. Civilian losses included deaths due to military operations of 32,200 and 16,900 non-Jewish victims of Nazi reprisals and repression.[168] Losses of about 10,000 in the German Armed Forces are not included in these figures, they are included with German military casualties.[169] The genocide of Roma people was 500 persons.[167] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 24,387.[163] ^E Brazil The Brazilian Expeditionary Force war dead were 510,[170] Navy losses in the Battle of the Atlantic were 492. Civilian losses due to attacks on merchant shipping were 470 merchant mariners and 502 passengers.[171] ^F Bulgaria Bulgarian military war dead were as follows, 2,000 military with Axis in Yugoslavia and Greece; 10,124 military dead as allies of the USSR and 10,000 Anti-Fascist Partisan deaths.[172] Regarding partisan and civilian casualties the Russian journalist Vadim Erlikman notes "According to the official data of the royal government 2,320 were killed and 199 executed. The communists claim that 20–35,000 persons died. In reality deaths were 10,000, including and unknown number of civilians."[172] 3,000 civilians were killed by Anglo-American air raids,[173] including 1,374 in Bombing of Sofia in World War II.[174] ^G Burma Military dead of 22,000 were with the pro-Japanese Burma National Army.[175] Civilian deaths during the Japanese occupation of Burma totaled 250,000; 110,000 Burmese, plus 100,000 Indian and 40,000 Chinese civilians in Burma.[176] Werner Gruhl estimates Burma's dead at 170,000 civilians due to the Japanese occupation.[86] ^H Canada The Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists 45,383 war dead.[6] is the source of the military dead for the British Empireincluding 102 deaths from Newfoundland with the Canadian forces.[177] The Canadian War Museum puts military losses at 42,000 plus 1,600 Merchant Navy deaths.[178] The Canadian Virtual War Memorial contains a registry of information about the graves and memorials of Canadians and Newfoundlanders who served valiantly and gave their lives for their country.[179] The preliminary 1945 data for Canadian losses was killed 37,476, missing 1,843, wounded 53,174 and POW 9,045.[180] ^I China Sources for total Chinese war dead range from 10 to 20 million as detailed below. John W. Dower has noted "So great was the devastation and suffering in China that in the end it is necessary to speak of uncertain 'millions' of deaths. Certainly, it is reasonable to think in general terms of approximately 10 million Chinese war dead, a total surpassed only by the Soviet Union."[181] The official Chinese government statistics for China's civilian and military casualties in the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937–1945 are 20 million dead and 15 million wounded. The figures for total military casualties, killed and wounded are: Nationalist 3.2 million; Communist 580,000 and collaborator forces 1.18 million; captured: collaborator forces 950,000.[182] The official account of the war published in Taiwan reported the Nationalist Chinese Army lost 3,238,000 men (1.797,000 WIA; 1,320,000 KIA and 120,000 MIA.) and 5,787,352 civilians in casualties.[183] An academic study published in the United States estimates total war deaths of 15–20 million from all causes: military casualties: 1.5 million killed in battle, 750,000 missing in action, 1.5 million deaths due to disease and 3 million wounded; civilian casualties: due to military activity, killed 1,073,496 and 237,319 wounded; 335,934 killed and 426,249 wounded in Japanese air attacks.[184] R. J. Rummel's estimate of total war dead from 1937–45 is 19,605,000.[185] The details are as follows:

1. 1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

Military dead: 3,400,000 (including 400,000 POW) Nationalist/Communist, and 432,000 collaborator forces.Civilian war deaths: 3,808,000 killed in fighting and 3,549,000 victims of Japanese war crimes (not including an additional 400,000 POWs).Other deaths: Repression by Chinese Nationalists 5,907,000 (3,081,000 military conscripts who died due to mistreatment and 2,826,000 civilian deaths caused by Nationalist government, including the 1938 Yellow River flood); political repression by Chinese Communists 250,000 and by Warlords 110,000. Additional deaths due to famine were 2,250,000.Werner Gruhl estimates China's war losses at 12,392,000 civilian dead due to the Japanese occupation and 3,162,00 military dead. He also estimates an additional 1,445,000 deaths due to internal Chinese conflicts.[86] ^J Cuba Cuba lost 5 merchant ships and 79 dead merchant mariners.[171] ^K Czechoslovakia The Population of the pre-war Czechoslovakia in 1938 prior to the Munich Agreement was 15.3 million (10.8 million in the Czech lands; 3.8 million in Slovakia and 700,000 in Carpathian Ruthenia). As a result of the First Vienna Award the population of the Second Czechoslovak Republic) was reduced to about 10.4 million (7.1 million in the Czech lands; 2.6 million in Slovakia and 700,000 in Carpathian Ruthenia). The Allies later declared the Munich Agreement to be invalid.[186] Military war dead of 25,000 included: killed during 1938 occupation (171); Czechoslovak Forces with the Western Allies (3,220); Czechoslovak military units on Eastern front (4,570); Slovak Republic Axis forces (7,000); partisan losses (2,170), and those killed in 1945 uprising (8,000). Civilian losses include those killed during 1938 occupation(262); non-Jewish victims of Nazi reprisals (26,500), and those killed in military operations (10,000).[187][188] Civilian losses include the territories of pre-war Czechoslovakia including Carpathian Ruthenia which was ceded to the USSR after the war. The genocide of Roma people was estimated at 7,500 persons.[189] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 277,000.[163] ^L Denmark During the Occupation of Denmark military war dead included 1,281Merchant Marine, 797 resistance fighters and 39 Army personnel. Civilian deaths included 628 victims of Nazi reprisals and 427 killed during military operations. Total deaths 3,172. There were an additional 3,900 Danish deaths in German military service that are included with German losses.[190] Deaths of Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 77.[163] ^M Dutch East Indies John W. Dower cites a UN report that estimated 4 million famine and forced labor dead during the Japanese Occupation of Indonesia.[181]The United Nations reported in 1947 that "about 30,000 Europeans and 300,000 Indonesian internees and forced laborers died during the occupation." They reported, "The total number who were killed by the Japanese, or who died from, hunger, disease and lack of medical attention is estimated at 3,000,000 for Java alone, 1,000,000 for the Outer Islands. Altogether 35,000 of the 240,000 Europeans died; most of them were men of working age."[191]The Dutch Red Cross reported the deaths in Japanese custody of 14,800 European civilians out of 80,000 interned and 12,500 of the 34,000 POW captured.[192] Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian death toll due to the war and Japanese occupation at 3,000,000 Indonesians and 30,000 interned Europeans.[86] ^N Estonia Civilian deaths due to the Soviet and German occupation of Estonia from 1940 to 1945 were approximately 51,000 persons based on a study by Estonian State Commission on Examination of Policies of Repression. A. Civilian deaths due to the Soviet occupation in 1940–1941 were 33,900 including (7,800 deaths)of arrested people, (6,000) deportee deaths, (5,000) evacuee deaths, (1,100) people gone missing and (14,000) conscripted for forced labor.[106] B. Losses during the 1941–1944 Occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany were 12,040, including (7,800) executed by Nazis and (1,040) killed in prison camps. (200) people died in forced labor in Germany. (800) deaths in Soviet bombing raids against Estonian cities, (1,000) killed in Allied air raids on Germany and (1,200) perished at sea while attempting to flee the country in 1944–45.[106] Included in the above figures is the genocide of Roma people of (243) persons,[193] Jewish Holocaust victims totaling (1,000).[163] C. After the reoccupation by the U.S.S.R 5,000 Estonians died in Soviet prisons during 1944–45.[106] D. The figures do not include the military deaths of the illegally drafted conscripts by the Soviet (10,000) and German armed forces (11,000).[106] E. Figures do not include the executions, deportee deaths, and insurgent losses in 1944–1989 during the Soviet reoccupation of 11,000 persons. Total deaths from 1940–53 due the war and the Soviet occupation was approximately 82,000 persons (8% of the population).[106] ^O Ethiopia Total military and civilian dead in the East African Campaign were 100,000 (not including 15,000 native military with Italian forces).[194] Small and Singer put the military losses at

5,000.[195] These totals do not include losses in the Italian Second Italo-Abyssinian War and Italian occupation from 1935–41. The official Ethiopian government report lists 760,000 deaths due to the war and Italian occupation from 1935–41.[196] However, R. J. Rummel estimates 200,000 Ethiopians and Libyans killed by the Italians from the 1920s–41, his estimate is "based on Discovery TV Cable Channel Program 'Timewatch'" 1/17/92.[197] 1. ^P Finland The Finnish National Archives website lists the names of the 95,000 Finnish military war dead.[198] Figures include killed and missing from the Winter War and Continuation War with the Soviet Union, as well as action against German forces in 1944–45. Winter War (1939–40) losses were 22,830, military deaths from 1941–44 were 58,715, and 1,036[199] in 1944–45 in the Lapland War. Soviet sources list the deaths of 403 of the 2,377 Finnish POW taken in the War.[200] During the Winter war of 1939–40 the Swedish Volunteer Corps served alongside the Finns in combat. 1,407 Finnish volunteers served in the Finnish Volunteer Battalion of the Waffen-SS and 256 were killed in action.[201] Civilian war dead were 2,000,[202] due in part to the bombing of Helsinki in World War II. 1. ^Q France Military war dead include 150,000 regular forces (1939–40 Battle of France 92,000; 1940–45 on Western Front (World War II) 58,000); 20,000 French resistance fighters and 40,000 POWs in Germany.[203] There were an additional 5,000 military deaths in French Indochina.[204] The pro-German Vichy France forces lost 2,653 killed.[205] Vadim Erlikman a Russian journalist, estimates losses of Africans in the French Colonial Forces at about 22,000.[206] French deaths in German Army (30–40,000), mostly men conscripted in Alsace-Lorraine, are not included in these totals, they are included with Germany Civilian losses of 250,000 include: 60,000 killed in bombardments, 60,000 in land fighting, 30,000 murdered in executions, 60,000 political deportees, and 40,000 workers in Germany .[203] The genocide of Roma people was 15,000 persons.[189] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 83,000.[207] 752 civilians were killed during the US air attacks on French Tunisia in 1942–43.[208] R. J. Rummel estimates the deaths of 20,000 anti-Fascist Spanish refugees resident in France who were deported to Nazi camps, these deaths are included with French civilian casualties.[52] 1. ^R French Indochina Sources for total IndoChinese civilian war dead range from 1 to 1.5 million as detailed below.John W. Dower estimated 1.0 million deaths due to Vietnamese Famine of 1945 during Japanese occupation.[119] Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian death toll due to the war and Japanese occupation at 1,500,000.[86] 1. ^S Germany German population The 1939 Population is for Germany within 1937 borders and Danzig and Memel Territory which were annexed in 1939, not included with the German population are Austria and the 6,700,000[209] ethnic Germans of Europe.[210] However, the 601,000 military deaths of ethnic Germans from Eastern and Western Europe and 261,000 Austrians are included with total German military losses.[211] Total German war dead Sources for total German war deaths, within 1937 borders, range from 5.5 to 6.9 million.[22] In 1956 The German government estimated 5.5 million of deaths directly caused by the war.[212] A German demographic study estimated 6.9 million excess deaths caused by the war, for the population within the 1937 borders.[213] These losses included about 4.4 million military dead and missing; 1.0 million civilian deaths during the war and 1.5 civilians who died as a result of expulsions from Poland and the famine in Germany during 1945–46. There were additional deaths of the ethnic Germans in Eastern Europe. A recent study by Rüdiger Overmans found 538,000 military deaths of ethnic Germans who were conscripted by Germany in Eastern Europe.[5] The number of war related civilian deaths among the ethnic Germans from Eastern European countries is disputed. An analysis by the West German government in 1958 estimated civilian deaths among the ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe countries at 886,000.[214] However, a more recent study by the German government archives estimated c.200,000 civilian deaths directly caused by the war among the ethnic Germans from Eastern European countries.[25][215] German military casualties Rüdiger Overmans, an associate of the German Armed Forces Military History Research Office from 1987 until 2004,[216] has provided an official reassessment of German military war dead based on a statistical survey of German military personnel records. The results of the Overmans research project were published with the endorsement of the German Armed Forces Military History Research Office of the Federal Ministry of Defense (Germany). The study found that the statistics collected

by German military during the war were incomplete and did not provide an accurate accounting of casualties. In the mid-1990s when Overmans began the project German military dead in the war were estimated at about 4.3 million men. Since the collapse of communism previously classified documentation regarding German military casualties became available to German researchers. The research by Overmans concluded in 2000 that German military dead and missing were 5,318,000. Included in this total are 344,000 deaths that were previously listed as civilian expulsion losses in eastern Europe; 230,000 deaths of paramilitary, Volkssturm and police forces fighting with the regular forces and the deaths of 266,000 POW after the surrender in May 1945.[5] The figure of 3.2 million German military dead that still appears in many sources was a preliminary estimate made in November 1949 by the West German government for losses only within the borders of 1937 Germany, not including Austria and Volksdeutsche conscripted by Nazi Germany.[217] Overmans did not include an additional 215,000 deaths of Soviet citizens conscripted by Germany.[21] Military losses by theatre Overmans lists the following losses: Africa 16,066; the Balkans 103,693; Northern Europe 30,165; Western Europe until 12/31/44 339,957; Italy 150,660; against the U.S.S.R. until 12/31/44 2,742,909; final battles in Germany during 1945 1,230,045; other (including air war in Germany and at sea) 245,561; confirmed deaths of POWs in captivity 459,475.[211] Military losses by country of origin Overmans lists deaths of 4,456,000 men from pre-war Germany (1937 borders) and the Free City of Danzig, 261,000 from Austria, 534,000 ethnic Germans conscripted in eastern Europe, 30,000 French (mostly men conscripted in Alsace-Lorraine), and 37,000 volunteers from western Europe. Military losses by branch of service Overmans lists losses by branch as: Army 4,202,030; Air Force 432,706; Navy 138,429; Waffen SS 313,749; Volkssturm 77,726; other paramilitary and support forces 153,891.[211] Military prisoners of war and missing Overmans includes in the total of 5,318,000 war dead 2,008,000 men that are listed as missing in action or unaccounted for after the war and 459,000 prisoners of war who died in captivity.[211] The details of these POW deaths by country that held them in custody are as follows: USSR 363,000; France 34,000; USA 22,000; UK 21,000; Yugoslavia 11,000; other nations 8,000.[218] Rüdiger Overmans believes that "It seems entirely plausible, while not provable, that one half of the 1.5 million missing on the eastern front were killed in action, the other half (700,000) however in fact died in Soviet custody".[142] A 1995 study by the Russian Academy of Science lists the deaths of 474,967 of the 2,652,672 German Armed Forces POW taken in the War.[143] Military casualties in other sources The casualty figures compiled by the German High Command (OKW) as of December 31, 1944 put total military losses at 1,965,000 dead, 1,858,000 missing and POW held by Allies and 5,240,000 wounded. The casualty figures compiled by the German High Command (OKW) are often cited by military historians.[219] The West German government in November 1949 estimated military losses for Germany in 1937 borders at 3,250,000 (1,650,000 killed and 1,600,000 missing). Figures do not include Austria and conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe.[220] Based on a demographic estimate the West German government in 1960 put the total military losses of the Wehrmacht at 4,440,000: 3,760,000 for Germany in 1937 borders; 430,000 conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe and 250,000 from Austria.[221] The German Red Cross Reported that their records list 3.1 million dead and 1.2 million missing German military personnel from World War Two. Their figures include Austria and conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe.[222] German civilian casualties during the war The West German government estimated 655,000 civilian deaths during war in Germany and Austria: 500,000 killed by strategic bombing, 135,000 in the 1945 flight and evacuations from East Europe and 20,000 civilians killed during the land campaign in Germany. For Germany within the 1937 borders 465,000 killed by strategic bombing, 127,000 in the 1945 flight and evacuations from East Europe and 20,000 civilians were killed during the land campaign in Germany.[223][224] A 1990 study by the German historian de:Olaf Groehler estimated 360,000–370,000 civilians were killed by Allied strategic bombing within the 1937 German boundaries, for the German Reich including Austria, forced laborers, POW and military the total is estimated at 406,000. This revised estimate was published in

the authoritative series The German Reich and the Second World War.[225] The West German government put the number of Germans killed by the Nazi political, racial and religious persecution at 300,000 (including 160,000 German Jews).[226] A 2003 report by the German Federal Archive put the total murdered during the Action T4 euthanasia program at 200,000.[227] Civilian deaths due to the flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950) and the forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union These losses are sometimes included with World War II casualties. The figures for these losses are currently disputed, estimates of the total deaths range from 500,000 to 2,000,000. The following is a summary of the various estimates for German civilian deaths in Eastern Europe. A In 1950 the West German government made a preliminary estimate of 3.0 million civilian deaths in the expulsions. At the same time German Red Cross began to investigate the cases of persons reported missing in the area of the expulsions.[215] The first attempt to compute the losses was made in 1953 by the German scholar Gotthold Rhode who estimated German military and civilian deaths in East Europe at 3,140,000.[228] The Schieder commission estimated a civilian death toll in the expulsions of about 2.3 million persons, broken out as follows: Poland 2,000,000; Czechoslovakia 225,600; Yugoslavia 69,000; Romania 20,000; Hungary 6,000.[229] These early estimates are no longer considered valid because subsequent investigations provided a revised accounting of the losses. B. A 1958 West German government demographic study estimated 2,225,000 civilians died during the flight during the war, post war expulsions and the forced labor in the Soviet Union, broken out as follows: Poland 1,607,000; Czechoslovakia 273,000; Yugoslavia 136,000; Romania 101,000; Hungary 57,000; Baltic States 51,000.[214] A figure of about 2 million civilian deaths is often cited in English language sources dealing with the expulsions based on the 1958 German government statistical analysis as well as the report of the Schieder commission.[230] In 1967 the West German government issued a revised figure of 2,111,000 total dead.[26][231] In 2006 The German government reaffirmed its belief that 2 million civilians perished in the flight and expulsion from Eastern Europe.[232] However, the German historian Ingo Harr believes that civilian losses in the expulsions have been overstated in Germany for decades for political reasons. Harr argues that Cold War political pressure influenced the findings of the Schieder commission and the 1958 West German government demographic study of Expulsion deaths.[23][233] The German scholar Rüdiger Overmans believes that the statistical foundations of the 1958 West German government demographic report are questionable and cannot be regarded as definitive.[215] A recent analysis by a Polish scholar found that "Generally speaking, the German estimates... are not only highly arbitrary, but also clearly tendentious in presentation of the German losses".[234] He maintains that the German government figures from 1958 overstated the total number of the ethnic Germans living in Poland prior to war as well as the total civilian deaths due to the expulsions.[234][235] C. By 1965, the Suchdienst (search service) of the German churches was able to confirm 473,013 civilian deaths in eastern Europe due to the war and expulsions, broken out as follows: Poland 367,392; Sudetenland 18,889; Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia 64,779; Baltic States 9,064; and Germans resettled in Poland 12,889. There were an additional 1,905,991 unsolved cases of persons reported missing and presumed dead. Rüdiger Overmans gave a summary of this data at a 1994 historical symposium in Poland. Overmans pointed out that the figures are incomplete and only a partial not an exact accounting of total deaths. Overmans believed that since there were only about 500,000 confirmed deaths of German civilians in eastern Europe, the balance being a demographic estimate, that new research on the number of expulsion deaths was needed.[215] However, the German historian Ingo Harr believes that the Church Service figure of 473,000 confirmed deaths is a realistic view of the total deaths due to the flight during the war and expulsions.[23][233] D. A 1974 study by the German government archives estimated a death toll of about 600,000 of civilians who died as a result of what they call "crimes against international law". Their definition of crimes includes deaths caused by military activity in the 1944–45 campaign as well as deliberate killings. The total of 600,000 is broken out as follows: Poland c. 400,000(120,000 killed by Soviet forces and their Allies; 200,000 dead during the forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union; 60,000 dead in Polish internment and labor camps and 40,000 in Soviet camps in the Kaliningrad Oblast); Czechoslovakia 30,000 killed by Soviet forces and their Allies, and an estimated 100,000 in internment camps; Yugoslavia c. 80,000(killed by Soviet forces and their Allies 15–20,000; dead during the forced labor of

Germans in the Soviet Union 4,500; dead in internment camps c. 60,000). This report did not provide an estimate for ethnic German deaths in Romania and Hungary.[25] Rüdiger Overmans believes that the 1974 report is only a partial not a definitive accounting of total deaths in the expulsions.[24] However, the German historian Ingo Harr believes the Archives study has provided a more realistic view of the total deaths due to the expulsions.[23][233] E. A revised demographic analysis published in 1995, which has the support of the German government, estimated 2,020,000 civilians died during the post war expulsions and the forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union broken out as follows: Poland 1,192,000; Czechoslovakia 220,000; Yugoslavia 106,000; Romania 75,000; Hungary 84,000; Baltic States 33,000; USSR 310,000.[209] The German government maintains that the figure of about 2 million deaths is correct because it includes additional post war deaths from hunger and disease of those civilians subject to the expulsions.[232] F. In 1996 a joint Czech–German Historical Commission determined that between 15,000 and 30,000 Germans perished in the expulsions. The commission found that the demographic estimates by the German government of 220,000 to 270,000 civilian deaths due to expulsions from Czechoslovakia were based on faulty data. The Commission determined that the demographic estimates by the German government counted as missing 90,000 ethnic Germans assimilated into the Czech population; military deaths were understated and that the 1950 census data used to compute the demographic losses was unreliable.[236][237] G. Research by former ethnic Germans from Yugoslavia determined that 58,730 civilians perished after the war, broken out as follows: killed by partisans 8,049; dead during the forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union 1,994; dead in internment camps 48,687.[238] H. In his 2000 study of German military casualties Rüdiger Overmans found 344,000 additional military deaths of Germans from the former eastern territories of Germany and conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe. Overmans believes this will reduce the number of civilians previously listed as missing in the expulsions.[239] I. The Polish historian Bernadetta Nitschke has provided a summary of the research in Poland on the calculation of German losses due to the flight and resettlement of the Germans from Poland only, not including other eastern European countries. Nitschke contrasted the estimate of 1.6 million deaths in Poland reported in 1958 by the West German government with the more recent figure of 400,000 that was detailed by Rűdiger Overmans in 1994. She noted that the Polish researcher Stefan Banasiak estimated in 1963 that the death toll in the post deportations was 1,136 persons, a figure accepted by other Polish historians who maintain that most of the deaths occurred during the flight and evacuation during the war, the deportation to the U.S.S.R. for forced labor, and after the resettlement due to the harsh conditions in the Soviet occupation zone in post war Germany.[240] This is in sharp contrast to the West German Schieder commission report which maintained that 1.7 million civilian deaths occurred after the war on Polish territory. J. In 2006 The German government reaffirmed its belief that 2 million civilians perished in the flight and expulsion from Eastern Europe. They maintain that the figure is correct because it includes additional post war deaths from malnutrition and disease of those civilians subject to the expulsions State Secretary in the German Federal Ministry of the Interior, Christoph Bergner, outlined the stance of the respective governmental institutions in Deutschlandfunk saying that the numbers presented by the German government and others are not contradictory to the numbers cited by Haar, and that the below 600,000 estimate comprises the deaths directly caused by atrocities during the expulsion measures and thus only includes people who on the spot were raped, beaten, or else brought to death, while the above two millions estimate also includes people who on their way to post-war Germany have died of epidemics, hunger, cold, air raids and the like.[241] K. In 2005 the German Red Cross Search Service still maintained that their research put losses at 2,252,500 persons in the expulsions and deportations. They did not provide details of the figure.[242] Famine deaths 1945–1946 The German economist Bruno Gleitze from the German Institute for Economic Research estimated that there were 1,200,000 deaths caused by an increase in mortality due to

harsh conditions in Germany during and after the war.[243] In Allied-occupied Germany the shortage of food was an acute problem in 1946–47. The average kilocalorie intake per day was only 1,600 to 1,800, an amount insufficient for long-term health.[244] 1. ^T Greece Gregory Frumkin, who was throughout its existence editor of the Statistical Year-Book of the League of Nations gave the following assessment of Greek losses in the war. He points out that that "the data on Greek war losses are frequently divergent and even inconsistent". His estimates for Greek losses are as follows: the war dead included 20,000 military deaths in the Greco-Italian War of 1940–41, 60,000 non-Jewish civilians, 20,000 non-Jewish deportees, 60,000 Jews and 140,000 famine deaths during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II.[245] The Greek National Council for Reparations from Germany reports the following casualties during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II. Military dead 35,077, including: 13,327 killed in the Greco-Italian War of 1940–41; 1,100 with the Greek Forces in the Mid-East, and 20,650 partisan deaths. Civilian deaths 771,845, including: 56,225 executed by Axis forces; 105,000 dead in German concentration camps (including Jews); 7,120 deaths due to bombing; 3,500 merchant marine dead; and 600,000 war-related famine deaths.[246] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 69,500.[163] 1. ^U Hungary Tamás Stark of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences has provided the following assessment of Hungarian losses. Total losses were 750,000 in the Greater Hungary; 350,000 Military dead including 110–120,000 killed in action, 20–25,000 Jews in Hungarian military labor camps and 200,000 in Soviet POW and labor camps. Civilian dead included 340,000 Hungarian Jews and 50,000 deaths attributed to military actions and the persecution of national minorities. However only 64% of these losses(480,000) were within the 1939 borders of Hungary, military killed were 80,000 and 130,000 in Soviet POW and labor camps, Jewish Holocaust dead were 220,000 and civilian war dead 44,000. Hungarian military losses include 110,000men who were conscripted from the annexed territories of Greater Hungary in Slovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia and the deaths of 20,000– 25,000 Jews conscripted for Army labor units. Civilian losses were 44,500 killed in the 1944–45 military campaign and in air attacks.[247] Russian sources give the deaths of 54,700 of the 513,700 Hungarian POW taken in the War.[21] The genocide of Roma people of 28,000 persons.[248] Jewish Holocaust victims within the 1939 borders were 200,000.[163] 1. ^V Iceland Confirmed losses of civilian sailors due to German attacks and mines.[249] 1. ^W India 1939 Population of India included the present day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The war dead listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, total deaths were 87,032.[6] is the source of the military dead for the British Empire The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars.[250] Gurkhas recruited from Nepal fought with the British Indian Army during the Second World War. Gurkha casualties with the British Indian Army can be broken down as: 8,985 killed or missing and 23,655 wounded.[251] The preliminary 1945 data for Indian losses was, killed 24,338, missing 11,754, wounded 64,354 and POW 79,489.[156] Out of 60,000 Indian Army POWs taken at the Fall of Singapore, 11,000 died in captivity.[88] The pro-Japanese Indian National Army lost 2,615 dead and missing.[176] Sources for total Indian civilian war dead range from 1.5 to 2.5 million as detailed below. John W. Dower estimated 1.5 million civilian deaths in the Bengal famine of 1943.[252] Amartya Sen currently the Lamont University Professor at Harvard University has recently estimated that a figure of 2.0 to 2.5 million fatalities may be more accurate.[253] Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian death toll due to the Bengal famine of 1943 at 2,000,000.[86] 1. ^X Iran Losses during allied occupation in 1941.[254] 1. ^Y Iraq Losses during Anglo-Iraqi War and UK occupation in 1941.[254] 1. ^Z Ireland Despite being neutral, Ireland suffered casualties serving in the UK Armed Forces. Between 1939–1945 an estimated 70,000 citizens of neutral Ireland served in the British armed

forces, together with 50,000 or so from Northern Ireland. In April 1995 Taoiseach John Bruton spoke at Islandbridge and paid tribute to the 150,000 Irish people North and South who "volunteered to fight against Nazi tyranny in Europe, at least 10,000 of whom were killed while serving in British uniforms ... In recalling their bravery, we are recalling a shared experience of Irish and British people ... We remember a British part of the inheritance of all who live in Ireland".[255] The civilian death figure includes 33 Irish merchantmen were killed when a U-Boat torpedoed the SS Irish Pine (1919) and deaths caused by the presumably accidental bombing of Ireland in three instances.[256] 1. ^AA Italy The official Italian government accounting of World War II 1940–45 losses listed the following data. Total military dead and missing from 1940–45 were 291,376, losses prior to the September 8, 1943 Armistice with Italy totaled 204,346 (66,686 killed, 111,579 missing, 26,081 died of disease), after the September 8, 1943 Armistice with Italy, 87,030 (42,916 killed, 19,840 missing, 24,274 died of disease). Losses by branch of service: Army 201,405; Navy 22,034; Air Force 9,096; Colonial Forces 354; Chaplains 91; Fascist militia 10,066; Paramilitary 3,252; not indicated 45,078. Military Losses by theatre of war: Italy 74,725 (37,573 post armistice); France 2,060 (1,039 post armistice); Germany 25,430 (24,020 post armistice); Greece, Albania, and Yugoslavia 49,459 (10,090 post armistice); USSR 82,079 (3,522 post armistice); Africa 22,341 (1,565 post armistice), at sea 28,438 (5,526 post armistice); other and unknown 6,844 (3,695 post armistice). POW losses are included with military losses mentioned above. Civilian losses were 153,147 (123,119 post armistice) including 61,432 (42,613 post armistice) in air attacks.[257] A brief summary of data from this report can be found online.[258] There were in addition to these losses the deaths of African soldiers conscripted by Italy which were estimated by the Italian military at 10,000 in East African Campaign of 1940–41.[259] Civilian losses as a result of the fighting in Italian Libya were estimated by an independent Russian journalist to be 10,000.[260] Included in the losses are 64,000 victims of Nazi reprisals and genocide including 30,000 POWs and 8,500 Jews.[52] Russian sources list the deaths of 28,000 of the 49,000 Italian war prisoners in Soviet Union 1942-1954.[261] Military losses in Italy after the September 1943 Armistice with Italy, included 5,927 with the Allies, 17,488 Italian resistance movement fighters and 13,000 RSI Italian Social Republic Fascist forces.[262] The genocide of Roma people was 1,000 persons.[189] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 8,562 (including Libya).[207] 1. ^AB Japan 1939 Japanese population includes 1.7 million Japanese in China and Korea.[263] Japanese military losses were 2,120,000 including 1,740,000 in the war from 1937 to 1945 and 380,000 POW deaths after the surrender. John W. Dower reported that Japanese government figures list the military deaths of 1,740,955 during 1937–45. The details are as follows: 185,647 in China from 1937 to 1941, and 1,555,308 from 1941 to 1945 in the Pacific War. Army: against US 485,717; against UK/Netherlands 208,026; in China 202,958; against Australia 199,511; French Indochina 2,803; against USSR 7,483; other overseas 23,388; Japan proper 10,543. Navy: 1941–45 414,879. "Only one third of the military deaths occurred in actual combat, the majority being caused by illness and starvation."[264] In addition there were the deaths of prisoners after the surrender. According to John W. Dower, the "known deaths of Japanese troops awaiting repatriation in Allied (non-Soviet) hands were listed as 81,090 by U.S. authorities".[265] An additional 300,000 Japanese prisoners died in Soviet hands after the surrender in Manchuria, Korea and the USSR."[264] The Japanese Ministry of Welfare and Foreign Office reported that 347,000 military personnel and civilians were dead or missing in Soviet hands after the war. The Japanese list the losses of 199,000 in Manchurian transit camps, 36,000 in North Korea, 9,000 from Sakhalin and 103,000 in the USSR.[266] These figures were disputed by the Soviet Union, Russian sources report the POW deaths of 62,105(61,855 Japanese and 214 collaborator forces) out of the 640,105 captured(609,448 Japanese and 30,657 collaborator forces).[267] Military deaths include Koreans and Chinese from Taiwan conscripted by Japan. Not included in Japanese war dead are 432,000 Chinese military forces collaborating with Japan.[8] Estimates for Japanese civilian losses range from 500,000,[268] to 1,000,000 dead.[269] The lower figure of 500,000 includes those deaths during the war caused by allied bombing and the fighting on Okinawa. The higher estimate of 1,000,000 includes additional post war deaths of persons injured in the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and excess deaths due to adverse post war conditions. In Allied occupied Japan the shortage of food was an acute problem, in 1946 the average

kilocalorie intake per day was only 1,530 compared to the average of 1,950 during the war years, this was an amount insufficient for long-term health.[270] The General Headquarters for the Allied Powers in Tokyo reported the civilian death rate in Japan in the first year after the war to be 2.1% compared to the pre-war level of 1.6%.[263]John W. Dower reports civilian losses due to U.S. strategic bombing according to official Japanese figures were 393,367 dead, including 210,000 killed in the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and 97,031 in the Bombing of Tokyo in World War II. In addition to these deaths 150,000 civilians were killed on Okinawa and 10,000 on Saipan during the fighting. The Japanese government reported that 60,000 civilians dead or missing in Soviet hands after the war.[264] War related deaths of Japanese merchant marine personnel were 27,000.[271] The US Strategic bombing survey estimated 252,769 killed Japanese in the air war.[272] They also estimated the death toll in Hiroshima and Nagasaki at 105,000 to 115,000.[273] The Yasukuni Shrine in Japan lists a total of 2,325,128 military deaths from 1937 to 1945 including civilians who participated in combat, Chinese(Taiwan) and Koreans in the Japanese Armed Forces. 1. ^AC Korea Sources for total Korean civilian war dead range from 378,000 to 483,000 as detailed below. The American researcher R. J. Rummel estimates 378,000 Korean dead due to forced labor in Japan and Manchuria. According to Rummel, "Information on Korean deaths under Japanese occupation is difficult to uncover. We do know that 5,400,000 Koreans were conscripted for labor beginning in 1939, but how many died can only be roughly estimated."[274]John W. Dower has noted "Between 1939 and 1945, close to 670,000 Koreans were brought to Japan for fixed terms of work, mostly in mines and heavy industry, and it has been estimated that 60,000 or more of them died under harsh conditions of their work places. Over 10,000 others were probably killed in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki".[275] Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian death toll due to the war and Japanese occupation at 483,000 and an additional 50,000 deaths of Koreans conscripted in the Japanese military service.[86] A Korean demographic study reports "the mortality level and the course of mortality changes among Koreans in Korea during the war, appear not to have been much affected. Even for all Koreans living in Korea, Japan and Manchuria, the impact of World War II on the trend and level of mortality is not likely to have been significant. The same source reports 6,369 Koreans to have died in the Japanese military forces, and the number rising to 14,527 when civilians attached to the military forces are added.[276] Korean military forces fighting against Japan were the Korean Liberation Army under Chinese Nationalist command and the Korean Volunteer Army which fought with the Chinese Communist guerrillas. 1. ^AD Latvia Includes civilian losses due to war (220,000) and Soviet occupation in 1940–41 (7,000). Does not include military dead with Soviet (13,000) and German Armed Forces (24,000). Total deaths from 1940 to 1953 due the war and the Soviet occupation were 287,000 (14% of the population).[277] The genocide of Roma people was 2,500 persons.[248] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 80,000.[163] 1. ^AE Lithuania Includes civilian losses due to war (345,000) and Soviet occupation in 1940–41 (8,000). Does not include military dead with Soviet (27,000) and German Armed Forces (8,000). Total deaths from 1940 to 1953 due the war and the Soviet occupation were 448,000 (15% of the population).[278] The genocide of Roma people was 1,000 persons.[248] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 141,000.[163] 1. ^AF Luxembourg Total war dead were 5,000[279] which included military losses of about 3,000 with the German Armed Forces and 200 in Belgian Army. The genocide of Roma people was 200 persons.[248] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 700.[163] 1. ^AG Malaysia Victims of forced labor and reprisals during the Japanese occupation.[252] 1. ^AH Malta Air attack victims.[280] The BBC has an online report on the siege of Malta.[281] 1. ^AI Mexico Mexico lost 7 merchant ships and 63 dead merchant mariners.[280] A Mexican Air Force unit Escuadrón 201 served in the Pacific and suffered 5 combat deaths.

1. ^AJ Mongolia Military losses with USSR against Japan in the 1939 Battle of Khalkhin Gol (200) and the 1945 Soviet invasion of Manchuria (72) campaigns.[282] 1. ^AK Nauru Deaths are 463 Nauruan labourers deported by Japanese authorities to the Caroline Islands.[283] 1. ^BG Nepal Gurkhas recruited from Nepal fought with the British Indian Army and Nepalese Army during the Second World War. The war dead reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission for India include Nepalese in the British Indian Army and Nepalese Army. Gurkha casualties can be broken down as: 8,985 killed or missing and 23,655 wounded.[251] In addition to the Nepalese serving in the British Indian Army Nepal sent 16 battilialions to fight in the Burma campaign.[284] There was a bilateral treaty between Nepal and Britain about the mobilization of Nepalese soldiers. The units which took part were Sri Nath, Kalibox, Surya Dal, Naya Gorakh, Barda Bahadur, Kali Bahadur, Mahindra Dal, Second Rifle, Bhairung, Jabbar Jung, Shumsher Dal, Sher, Devi Dutta, Bhairab Nath, Jagannath and Purano Gorakh Battalions. Besides, there were many high ranking Nepalese in the Joint Army HQ. Late Commander-in-Chief Kiran Shumsher Rana and ex-Commander-in-Chief and Field Marshal Nir Shumsher Rana were amongst the officers deployed by the Nepalese Army. Nepalese battalions – Mahindra Dal, Sher, Kali Bahadur and Jagannath – were also deployed. These Nepalese battalions fought under Allied Command. The Jagannath Battalion took part as engineers to construct tracks, bridges, water points etc. Nepalese troops fought with distinction in the 14th Army under Slim and helped force the eventual Japanese retreat.[285] 1. ^AL Netherlands Dutch government figures for losses in Europe released in 1948[286] listed 210,000 direct war casualties plus an additional 70,000 post-war disease deaths caused by the war. The details are as follows. Military deaths of 8,100, which included 2,200 regular Army, 1,700 Dutch Resistance forces, 2,600 Navy forces, 250 POW in Germany and 1,350 Merchant seaman. Civilian deaths of 271,900, which included 27,000 forced workers in Germany, 7,500 missing and presumed dead in Germany, 2,800 victims of executions, 2,500 deaths in Dutch concentration camps, 18,000 political prisoners in Germany, 20,400 deaths due to military activities, 3,700 Dutch serving in the German military, 104,000 deported Jews and 16,000 deaths in the Dutch famine of 1944. The official statistics also reported an additional 70,000 "indirect war casualties", which are attributed to various diseases caused by wartime conditions. Not included in these figures are an additional 1,650 foreign nationals killed while serving in the Dutch Merchant Marine.[287] The losses of the 3,700 Dutch in the German Armed Forces are not in Dutch war casualties in this article, they are included with the military of Germany.The Dutch suffered additional losses in the Far East which were not included in the above figures except for the Navy. Military losses in Asia were 900 in the 1942 Dutch East Indies campaign and 8,500 military POW deaths in Japanese captivity.[288] The Australian War Memorial reports 8,000 of the 37,000 Dutch POW died in Japanese captivity.[289] Civilian losses in Asia reported by the Dutch Red Cross included the deaths in Japanese custody of 14,800 Europeans out of 80,000 interned in the Dutch East Indies.[192] The Netherlands War Graves Foundation maintains a registry of the names of Dutch war dead.[290] The genocide of Roma people was 500 persons.[248] 1. ^AM Newfoundland Newfoundland's losses are not listed separately by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission since they served with U.K. and Canadian Forces during the war. Military losses were 1,058: 956 with the UK: Navy(351), Army (115), Air Force (134), and Merchant Navy (356), and 102 with Canada: Navy (21), Army(41), and Air Force (40).[291] The losses of the Newfoundland Merchant Navy are commemorated at the Allied Merchant Navy Memorial in Newfoundland,[292] Civilian losses were due to the sinking of the SS Caribou in October 1942.[293] 1. ^AN New Zealand The military deaths listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission Total deaths were 11,929.[6] is the source of the military dead for the British Empire. The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars.[294] Details can

be found online at the New Zealand Armed Forces Memorial Project.[295] The preliminary 1945 data for New Zealand losses was, killed 10,033, missing 2,129, wounded 19,314 and POW 8,453.[156] 1. ^AO Norway Military deaths were 2,000 regular forces; 1,500 resistance fighters and political prisoners. Civilian dead include 3,600 merchant marine, 1,800 war related civilian deaths and 700 Jews. The 700 deaths with German Armed Forces are included with Germany on this schedule.[296] The Norwegian Foreign Ministry reported that "10,262 Norwegians had been killed, including 3,670 seamen. The Germans had executed 366 and tortured 39 to death. Among political prisoners and members of the underground, 658 died at home and 1,433 abroad. About 6,000 Norwegians had served the German war cause, and 709 of them had fallen in battle.[297] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 728.[163] 1. ^AP Papua New Guinea Civilian deaths were caused by Allied bombing and shellfire and Japanese atrocities. Both the Allies and Japanese also conscripted civilians to work as laborers and porters.[298] 1. ^AQ Philippines Sources for total Filipino civilian war dead range from 500,000 to 1,000,000 as detailed below.The United States State Dept. has reported that, In total, an estimated one million Filipinos lost their lives in the war.[299] The primary reason for this high death toll was war related famine and disease. Civilian losses included victims of Japanese war crimes, such as the Bataan Death March and the Manila massacre which claimed the lives of 90,000 Filipinos.[7] Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian death toll due to the war and Japanese occupation at 500,000 (141,000 massacred, 22,500 forced labor deaths and 336,500 deaths due war related famine).[86] The estimate in 1946 by the U.S. War Dept. for Filipino military war dead was 27,260.[274] More recent figures for military war dead, include 7,000 in the Battle of the Philippines (1941-42), 8,000 anti-Japanese guerrillas and 42,000 (out of 98,000) POWs in Japanese captivity.[300] Werner Gruhl estimates an 27,000 Filipinos died serving in the military(including 20,000 POW).[86] 1. ^AR Poland Total Polish war dead In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) put the figure of Poland's dead at between 5,620,000 and 5,820,000; including an estimated 150,000 Polish citizens who died due to Soviet repression. The IPN's figures include 2.7 to 2.9 million Polish Jews who died in the Holocaust as well as 2,770,000 ethnic Poles, other ethnic minorities are not included in these figures.[301] The Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) figure for deaths of ethnic Poles. due the German occupation is 2,770,000. This figure includes "Direct War Losses" −543,000; "Murdered in Camps and in Pacification" −506,000; "Deaths in prisons and Camps" 1,146,000; "Deaths outside of prisons and Camps" 473,000; "Murdered in Eastern Regions" 100,000; "Deaths in other countries" 2,000.[302] Polish researchers have determined that the Nazis murdered 1,860,000 Polish Jews in the extermination camps in Poland, in addition over 1.0 million Polish Jews were murdered by the Einsatzgruppen in the eastern regions or died of starvation and disease while in ghettos.[301] The classification of ethnic groups in pre-war Poland is disputed. The Polish demographer Piotr Eberhardt maintains that it is commonly agreed that the criterion of declared language given in the 1931 census led to an overestimation of the number of Poles in prewar Poland. He notes that in general, the numbers declaring a particular language do not mesh with the numbers declaring the corresponding nationality. Members of ethnic minority groups believe that the language criterion led to an overestimation of Poles.[303] Czesław Łuczak estimated in 1994 the actual total of war dead to be 5.9 to 6.0 million, including 2.9 to 3.0 million Jews. He estimated the number of ethnic Poles who died at 2.0 million, including 1.5 million, due to the German occupation of the territory of modern-day Poland and the balance of 500,000 in the former eastern Polish regions under both Soviet and German occupation. Łuczak also included in his figures an estimated 1,000,000 war dead of Polish citizens from the ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian ethnic groups who comprised 20% of Poland's pre-war population. The Polish government estimate made in 1947 of 6.0 million war dead excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses.[304][305] Tadeusz Piotrowski estimated in 2005 Poland's losses in World War II to be 5.6 million; including 5,150,000 victims of Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles and The Holocaust, 350,000deaths during the Soviet occupation in 1940–41 and about 100,000 Poles killed in 1943–44 during the massacres of Poles in Volhynia. Losses by ethnic group were 3,100,000 Jews; 2,000,000 ethnic Poles; 500,000 Ukrainians and Belarusians.[306]

Civilian losses by geographic area were about 3.5 million in present-day Poland[307] and about 2.0 million in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union.[103][304] Contemporary Russian sources also include Poland's losses in the annexed territories with Soviet war deaths.[308] The official Polish government report on war damages prepared in 1947 listed 6,028,000 war victims during the German occupation (including 123,178 military deaths, 2.8 million Poles and 3.2 million Jews), out of a population of 27,007,000 ethnic Poles and Jews; this report excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses. Losses were calculated for the territory of Poland in 1939, including the territories annexed by the USSR.[309] The figure of 6.0 million war dead has been disputed by Polish scholars since the fall of communism who now put the total actual losses at about 3.0 million Jews and 2.0 million ethnic Poles, not including other ethnic groups (Ukrainians and Belarussians). They maintain that the official statistics include those persons who were missing and presumed dead, but actually remained abroad in the west and the USSR after the war.[304][305] The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum maintains that in addition to 3 million Polish Jews killed in the Holocaust. "Documentation remains fragmentary, but today scholars of independent Poland believe that 1.8 to 1.9 million Polish civilians (non-Jews) were victims of German Occupation policies and the war."[310] The genocide of Roma people was 35,000 persons.[311] Jewish Holocaust victims, in 1939 borders, totaled 3,000,000,[163] including 2 million within the borders of contemporary Poland and 1 million in the territories annexed by the USSR.[312] Polish losses during the Soviet occupation (1939–1941)In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers estimated 150,000 Polish citizens were killed due to Soviet repression. Since the collapse of the USSR, Polish scholars have been able to do research in the Soviet archives on Polish losses during the Soviet occupation.[103] Andrzej Paczkowski puts the number of Polish deaths at 90,000–100,000 of the 1.0 million persons deported and 30,000 executed by the Soviets.[104] In 2005 Tadeusz Piotrowski estimated the death toll in Soviet hands at 350,000.[313] An earlier estimate made in 1987 by Franciszek Proch of the Polish Association of Former Political Prisoners of Nazi and Soviet Concentration Camps estimated the total dead due to the Soviet occupation at 1,050,000.[314] Polish military casualties Poland lost a total of 139,800 regular soldiers and 100,000 Polish resistance movement fighters during the war.[305] Polish military casualties. Military dead and missing were 66,000 and 130,000 wounded in the 1939 Invasion of Poland, in addition 17,000–19,000 were killed by the Soviets in the Katyn massacre and 12,000 died in German POW camps.[315] The Polish contribution to World War II included the Polish Armed Forces in the West, and the 1st Polish Army fighting under Soviet command. Total casualties of these forces in exile were 33,256 killed in action, 8,548 missing in action, 42,666 wounded and 29,385 interned.[315] The Polish Red Cross reported that the 1944 Warsaw Uprising cost the lives of 120,000 -130,000 Polish civilians and 16,000–17,000 Polish resistance movement fighters.[305][316] The names of Polish war dead are presented at a database online.[317] During the war, 2,762,000[318] Polish citizens of German descent declared their loyalty to Germany by signing the Deutsche Volksliste. A West German government report estimated the deaths of 108,000 Polish citizens serving in the German armed forces,[214] these men were conscripted in violation of international law.[319] The Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) estimates 200,000–210,000 Polish citizens, including 76,000 ethnic Poles were conscripted into the Soviet armed forces in 1940–1941 during the occupation of the eastern regions. The (IPN) also reported that the Germans conscripted 250,000 Polish nationals into the Wehrmacht, 89,300 later deserted and joined the Polish Armed Forces in the West.[302] 1. ^AS Timor Officially neutral, East Timor was occupied by Japan during 1942–45. Allied commandos initiated a guerilla resistance campaign and most deaths were caused by Japanese reprisals against the civilian population. The civilian death toll is estimated at 40,000 to 70,000.[320] 1. ^AT Romania Total Romanian military war dead were approximately 300,000.[205] Total killed were 93,326 (72,291 with Axis and 21,035 with Allies). Total missing and POW were 341,765 (283,322 with Axis and 58,443 with Allies), only about 80,000 survived Soviet captivity.[321] Russian sources list the deaths of 54,600 of the 201,800 Romanian POW taken in the War.[322] Figures do not include an additional estimated 40,000 to 50,000 dead included with the Hungarian Army.[247] Civilian losses of 64,000 included 20,000 during Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Bukovina in 1940–41;[322] the genocide of Roma people 36,000 deaths;[189] Allied air raids on Romania caused the deaths of 7,693

civilians.[323] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 469,000 in 1939 borders which includes 300,000 in Bessarabia and Bukovina occupied by the U.S.S.R. in 1940.[17][163] 1. ^AU Ruanda Urundi The 1943 famine in Ruanda which took 300,000 lives was due to a local drought and the harsh wartime policies of the Belgian colonial administration to increase food production for the war effort in the Congo.[324][325] Since Rwanda was not occupied nor the supply of food cut off, these deaths are not usually included with World War II casualties. However, at least one historian has compared the 1943 famine in Ruanda to the Bengal famine of 1943 which is attributed to the war.[326] 1. ^AV Singapore Victims of Japanese war crimes including the Japanese Occupation of Singapore and the Sook Ching massacre.[274] 1. ^AW South Africa The military deaths listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission Total deaths were 11,903.[6] is the source of the military dead for the British Empire. The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars.[294] The preliminary 1945 data for South African losses was killed 6,840, missing 1,841 wounded 14,363 and POW 14,589.[156] 1. ^AX South Pacific Mandate This territory includes areas now known as the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, and the Northern Mariana Islands. The estimate by R. J. Rummel of the number of victims due to Japanese war crimes on the various Pacific Islands is 57,000.[274] Micronesian war related civilian deaths were caused by American bombing and shellfire; and malnutrition caused by the U.S. blockade of the islands. In addition the civilian population was conscripted by the Japanese as forced laborers and were subjected to numerous mindless atrocities.[327] During the Battle of Guam (1944) the number of Chamorro people killed or wounded is not accurately known but it was well over six hundred.[327] During the Battle of Saipan 10,000 persons in a mass suicide of the Japanese civilian population.[7] 1. ^AY Soviet Union Military losses Military deaths from 1939 to 1945, totaling 10.7 million, include 7.7 million killed or missing in action; 2.6 million POW dead, and 400,000 paramilitary and Soviet partisan losses.[328] The official Russian Ministry of Defense figure for military total dead and missing from 1941 to 1945 is 8,668,400; including 6,330,000 killed in action or died of wounds and 556,000 dead from non-combat causes; 500,000 MIA and 1,283,000 dead and missing POW. Official Russian figures indicate 4,559,000 POWs and missing, out of which about 500,000 missing were killed in battle, 939,700 were conscripted back into the Soviet army during the war as territories were being liberated,2,016,000 POW survived the war, 1,836,000 POWs are known to have returned to the USSR after the war, this leaves 1,103,300 POW dead and another 180,000 missing POWs who most likely emigrated to other countries.[146][147] Richard Overy has noted that "The official figures themselves must be viewed critically, given the difficulty of knowing in the chaos of 1941 and 1942 exactly who had been killed, wounded or even conscripted".[329] The official Russian statistics for military dead do not include an additional estimated 500,000 conscripted reservists missing or killed before being listed on active strength, 1,000,000 civilians treated as POW by Germany; and an estimated 150,000 militia and 250,000 Soviet partisan dead, which are considered civilian war losses in the official figures.[328] The estimate by most western historians of Soviet military POW deaths is about 3 million out of 5.7 million total POWs in German hands.[52] There were additional casualties in 1939–40, which totaled 136,945: Battle of Khalkhin Gol in 1939 (8,931); Invasion of Poland of 1939 (1,139); and the Winter War with Finland (1939–40) (126,875).[127] The names of many Soviet war dead are presented in the OBD Memorial database online.[330] Total population losses of the Soviet Union 1941–1945 A report published by the Russian Academy of Science in 1993 estimated that the total Soviet population losses from 1941 to 1945, within Soviet

borders of 1946–1991, were 26.6 million out of a total population of 196.7 million, which included the annexed territories.[15][32] In 2000, the late S. N. Mikhalev of the History department of Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University[331] published a critical analysis of the official Russian wartime casualty statistics, he estimated actual Soviet military war dead at more than 10.9 million persons. He maintained that the official figures cannot be reconciled to the total men drafted and that POW deaths were understated. Mikhalev believed that the official figure of 26.6 million war dead should not be regarded as definitive. His analysis of the demographic balance of the USSR in the war indicated total losses ranging from 21.240 million to 25.854 million, with the mid range being 23.568 million total war dead. Mikhalev pointed out that the estimate of total war deaths are based on a range of estimates for the population in 1939 and the population of the annexed territories that are by no means certain.[332] Michael Haynes has noted that "We do not know the total number of deaths as a result of the war and related policies" We do know that the demographic estimate of excess deaths was 26.6 million plus an additional 16.1 million natural deaths that would have occurred in peacetime, bringing the total dead to 42.7 million. At this time the actual total number of deaths caused by the war is unknown since among the 16.1 million "natural deaths" some would have died peacefully and others as a result of the war.[35] Civilian war dead Civilian deaths listed on the table above of 12.7 million are for the USSR within 1939 borders and does not include an estimated 3.0 million civilian dead in the territories annexed by the USSR in 1939–1945 and the 215,000 Soviet war dead in the German armed forces. Civilian losses in territories annexed by USSR are included in totals of the Baltic states (650,000),[333] Poland (2,000,000),[103][304] Romania (300,000), and Czechoslovikia (50,000).[163] The deaths of Soviet civilians, including Jews, were documented from 1942 to 1946 by the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission.[334][335][336] In 1995 the Russian Academy of Science published a report that summarized Soviet losses in the war. They reported civilian deaths in the German occupied USSR(including annexed territories) totaling 13.7 million, which includes 7.4 million victims of Nazi genocide and reprisals; 2.2 million deaths of persons deported to Germany for forced labor; and 4.1 million famine and disease deaths in occupied territory.[68][337] Total Soviet war dead include losses include an estimated 2.5 to 3.2 million civilian dead due to famine in Soviet territory not occupied by the Germans.[338] Additional famine deaths which totaled 1 million during 1946–47 are not included with World War II casualties.[328] Documents from the Soviet archives list the total deaths of prisoners in the Gulag from 1941 to 1945 at 621,637.[339] An independent Russian journalist believes the actual death toll may be as high as 1.7 million, when one takes into account summary executions and deaths of those forcibly deported during the war.[340] The genocide of Roma people was 30,000 persons.[189] Jewish Holocaust victims, within 1939 borders, totaled 1,000,000.[163] 1. ^AZ Spain There were 4,500 military deaths with the all Spanish Blue Division serving with the German Army in the U.S.S.R. The unit was withdrawn by Spain in 1943.[341] R. J. Rummel estimates the deaths of 20,000 anti-Fascist Spanish refugees resident in France who were deported to Nazi camps, these deaths are included with French civilian casualties.[52] 1. ^BA Sweden During the Winter war of 1939–40 the Swedish Volunteer Corps served with the Finnish Armed Forces and lost 117 men in combat.[342] About 300 Swedish volunteers served in the German Wehrmacht and 30–45 were killed in action.[343] 33 Swedish sailors were killed when submarine HMS Ulven was sunk by a German mine on April 16, 1943.During 1939–1941 Swedish merchant shipping was attacked by German submarines and 391 merchant seamen were killed. Soviet attacks on Swedish merchant shipping from 1941–1944 cost the lives of 187 merchant seamen. The Red Cross Ship Stureborg was attacked by Italian aircraft in July 1942 resulting in the deaths of 19 of the crew and a Red Cross Official.[344] 1. ^BB Switzerland The Americans accidentally bombed Switzerland during the war causing civilian casualties.[345][346] Losses of about 300 Swiss in the German Armed Forces are included with German casualties.[169] 1. ^BC Thailand Military deaths included: 108 dead in the French–Thai War (1940–41)[347] and 5,559 who died either resisting the Japanese invasion (1941), or fighting alongside Japanese forces in the

Burma Campaign of 1942–45.[348] Allied bombing in 1944–45 caused 2,000 civilian deaths.[349] Unlike other parts of South East Asia, Thailand did not suffer from famine during the war.[350] 1. ^BD Turkey The Refah tragedy (Turkish: Refah faciası) refers to a maritime disaster during World War II, when the cargo steamer Refah of neutral Turkey, carrying Turkish military personnel from Mersin in Turkey to Port Said, Egypt was sunk in eastern Mediterranean waters by a torpedo fired from an unidentified submarine. Of the 200 passengers and crew aboard, only 32 survived. 1. ^BE United Kingdom and Colonies The losses listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Total military deaths were 383,786.[6] is the source of the military dead for the British Empire. The losses of Newfoundland (956 military) are included in these figures.[291] The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars.[250]The Commonwealth War Graves Commission maintains a Roll of Honour of those civilians under Crown Protection who died as a result of enemy actions in the Second World War. The names of 67,080 are commemorated in the Civilian War Dead Roll of Honour.[351]UK casualties include losses of the colonial forces.[352] UK colonial forces included units from East Africa, West Africa, Ghana, the Caribbean, Malaya, Burma, Hong Kong, Jordan, Sudan, Malta and the Jewish Brigade. The Cyprus Regiment made up of volunteers that fought with the UK Army, and suffered about 358 killed and 250 missing.[353] Gurkhas recruited from Nepal fought with the British Army during the Second World War. The preliminary 1945 data for colonial forces was killed 6,877, missing 14,208, wounded 6,972 and POW 8,115.[156] The official UK report on war casualties of June 1946 provided a preliminary tally of war losses. This report listed the war deaths of 357,116; Navy (50,758); Army (144,079); Air Force (69,606); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (624); Merchant Navy (30,248); British Home Guard (1,206) and Civilians (60,595). The total still missing on 2/28/1946 was 6,244; Navy (340); Army (2,267); Air Force (3,089); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (18); Merchant Navy (530); British Home Guard (0) and Civilians (0). These figures included the losses of Newfoundland and Southern Rhodesia. There were an additional 31,271 military deaths due to "natural causes" which are not included in these figures. Deaths due to air and rocket attacks were 60,595 civilians and 1,206 British Home Guard. The deaths of civilians interned was not given in the report.[132][354] 1. ^BF United States Total U. S. military deaths in battle and from other causes were 416,837, the U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Merchant Marine are not included in United States Department of Defense total of 405,399 war dead. The breakout by service is as follows: Army 318,274,[134] Navy 62,614,[355] Marine Corps 24,511,[134] United States Coast Guard 1,917,[356][357] and United States Merchant Marine 9,521.[160][358]Deaths in battle were 292,131. The breakout by service is as follows: Army 234,874,[134] Navy 36,950,[134] Marine Corps 19,733,[134] United States Coast Guard 574.[280][356] These losses were incurred during the period 12/1/41 until 12/31/46 including an additional 126 men in October 1941 when the USS Kearny and the USS Reuben James were attacked by U-Boats. The United States Army Air Forces losses, which are included in the Army total, were 52,173 deaths due to combat and 35,946 from non-combat causes.[136] U.S. Combat Dead by Theater of war: Europe–Atlantic 183,588 (Army ground forces 141,088, United States Army Air Forces 36,461, and Navy/Coast Guard 6,039); Asia–Pacific 108,504 (Army ground forces 41,592, United States Army Air Forces 15,694, Navy/Coast Guard 31,485, Marine Corps 19,733); unidentified theaters 39 (Army 39).[136][159] Included with combat deaths are 14,059 POWs (1,124 in Europe and 12,935 in Asia).[159] The details of U.S. casualties are listed online: the US Army,[136] the U.S. Army Air Force,[359] the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps,[360] the U.S. Merchant Marine.[160] Civilian dead were 1,704 American civilians interned: 1,536 by the Japanese, and 168 by Germany.[361][362][363] During the Attack on Pearl Harbor 68 U.S. civilians were killed by friendly fire,[364] and 6 U.S. civilians were killed in Oregon in 1945 by Japanese balloon bombs.[365] The names of individual U.S. military personnel killed in World War II can be found at the U.S. National Archives.[366] The names of U.S. Merchant Mariners killed in World War II are listed by USMM.org.[367] American Battle Monuments Commission website lists the names of military and civilian war dead from World War II buried in ABMC cemeteries or listed on Walls of the Missing.[368]

1. ^BG Yugoslavia Based on recent research actual losses are now put at about 1.0 million persons.[369] The U.S. Bureau of the Census published a report in 1954 that concluded that Yugoslav war related deaths were 1,067,000. The U.S. Bureau of the Census noted that the official Yugoslav government figure of 1.7 million war dead was overstated because it "was released soon after the war and was estimated without the benefit of a postwar census".[370] A recent study by Vladimir Žerjavić estimates total war related deaths at 1,027,000 which included military losses of 237,000 Yugoslav partisans, Chetniks, and 209,000 Ustaše. Civilian dead of 581,000, including 57,000 Jews. Losses of the Yugoslav Republics were: Bosnia 316,000; Serbia 273,000; Croatia 271,000; Slovenia 33,000; Montenegro 27,000; Macedonia 17,000; and killed abroad 80,000.[371] Bogoljub Kočović a Yugoslav statistician,calculated that the actual war losses were 1,014,000.[372] The late Jozo Tomasevich, Professor Emeritus of Economics at San Francisco State University, believes that the calculations of Kočović and Žerjavić "seem to be free of bias, we can accept them as reliable".[373] The reasons for the high human toll in Yugoslavia were as follows: A.Military operations between the Germans, Italians and their Ustaše collaborators on one hand against the Yugoslav partisans and Chetniks.[374] B. German forces, under express orders from Hitler, fought with a special vengeance against the Serbs, who were considered Untermensch.[374] One of the worst massacres during the German military occupation of Serbia was the Kragujevac massacre. C. Deliberate acts of reprisal against target populations were perpetrated by all combatants. All sides practiced the shooting of hostages on a large scale. At the end of the war many Ustaše collaborators were killed during the Bleiburg tragedy.[374] D. The systematic extermination of large numbers of people for political, religious or racial reasons. The most numerous victims were Serbs.[374] The USHMM reports between 77,000 and 99,000 persons were killed at the Jasenovac concentration camp.[375] The genocide of Roma was 40,000 persons.[189] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 67,122.[207] E. The reduced food supply caused famine and disease.[374] F. Allied bombing of German supply lines caused civilian casualties. The hardest hit localities were Podgorica, Leskovac, Zadar and Belgrade.[374] G. The demographic losses due to a 335,000 reduction in the number of births and emigration of about 660,000 are not included with war casualties.[374]

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78. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia "Jehovah's Witnesses"". Ushmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 79. ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia "Freemasonry Under the Nazi Regime" 80. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia "Blacks During the Holocaust"". Ushmm.org. 2011-01-06. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 81. ^ ""Non-Jewish Resistance" Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, D.C". Ushmm.org. 2011-01-06. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 82. ^ – Croatia, Yad Vashem, Shoah Resource Center 83. ^ "Jasenovac". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 7 April 2012. 84. ^ Niewyk, Donald L. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-23111200-9 page 422. 85. ^ R. J. Rummel. Statistics of democide: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900 Transaction 1998 ISBN 38258-4010-7 [2] 86. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Transaction 2007 ISBN 978-07658-0352-8 (Werner Gruhl is former chief of NASA's Cost and Economic Analysis Branch with a lifetime interest in the study of the First and Second World Wars.) 87. ^ Chalmers Johnson. "Looting of Asia". Lrb.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 88. ^ a b Ian Dear & MRD Foot, The Oxford Companion to World War II (2001) p. 443 89. ^ Van Waterford, Prisoners of the Japanese in World War II, McFarland & Co., 1994 ISBN 0-89950-893-6 pp. 141–146 (figures taken from De Japanse Burgenkampen by D. Van Velden 90. ^ Bernice Archer, The internment of Western civilians under the Japanese, 1941–1945: a patchwork of internment / Bernice Archer. London, New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004. ISBN 962-209-910-6 p. 5 91. ^ Edwin Bacon, Glasnost and the Gulag: New information on Soviet forced labour around World War II. Soviet Studies Vol 44. 1992-6 92. ^ Pavel Polian, Against Their Will 93. ^ J. Arch Getty, "Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Prewar Years: A First Approach on the Basis of Archival Evidence," (with Gаbor T. Rittersporn, and V. N. Zemskov), American Historical Review, 98:4, Oct. 1993 94. ^ Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny: sbornik statei. SanktPeterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6 p. 175 95. ^ J. Arch Getty, Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Prewar Years: A First Approach on the Basis of Archival Evidence, (with Gаbor T. Rittersporn, and V. N. Zemskov), American Historical Review, 98:4, Oct. 1993 96. ^ Stephen G. Wheatcroft, Victims of Stalinism and the Soviet Secret Police: The Comparability and Reliability of the Archival Data-Not the Last Word Europe-Asia Studies Volume 51, Issue 2, 1999 97. ^ Robert Conquest, "Excess deaths and camp numbers: Some comments", Soviet Studies Volume 43, Issue 5, 1991 98. ^ Steven Rosefielde, Red Holocaust, Routledge, 2009 ISBN 0-415-77757-7 99. ^ Steven Rosefielde Red Holocaust Routledge, 2009 ISBN 0-415-77757-7 Pages 76 and 77 100. ^ Steven Rosefielde Red Holocaust Routledge, 2009 ISBN 0-415-77757-7 Page 59 101. ^ Steven Rosefielde Red Holocaust Routledge, 2009 ISBN 0-415-77757-7 Pages 179 (Rosefielde's figures were derived by estimating the population from 1939–1945 using hypothetical birth and death rates; he then compares this 1945 estimated population to the actual ending population in 1945. The difference is 31.0 million excess deaths of which 23.4 million are attributed to the war and 7.6 million to Soviet repression) 102. ^ Michael Haynes A Century Of State Murder?: Death and Policy in Twentieth Century Russia, Pluto Press, 2003. ISBN 0745319300. Pages 62–89. 103. ^ a b c d Krystyna Kersten, Szacunek strat osobowych w Polsce Wschodniej. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI, 1994 104. ^ a b Stephane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard Univ Pr, 1999 ISBN 0-674-07608-7 p. 372 105. ^ Poland World War II casualties (in thousands) 106. ^ a b c d e f "Estonian State Commission on Examination of Policies of Repression. ''The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes. 1940–1991''. Tallinn 2005. ISBN 9985-70-195-X Table 2" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-15. 107. ^ Michael Haynes A Century Of State Murder?: Death and Policy in Twentieth Century Russia, Pluto Press, 2003. ISBN 0745319300. Pages 214–215. 108. ^ Pavel Polian, Against Their Will, Page 123 109. ^ Pavel Polian, Against Their Will, Page 119 110. ^ Pavel Polian, Against Their Will, Pages 123–157 111. ^ J. Otto Pohl, The Stalinist Penal System: A History of Soviet Repression and Terror, 1930–1953 McFarland & Company, 1997 ISBN 0-7864-0336-5 Page 133

112. ^ J. Otto Pohl, The Stalinist Penal System: A History of Soviet Repression and Terror, 1930–1953 McFarland & Company, 1997. ISBN 0-7864-0336-5. Page 148. The Soviet Archives did not provide the details by year of the figure of 309,100 deaths in the settlements. 113. ^ G. I. Krivosheev (2001). Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil; statisticheskoe issledovanie. OLMA-Press. pp. Tables 200–203. ISBN 5-224-01515-4. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 114. ^ Elliott, Mark, Pawns of Yalta: Soviet Refugees and America's Role in Their Repatriation, University of Illinois Press, 1982. ISBN 0-252-00897-9 115. ^ a b c d e Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3486-56531-1 pp. 333–335 116. ^ "Russian Volunteers in the German Wehrmacht in WWII-by Lt. Gen Wladyslaw Anders and Antonio Munoz". Feldgrau.com. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 117. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 p. 276 118. ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-48656531-1 p. 286 119. ^ a b John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 p. 297 120. ^ Ellis, John. World War II – A statistical survey Facts on File 1993. ISBN 0-8160-2971-7. p. 254 121. ^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 p. 363 According to John W. Dower; the "Known deaths of Japanese troops awaiting repatriation in Allied (non-Soviet) hands were listed as 81,090 by U.S. authorities; An additional 300,000 Japanese prisoners died in Soviet hands after the surrender 122. ^ "''Reports of General MacArthurMACARTHUR IN JAPAN:THE OCCUPATION: MILITARY PHASE VOLUME I SUPPLEMENT'' U.S. Government printing Office 1966 p. 130 Endnote 36". History.army.mil. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 123. ^ Nimmo, William. Behind a curtain of silence: Japanese in Soviet custody, 1945–1956, Greenwood 1989 ISBN 978-0-313-25762-9 pp. 116–118 The Japanese Ministry of Welfare and Foreign Office reported that 347,000 military personnel and civilians were dead or missing in Soviet hands after the war. The Japanese list the losses of 199,000 in Manchurian transit camps, 36,000 in North Korea, 9,000 from Sakhalin and 103,000 in the U.S.S.R. 124. ^ "Italians in WWII". Storiaxxisecolo.it. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 125. ^ Istituto Centrale Statistica (Roma, 1957) "Rapporto Morti e dispersi per cause belliche negli anni 1940–45" 126. ^ 600,000 POWs of Allies; 50,000 POWs of Russians; 650,000 POWs of Germans [3] 127. ^ a b c G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 pp. 51–80 128. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 pp. 85–87 129. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 pp. 230–238 130. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 pp. 13–14 131. ^ a b Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 pp. 20–21 132. ^ a b c d Strength and Casualties of the Armed Forces and Auxiliary Services of the United Kingdom 1939–1945 HMSO 1946 Cmd.6832 133. ^ The UK Central Statistical Office Statistical Digest of the War HMSO 1951 134. ^ a b c d e f "Congressional Research Report – American War and Military Operations Casualties. Updated February 26, 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-16. 135. ^ "Office of the Adjutant General, ''U.S. Army Battle Casualties and Non-battle Deaths in World War II: ort'', Table, p. 8:"Battle casualties by type of casualty and disposition, and duty branch: 7 December 1941 -31 December 1946". Command and General Staff College (1953)". Cgsc.cdmhost.com. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 136. ^ a b c d "of the Adjutant General, ''U.S. Army Battle Casualties and Non-battle Deaths in World War II: ort'', Table, p. 8:"Battle casualties by type of casualty and disposition, and duty branch: 7 December 1941 -31 December 1946". Command and General Staff College (1953)". Cgsc.cdmhost.com. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 137. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 584 138. ^ "American Merchant Marine at War, www.usmm.org". Usmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 139. ^ "CRS Report for Congress U.S. Prisoners of War and Civilian American Citizens Captured and Interned by Japan in World War II: The Issue of Compensation by Japan Updated December 17, 2002". Retrieved 201106-15. 140. ^ a b Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-48656531-1 p. 335 141. ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-48656531-1 p. 239 and p. 236 142. ^ a b Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-48656531-1 p. 289 143. ^ a b Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny: sbornik statei. SanktPeterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6 p. 109

144. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 20 145. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 p. 85 146. ^ a b c "G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMA-Press, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4 Table 176". Lib.ru. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 147. ^ a b G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 pp. 85–86 148. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7. p. 236 149. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 p. 86 150. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 21 151. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 p. 91 152. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 p. 236 153. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 13-14 154. ^ Ellis, John. World War II – A statistical survey Facts on File 1993. ISBN 0-8160-2971-7. pp. 253–254 155. ^ a b UK Central Statistical Office Statistical Digest of the War HMSO 1951. 156. ^ a b c d e f g The Times on November 30, 1945. The official losses of the Commonwealth and the Colonies were published here 157. ^ "The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission". Direct.gov.uk. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 158. ^ "United States Dept. of the Army, Army Battle Casualties and Non Battle Deaths in World War II". Cgsc.cdmhost.com. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 159. ^ a b c Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. pp. 584–591 160. ^ a b c "American Merchant Marine at War, www.usmm.org". Usmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 161. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. pp. 584–585 162. ^ Albania: a country study Federal Research Division, Library of Congress; edited by Raymond E. Zickel and Walter R. Iwaskiw. 2nd ed. 1994. ISBN 0-8444-0792-5. Available online at Federal Research Division of the U.S. Library of Congress. See section "On The Communist Takeover". Library of Congress Country Study 163. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Martin Gilbert. Atlas of the Holocaust 1988 ISBN 0-688-12364-3 p. 244 164. ^ "''Deaths as a result of service with Australian units''(AWM) web page". AWM. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 165. ^ McKernan, Michael. Strength of a Nation: Six years of Australians fighting for the nation and defending the homefront in World War II, Crows Nest NSW, Allen & Unwin, ISBN 1-74114-714-X. p. 393. 166. ^ Austria facts and Figures Page 44 167. ^ a b Donald Kendrick, The Destiny of Europe's Gypsies. Basic Books 1972 ISBN 0-465-01611-1 168. ^ Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. 169. ^ a b Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-48656531-1 p. 230 170. ^ Ellis, John. World War II – A statistical survey Facts on File 1993. ISBN 0-8160-2971-7. 171. ^ a b Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 540 172. ^ a b Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 pp. 38–39 173. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 512 174. ^ Kiradzhiev, Svetlin. Sofia 125 Years Capital 1879–2004 Chronicle. Sofia 2006 (In Bulgarian) ISBN 954617-011-9 175. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 pp. 74–75 176. ^ a b Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 556 177. ^ "Listing of Newfoundland's War Dead". Ngb.chebucto.org. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 178. ^ "Canadian War Museum" (in (French)). Warmuseum.ca. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 179. ^ "The Canadian Virtual War Memorial". Vac-acc.gc.ca. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 180. ^ The Times on November 30, 1945. The official losses of the Commonwealth and the Colonies were published here. 181. ^ a b John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 pp. 295–296 182. ^ China's Anti-Japanese War Combat Operations.(In Chinese) Guo Rugui, editor-in-chief Huang Yuzhang Jiangsu People's Publishing House, 2005 ISBN 7-214-03034-9 pp. 4–9 183. ^ Hsu Long-hsuen "History of the Sino-Japanese war (1937–1945)" Taipei 1972 184. ^ Ho Ping-ti. Studies on the Population of China, 1368–1953. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959.

185. ^ R. J. Rummel. China's Bloody Century . Transaction 1991 ISBN 0-88738-417-X. Table 5A 186. ^ Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. Pages 48–49 187. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 188. ^ Pacner, K. Osudove okamziky Ceskoslovenska, Praha, 1997, ISBN 80-85821-46-X, p. 270 189. ^ a b c d e f Donald Kendrick, The Destiny of Europe's Gypsies. Basic Books, 1972, ISBN 0-465-01611-1, p. 184 190. ^ "Danish Military Historie website". Milhist.dk. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 191. ^ United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Report of the Working Group for Asia and the Far East, Supp. 10. 1947 pp. 13–14 192. ^ a b M. Z. Aziz. Japan's Colonialism and Indonesia. The Hague 1955. p. 170 193. ^ "Estonian State Commission on Examination of Policies of Repression. ''The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes. 1940–1991''. Tallinn 2005. ISBN 9985-70-195-X p. 16" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-15. 194. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 491 195. ^ Small, Melvin & Singer, Joel David, Resort to Arms: International and Civil Wars 1816–1965. 1982 196. ^ Italy's War Crimes in Ethiopia, 1946 (reprinted 2000), ISBN 0-9679479-0-1. 197. ^ R. J. Rummel. Statistics of democide: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900 Transaction 1998 ISBN 38258-4010-7 Chapter 14 198. ^ "Finnish National Archives". Kronos.narc.fi. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 199. ^ National Defence College (1994), Jatkosodan historia 6, Porvoo. ISBN 951-0-15332-X 200. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 52 201. ^ "Finnish Volunteers in the German Wehrmacht in WWII by Jarto Nieme, Russ Folsom and Jason Pipes". Feldgrau.com. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 202. ^ Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. pp. 58–59 203. ^ a b Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. pp. 60–65 204. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. pp. 415–416 205. ^ a b Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 582 206. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 pp. 83–89 207. ^ a b c Martin Gilbert Atlas of the Holocaust 1988 ISBN 0-688-12364-3 p. 244 208. ^ Rick Atkinson, An Army at Dawn: The War in North Africa, 1942–1943, Simon and Schuster, 2007, ISBN 0-7435-7099-5, p. 478 209. ^ a b Gerhard Reichling. Die deutschen Vertriebenen in Zahlen, Bonn 1995, ISBN 3-88557-046-7 210. ^ Wiki media Map:German speaking regions of Europe prior to 1939 211. ^ a b c d Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3486-56531-1 pp. 335–336 212. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, 213. ^ Marschalck, Peter. Bevölkerungsgeschichte Deutschlands im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, Suhrkamp 1984 214. ^ a b c Die deutschen Vertreibungsverluste. Bevölkerungsbilanzen für die deutschen Vertreibungsgebiete 1939/50. Herausgeber: Statistisches Bundesamt – Wiesbaden. – Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1958 215. ^ a b c d Rűdiger Overmans, Personelle Verluste der deutschen Bevölkerung durch Flucht und Vertreibung. (A parallel summary in Polish was also included, this paper was a presentation at an academic conference in Warsaw Poland in 1994), Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI-1994 216. ^ Rüdiger Overmans's personal website (in German) 217. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik November 1949, journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland.(German government Statistical Office) 218. ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-48656531-1 pp. 286 219. ^ Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, p. 78 220. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik November 1949, journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland (German government Statistical Office) 221. ^ The Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78 222. ^ Willi Kammerer; Anja Kammerer, Narben bleiben die Arbeit der Suchdienste – 60 Jahre nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg Berlin Dienststelle 2005 (Published by the Search Service of the German Red Cross. The forward to the book was written by German President Horst Köhler and the German interior minister Otto Schily.) 223. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland (German government Statistical Office) 224. ^ Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78 225. ^ Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg, Bd. 9/1, ISBN 3-421-06236-6. p. 460

226. ^ Germany reports. With an introduction by Konrad Adenauer. Germany (West). Presse- und Informationsamt. Wiesbaden, Distribution: F. Steiner, 1961. Page 32 227. ^ Das Bundesarchiv Das Inventar der Quellen zur Geschichte der 'Euthanasie'-Verbrechen 1939–1945 (report available online at Bundesarchiv website) 228. ^ Rhode,Gotthold, Die Deutschen im Osten nach 1945. Zeitschrift Für Ostforschung, Heft 3, 1953 229. ^ Bundesministerium für Vertriebene, Dokumentation der Vertreibung der Deutschen aus Ost-Mitteleuropa Vol. 1–5, Bonn, 1954–1961 230. ^ "R. J. Rummel, "Statistics of democide: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900" Transaction 1998 ISBN 38258-4010-7 Chapter 7". Hawaii.edu. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 231. ^ Federal Ministry for Expellees, Refugees and War Victims Facts concerning the problem of the German expellees and refugees. Bonn, 1967 232. ^ a b Rede von Bundespräsident Horst Köhler beim Tag der Heimat des Bundes der Vertriebenen am 2. Sept 2006 in Berlin [4] 233. ^ a b c "PPD 39 Haar" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-15. 234. ^ a b pl:Piotr Eberhardt, Political Migrations In Poland 1939–1948, Warsaw, 2006 235. ^ pl:Piotr Eberhardt, Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-Century Central-Eastern Europe: History, Data, Analysis Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 2003. ISBN 0-7656-0665-8 236. ^ "Final Statement and Conclusions of the Czech-German Historical Commission". Tschechien-portal.info. 1996-12-17. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 237. ^ Hoensch, Jörg K. und Hans Lemberg, Begegnung und Konflikt. Schlaglichter auf das Verhältnis von Tschechen, Slowaken und Deutschen 1815–1989 Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung 2001 ISBN 3-89861002-0 238. ^ Leidensweg der Deutschen im kommunistischen Jugoslawien, Arbeitskreis Dokumentation im Bundesverband der Landsmannschaft der Donauschwaben aus Jugoslawien, Sindelfingen, und in der Donauschwäbischen Kulturstiftung, München. Imprint München: Die Stiftung, 1991–1995. Vol 4, pp. 1018– 1019 239. ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-48656531-1 pp. 298–299 240. ^ Bernadetta Nitschke. Vertreibung und Aussiedlung der deutschen Bevölkerung aus Polen 1945 bis 1949. München, Oldenbourg Verlag, 2003. ISBN 3-486-56832-9. S. 269–282. 241. ^ Christoph Bergner, Secretary of State in Germany's Bureau for Inner Affairs, outlines the stance of the respective governmental institutions in Deutschlandfunk on 29 November 2006, [5] 242. ^ Willi Kammerer, Anja Kammerer. Narben bleiben die Arbeit der Suchdienste – 60 Jahre nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg Berlin Dienststelle 2005 (Published by the Search Service of the German Red Cross. The foreword to the book was written by German President Horst Köhler and the German interior minister Otto Schily.) 243. ^ B. Gleitze, Deutschlands Bevölkerungsverluste durch den Zweiten Weltkrieg, „Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung” 1953, s. 375–384 Gleitze estimated 400,000 excess deaths during the war and 800,000 in post war Germany 244. ^ Alan S. Milward, The Reconstruction of Western Europe 245. ^ Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. pp. 89–91 246. ^ "Council for Reparations from Germany, ''Black Book of the Occupation''(In Greek and German) Athens 2006 p. 1018-1019" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-15. 247. ^ a b Támas Stark. Hungary's Human Losses in World War II. Uppsala Univ. 1995 ISBN 91-86624-21-0 248. ^ a b c d e Donald Kendrick, The Destiny of Europe's Gypsies. Basic Books 1972 ISBN 0-465-01611-1 p. 183 249. ^ "Hve margir Íslendingar dóu í seinni heimsstyrjöldinni?". Visindavefur.hi.is. 2005-06-14. Retrieved 201106-15. 250. ^ a b "'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission". Direct.gov.uk. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 251. ^ a b Parker, John. (2005). The Gurkhas: The Inside Story of the World's Most Feared Soldiers. Headline Book Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7553-1415-7 P.250 252. ^ a b John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 p. 296 253. ^ Amartya Sen interviewed by David Barsamian of Alternative Radio 254. ^ a b Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 498 255. ^ The Challenge Of The Irish Volunteers of World War II Geoffrey Roberts 256. ^ "Bombing Incidents in Ireland during the Emergency 1939–1945". Csn.ul.ie. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 257. ^ Roma:Instituto Centrale Statistica' Morti E Dispersi Per Cause Belliche Negli Anni 1940–45 Rome 1957 258. ^ "The effects of war losses on mortality estimates for Italy: A first attempt. Demographic Research, Vol. 13, No. 15". Demographic-research.org. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 259. ^ Del Boca, Angelo, The Ethiopian war. Univ. of Chicago Press. 1969 ISBN 0-226-14217-5 260. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 90

261. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 47 262. ^ Ufficio Storico dello Stato Maggiore dell'Esercito. Commissariato generale C.G.V. Ministero della Difesa – Edizioni 1986 263. ^ a b Annual Changes in Population of Japan Proper 1 October 1920–1 October 1947, General Headquarters for the Allied Powers Economic and Scientific Section Research and Programs Division. Tokyo, July 1948. 264. ^ a b c John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 pp. 297–299 265. ^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 pp. 363 266. ^ Nimmo, William. Behind a curtain of silence: Japanese in Soviet custody, 1945–1956, Greenwood 1989 ISBN 978-0-313-25762-9 pp. 116–118 267. ^ "G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMA-Press, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4". Lib.ru. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 268. ^ Gil Elliot, Twentieth Century Book of the Dead C. Scribner, 1972 ISBN 0-684-13115-3 269. ^ Sivard, Ruth Leger World Military and Social Expenditures 1985 270. ^ Borton, Hugh. Japans Modern Century New York 1955 pp. 497, 271. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 578 272. ^ The US Strategic bombing survey Report # 55 p. 7 273. ^ "United States Strategic Bombing Survey The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagaski United States Government Printing Office Washington: 1946". Ibiblio.org. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 274. ^ a b c d "R. J. Rummel "Statistics of democide: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900" Transaction 1998 ISBN 3-8258-4010-7 Chapter 3". Hawaii.edu. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 275. ^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 p. 47 276. ^ Tai Hawn Kwon. Demography of Korea. Seoul National University Press. 1977 277. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 28 278. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 29 279. ^ Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. p. 107 280. ^ a b c Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. 281. ^ "The Siege of Malta in World War Two". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-02-17. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 282. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 74 283. ^ "United States State Department Background notes Nauru". State.gov. 2011-01-26. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 284. ^ "Impact of World War II in Nepal". Premsinghbasnyat.com.np. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 285. ^ "History Of The Nepalese Army". Nepalarmy.mil.np. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 286. ^ "Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Netherlands" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-15. 287. ^ "CBS, 1948, Oorlogsverliezen 1940–1945. Maandschrift van het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, blz. 749. Belinfante, 's-Gravenhage" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-15. 288. ^ Fremy, M., Quid 1996, p. 1275 289. ^ "Dutch and Australian servicemen in captivity". Awm.gov.au. 1944-08-31. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 290. ^ "The Netherlands War Graves Foundation". Ogs.nl. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 291. ^ a b "Military Records of Newfoundlanders Who Served in Various Units During World War II". Ngb.chebucto.org. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 292. ^ "Allied Merchant Navy Memorial in Newfoundland". Cdli.ca. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 293. ^ Sinking of the SS Caribou 294. ^ a b "'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission". Direct.gov.uk. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 295. ^ "New Zealand Armed Forces Memorial Project". Nzhistory.net.nz. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 296. ^ Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. pp. 112–113 297. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs Norway and World War II". B24.no. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 298. ^ Bjij, V. Lal and Kate Fortune. The Pacific Islands – An Encyclopedia p. 244 299. ^ "United States State Dept. ''Background Note: Philippines''". State.gov. 2011-06-03. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 300. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 566 301. ^ a b Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6, p. 32 302. ^ a b Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6, pp. 29–30 303. ^ Piotr Eberhardt, Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-Century Central-Eastern Europe: History, Data, Analysis M.E. Sharpe, 2002 ISBN 0-7656-0665-8 p. 112

304. ^ a b c d Czesław Łuczak, Szanse i trudnosci bilansu demograficznego Polski w latach 1939–1945. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI, 1994 305. ^ a b c d Gniazdowski, Mateusz. Losses Inflicted on Poland by Germany during World War II. Assessments and Estimates—an Outline The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs, 2007, no. 1.This article is available from the Central and Eastern European Online Library at http://www.ceeol.com 306. ^ [Poland World War II casualties (in thousands)http://projectinposterum.org/docs/poland_WWII_casualties.htm] 307. ^ U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington, D.C., 1954 308. ^ Andreev, E. M., et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993. ISBN 5-02013479-1 p. 78. Total Soviet losses of 26.6 million are computed for the population in mid-1941 in the territory of the Soviet Union of 1946–1991 309. ^ Poland. Bureau odszkodowan wojennych, Statement on war losses and damages of Poland in 1939–1945. Warsaw 1947.(the figures of 2.8 miilion Jews and 3.2 miilion Poles are based on language spoken, not religion) 310. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.''Poles Victims of the Nazi Era''". Ushmm.org. Retrieved 201106-16. 311. ^ Donald Kendrick, The Destiny of Europe's Gypsies. Basic Books 1972 ISBN 0-465-01611-1 p. 18 312. ^ Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. pp. 115–126 313. ^ "go to note on Polish Casualties by Tadeusz Piotrowski at the bottom of the page". Project In Posterum. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 314. ^ Franciszek Proch, Poland's Way of the Cross, New York 1987 315. ^ a b T. Panecki, Wsiłek zbrojny Polski w II wojnie światowej pl:Wojskowy Przegląd Historyczny,1995, no. 1– 2, pp. 13–18 316. ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6, p. 20 317. ^ "Victims of the Nazi Regime-Database of Polish citizens repressed under the German Occupation". Straty.pl. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 318. ^ Nürnberg Document No. 3568. Data from this document is listed in Martin Brozat, Nationalsozialistische Polenpolitik Fischer Bücheri 1961. p. 125 319. ^ Schimitzek, Stanislaw, Truth or Conjecture? Warsaw 1966 320. ^ Department of Defence (Australia), 2002, "A Short History of East Timor" (Access date: October 13, 2010.) 321. ^ Mark Axworthy. Third Axis Fourth Ally. Arms and Armour 1995 ISBN 1-85409-267-7 pp. 216–217 322. ^ a b Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 51 323. ^ Mark Axworthy. Third Axis Fourth Ally. Arms and Armour 1995 ISBN 1-85409-267-7 p. 314 324. ^ Catharine NewburyThe Cohesion of Oppression: Clientship and Ethnicity in Rwanda: 1860–1960 Columbia University Press, 1993 ISBN 0-231-06257-5 pp. 157–158 325. ^ Linden, Jan Church and revolution in Rwanda, Manchester University Press 1977 ISBN 0-8419-0305-0 p. 207 326. ^ Alexander De Waal, Famine crimes: politics & the disaster relief industry in Africa Indiana Univ Pr, 1999 ISBN 0-253-21158-1 p. 30 327. ^ a b Poyer, Lin; Falgout, Suzanne; Carucci, Laurence Marshall. The Typhoon of War: Micronesian Experiences of the Pacific War Univ of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 2001. ISBN 0-8248-2168-8 328. ^ a b c Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 20-21 329. ^ Richard Overy, Russia's War: A History of the Soviet Effort: 1941–1945, Penguin Books, 1998, ISBN 0-14027169-4 p. XV 330. ^ "OBD Memorial". Obd-memorial.ru. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 331. ^ "Obituary of S. N. Mkhalev who passed away in 2005". Andjusev.narod.ru. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 332. ^ S. N. Mikhalev Liudskie poteri v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine 1941–1945 gg: Statisticheskoe issledovanie Krasnoiarskii gos. pedagog. universitet, 2000. ISBN 5-85981-082-2. Page 28. 333. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 pp. 23–34 334. ^ A Mosaic of Victims – Non-Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis. Ed. by Michael Berenbaum New York University Press 1990 ISBN 1-85043-251-1 p. 140 335. ^ "A. A. Shevyakov ''"Gitlerovski genotsid na territoriyakh SSR."'' Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 12, 1991" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-16. 336. ^ "A. A. Shevyakov ''"Zherty sredi mirnogo nasseleniya v gody otechestvennoi voiny"'' Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 11, 1992" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-16. 337. ^ Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny: sbornik statei. SanktPeterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6 pp. 124–131(These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR in 1941, including territories annexed in 1939–40).

338. ^ Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny: sbornik statei. SanktPeterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6 p. 158 339. ^ Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny: sbornik statei. SanktPeterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6 p. 175 340. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1. p. 22 341. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 515 342. ^ "Swedish Volunteer Corps". Svenskafrivilliga.com. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 343. ^ "Swedish Volunteers in the German Wehrmacht". Feldgrau.com. 1945-05-02. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 344. ^ The article in Swedish Wikipedia Lista över krigshandlingar mot Sverige under andra världskriget The List of Acts of War Against Sweden In World War Two has details with sources on Sweden's Merchant Marine Losses in the war 345. ^ "Aerospace Power Journal. Summer 2000. The Diplomacy of Apology: U.S. Bombings of Switzerland during World War II by Jonathan E. Helmreich". Airpower.maxwell.af.mil. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 346. ^ "Aerospace Power Journal. Summer 2000. The Bombing of Zurich by Jonathan E. Helmreich". Airpower.maxwell.af.mil. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 347. ^ Sorasanya Phaengspha (2002) The Indochina War: Thailand Fights France. Sarakadee Press. 348. ^ Eiji Murashima, "The Commemorative Character of Thai Historiography: The 1942–43 Thai Military Campaign in the Shan States Depicted as a Story of National Salvation and the Restoration of Thai Independence" Modern Asian Studies, v40, n4 (2006) pp. 1053–1096, p1057n: "Deaths in the Thai military forces from 8 December 1941 through the end of the war included 143 officers, 474 non-commissioned officers, and 4,942 soldiers. (Defense Ministry of Thailand, In Memory of Victims who Fell in Battle [in Thai], Bangkok: Krom phaenthi Thahanbok, 1947). With the exception of about 180 who died in the 8 December [1941] battles and another 150 who died in battles in the Shan states [Burma], almost all of the war dead died of malaria and other diseases." 349. ^ E. Bruce Reynolds, "Aftermath of Alliance: The Wartime Legacy in Thai-Japanese Relations", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, v21, n1, March 1990, pp. 66–87. "An OSS document (XL 30948, RG 226, USNA) quotes Thai Ministry of Interior figures of 8,711 air raids deaths in 1944–45 and damage to more than 10,000 buildings, most of them totally destroyed. However, an account by M. R. Seni Pramoj (a typescript entitled 'The Negotiations Leading to the Cessation of a State of War with Great Britain' and filed under Papers on World War II, at the Thailand Information Center, Chulalongkorn University, p. 12) indicates that only about 2,000 Thai died in air raids." 350. ^ E. Bruce Reynolds, "Aftermath of Alliance: The Wartime Legacy in Thai-Japanese Relations", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, v21, n1, March 1990, pp66-87. Thailand exported rice to neighboring Japaneseoccupied countries during 1942–45 (p72n) and did not experience the notorious famines that occurred in India and French Indochina (see above), during 1943–1944. 351. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission – Annual Report 2009–2010. Finances, Statistics and Service, p. 19 352. ^ Marika Sherwood (2011-03-30). "Colonies, Colonials and World War Two". BBC. Retrieved 18 April 2011. 353. ^ "Cyprus Veterans Association World War II". Cyprusveterans.com.cy. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 354. ^ UK Central Statistical Office Statistical Digest of the War HMSO 1951 355. ^ Annual Report, Navy and Marine Corps Military Personnel Statistics, 30 June 1964. 356. ^ a b "U.S. Coast Guard History". Uscg.mil. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 357. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6 pp. 584–591 358. ^ "Mariners in "ocean-going service" during World War II have Veteran Status. They may be entitled to a gravestone, flag for their coffin, and burial in a National Cemetery". Usmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 359. ^ U.S. Army Air Force in World War Two 360. ^ "US Navy and Marine Corps Personnel Casualties in World WarII". History.navy.mil. Retrieved 2011-0616. 361. ^ CRS Report for Congress U.S. Prisoners of War and Civilian American Citizens Captured and Interned by Japan in World War II: The Issue of Compensation by Japan Updated December 17, 2002, p. CRS-11 362. ^ Center for Internee Rights, Civilian prisoners of the Japanese in the Philippine Islands Turner Press 2002, ISBN 1-56311-838-6 (The total of 1,536 is broken out as 992 "died" and 544 "unknown", out of 13,996 total detained by Japan.) (Those detained by Germany are broken out as 168 "died" and 715 "unknown", out of 4,749 total detained.) 363. ^ The annual death rate from 1942–1945 of Americans interned by Japan was about 3.5%. There were 1,536 deaths among the 13,996 interned civilians from 1942–1945. The United States interned about 100,000 Japanese Americans from 1942–1945. The 1946 report by the U.S. Dept. of The Interior "The Evacuated People a Quantitative Description" gave the annual death rate from 1942–1945 of Japanese detained in the U.S. at about 0.7%. There were 1,862 deaths among the 100,000 to

110,000 Japanese civilians interned in the U.S. from 1942–1945. The annual death rate among the U.S. population as a whole from 1942–1945 was about 1.1% per annum. 364. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 552 365. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 550 366. ^ U.S. National Archives Casualties from World War II 367. ^ "U.S. Merchant Marine Casualties during World War II". Usmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 368. ^ "American Battle Monuments Commission". Abmc.gov. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 369. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4 Cap.17 Alleged and True Population Losses 370. ^ U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Yugoslavia Ed. Paul F. Meyers and Arthur A. Campbell, Washington p. 23 371. ^ Danijela Nadj, dnadj@hic.hr (1993). Yugoslavia manipulations with the number Second World War victims. Zagreb: Croatian Information center. ISBN 0-919817-32-7. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 372. ^ Kočović, Bogoljub Žrtve Drugog svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji, 1990. ISBN 86-01-01928-5. pp. 172–189 373. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4 In Cap.17 Alleged and True Population Losses there is a detailed account of the controversies related to Yugoslav war losses. p. 737 374. ^ a b c d e f g Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4 In Cap.17 Alleged and True Population Losses there is a detailed account of the controversies related to Yugoslav war losses. p. 744-750 375. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia. "Jasenovac"". Ushmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-16.

American corpses sprawled on the beach of Tarawa. The Marines secured the island after 76 hours of intense fighting with around 6,000 dead in total. The Pacific War claimed the lives of more than 100,000 US military personnel. Killing of Jews at Ivangorod, Ukraine, 1942. A woman protects a child with her body as Einsatzgruppen soldiers aim their rifles.

Dead Soviet soldiers, January 1942. Officially, roughly 8.7 million Soviet soldiers died in the course of the war. Katyn 1943 exhumation. Photo by Polish Red Cross delegation.

World War II casualties of the Soviet Union
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

World War II casualties of the Soviet Union from all related causes are commonly estimated in excess of 20,000,000, both civilians and military, although the statistics vary to a great extent. The current assessment by Russian Government is that total losses were 26.6 million both civilians and military, with military dead at 8.7 million.

Current Assessment by the Russian Government
Military losses In 1993 the Russian Ministry of Defense issued a report authored by G. I.
Krivosheev that details Soviet military casualties in World War II. The source for the data were Soviet "reports from the field and other archive documents" that were considered secret during the Soviet era. The schedule below summarizes these figures.
Soviet World War II military casualties 1939-1945[1][2] Dead and Wounded and missing survived Battle of Khalkhin Gol 1939 9,703 15,952 [1][3] Invasion of Poland 1939[1][4] 1,475 2,383 [1][4] Winter War 1939-1940 126,875 264,908 [5][6] World War II 1941-1945 8,668,400 14,685,593 Total 8,806,453 14,968,836 The Schedule below summarizes Soviet casualties from 1941-1945. Military dead and missing (1941–45)[7][8] KIA or died of wounds 6,329,600 Noncombat deaths (sickness, accidents,etc.) 555,500 Subtotal KIA, died of wounds and Noncombat deaths 6,885,100 MIA and POW 4,559,000 Total operational losses during war 11,444,100 Less:Surviving missing (939,700) Less:POWs returned to USSR (1,836,000) 8,668,400 Total irrecoverable losses (from listed strength)

The report of G. I. Krivosheev shows that of all the men serving in the military during the war there were about 4,559,000 reported missing (including 3,396,400 per field reports and an additional 1,162,600 estimated by Krivosheev), out of which 500,000 were missing and presumed dead, 939,700 were conscripted back into the Soviet army during the war as territories were being liberated, 1,103,300 POW died in captivity, 2,016,000 POW survived the war, of which 1,836,000 POWs are known to have returned to the U.S.S. R. after the war and another 180,000 liberated POWs who most likely emigrated to other countries.[9][10] Some scholars maintain that Soviet military casualties should also include the deaths of an additional estimated 500,000 conscripted reservists captured before being listed on active strength, 1,000,000 civilians treated as military POW by Germany and also about 150,000 militia and 250,000 Soviet partisan dead.[11][12] In official Russian sources these are considered civilian casualties.[13][14] Estimates by Western historians of Soviet military POW deaths is about 3 million out of 5.7 million total POWs in German hands. However, this number probably includes partisans, militia, and many civilian men of military age taken as POWs[9][14] Total Soviet population losses include approximately 12 million men aged 18 to 39[15]
The casualties of each Soviet Republic Soviet Republic Population 1940 Military Dead Civilian Dead Armenia 1,320,000 150,000 30,000 Total Deaths as % 1940 Pop. 180,000 13.6%

Soviet Republic Population 1940 Military Dead Civilian Dead Total Deaths as % 1940 Pop. Azerbaijan 3,270,000 210,000 90,000 300,000 9.1% Belarus 9,050,000 620,000 1,670,000 2,290,000 25.3% Estonia 1,050,000 30,000 50,000 80,000 7.6% Georgia 3,610,000 190,000 110,000 300,000 8.3% Kazakhstan 6,150,000 310,000 350,000 660,000 10.7% Kyrgyzstan 1,530,000 70,000 50,000 120,000 7.8% Latvia 1,890,000 30,000 230,000 260,000 13.7% Lithuania 2,930,000 25,000 350,000 375,000 12.7% Moldova 2,470,000 50,000 120,000 170,000 6.9% Russia 110,100,000 6,750,000 7,200,000 13,950,000 12.7% Tajikistan 1,530,000 50,000 70,000 120,000 7.8% Turkmenistan 1,300,000 70,000 30,000 100,000 7.7% Uzbekistan 6,550,000 330,000 220,000 550,000 8.4% Ukraine 41,340,000 1,650,000 5,200,000 6,850,000 16.3% Unidentified 165,000 130,000 295,000 Total USSR 194,090,000 10,700,000 15,900,000 26,600,000 13.7% • The source of the figures on the table is Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 pp. 23–35 Erlikman notes that these figures are his estimates. Many Soviet war dead are presented at the OBD Memorial database online.[16] Soviet military dead and Missing by nationality (1941–45)[17] Total Percentage 5,756,000 66.402% Russians 1,377,400 15.890% Ukrainians 252,900 2.917% Belarusians 187,700 2.165% Tatars 142,500 1.644% Jews 125,500 1.448% Kazakhs 117,900 1.360% Uzbeks 83,700 0.966% Armenians 79,500 0.917% Georgians 545,300 6.291% Others

Civilian losses The Russian Academy of Science puts the civilian death toll in the regions
occupied by Germany at 13.7 million. Contemporary Russian sources use the terms "genocide" and "premeditated extermination" when referring to civilian losses in the occupied USSR caused by the result of direct, intentional actions of violence. Civilians killed in reprisals during the Soviet partisan war account for a major part of the huge toll.[18] Russian sources generally do not breakout Jewish Holocaust deaths separately. Martin Gilbert puts Jewish losses at one million within the borders of 1939; Holocaust deaths in the annexed territories were another 1.5 million bringing the total in Soviet territory to about 2.5 million.[19] These losses include deaths in the siege of Leningrad. David Glantz has noted that Soviet era sources put the number of dead in the Siege of Leningrad at “greater than 800,000” and that a Russian source from 2000 put the number of dead at 1,000,000.[20] However, other Russian historians have put the death toll in the siege of Leningrad at between 1.4 and 2.0 million persons.[21] The report of the Russian Academy of Science lists the deaths of civilian forced laborers in Germany totaling 2,164,313. G. I. Krivosheev in the report on military casualties gives a total of 1,103,300 POW dead. The total of these two figures is 3,267,613, which is in close agreement with estimates by western historians of about 3 million deaths of prisoners in German captivity. In the occupied regions Nazi Germany had a policy of forced confiscation of food that resulted in the famine deaths of an estimated 6% of the population, 4.1 million persons.[22]

Soviet civilian war dead(1941–45)[23][24][25] Deaths caused by the result of direct, intentional actions 7,420,379 [26] of violence Deaths of forced laborers in Germany 2,164,313[26] Deaths due to famine and disease in the occupied regions 4,100,000[27] Total 13,684,692

Source: The figures for civilian losses are taken from a report published by the Russian Academy of Science Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles (In Russian). Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 -M. V. Philimoshin of the War Ministry of the Russian Federation About the results of calculation of losses among civilian population of the USSR and Russian Federation 1941-1945 Pages 124-131 • These figures are for the regions of the USSR occupied by Germany with a population of about 70 million persons.[18] [28] • These casualties are for 1941-1945 within the 1946-1991 borders of the USSR. Included with civilian losses are deaths in the territories annexed by the USSR in 1939-1940 including 600,000 in the Baltic states[11] and 1,500,000 in Eastern Poland.[29] • In addition to the losses listed above an estimated 2.5 to 3.2 million civilians died due to famine and disease in non-occupied territory of the USSR which was caused by wartime shortages in the rear areas.[30] • Documents from the Soviet archives list the total deaths of prisoners in the Gulag from 1941 to 1945 at 621,637. In the 1995 Report by the Russian Academy of Science V.N. Zemskov noted "due to general difficulties in 1941-1945 in the camps, the GULAG and prisons about 1.0 million prisoners died[31] • These figures do not include an additional 622,000 persons who did not return to the USSR after 1946 according to the 1993 Russian Academy of Science report on total war losses by E.M. Andreev[32]

Total Population losses A report published by the Russian Academy of Science in 1993
estimated total Soviet population losses of 26.6 million in the war. This is the current official Russian government figure for total losses.[28] These losses are a demographic estimate of excess deaths, not an exact accounting of losses. The main areas of uncertainty when calculating losses were the estimated figures for increase in the Soviet population in the territories annexed from 1939–1945 and the loss of population due to emigration during and after the war. The figures also include victims of Soviet repression as well as the deaths of Soviet citizens in German military service.[33] Michael Haynes has noted that "We do not know the total number of deaths as a result of the war and related policies". We do know that the demographic estimate of excess deaths was 26.6 million plus an additional 16.1 million natural deaths that would have occurred in peacetime, bringing the total dead to 42.7 million. At this time the actual total number of deaths caused by the war is unknown since among the 16.1 million "natural deaths" some would have died peacefully and others as a result of the war.[34]
Total Soviet losses by demographic balance (1941–45)[35] Population in June 1941 Population at the end of 1945 Born before June 1941 and living by end of 1945 Total loss of population born before the war period Add wartime increase in Infant Mortality Less Natural deaths at 1940 level (not including Infant Mortality of 4.2 million) Total population loss (in excess of pre-war level) Total War Deaths by Age Group and Gender

196,700,000 170,500,000 159,500,000 37,200,000 1,300,000 (11,900,000) 26,600,000

War Total War Age Males % Age Females War % Age % Age Deaths Population Deaths Group (millions) Group (millions) Deaths(millions) Group Group (millions) (millions) (millions) 0-14 27.879 1.425 5.1% 27.984 1.398 5.0% 55.863 2.823 5.1% 15-19 11.092 1.064 9.6% 11.220 0.340 3.0% 22.312 1.404 6.3% 20-34 24.948 9.005 36.1% 26.330 2.663 10.1% 51.278 11.668 22.8% 35-49 18.497 6.139 33.2% 20.236 781 3.9% 38.733 6.920 17.9% Over 49 11.999 2.418 20.2% 16.976 1.380 8.1% 28.975 3.798 13.1% All Age 94.415 20.051 21.2% 102.746 6.562 6.4% 197.161 26.613 13.5% Groups Source:Andreev, EM, et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993. ISBN 978-5-02-0134799 (Population of the Soviet Union 1922-1991 Russian Academy of Science) Remarks: Age Group 0-14- The deaths of 2.8 million children was due primarily to the famine and disease caused by the war. Age Group 15-19 The excess deaths of 724,000 males compared to females was due primarily to military losses. The draft age in the USSR was 18 during the war. Age Group 20-34 The excess deaths of 6,342,000 males compared to females was due primarily to military losses. The deaths of 2,663,000 women is an indication that women were also involved in the partisan war and became victims of Nazi reprisals. Age Group 35-49 The excess deaths of 5,358,000 males compared to females was due primarily to military losses. Age Group over 49 The excess deaths of 1,038,000 males compared to females was due primarily to military losses. Some men from the older age group did serve in the Armed Forces. They were involved in the partisan war and became victims of Nazi reprisals. All Age Groups- The excess deaths of 13,489,000 males compared to females was due primarily to military losses with the regular forces as well the partisan forces. The figures are a clear indication that many Soviet civilians died in the war as a result of Nazi reprisals as well as famine and disease caused by wartime shortages which took a large toll.

Causes The Red Army suffered catastrophic losses of men and equipment during the first months of the German invasion.,[2][36] In the spring of 1941 Stalin ignored the warnings of his intelligence services of a planned German invasion and refused to put the Armed forces on alert. The units in the border regions were not prepared to face the German onslaught and were caught by surprise. Large numbers of Soviet soldiers were captured and many perished due to the brutal mistreatment of POWs by the Nazis[37] U.S. Army historians maintain the high Soviet losses can be attributed to 'less efficient medical services and the Soviet tactics, which throughout the war tended to be expensive in terms of human life"[38] Russian scholars attribute the high civilian death toll to the Nazi Generalplan Ost which treated the Soviet people as "subhuman". Contemporary Russian sources use the terms "genocide" and "premeditated extermination" when referring to civilian losses in the occupied USSR. To suppress the partisan units the Nazi occupation forces engaged in a campaign of brutal reprisals against innocent civilians. The extensive fighting destroyed agricultural land, infrastructure, and whole towns, leaving much of the population homeless and without food. The Nazis confiscated food stocks which resulted in famine in the occupied regions. During the war Soviet civilians were taken to Germany as forced laborers under inhuman conditions.[39] The Estimates and their Sources
from 7 million to over 43 million.[40] During the Communist era in the Soviet Union historical writing about World War II was subject to censorship and only official approved statistical data was published. In the USSR during the Glasnost period under Gorbachev and in post communist Russia the casualties in World War II were re-evaluated and the official figures revised. In 1993 the Russian government issued reports on war losses that gave total dead of 26.6 million persons including military losses of 8,668,400 military personnel, since then these figures have been accepted by the Russian government as being correct. However, the official figures have been disputed by Russian scholars. Official Estimates made from 1946 to 1987 Joseph Stalin in March 1946 stated that Soviet war losses were 7 million dead. This was to be the official figure until the Khrushchev era.[33] In

Soviet and Russian Estimates Estimates for Soviet losses in the Second World War range

November 1961 Nikita Khrushchev stated that Soviet war losses were 20 million, this was to be the official figure until the Gorbachev era of Glasnost.[33][41] Leonid Brezhnev in 1965 put the Soviet death toll in the war at “more than 20 million”[42] Ivan Konev at in a May 1965 Soviet Ministry of Defense press conference stated that Soviet military dead in World War II were 10 million.[43] In 1971 the Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis put losses at 20 million including 6,074,000 civilians and 3,912,000 prisoners of war killed by Nazi Germany, military dead were put at 10 million[44] Estimates by Russians published in the West 1950-1983 In 1949 a Soviet Colonel Kalinov defected to the west, he published a book claiming that Soviet records indicated the military loss of 13.6 million men including 2.6 million POW dead.[45][46][47] Sergei Maksudov a Russian demographer living in the west estimated Soviet war losses at between 24.5 and 27.4 million, including 7.5 million military dead.[33][48][49] The Soviet mathematician Iosif G. Dyadkin published a study in the United States that estimated the total Soviet population losses from 1939–1945 due to the war and political repression at 30 million. Dyadkin was imprisoned for publishing this study in the west.[50] Period of Glasnost During the period of Glasnost the official figure of 20 million war dead was challenged by Soviet scholars. In 1988-1989 estimates of 26 to 28 million total war dead appeared in the Soviet press.[40] The Russian scholar Dmitri Volkogonov writing at this time estimated total war deaths at 26-27,000,000 including 10,000,000 in the military[51] In March 1989 Mikhail Gorbachev set up a committee to investigate Soviet losses in the war. In a May 1990 speech Gorbachev gave the figure for total Soviet losses at "almost 27 million". This revised figure was the result of research by the committee set up by Gorbachev that estimated total war dead at between 26 and 27 million .[33] In January 1990 M.A. Moiseev Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces disclosed for the first time in an interview that Soviet military war dead totaled 8,668,400.[52] In 1991 reports were published in the USSR indicating 14 million military dead based on the alphabetical card-indexes personnel records of the Russian Military Archives.[53] From 1942-1946 the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission collected information on Nazi crimes in the USSR. The reports of the Commission detailing the number of civilian deaths were kept secret until the collapse of the USSR. In 1991 the Russian scholar A.A. Shevyakov published an article with summary of civilian losses based on the reports of this commission, civilian dead were given as 18.3 million. In a second article in 1992 A.A. Shevyakov gave a figure of 20.8 million civilian dead, no explanation for the difference was given.[33][54][55] Official Figures Released in 1993-1995 by Russian Government In 1993 the Russian ColGeneral G.F. Krivosheev published a study that gave total Soviet military dead and missing in the war of 8,668,400. These figures were based on official documentation that was previously classified secret in the Soviet era. This study by Krivosheev is the current official Russian Ministry of Defense accounting for military casualties from 1941–1945.[7][8] A report published by the Russian Academy of Science in 1993 estimated that the total Soviet population losses were 26.6 million. This is the current official Russian government figure for total losses in the war.[28][33] In 1995 the Russian Academy of Science published a series of articles that analyzed Soviet losses in the war. An article detailed civilian deaths in the German occupied USSR totaling 13.7 million, which includes 7.4 million victims of Nazi genocide and reprisals; 2.2 million deaths of persons deported to Germany for forced labor; and 4.1 million famine and disease deaths in occupied territory. They also estimated an additional 3 million deaths due to famine and disease in the regions not occupied by Germany[56] Estimates disputing the Russian government figures • In 1988 a Russian academic Boris Sokolov published an article in a Soviet academic journal estimating total war losses at 21.3 million persons, including 14.3 military and 7.0 million civilians[57] In 1991 Sokolov published a study of the war that put total losses at 29.4 million persons, including military war dead of 14.7 million and civilian deaths of 15 million[58] In 1996 Sokolov published a revised study that estimated total war dead at 43.3 million including 26.4 million in the military. Sokolov’s own calculations show that the official

figures for population in 1941 to be understated by 12.7 million and the population in 1946 to be overstated by 4.0 million, thus resulting in 16.7 million additional war dead bringing the total to 43.3 million.[59][60] The Russian demographer Dr. L. L. Rybakovsky dismissed these hypothetical calculations and believes they are not based on sound judgment.[61] • In 2000 the late Dr. S. N. Mikhalev of the History department of Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University[62] published a critical analysis of the official Russian wartime casualty statistics, From 1989 to 1996 Mikhalev was an associate of the Institute of Military History of the Ministry of Defence. Mikalev estimated actual Soviet military war dead at more than 10.9 million persons. He maintained that the official figures cannot be reconciled to the total men drafted and that POW deaths were understated. Mikhalev believed that the official figure of 26.6 million war dead should not be regarded as definitive. In 1995 the Russian Academy of Science published his analysis of the demographic balance of the USSR in the war that indicated total losses ranging from 21.240 million to 25.854 million, with the mid range being 23.568 million total war dead. Mikhalev pointed out that the figures for total war deaths are based on a range of possible estimates for the pre-war population in 1939 and the population of the annexed territories that are by no means certain.[63][64] The following schedule shows the reconciliation of losses of the field reports to the actual number of mobilized persons[65][66][67]
Description Red Army & Navy Strength- June 1941 ( A.) Drafted during war ( B.) Discharged during war (C.) Red Army & Navy strength- June 1945 (D.) conscripted reservists (E.) Subtotal: Operational Losses MIA Re-conscripted (F.) Liberated POW returned to USSR NKVD & Border Troops (G.) Losses in the Far East August 1945 H. Total Irrecoverable Losses Balance per Kirvosheev Balance per Mikhalev 4,902,000 4,704,000 29,575,000 29,575,000 (9,693,000) (9,693,000) (12,840,000) (11,999,000) (500,000) 0 11,444,000 12,587,000 (940,000) 0 (1,836,000) (1,836,000) 0 159,000 0 12,000 8,668,000 10,922,000 Difference (198,000) 0 0 841,000 500,000 1,143,000 940,000 0 159,000 12,000 2,254,000

Notes: A. Strength Red Army June 1941- Mikhalev excludes Construction troops whose casualties were not included in the field reports. B. Drafted during war -Excludes those drafted twice. C.Discharged during war-Includes those sent on sick leave, those sent to industry, NKVD or foreign units and 437,000 imprisoned after sentencing D. Red Army strength June 1945-Mikhalev excludes 403,000 Construction troops whose casualties were not included in the field reports and 437,000 imprisoned after sentencing already deducted in number of discharged E.Conscripted reservists captured in 1941 before being listed on active strength. Mikhalev maintains that they were a military operational losses that should be included with total casualties

F. MIA Re-conscripted were men conscripted back into the Soviet army during the war as territories were being liberated. Mikhalev maintains that they should not be deducted because were included in the Red Army strength in June 1945 and that the number conscripted excludes those drafted twice. G.NKVD & Border Troops -Mikhalev adds these losses to the total because they were not part of the Red Army balance in June 1945. H. Losses in the Far East August 1945- Mikhalev adds these losses to the total because they were not part of the Red Army balance in June 1945

The analysis of Krivosheev and Mikhalev is based on the field reports of the Red Army and the reconciliation of the balance for persons conscripted. An alternative method to determine Soviet war losses is the Russian Military Archives data base of individual war dead. S. A. Il’enkov an official of the Central Archives of the Russian Ministry of Defense maintains that “ complex military situation at the front did not always allow for the conduct of a full accounting of losses”. He pointed out that reports from the field units did not include deaths in rear area hospitals of wounded personnel. Il’enkov maintains that the information in the Russian Military Archives alphabetical card-indexes can assist in solving the problem of determining the total number of Soviet military war dead.[68] In an article published by the Central Archives of the Russian Ministry of Defense Il’enkov described the work of the archives to reconcile data base of individual war dead. He believes the work has progressed to the point where we can determine an accurate accounting of war losses. Il’enkov concluded by stating "We established the number of irreplaceable losses of our Armed Forces at the time of the Great Patriotic War of about 13,850,000.[69] Some Russian writers have argued that war losses should also include the hypothetical population loss for children unborn due to the war, using this methodology total losses would be about 46 million.[70] In May 2009 the former Russian Defense Minister Dmitry Yazov put the death toll in the war at 37 million (27 to 28 million civilians and 8.6 million military)[71]

Rebuttal by Krivosheev In 2002 G.F. Krivosheev, author of the 1993 official study of military casualties, defended the results of his report that found 8.668 million military war dead. Krivosheev maintains that the figures were derived in a scientific manner by a team of professional researchers who had access to the military archives. He also maintains that the results of the study reflect a realistic view of casualties based on the military operational situation during the war. Krivosheev believes that the Central Archives data base of individual war dead is not reliable because some personnel records are duplicated and others omitted[72]

Estimates Of Soviet War Dead by Western Scholars Historians writing outside of the
Soviet Union and Russia have evaluated the various Russian language sources and have offered their estimates of Soviet war dead. Here is a listing of estimates by recognized scholars published in the West.
Source Frank Lorimer(1946),[73][74] Pierre George (1946)[75] N. S. Timasheff(1948),[76] Helmut Arntz (1953)[77][78] Jean-Noël Biraben(1958)[79] Military Dead 5,000,000 7,000,000 7,000,000 13,600,000 8,000,000 Civilian Dead 15,000,000 10,000,000 18,300,000 7,000,000 6,700,000 Total Dead 20,000,000 17,000,000 25,300,000 20,000,000+ 14,700,000

Warren W. Eason(1959)[80][81] E. Ziemke(1968)[38] Albert Seaton(1971)[82] Gil Elliot (1972)[83] Charles Messenger(1989)[84] John Keegan(1989),[85] R. J. Rummel (1990)[86] John Ellis(1993)[87] Michael Ellman and Sergei Maksudov(1994) [33] Norman Davies(1998)[88] Richard Overy(1997)[89] Mark Mazower(1998)[90] David Wallechinsky(1995)[91] Michael Clodfelter (2002)[92] Michael Haynes (2003) [93] Martin Gilbert(2004)[94] H. P. Willmott(2004)[95] Tony Judt (2005)[96] Norman Davies(2006)[97] Cambridge History of Russia(2006)[98] Steven Rosefielde(2010)[99] •

10,000,000 more than 12,000,000 10,000,000 10,000,000 7,000,000 7,000,000 11,000,000 8,700,000 8-9,000,000 8,668,400 9,500,000 13,600,000 8,668,400 8,700,000 10,000,000 KIA & 3,300,000 POW 8,700,000 8,600,000 8,668,000 8.7 million + 8,700,000 "all causes"

15,000,000

25,000,000

10,000,000 7,000,000 19,125,000 6,700,000 18,000,000 16-19,000,000 17,000,000 10,000,000

20,000,000 20,000,000 14,000,000 26,125,000 plus 10,000,000 due to Soviet repression 17,700,000 26-27,000,000 24-28,000,000 25,000,000 19,500,000 20-26,000,000 20-26,000,000 26,600,000 20,000,000+ 25,600,000 24,600,000 27,000,000 24-26 million "26.4 to 29 million" plus 5.458 million dead due to Soviet repression

17,900,000 7,000,000 16,900,000 16,000,000 18,332,000 13.7 million in Nazi occupied USSR and 2.6 million in interior USSR "17.7 or 20.3 million"

David Glantz maintains that “ the war with Nazi Germany cost the Soviet Union at least 29 million military casualties”(dead, wounded and sick) “ The exact numbers can never be established, and some revisionists have attempted to put the number as high as 50 million”[100] Richard Overy believes the figures for military dead published in 1993... give the fullest account yet available, but they omit three operations that were clear failures. The official figures themselves must be viewed critically, given the difficulty of knowing in the chaos of 1941 and 1942 exactly who had been killed, wounded or even conscripted"[101] Regarding military dead Richard Overy believes that "for the present the figure of 8.6 million must be regarded as the most reliable"[102] Norman Davies points out that that not all Soviet war dead were killed by the Nazis, many perished due to Soviet repression. Davies notes It lies in the nature of the problem that the victims of Soviet wartime repressions cannot be easily quantified. The records of the victorious Soviets, unlike those of the defeated Nazis have never been opened for scrutiny. Whether the fraction of Soviet civilians who perished at the hands of their own régime was one quarter, one third or even one half of the whole will never be firmly established until the Soviet government itself comes clean.[103] The authors of the Cambridge History of Russia have provided an analysis of Soviet wartime casualties. Overall losses were about 25 million persons plus or minus 1 million. Red Army records indicate 8.7 million military deaths, “this figure is actually the lower limit”. The official figures understate POW losses and armed partisan deaths. Excess civilian deaths in the Nazi occupied USSR were 13.7 million persons including 2 million Jews. There were an additional 2.6 million deaths in the interior regions of the Soviet Union. The authors maintain “scope for

error in this number is very wide”. At least 1 million perished in the wartime GULAG camps or in deportations. Other deaths occurred in the wartime evacuations and due to war related malnutrition and disease in the interior. The authors maintain that both Stalin and Hitler “were both responsible but in different ways” for these deaths. The authors of the Cambridge History of Russia believe that “In short the general picture of Soviet wartime losses suggests a jigsaw puzzle. The general outline is clear: people died in colossal numbers but in many different miserable and terrible circumstances. But individual pieces of the puzzle do not fit well; some overlap and others are yet to be found"[104] Steven Rosefielde puts the war related demographic losses of the USSR from 1941 -45 at 22.0 to 26.0 million persons (7.8 million military and 14.2 to 18.2 million civilians). The actual wartime losses are higher because some persons who would have died peacefully actually perished as a result of the war. Rosefielde estimated the actual military dead at 8.7 million men and 17.7 to 20.3 million civilians killed by the Nazis in the war- (exterminated, shot, gassed burned 6.4 or 11.3 million; famine and disease 8.5 or 6.5 million; forced laborer in Germany 2.8 or 3.0 million and 500,000 who did not return to USSR after war.) [105] In addition to these war deaths Rosefielde also estimated the excess deaths attributed to the “total potential crimes against humanity” due to Soviet repression at 2.183 million persons in 1939-40 and 5.458 million from 1941-1945. The figures for losses due to Soviet repression do not include 1 million military deaths of men drafted from the Gulag into penal suicide battalions.[106]

Sources
In the English Language G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 978-1-85367-280-4 Michael Haynes, Counting Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War: a Note Europe Asia Studies Vol.55, No. 2, 2003, 300–309 Michael Ellman and S. Maksudov, Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War:a note-World War II- Europe Asia Studies, July 1994 Boris SokolovThe cost of war: Human losses for the USSR and Germany, 1939-1945 The Journal of Soviet Military Studies Volume 9, Issue 1 March 1996 Boris Urlanis, Populations and Wars Progress Moscow 1971 Iosif G. Dyadkin, Unnatural Deaths in the Ussr, 1928-1954 Transaction 1983 S. A. Il'Enkov Concerning the registration of Soviet armed forces' wartime irrevocable losses, 1941-1945 The Journal of Soviet Military Studies Volume 9, Issue 2 June 1996 In the Russian Language G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil ; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMAPress, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4 S. N Mikhalev Liudskie poteri v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine 1941- 1945 gg: Statisticheskoe issledovanie Krasnoiarskii gos. pedagog. universitet • 2000 ISBN: ISBN 978-5-85981-082-6. Mikhalev's book is available in libraries in the U.S. and the UK Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: сборник статей (Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of World War II: Collection of Articles). SaintPetersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0

Andreev, EM, et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993. ISBN 978-5-02-013479-9 A. A. Shevyakov “Gitlerovski genotsid na territoriyakh SSR.” Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 12, 1991 This article by a researcher at the Russian Academy of Science is a brief summary of the work of the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission. A. A. Shevyakov “Zherty sredi mirnogo nasseleniya v gody otechestvennoi voiny” Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 11, 1992 This article by a researcher at the Russian Academy of Science gives a detailed breakdown by locality of civilian losses in the occupied USSR based on the reports of the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission. L L Rybakovsky Casualties of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War (In Russian) Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 2000. № 6. L L Rybakovsky The Great Patriotic War Russian Human Losses (In Russian) Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 2001. № 6. Л.Л. РЫБАКОВСКИЙЛЮДСКИЕ ПОТЕРИ СССР В ВЕЛИКОЙ ОТЕЧЕСТВЕННОЙ ВОЙНЕ LL Rybakovsky Casualties of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War In Russian Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 2000. № 8. Б.В. Соколов ЦЕНА ВОЙНЫ:ЛЮДСКИЕ ПОТЕРИ СССР И ГЕРМАНИИ, 1939-1945 Boris Sokolov, Truth about the Great Patriotic War 1998 ( In Russian) Russian translation of the article that appeared in the Journal of Slavic Military Studies # 3 1996. S. A. Il’enkov Pamyat O Millionach Pavshik Zaschitnikov Otechestva Nelzya Predavat Zabveniu Voennno-Istoricheskii Arkhiv No. 7(22), Central Military Archives of the Russian Federation 2001, pp. 73–80 ISBN 978-5-89710-005-7,( The Memory of those who Fell Defending the Fatherland Cannot be Condemned to Oblivion In Russian -Available at the New York Public Library See also • Nazi crimes against Soviet POWs • Soviet historiography References 1. ^ a b c d G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 978-1-85367-280-4 Page 79 2. ^ a b G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil ; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMA-Press, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4 3. ^ G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil ; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMA-Press, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4 Table 111 4. ^ a b G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil ; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMA-Press, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4 Tables 111 5. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 978-1-85367-280-4 Pages 8586 Includes 12,031 dead and missing and 24,425 in the Invasion of Manchuria< 6. ^ G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil ; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMA-Press, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4 Tables 121 &123 7. ^ a b G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil ; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMA-Press, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4 Table 120 8. ^ a b G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 978-1-85367-280-4 Page 85 9. ^ a b G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil ; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMA-Press, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4 Table 176 10. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 978-1-85367-280-4 Pages 8586 11. ^ a b Erlikhman, Vadim. Потери народонаселения в XX веке: справочник (Population Losses in the 20th century: Reference). Moscow, 2004. ISBN 978-5-93165-107-1 12. ^ S. N Mikhalev Liudskie poteri v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine 1941- 1945 gg: Statisticheskoe issledovanie Krasnoiarskii gos. pedagog. universitet • 2000 ISBN: ISBN 978-5-85981-082-6. 13. ^ G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil ; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMA-Press, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4 Пленные и пропавшие без вести

14. ^ a b G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 978-1-85367-280-4 Pages 230-238 15. ^ Andreev, EM, et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993. ISBN 978-5-02013479-9 Page 78 16. ^ OBD Memorial database 17. ^ G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil ; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMA-Press, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4 Table 121 18. ^ a b Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei. SanktPeterburg 1995 ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 M. V. Philimoshin of the War Ministry of the Russian Federation About the results of calculation of losses among civilian population of the USSR and Russian Federation 19411945 Pages 124-131 In Russian (These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR in 1941, including territories annexed in 1939–40). 19. ^ Gilbert, Martin. Atlas of the Holocaust. 1988. ISBN 978-0-688-12364-2 20. ^ David M. Glantz, Siege of Leningrad 1941 1944 Cassell 2001 ISBN 978-1-4072-2132-8 21. ^ Л.Л. РЫБАКОВСКИЙ ВЕЛИКАЯ ОТЕЧЕСТВЕННАЯ ЛЮДСКИЕ ПОТЕРИ РОССИИ L. L. Ryebakovsky Russia’s Human Losses in the Great Patriotic War In Russian Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya 2001. № 6. Page 86 22. ^ Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: сборник статей (Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles). Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 Page 126 23. ^ G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil ; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMA-Press, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4 Tables 116-118 24. ^ Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: рник стсбоатей (Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles). Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 25. ^ Perrie, Maureen (2006), The Cambridge History of Russia: The twentieth century, Cambridge University Press, p. 226, ISBN 0-521-81144-9 Total civilian deaths under the German occupation were 13.7 million including 2 million Jews 26. ^ a b Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: рник стсбоатей (Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles). Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 Pages 124-131 The Russian Academy of Science article by M.V. Philimoshin based this figure on sources published in the Soviet era. 27. ^ Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: рник стсбоатей (Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles). Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 Pages 124-131 The Russian Academy of Science article by M.V. Philimoshin estimated 6% of the population in the occupied regions died due to war related famine and disease. 28. ^ a b c Andreev, EM, et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993. ISBN 978-5-02013479-9 29. ^ Łuczak, Czesław. Szanse i trudnosci bilansu demograficznego Polski w latach 1939-1945. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI. 1994. The losses in the former Polish eastern regions are also included in Poland's total war dead of 5.6 to 5.8 million 30. ^ Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: сборник статей (Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles). Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 Page158 deaths resulting from harsh conditions, like lack of food and medicine, on Soviet territory not occupied by the Germans were due to wartime shortages 31. ^ Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: сборник статей (Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles). Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 Page174-177 deaths resulting from harsh conditions, like lack of food and medicine, on Soviet territory not occupied by the Germans were due to wartime shortages 32. ^ Andreev, EM, et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993. ISBN 978-5-02013479-9 The 1952 Foreign Ministry figures gave a total of 451,100 who return to the USSR after 1946, this figure did not include an additional 170.000 persons who emmigated to Germany and Rumania 33. ^ a b c d e f g h Michael Ellman and S. Maksudov, Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War:a note-World War IIEurope Asia Studies, July 1994 34. ^ Michael Haynes, Counting Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War: a Note Europe Asia Studies Vol.55, No. 2, 2003, 300–309 35. ^ G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil ; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMA-Press, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4 Table 115 36. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 978-1-85367-280-4 37. ^ Richard Overy, Russia's War 1997

38. ^ a b Earl F. Ziemke, Stalingrad to Berlin, the German Defeat in the East;Office of the Chief of Military History U.S. Army 1968 pp 500 39. ^ Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei. SanktPeterburg 1995 ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0. 40. ^ a b LL Rybakovsky Casualties of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War In Russian Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 2000. № 6. P. 108-118 41. ^ Л.Л. РЫБАКОВСКИЙЛЮДСКИЕ ПОТЕРИ СССР В ВЕЛИКОЙ ОТЕЧЕСТВЕННОЙ ВОЙНЕ LL Rybakovsky Casualties of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War In Russian Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 2000. № 8. P.90-91 The Russian researcher L L Rybakovsky assumes that the source of Nikita Khrushchev’s figure of 20 million war dead was the 1957 Soviet translation,(Itogi vtoroj mirovoj vojny. Sbornik statej) of the West German book Bilanz des Zweiten Weltkrieges Hamburg 1953 42. ^ L L Rybakovsky Casualties of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War (In Russian) Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 2000. № 6. 43. ^ Boris Urlanis, Populations and Wars Progress Moscow 1971 Page 132 44. ^ Boris Urlanis, Populations and Wars Progress Moscow 1971 Page 284 45. ^ Kalinov, Cyrille- Les maréchaux soviétiques vous parlent. Paris 1950 46. ^ Gregory, Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. 47. ^ S. N Mikhalev Liudskie poteri v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine 1941- 1945 gg: Statisticheskoe issledovanie Krasnoiarskii gos. pedagog. universitet • 2000 ISBN: ISBN 978-5-85981-082-6. Page 36 48. ^ S. Maksudov, Pertes subies par la population de l'URSS, 1918-1958, Cahiers du Monde russe et soviétique, XVIII, 3, July–September 1977 49. ^ S. Maksudov Losses Suffered by the Population of the USSR 1918-1958 The Samizdat register II / edited by Roy Medvedev New York : Norton, 1981.(English translation of Maksudov's 1977 article) 50. ^ Iosif G. Dyadkin, Unnatural Deaths in the Ussr, 1928-1954 Transaction 1983 ISBN 978-0-87855-919-0 51. ^ Dmitri Volkogonov, Stalin: Triumph and tragedy 1991 52. ^ Tsena Pobeda Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal # 3 The Price of Victory –Military History Journal # 3 1990 Interview with M.A. Moiseev Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces. 53. ^ The Price of Victory: Myths and reality, V.E. Korol, Journal of Slavic Military Studies Vol. 9 No. 2 (June 1996) pp 417-426 54. ^ A. A. Shevyakov “Gitlerovski genotsid na territoriyakh SSR.” Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 12, 1991 This article by a researcher at the Russian Academy of Science is a brief summary of the work of the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission. 55. ^ A. A. Shevyakov “Zherty sredi mirnogo nasseleniya v gody otechestvennoi voiny” Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 11, 1992 This article by a researcher at the Russian Academy of Science gives a detailed breakdown by locality of civilian losses in the occupied USSR based on the reports of the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission. 56. ^ Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei. SanktPeterburg 1995 ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 M. V. Philimoshin of the War Ministry of the Russian Federation About the results of calculation of losses among civilian population of the USSR and Russian Federation 19411945Pages 124-131 In Russian (These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR in 1941, including territories annexed in 1939–40). 57. ^ Соколов Б.В. О соотношении потерь в людях и боевой технике на советско-германском фронте в ходе Великой Отечественной войны // Вопросы истории. 1988. № 9. ( On the Ratio of Losses of Human and Military Equipment on the Soviet-German Front in the course of the Great Patriotic War – The Questions of History 1988 # 9) 58. ^ Соколов Б. Цена Победы. Великая Отечественная. 1991 (B. Sololov ,The Price of Victory in the Great Patriotic War In Russian 59. ^ Boris Sokolov The cost of war: Human losses for the USSR and Germany, 1939-1945 The Journal of Soviet Military Studies Volume 9, Issue 1 March 1996, 60. ^ Соколов Б.В. Правда о Великой Отечественной войне. СПб., 1998. (B. Sokolov, Truth about the Great Patriotic War In Russian 61. ^ Л.Л. РЫБАКОВСКИЙЛЮДСКИЕ ПОТЕРИ СССР В ВЕЛИКОЙ ОТЕЧЕСТВЕННОЙ ВОЙНЕ LL Rybakovsky Casualties of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War In Russian Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 2000. № 8. P. 89 62. ^ Obituary of S N Mkhalev 63. ^ S. N Mikhalev Liudskie poteri v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine 1941- 1945 gg: Statisticheskoe issledovanie Krasnoiarskii gos. pedagog. universitet • 2000 ISBN: ISBN 978-5-85981-082-6. Page 28 Mikhalev's book is available in libraries in the U.S. and the UK 64. ^ Великая Отечественная: демографические и военно-оперативные потери // Людские потери СССР в Великой Отечественной войне: Сб.ст. - СПб., 1995. - 1,0 п. л.-] The Russian Academy of Science published the details of his analysis of total population losses here)

65. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 978-1-85367-280-4 Page 8591 66. ^ G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil ; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMA-Press, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4 Tables 120 and 132 67. ^ S. N Mikhalev Liudskie poteri v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine 1941- 1945 gg: Statisticheskoe issledovanie Krasnoiarskii gos. pedagog. universitet • 2000 ISBN: ISBN 978-5-85981-082-6. Pages 18-21. (S. N Mikhalev Human Losses in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945 A Statistical Investigation Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University (In Russin) 68. ^ S. A. Il'Enkov Concerning the registration of Soviet armed forces' wartime irrevocable losses, 1941-1945 The Journal of Soviet Military Studies Volume 9, Issue 2 June 1996 69. ^ S. A. Il’enkov Pamyat O Millionach Pavshik Zaschitnikov Otechestva Nelzya Predavat Zabveniu VoennnoIstoricheskii Arkhiv No. 7(22), Central Military Archives of the Russian Federation 2001, pp. 73-80 ISBN 978-5-89710-005-7,( The Memory of those who Fell Defending the Fatherland Cannot be Condemned to Oblivion In Russian -Available at the New York Public Library 70. ^ L L Rybakovsky Casualties of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War (In Russian) Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 2000. № 6. pp.110-111 71. ^ Rianovosti, 7. Mai 2009: UdSSR hat im Zweiten Weltkrieg rund 37 Millionen Menschen verloren This figure proably includes persons dying natural deaths unrelated to the war 72. ^ Г.Ф. КРИВОШЕЕВ, «Историк должен ЛИКОВАТЬ и ГОРЕВАТЬ со своим народом ВОЕННОИСТОРИЧЕСКИЙ ЖУРНАЛ №11 2002 G. I. Krivosheev “Historians Should Triumph and Grieve with their People, Military History Journal Nr. 11 2002[dead link] 73. ^ Frank Lorimer, The population of the Soviet Union: history and prospects, Geneva, League of Nations, 1946. Pages 181-183. 74. ^ Lormimer's hypothetical figures, not an estimate, put the total demographic loss at 20.0 million. (9.0 million civilians over age 5 and 6.0 million children under age 5 not born during the war or deaths due to an increase in infant mortality. The figure of 5.0 million military dead was based on information available in early 1946 which was published in the USSR during the war. Lormier's figures are for the USSR in 1939 borders and does not include territories annexed in 1939-1940 75. ^ Esquisse d'une étude démographique de l'Union soviétique Population(Paris) No.3 July–September 1946 76. ^ N. S. Timasheff: “The Post-war Population of the Soviet Union”The American Journal of Sociology, September 1948 77. ^ Bilanz des Zweiten Weltkrieges, Oldenburg-Hamburg, 1953. – Professor Dr. Helmut Arntz . Die Menschenverluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg 78. ^ Л.Л. РЫБАКОВСКИЙЛЮДСКИЕ ПОТЕРИ СССР В ВЕЛИКОЙ ОТЕЧЕСТВЕННОЙ ВОЙНЕ LL Rybakovsky Casualties of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War (In Russian) Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 2000. № 8. P.90-91 The Russian researcher L L Rybakovsky assumes that the source of Nikita Khrushchev’s figure of 20 million war dead was the 1957 Soviet translation,(Itogi vtoroj mirovoj vojny. Sbornik statej) of the West German book Bilanz des Zweiten Weltkrieges Hamburg 1953 79. ^ Jean-Noël Biraben, Essai sur l'évolution démographique de l'U.R.S.S. Population (French Edition) Jun., 1958, vol. 13, no. 2, p. 29-62 80. ^ Eason, Warren W. , “The Soviet Population Today” Foreign Affairs 37 (July 1959): 598-606(Eason made his calculations based on the preliminary results of the 1959 Soviet census. His estimate was 25 million deaths of those persons alive at the beginning of the war and an additional wartime loss of 20,000,000 children under age 5 due to a decline in births and an increase infant mortality, thus bringing the total to 45,000,000 81. ^ Obituary of Warren Eason 82. ^ Albert Seaton, The Russo-German War 1941-45 Prager 1971 pp 586 83. ^ Gil Elliot, Twentieth Century Book of the Dead C. Scribner, 1972 ISBN 978-0-684-13115-3 84. ^ Messenger, Charles, The Chronological Atlas of World War Two (Macmillan, 1989) 85. ^ Keegan, John, The Second World War (1989) 86. ^ R. J. Rummel Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917 pp. 167 Transaction 1990 ISBN 978-1-56000-887-3 87. ^ Ellis John, World War II : a statistical survey 1993 88. ^ Davies, Norman, Europe A History (1998) 89. ^ Richard Overy, Russia's War 1997 90. ^ Mazower, Mark, Dark Continent: Europe's Twentieth Century (1998) 91. ^ Wallechinsky, David, Twentieth Century / History With the Boring Parts Left Out (1995) 92. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 978-0-7864-1204-4. Pages 515-516 93. ^ Michael Haynes, Counting Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War: a Note Europe Asia Studies Vol.55, No. 2, 2003, 300–309 94. ^ Martin Gilbert The Second World War: A Complete History 2004 95. ^ H. P. Willmott , Robin Cross, Charles Messenger, and Neil Grant , World War II, ISBN 978-0-7566-0521-6

96. ^ Tony Judt Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 (2005) 97. ^ Davies, Norman, No Simple Victory: World War II in Europe, 1939-1945 (2006)pp.367 (however on p. 24 Davies put Soviet military dead at 11,000,000 98. ^ Perrie, Maureen (2006), The Cambridge History of Russia: The twentieth century, Cambridge University Press, pp. 225-227 99. ^ Steven Rosefielde Red Holocaust Routledge, 2009 ISBN 0-415-77757-7 Pages 72 and 179 100. ^ David M. Glantz & Jonathan House, When Titans Clashed...How the Red Army Stopped Hitler Univ Pr of Kansas, 1998 ISBN 978-0-7006-0899-7 pp285 101. ^ Richard Overy, Russia's War 1997 pp.XV 102. ^ Richard Overy, Russia's War 1997 pp.287 103. ^ Norman Davies ,NOT TWENTY MILLION, NOT RUSSIANS, NOT WAR DEAD, The Independent on December 29, 1987 104. ^ Perrie, Maureen (2006), The Cambridge History of Russia: The twentieth century, Cambridge University Press, pp. 225-227, ISBN 0-521-81144-9 105. ^ Steven Rosefielde. Red Holocaust Routledge, 2009 ISBN 0-415-77757-7 Page 72

German casualties in World War II
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German soldier killed in action Statistics for German World War II military casualties are divergent and contradictory. The wartime casualty figures compiled by German High Command are often cited by military historians when covering individual campaigns in the war. The German High Command figures cannot be considered definitive because they cover the period up until January 31, 1945, leaving out major battles at the end of the war, also they include prisoners held by the allies who survived the war. A 1946 estimate by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. put German military war dead at 3.250 million, a figure that still appears in many reference works. In 1960 the West German government estimated the military death toll at 4.4 million men, including Austria and conscripted ethnic Germans from other nations. The German military search service Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) has identified 4.3 million dead and missing in the war. The West German military historian de:Burkhart Müller-Hillebrand estimated the total dead and missing at 4.0 million men. These figures were to remain unchallenged until the 1990s when the German historian de:Rüdiger Overmans conducted a statistical survey of the records at the military search service Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt). Overmans published the findings of his research in the study Deutsche militärische Verluste im

Zweiten Weltkrieg (German Military Casualties in the Second World War), that put the total German war dead at 5.3 million. Overmans found that the wartime casualty figures compiled by German High Command were incomplete because the reporting system broke down during the chaos of the war. The death toll in Germany and Austria due to Allied strategic bombing was estimated at 500,000 by the West German government. They also estimated 300,000 Germans (including Jews) were victims of Nazi political, racial and religious persecution and that 200,000 were murdered in the Nazi euthanasia program. Civilian deaths due to the Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950) and the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union are sometimes included with World War II casualties, during the Cold War the West German government estimated the death toll at 2.2 million. This figure was to remain unchallenged until the 1990s when some German historians put the actual death toll in the expulsions at 500,000 confirmed deaths. The German Red Cross still maintains that death toll in the expulsions is 2.2 million.

Military casualties
Wartime Statistics Compiled by German High Command The German military system
for reporting casualties was based on a numerical reporting of casualties by individual units and a separate listing of the names of individual casualties. The system was not uniform because various military branches such as the Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen SS and the military hospitals each had different systems of reporting. In early 1945 the German High Command (OKW) did prepare a summary of total losses up until January 31, 1945. The German historian de:Rüdiger Overmans believes based on his research that these figures are incomplete and unreliable. According to Overmans the casualty reporting system broke down during the chaos at the end of the war. Many men who went missing or taken prisoner were not included in the German High Command (OKW) figures, Overmans maintains that many individual reports of casualties were not processed by the end of the war and are not reflected in the German High Command (OKW)statistics.[1] The following schedules summarize the OKW figures published in post war era. OKW Figures Published by the Reuters News Agency on July 29, 1945 According to highly confidential archives found at Flensberg, in the house of General Reinecke German losses up until November 30, 1944 were 3.6 millions, detailed in the following schedule. To Nov. 30, 1944 Army Navy Air Force Total Killed 1,710,000 52,000 150,000 1,912,000 Missing 1,541,000 32,000 141,000 1,714,000 Total 3,510,000 84,000 291,000 3,626,000 Source of figures: Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. Page 72 OKW Casualty Figures published by Percy Ernst Schramm Percy Ernst Schramm was responsible for maintaining the official OKW diary during the war. In 1949 he published an article in the newspaper Die Zeit in which he listed OKW Casualty Figures [2] these figures also appeared in a multi-volume edition of the OKW diaries. OKW Casualty Figures Sept 1, 1939 to Jan. 31, 1945
Description Eastern Front ( Army) North-Norway/Finland (Army) Southwest-N Africa/Italy (Army) Southeast-Balkans (Army) Dead Missing & POW 1,105,987 1,018,365 16,639 5,157 50,481 194,250 19,235 14,805 Total 2,124,352 21,796 244,731 34,040 Wounded & Sick 3,498,059 60,451 163,602 55,069

West-France/Belgium (Army) Training Forces (Army) Died of Wounds-All Fronts (Army) Location not Given Subtotal (Army) Navy Air Force Total Combat-All Branches Other Deaths (Disease, accidents, etc.) Grand Total

107,042 409,715 10,467 1,337 295,659 17,051 2,687 1,622,561 1,646,316 48,904 100,256 138,596 156,132 1,810,061 1,902,704 191,338 2,001,399 1,902,704

516,757 11,804 295,659 19,738 3,268,877 149,160 294,728 3,712,765 191,338 3,904,103

399,856 42,174 4,188,037 25,259 216,579 4,429,875 4,429,875

Source of Figures: Percy Schramm Kriegstagebuch des Oberkommandos der Wehrmacht: 1940 - 1945: 8 Bde. 1961 (ISBN 9783881990738 ) Pages 1508 to 1511

Notes: 1-These statistics include losses of the Waffen SS as well as Volkssturm and paramilitary serving with the regular forces.[3] 2-These statistics include casualties of the volunteer forces from the Soviet Union. 83,307 dead; 57,258 missing and 118,127wounded. 3-Included in these statistics are 322,807 POW held by the US and UK. 4-The figures for Army wounded add down to 4,219,211. Schramm put the total at 4,188,057. 5-Figures of missing include POW held by Allies. OKW Casualty Statistics published by the West German government. A. German Casualties reported by OKW from 9/1/1939 to 12/31/1944 Description Dead Missing and Prisoners of War Total Wounded Army & Waffen SS 1,750,000 1,610,000 3,360,000 5,026,000 Navy 60,000 100,000 160,000 21,000 Air Force 155,000 148,000 303,000 193,000 3,823,000 5,240,000 Total Wehrmacht 1,965,000 1,858,000 Source: Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78 B. Monthly Field Army (Feldheer) casualtites September 1939 to November 1944
Yea r 193 9 193 9 194 0 194 0 194 1 194 1 194 2 Casualtie Januar Februar Marc April May June s y y h Killed Missing Killed Missing Killed Missing Killed 800 1,400 100 700 100 1,300 100 July Augus Septembe Octobe Novembe Decembe t r r r r 16,400 400 1,800 1,300 100 1,000 1,200 100 900 1,200 39,000 10,500 38,000

1,100 2,600 400

21,60 26,60 2,200 0 0 900 100 -

1,800 1,600 100

1,600 3,600 2,800 100 600 500

22,00 51,000 52,800 45,300 0 900 3,200 3,500 2,100

42,400 28,200 1,900 4,300

44,400 44,500

44,90 25,60 29,60 31,50 36,000 54,100 44,300 0 0 0 0

25,500 24,900

194 2 194 3 194 3 194 4 194 4

Missing Killed Missing Killed Missing

10,100 4,100 37,000 42,000 127,60 15,500 0 44,500 41,200 22,000 19,500

3,600 1,500 3,600 2,100 3,700 38,10 15,30 16,20 0 0 0 74,50 5,200 3,500 0 44,60 34,00 24,40 0 0 0 27,60 13,00 22,00 0 0 0

7,300 3,400

2,600

12,100

40,500 35,300 14,700 -

13,40 57,800 58,000 48,800 0 1,300 18,300 26,400 21,900 26,00 59,000 64,000 42,400 0 32,00 310,00 407,60 67,200 0 0 0

47,000 40,200 16,800 17,900 46,000 31,900 79,200 69,500

Notes: Figures include Waffen SS, Austrians and conscripted ethnic Germans. Figures for missing include POW held by Allies. Source: Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78 OKW Casualty Statistics published by Burkhart Müller-Hillebrand In 1969 the West German military historian de:Burkhart Müller-Hillebrand published the third volume of his study of the German Army in World War II Das Heer 1933–1945 that listed OKW casualty figures and his estimate of total German casualties. Müller-Hillebrand maintained that the OKW figures did not present an accurate accounting of German casualties because they understated losses in the final months of the war on the eastern front and post war deaths of POW in Soviet captivity. According to Müller-Hillebrand actual irrecoverable losses in the war were between 3.3 and 4.5 million men. Overall Müller-Hillebrand estimated the total dead and missing at 4.0 million men.[4] A. Losses Reported by OKW Sept. 1, 1939-April 30, 1945 Killed or Died of MIA and Prisoners of Period Total Wounds War Actual:Sept 1, 1939- Dec 31,1944 1,965,324 1,858,404 3,823,728 Estimated: Jan 1, 1945 - April 30, 265,000 1,012,000 1,277,000 1945 Total 2,230,324 2,870,404 5,100,728 Source: Müller-Hillebrand Das Heer 1933–1945 Page 262 B. Field Army (Feldheer) casualties September 1939 to November 1944
Year 1939/40 1940/41 1941/42 1942/43 1943/44 1944 until Nov 30. Total Dead Missing 76,848 2,038 140,378 8,769 455,635 58,049 413,009 330,904 502,534 925,088 121,335 215,981 1,709,739 1,540,829

Source: Müller-Hillebrand Das Heer 1933–1945 Page 264 C. Field Army (Feldheer) casualties September 1939 to November 1944
Campaign Poland 1939 Norway 1940 West until May 31, 1944 West June 1944-November 30, 1944 Dead 16,343 4,975 66,266 54,754 Missing 320 691 3,218 338,933

Africa 1940 - May 1943 12,808 90,052 Balkans 1941 - November 30, 1944 24,267 12,060 Italy May 1943 - November 30, 1944 47,873 97,154 Russia June 1941-November 30, 1944 1,419,728 997,056 Home front 1939-November 30, 1944 64,055 1,315 Source: Müller-Hillebrand Das Heer 1933–1945 Page 265

German Casualties Reported by Russian Sources The Russian military historian G. I.
Krivosheev has published figures for the casualties on all fronts compiled by the German High Command up until April 30, 1945 based on captured German records in the Soviet Archives.
Period Sept 1, 1939- Dec 31,1944 Jan 1, 1945 - April 30, 1945 Total Killed or Died of Wounds 1,965,300 265,000 2,230,300 MIA and Prisoners of War Total 1,858,500 3,823,800 1,012,000 1,277,000 2,870,500 5,100,800 Wounded 5,240,000 795,000 6,035,000

Krivosheev gave a separate set of statistics that put losses at 2,230,000 Killed; 2,400,000 missing and 5,240,000 wounded. According to Krivosheev "The figures in the Wehrmacht documents relating to Germany's war losses are therefore contradictory and unreliable."[5] Based on Soviet sources Krivosheev put German losses on the Eastern Front from 1941-1945 at 6,923,700 men : including-Killed 4,137,100, taken prisoner 2,571,600 and 215,000 dead among Russian volunteers in the Wehrmacht. Deaths of POW were 450,600 including 356,700 in NKVD camps and 93,900 in transit.[6] Soviet sources claimed that “In 1945 the German Army lost more than 1,000,000 men killed on the Soviet-German front alone.” [7]

Demographic Estimates of Military Losses In January 1946 the Metropolitan Life Insurance
Co. put German military dead at 3,250,000. According to Gregory Frumkin this presumably included aggregate German forces comprising those conscripted outside of the 1937 German borders.[8][9] The estimate by West German government of November 1949 for Germany in 1937 borders was 3,250,000, (1,650,000 killied and 1,600,000 missing). Figures do not include Austria and conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe[10] A demographic estimate by the West German government in 1960 put the total military losses of the Wehrmacht at 4,440,000; 3,760,000 for Germany in 1937 borders; 430,000 conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe and 250,000 from Austria.[11] In 1951 Gregory Frumkin, who was throughout its existence editor of the Statistical Year-Book of the. League of Nations gave the following assessment of German military losses based on a demographic analysis. Total dead and missing 3,975,000: Germany in 1937 borders 3,500,000; Austria 230,000; 200,000 Sudeten Germans from Czechoslovakia; 40,000 France 3,700 the Netherlands; 700 Norway and 398 Denmark [12]

Records of German Military Search Service In the post war era the military search service
Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) has been responsible for providing information for the families of those military personnel who were killed or went missing in the war. They maintain the files over 18 million men who served in the war. Since the fall of communism the records in the former GDR (East Germany) have become available to the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt). The German Red Cross reported in 2005 that the records of the military search service Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) list total Wehrmacht losses at 4.3 million men (3.1 million dead and 1.2 million missing) in World War II. Their figures include Austria and conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe.[13] The German historian de:Rüdiger Overmans used the files of Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) to conduct his research project on German military casualties.

German Prisoners of War See also: Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union and German
prisoners of war in the Soviet Union The fate German prisoners of war have been a concern in post war Germany. By 1950 the Soviets reported that they had repatriated all German prisoners of war except a small number of convicted war criminals. During the cold war in West Germany there were claims that one million German prisoners of war were held in secret by the USSR. The West German government set up the Maschke Commission to investigate the fate of German POW in the war; in its report of 1974 the Maschke Commission found that about 1.2 million German military personnel reported as missing more than likely died as POWs, including 1.1 million in the USSR.[14] Based on his research Rűdiger Overmans believes that the deaths of 459,000 dead POWs can confirmed be in the files of Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt)(including 363,000 in the USSR). Overmans estimates the actual death toll of German POWs is about 1.1 million men (including 1.0 million in the USSR); he maintains that among those reported as missing were men who actually died as prisoners.[15] Data from the Soviet Archives published by G. I. Krivosheev put the deaths in the USSR of German POWs at 450,600 including 356,700 in NKVD camps and 93,900 in transit.[6] After the collapse of communism, data from the Soviet Archives became available concerning the deaths of German POWs in the USSR. In recent years there has been a joint Russian-German project to investigate the fate of POWs in the war.[16]
German POW deaths- Overmans estimate 2000 Nation holding Prisoners of War Number captured Deaths UK ca. 3,600,000 c. 2,000 USA ca. 3,000,000 5-10,000 USSR ca. 3,000,000 max. 1,000,000 France ca.1,000,000 more than 22,000 Yugoslavia ca.200,000 ca. 80,000 Poland ca.70,000 ca. 10,000 Belgium ca.60,000 ca. 500 Czechoslovakia ca.25,000 ca. 2,000 Netherlands ca. 7,000 ca. 200 Luxemburg ca. 5,000 15 Total ca. 11,000,000 ca. 1,100,000 Source of figures-Rűdiger Overmans, Soldaten hinter Stacheldraht. Deutsche Kriegsgefangene des Zweiten Weltkriege. Page 246. Confirmed POW Deaths Nation holding POW Total Dead USSR 363,000 France 34,000 USA 22,000 UK 21,000 Yugoslavia 11,000 Other nations 8,000 Total 459,000 Source of figures Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg page 286 German POW Held in Captivity (Per R. Overmans)[17] Held Western Held by Soviets & their Total Living Average during Quarter Allies Allies POW 6,600 26,000 32,600 4th Quarter 1941 22,300 100,000 122,300 4th Quarter 1942

200,000 155,000 355,000 4th Quarter 1943 720,000 563,000 1,283,000 4th Quarter 1944 920,000 1,103,000 2,023,000 1st Quarter 1945 5,440,000 2,130,000 7,570,000 2nd Quarter 1945 6,672,000 2,163,000 8,835,000 3rd Quarter 1945 Source:Rűdiger Overmans Soldaten hinter Stacheldraht. Deutsche Kriegsgefangene des Zweiten Weltkriege. Ullstein Taschenbuch vlg., 2002 Pages 272-273

Overmans has made the following points in Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg • Based on his research Overmans believes that 459,000 dead POW listed in the files of Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) are understated. He maintains that included with the 2.0 million reported as missing and presumed dead(see schedule below) were those in fact dead in custody as POW. He points out that this will not increase the number of German war dead because some of those reported missing would be reclassified as dead POW. He believes further research is needed on the fate of the POW.[18] • He believes that in addition to the 363,000 confirmed POW dead in the USSR, it seems entirely plausible, while not provable, that 700,000 German military personnel listed with the missing actually died in Soviet custody[18] • He believes that personnel captured on the battlefield may have died of wounds or in transit before being recorded as POW. He pointed out that this was the case of some Germans in American and British hospitals.[19] • He maintains "Otherwise viewing the case of France, where the figures of the Maschke Commission are based on official French data; an important point to presume, that from the 180,000 missing on the Western front, many were dead in fact in French custody- or soldiers in Indochina-,[18] • He pointed out that the heavy death toll estimated by the Maschke Commission of 80,000 German POW in Yugoslavia was based on documented eyewitness accounts.[18] NKVD special camps in East Germany 1945-1950 The Soviets set up NKVD special camps in the Soviet-occupied parts of Germany and areas east of the Oder-Neisse line to intern Germans accused of alleged ties to the Nazis, or because they were hindering the establishment of Stalinism in East Germany. Between 122,000 to 150,000 were detained and at least 43,000 did not survive.[20] Study by Dr. Rüdiger Overmans Dr. Rüdiger Overmans has published the study Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg (German Military Casualties in the Second World War), which has provided a reassessment of German military war dead based on a statistical survey of German military personnel records. The financial support for the study came from a private foundation. When Overmans conducted his research project he was an officer in the German Armed Forces, he was an associate of the German Armed Forces Military History Research Office from 1987 until 2004 and was on the faculty of the University of Freiburg from 1996-2001. In 1992 when Overmans began the project German military dead in the war listed at the military search service Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) were 4.3 million men (3.1 million confirmed dead and 1.2 missing and presumed dead). Since the collapse of communism previously classified documentation regarding German military casualties became available to German researchers. The research project involved taking a statistical sample of the confidential German military personnel records located at the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt). The project sought to determine total deaths and their cause, when and in which theatre of war the losses occurred as well as a demographic profile of the men who served in the war. The statistical survey was conducted from the fall of 1992 until the end of 1994, 19 employees at Deutsche Dienststelle assisted in the survey. The personnel records included 3,070,000 men who were confirmed dead in the Death Files and another 15,200,000 men in the General Files who had served in the war including those listed as missing and presumed dead. The total sample pulled for the research consisted of the files of 4,844 personnel dead or missing in military service during the war: The first group 4,137 from Army, Air Force and 172 from Waffen SS and paramilitary organizations including (3,051 confirmed dead from the Death Files and

another 1,258 found to be dead or missing in the General Files) The Second Group of 535 men found to be dead or missing was selected from the separate Navy files. Overmans maintains that based on the size of the sample selected that there was a 99% confidence level that the results were accurate. The research by Overmans concluded in 2000 that the total German military dead and missing were 5,318,000. The results of the Overmans research project were published with the endorsement of the German Armed Forces Military History Research Office of the Federal Ministry of Defense (Germany).[21] The following schedules give a brief overview of the results of the Overmans study. By Official Status (Per R. Overmans)
[22]

Description Confirmed Dead Declared dead in legal proceedings Recorded in Records (Registrierfall) Total Dead By Official Cause of Death (Per R. Overmans)[22] Cause of Death Killed in Action Died of Wounds, Illness etc. Suicides Sentenced to Death No Information Subtotal-Dead in Active Service Missing Final Report "Letze Nachricht" Sub-total- Presumed Dead Confirmed deaths as POW

Number of Deaths 3,068,000 1,095,787 1,154,744 5,318,531

Amount 2,303,320 500,165 25,000 11,000 12,000 2,851,485 1,306,186 701,385[23] 2,007,571 459,475

Total Dead 5,318,531 Of the 2 million presumed dead Overmans believes 700,000 were actually dead in Soviet custody but not reported as POW.[24] By Front (Per R. Overmans)[22] Front Total Dead 2,742,909 Eastern Front until 12/31/44 339,957 Western Europe until 12/31/44 1,230,045 Final Battles in Germany 1945 Other (including Sea and Air War Germany) 245,561 150,660 Italy 103,693 The Balkans 30,165 Northern Europe 16,066 Africa 459,475 Prisoners of War 5,318,531 Total

Overmans believes that there is not sufficient data to breakout the 1,230,045 deaths in the 1945 Final Battles in Germany between the Western Allied invasion of Germany and Eastern Front in 1945,[22] although he estimates that 2/3 of these casualties can be attributed to the Eastern Front.[25]

Monthly German military casualtites at point of death according Overmans study (Not including Living POW held)
Yea Januar Februar March April May June r y y 1939 21,00 5,000 3,000 29,000 1940 2,000 0 13,00 1941 10,000 1,000 4,000 4,000 29,000 0 44,09 1942 53,165 52,099 46,132 24,066 34,033 9 185,37 31,09 1943 74,363 59,099 21,066 21,066 6 9 112,75 78,49 182,17 1944 81,330 91,495 92,363 9 5 8 451,74 284,44 281,84 94,52 1945 294,772 20,066 2 2 8 8 10,06 1946 7,000 13,099 14,000 6,000 3,000 6 1947 3,008 2,000 5,033 3,000 1,000 5,033 Afte r 1947 Tota l All Year s July Augus Septemb Octobe Novemb Decemb Total t er r er er 15,000 3,000 1,000 19,000 5,033 1,000 2,000 42,198 83,792 66,330 83,000 357,000 572,000 812,000

7,000 4,000 4,000 67,132 51,066 53,033 46,099 74,231 46,033 79,231 66,198 69,495 215,01 348,96 151,957 3 0 13,000 27,099 22,132 3,000 6,000 5,033 2,000 5,033 1,000 -

44,099 38,000 30,000 38,231 61,330 77,396

184,08 1,802,00 103,561 159,386 9 0 1,540,00 19,000 21,033 10,066 0 3,000 2,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 1,000 76,000 33,000 25,000

-

-

-

-

-

-

5,518,00 0

Notes: Figures include Waffen SS, Austrians, conscripted ethnic Germans, Volkssturm and other paramilitary forces. Figures do not include Prisoners held by Allies. Prisoners held during the war are listed in a separate schedule above. Monthly figures do not add because of rounding. Source:Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000, Page 239 Total Missing and Presumed Dead (not including POW) Per Overmans
Year of Death Amount 1941 & before 30,000 1942 116,000 1943 289,000 1944 845,000 1945 728,000 1946 & later 0 Total 2,007,000 (of which on Soviet-German front) (26,000) (108,000) (283,000 (719,000) (400,000) 0 (1,536,000)

German military dead Eastern Front (Per R. Overmans)[22] Total During Year Total Dead 302,000 1941 507,000 1942 701,000 1943 1,233,000 1944 2,742,000 Total 1941-1944 Soviet sources reported that “In 1945 the German Army lost more than 1,000,000 men killed on the Soviet-German front alone.”[7]

Figures do not include POW deaths of 363,000 in Soviet captivity, these losses were listed separately by Overmans. By Service Branch (Per R. Overmans)[22] Branch Total Dead 4,202,030 Army Air Force (Including Infantry Units) 432,706 138,429 Navy 313,749 Waffen SS 77,726 Volkssturm Paramilitary and support forces 153,891 5,318,531 Total By Nation of Origin (Per R. Overmans)[22] Nation Pre-war Germany (1937 borders) and the Free City of Danzig Austria Ethnic Germans conscripted in Eastern Europe French Volunteers from Western Europe Total Total Dead 4,456,000 261,000 534,000 30,000 37,000 5,318,000

Overmans did not include Russian volunteers in the Wehrmacht in his figures. Russian military historian G. I. Krivosheev estimated these losses at 215,000 killed.[6] The statistics of the German High Command put casualties of the volunteer forces from the Soviet Union up until 1/31/1945 at: 83,307 dead; 57,258 missing and 118,127 wounded[26]

Comparison of figures at 12/31/1944 of Overmans and German High Command
Overmans maintains that his research project taking a statistical sample of the records of the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) found that the German military casualty reporting system broke down during the war and that losses were understated. The following schedule compares the total dead and living POW according to Overmans at 12/31/1944 with the figures of the German High Command.
Description Total Total Dead per Overmans @12/31/44 3,643,000 [27] Add:POW held by Allies per Overmans 1,283,000 [28] Add:Estimated losses of Soviet Volunteers 140,000[26] Adjusted Losses @12/31/1944 5,066,000 Total Dead & Missing per OKW @12/31/1944 3,823,000[29] Difference 1,243,000

Civilian Casualties
Killed by Allied Aerial Bombardment and in 1945 military campaign
A. Estimates Made in Germany The estimate by West German government of November 1949 for Germany in 1937 borders was 450,000 killed in bombing and 50,000in ground fighting. Figures do not include Austria.[10] The West German government in October 1956 estimated 655,000 civilian deaths during war in Germany and Austria, 500,000 killed by strategic bombing, 135,000 in the 1945 flight and evacuations from East Europe. They also estimated 20,000 civilians were killed during the land campaign in Germany. These figures are detailed in a schedule below

Description
Germany 1937 Borders Civilians Foreigners/POW Police Subtotal Germany 1937 Borders Austria & Annexed Territories Civilians Foreigners/POW Police Subtotal Austria & Annexed Territories Total Third Reich

Air War 1945 in East Total
410,000 32,000 23,000 465,000 26,000 7,000 2,000 35,000 500,000 127,000 1,000 128,000 7,000 537,000 32,000 24,000 593,000 33,000 7,000 2,000 42,000 635,000

7,000 135,000

Sources: Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland.(German government Statistical Office) and The Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78. The Austrian government puts their losses in the air war at 24,000. A 1990 study by the East German historian de:Olaf Groehler estimated 360,000– 370,000 civilians were killed by Allied strategic bombing within the 1937 German boundaries, for the German Reich including Austria, forced laborers, POW and military the total is estimated at 406,000. In 2005 Groehler's figures were published in the authoritative series The German Reich and the Second World War[30] B. Estimates made by US and UK Governments The United States Strategic Bombing Survey in 1945 gave two figures for German civilian deaths in the air war: The section Effects of Strategic Bombing on the German War Economy put the losses at 375,000, while the section The Effect of Bombing on Health and Medical Care in Germany gave a figure of 422,000 dead.[31] The British PM Mr. Attlee in a statement to Parliament on 22 October 1945 put the German death toll in the bombing campaign at 350,000 [32] C. Battle of Berlin Killed during the fighting in Berlin 22,000[33]

Deaths due to Nazi political, racial and religious persecution The West German
government put the number of Germans killed by the Nazi political, racial and religious persecution at 300,000 (Including 160,000 German Jews)[34] A 2003 report by the German Federal Archive put the total murdered during the Action T4 Euthanasia program at over 200,000 persons.[35][36][37]

Civilian deaths due to the expulsion of Germans after World War II See Also:
Demographic estimates of the flight and expulsion of Germans and Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union Civilian deaths due to the Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950) and the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union are sometimes included with World War II Casualties. In 1958 the West German government estimated the death toll at 2.2 million. This figure was to remain unchallenged until the end of the cold war in the 1990s when some German historians put the actual death toll in the expulsions at between 500,000-600,000 confirmed deaths. In 2005 the German Red Cross Search Service still maintained that their research put losses at 2,251,500 persons in the expulsions and deportations. They did not provide details of the figure [38] The following studies were published by the West German government estimating expulsion deaths.

1-In 1950 the West German government made a preliminary estimate of 3,000,000 German civilians missing in Eastern Europe (1.5 million from pre war Germany and 1.5 million ethnic Germans from East Europe)whose fate needed to be clarified.[39] This estimate was later superseded by the 1958 German Government demographic study. 2-The Schieder commission from 1953 to 1961 estimated 2.2 million civilian deaths in the expulsions- Details by country Oder-Neisse region 2,167,000(figure includes 500,000 military and 50,000 air raid dead); Poland 217,000, Danzig 100,000; Czechoslovakia 225,600; Yugoslavia 69,000; Rumania 10,000; Hungary 6,000[40] The statistical information in the Schieder Report was later superseded by the 1958 German Government demographic study. 3- The West German government statistical office issued a report in 1958 that put the number of civilians dead or missing in the expulsions and forced labor in the USSR at 2,225,000( including 1,339,000 for Germany in 1937 borders; Poland 185,000, Danzig 83,200; Czechoslovakia 272,900; Yugoslavia 135,800; Rumania 101,000; Hungary 57,000; Baltic States 51,400. The figures include those killed in the 1945 military campaign and the forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union.[41] The figures from this report are often cited by historians writing in the English language. Dr. Rüdiger Overmans pointed out that these figures represent persons whose fate had not been clarified, not necessarily dead as a result of the expulsions.[42] 4-The West German government set up a unified body the Suchdienst (search service) of the German churches working in conjunction with the German Red Cross to trace the individual fates of those who were dead or missing as result of the expulsions and deportations. In 1965 the final report was issued by the search service which was able to confirm 473,013 civilian deaths in Eastern Europe; and an additional 1,905,991 cases whose fate could not be determined. This report remained confidential until 1987. Dr. Rüdiger Overmans presented a summary of this data at a 1994 historical symposium in Poland.[42] 5-On 28 May 1974, the West German Federal Archive (Bundesarchiv) issued a report to "compile and evaluate information available in the Federal Archives and elsewhere regarding crimes and brutalities committed against Germans in the course of the expulsion". In particular, the report identified deaths due to crimes against international law: the 1958 report of the Federal Office for Statistics listed as "post-war losses" two million people whose fate remained unaccounted for in the population balance, but who according to the 1974 report were "not exclusively victims of crimes against international law" such as post war deaths due to malnutrition and disease. The report estimated 600,000 civilian deaths (150,000 violent Deaths during war in 1945; 200,000 in Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union and 250,000 in post war internment Camps and forced labor in Eastern Europe)[43] Recent research on German expulsion losses: In his 2000 study of German military casualties Dr. Rüdiger Overmans found 344,000 additional military deaths of Germans from the Former eastern territories of Germany and conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe. Overmans believes this will reduce the number of civilians previously listed as missing in the expulsions. Overmans did not investigate civilian expulsion losses, only military casualties, he merely noted that other studies estimated of expulsion losses from about 500,000 to 2,000,000. Overmans maintains that there are more arguments for a lower figure of 500,000 rather than the higher figures of over 2.0 million. He believes new research on the number of expulsion deaths is needed since only 500,000 of the reported 2,000,00 deaths have been confirmed.[42][44]

The German historian Ingo Haar believes that civilian losses in the expulsions have been overstated in Germany for decades for political reasons. Haar argues that during the Cold War the West German government put political pressure on the Statistisches Bundesamt to push the figures upward to agree to the Church Service figure of 2.3 million confirmed dead and missing. Haar maintains that the German Red Cross figure is based on unreliable information and that the actual death toll in the expulsions is between 500-600,000 which is based on confirmed deaths.[45][46][47] The German historians Hans Henning Hahn and Eva Hahnova have published a detailed study of the flight and expulsions that is sharply critical of official German accounts of the cold war era. The Hahn's believe that the official German figure of 2 million deaths is a historical myth that lacks foundation. The Hahn's point out that the figure of 473,013 confirmed deaths includes 80,522 in the post war period; they maintain that most of the deaths occurred during the Nazi organized flight and evacuation during the war, and the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union. They place the ultimate blame for the mass flight and expulsion on the wartime policy of the Nazis in Eastern Europe.[48] In 2006 The German government reaffirmed its belief that 2 million civilians perished in the flight and expulsion from Eastern Europe. They maintain that the figure is correct because it includes additional post war deaths from malnutrition and disease of those civilians subject to the expulsions. State Secretary in the German Federal Ministry of the Interior, Christoph Bergner, outlined the stance of the respective governmental institutions in Deutschlandfunk saying that the numbers presented by the German government and others are not contradictory to the numbers cited by Haar, and that the below 600,000 estimate comprises the deaths directly caused by atrocities during the expulsion measures and thus only includes people who on the spot were raped, beaten, or else brought to death, while the above two millions estimate also includes people who on their way to post-war Germany have died of epidemics, hunger, cold, air raids and the like.[49]

Total Population Losses 1939-1946
A. Population Balance for Germany in 1937 borders: May 1939 to October 1946 According to West German Government 1956
Description Population May 1939 Census Live Births Net Immigration-German Refugees Subtotal Additions Civilians-Death by natural causes Civilians Killed in Air war Civilians Killed in 1945 Land Battles Military Dead POW held by Allies Germans remaining in Poland Germans Remaining Abroad Expulsion and Deportation Civilian Dead/Missing Emigrated & Murdered Jews Net Emigration of Foreign Population Other, Misc. Subtotal Reductions Population October 1946 Census Amount 69,310,000 8,670,000 4,080,000 12,750,000 (7,130,000) (410,000) (20,000) (3,760,000) (1,750,000) (1,750,000) (130,000) (1,260,000) (200,000) (200,000) (140,000) (16,750,000) 65,310,000

Sources for figures: Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office) Notes: 1-Population May 1939 Census- Figures are for Germany in 1937 borders and does not include Austria and the ethnic Germans of East Europe.[50] 2-Live Births- are those actually recorded from May 1939 until June 1944 and from January to October 1946. The gap in vital statistics between the middle of 1944 and the end of 1945 was estimated.[51] 3-Net Immigration-German Refugees were ethnic Germans of Eastern Europe who lived outside Germany in 1937 borders before the war.[52] 4-Civilian Deaths- These are deaths due to natural causes not directly related to the war. Figure includes deaths actually recorded from May 1939 until June 1944 and from January to October 1946. The gap in vital statistics between the middle of 1944 and the end of 1945 was estimated.[53] The German government Statistical Office put the deaths due to natural causes at 7,130,000; a study by the German demographer Peter Marschalck estimated the expected deaths from natural causes based on the peacetime death rate would have been 5,900,000. Marschalck also put the total deaths related to the war, both military and civilians, at 6.9 million persons.[54] The German economist de:Bruno Gleitze from the German Institute for Economic Research estimated that included in the total of 7.1 million deaths by natural causes that there were 1,2 million excess deaths caused by an increase in mortality due to the harsh conditions in Germany during and after the war[55] In Allied occupied Germany the shortage of food was an acute problem in 1946–47 the average kilocalorie intake per day was only 1,600 to 1,800, an amount insufficient for long-term health.,[56] 5-Killed in Air war - Figure for civilians only, does not include 23,000 police and military and 32,000 POW and foreign workers.[57] 6-Killed in 1945 Land Battles- This is a rough estimate for Germany in post war borders, not including the former German territories in post war Poland.[58] 7-Military Dead - Includes Wehrmacht as well as SS/police and paramilitary forces. The Statistisches Bundesamt put the total at 3,760,000.[59] The Overmans study of German military casualties put the total at about 4,4 million.[60] 8-POW still held by Allies- 1,750,000 POW from Germany within in the 1937 borders were still held by the allies in October 1946.[61] Total German POW held at that time were about 2.5 million, including 300,000 men from other nations conscripted by Nazi Germany not included in the 1939 population[62] and 384,000 POW held in Germany who are included in the 1946 census figures. By 1950 almost almost all all POW had been released except for 29,000 men held in forced labor in the USSR or convicted as war criminals. 9-Germans remaining in Poland in October 1946 were 1,750,000, but by 1950 the number had been reduced to 1,100,000 because of expulsions after October 1946. Those remaining in 1950 became Polish citizens but were German nationals in 1939.[63] 10-Germans Remaining Abroad-Includes expelled Germans who had emigrated to other countries or were in Denmark.[64] 11-Expulsion and Deportation Dead - This estimate is only for the Oder-Neisse region of Germany in the 1937 borders, not including the ethnic Germans of other Eastern European nations. Figure includes civilian deaths in the 1945 military campaign, the forced labor in the USSR as well as excess deaths due to post war famine and disease.[65] The German Church Service put the total of confirmed expulsion dead at about 300,000 for Germany in the 1937 borders, the balance of 960,000 were reported as missing and whose fate had not been clarified.[45] 12-Emigrated & Murdered Jews- The Statistisches Bundesamt(German government Statistical Office) gave a total of 200,000 Jews who had emigrated or were murdered, they did not estimate those actually who were murdered.[66] Most sources outside of Germany put the Holocaust death toll in Germany at about 150,000 Jews.

13-Net Emigration of Foreign Population - The Statistisches Bundesamt pointed out that this was a rough estimate.[67] 14-Other, Misc. - The Statistisches Bundesamt defined the others as "emigrated Germans, POW remaining abroad voluntarily, and German concentration camp deaths" (deutsche KZ-Opfer).[68] 15- Population October 1946 Census- Figure of 65,310,000 does not include 693,000 displaced persons (DPs) living in Germany. Figure includes 853,000 in the Saarland.[69] B. Population Balance for Austria The Austrian government provides the following information on human losses during the rule of the Nazis. For Austria the consequences of the Nazi regime and the Second World War were disastrous: During this period 2,700 Austrians had been executed and more than 16,000 citizens murdered in the concentration camps. Some 16,000 Austrians were killed in prison, while over 67,000 Austrian Jews were deported to death camps, only 2,000 of them lived to see the end of the war. In addition, 247,000 Austrians lost their lives serving in the army of the Third Reich or were reported missing, and 24,000 civilians were killed during bombing raids.[70] C. Population Balance for the ethnic Germans of eastern Europe In 1958 the West German government statistical office put the losses of the ethnic Germans at 1,318,000 (886,000 civilians in the expulsions and 411,000 in the German military and 22,000 in the Hungarian and Romanian military) [71] The research of Rudiger Overmans puts military losses of ethnic Germans at 534,000 [72] Ingo Haar points out that of the 886,000 estimated civilian dead from east Europe only about 170,000 deaths have been confirmed; the balance are considered unsolved cases.[45]

Controversies over German Losses
The German people paid an enormous price in human lives for their support of the Nazi regime during the war. In post-war Germany the fate of civilians and prisoners of war has been a contentious topic. The current view of the German government is that these losses were due to an aggressive war started by the German nation.[73] There are some who attempt to trivialize the crimes of the Hitler period by comparing German losses to the Holocaust. These claims are viewed as an outrage by those who survived the Holocaust and have exacerbated Polish-German relations. The ultra-right in Germany has coined the phrases “Bombing Holocaust” and “Expulsion Holocaust”. The bombing of Dresden and the bombing campaign in general has been a topic of ultra-right propaganda in post-war Germany. The German historian Wolfgang Benz believes that the use of the of the term “Bombing Holocaust” runs contrary to historical fact.[74] Civilian losses in the expulsions from Eastern Europe are viewed as an enormous human tragedy in Germany. The German government currently places the ultimate blame for the mass flight and expulsion on the wartime policy of the Nazis in Eastern Europe.[73] There are those like Heinz Nawratil who equate the expulsions from Eastern Europe with the Holocaust. The German historian Martin Broszat (former head of Institute of Contemporary History in Munich) described Nawratil's writings as “polemics with a nationalist-rightist point of view” and that Nawratil “exaggerates in an absurd manner the scale of ‘expulsion crimes’”.[75] The Federation of Expellees has represented the interests of Germans from Eastern Europe. Erika Steinbach, the current President of the Federation, provoked outrage when she supported the statements of other members of the expellee organization claiming that Hitler's attack on Poland was a response to Poland's policy.[76] The Federation of Expellees initiated the formation of the Center Against Expulsions. The current President of Germany Joachim Gauck and the German chancellor Angela Merkel have voiced support for the Center Against Expulsions. However, in Poland it is viewed by some as an attempt to reopen the wounds of the war and to revert to pre-war borders. The fate of over one million missing German soldiers in the USSR was an issue in post-war West Germany, with some claiming that they were held in secret labor camps by the Soviets. It is now

known that they did not survive the war, Rüdiger Overmans believes that more than likely they died in Soviet custody.[77] The Canadian author James Bacque (a novelist with no previous historical research experience) has written a book Other Losses in which he claims that the United States are responsible for the deaths of 800,000 to 1,000,000 German POW. Based on his own research Bacque claims that documents from the US Archives show that there were 800,000 German POW who did not survive US captivity. Bacque alleges that General Eisenhower and the US military deliberately withheld support for the German POW, causing their deaths. Bacque presents his arguments with a description of the horrific conditions at the Rheinwiesenlager POW camps and eyewitness accounts of retired US military officers. Bacque maintains that there has been a conspiracy by the United States to cover up these losses. Bacque’s book received wide attention when it was first published in 1989, since then his claims have been challenged by historians who have found his thesis to be unsubstantiated. The US military historian Stephen Ambrose was co-editor of the book Eisenhower and the German POWs in which he refutes Bacque’s claims. Ambrose maintains that the figure of 800,000 POW missing from the US records was a bookkeeping error, that many POW were released and no records were maintained. Ambrose points out that the US and the UK had to cope with a major logistical problem in order to maintain the huge number of surrendered German personnel and finds the claim that Eisenhower and the US military deliberately withheld support for the German POW to be without merit.[78] Rüdiger Overmans believes that “on the basis of factual individual data, shown before, the thesis of the Canadian James Bacque cannot be supported”.[18]

Notes
1. 2. 3. 4. ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-48656531-1 Page 13-66 ^ Die Zeit 27 October 1949 ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-48656531-1 Pages 49-52 ^ Burkhart Müller-Hillebrand Das Heer 1933–1945. Entwicklung des organisatorischen Aufbaues. Band III. Der Zweifrontenkrieg. Das Heer vom Beginn des Feldzuges gegen die Sowjetunion bis zum Kriegsende. Mittler, Frankfurt am Main 1969 Pages 258-266 ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 978-1-85367-280-4 Page 276 ^ a b c G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 Pages 276278 ^ a b Great patriotic war of the Soviet Union, 1941-1945 : a general outline - Moscow : Progress Publishers, [1974] Page 392 ^ Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, Statistical bulletin January 1946 Page 7 ^ Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. Page 72 ^ a b Wirtschaft und Statistik November 1949, journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland.(German government Statistical Office) ^ The Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78 ^ Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. ^ Willi Kammerer; Anja Kammerer- Narben bleiben die Arbeit der Suchdienste - 60 Jahre nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg Berlin Dienststelle 2005 ( Published by the Search Service of the German Red Cross. The forward to the book was written by German President Horst Köhler and the German interior minister Otto Schily) ^ Erich Maschke ,Zur Geschichte der deutschen Kriegsgefangenen des Zweiten Weltkrieges Bielefeld, E. und W. Gieseking, 1962-1974 Vol 15 P 185-230. ^ Rűdiger Overmans, 'Soldaten hinter Stacheldraht. Deutsche Kriegsgefangene des Zweiten Weltkriege.' Ullstein., 2000 Page 246 ISBN 3-549-07121-3 ^ Willi Kammerer; Anja Kammerer- Narben bleiben die Arbeit der Suchdienste - 60 \Jahre nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg Berlin Dienststelle 2005 (published by the Search Service of the German Red Cross). The forward to the book was written by German President Horst Köhler and the German interior minister Otto Schily. ^ Rűdiger Overmans, Soldaten hinter Stacheldraht. Deutsche Kriegsgefangene des Zweiten Weltkriege. Ullstein Taschenbuchvlg., 2002 ISBN 3-548-36328-8 ^ a b c d e Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3486-56531-1 Page 286-289 ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-48656531-1 Page 176

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

14. 15. 16.

17. 18. 19.

20. ^ Kai Cornelius, Vom spurlosen Verschwindenlassen zur Benachrichtigungspflicht bei Festnahmen, BWV Verlag, 2004, p.126, ISBN 3-8305-1165-5 21. ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-48656531-1 Pages 151 to 204 22. ^ a b c d e f g Rűdiger Overmans, Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1, 23. ^ Overmans on page 176 of Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg defines "Letze Nachricht" das nur bekannt ist, von wann der letzte Feldpost oder ein anders Lebenszeichen stammt. All that is known is the origin of the last postal address or other sign of life 24. ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-48656531-1 Page 289 25. ^ Overmans, p. 265 26. ^ a b Percy Schramm Kriegstagebuch des Oberkommandos der Wehrmacht: 1940 - 1945: 8 Bde. (ISBN 9783881990738 ) Pages 1508 to 1511 27. ^ Rűdiger Overmans, Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-48656531-1, Page 241 28. ^ Rűdiger Overmans Soldaten hinter Stacheldraht. Deutsche Kriegsgefangene des Zweiten Weltkriege. Ullstein Taschenbuch vlg., 2002 29. ^ Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960 Page 78 30. ^ Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg, Bd. 9/1, ISBN 3-421-06236-6. p. 460 31. ^ Germany and the Second World War, Volume 9, Part 1 Page 475 By Germany (West). Militärgeschichtliches Forschungsamt 32. ^ Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Page 74 Geneva 1951. 33. ^ Peter Antill, Peter Dennis, Berlin 1945: end of the Thousand Year Reich ISBN 1-84176-915-0 Page 85. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 34. ^ Germany reports. With an introd. by Konrad Adenauer. Germany (West). Presse- und Informationsamt. Wiesbaden, Distribution: F. Steiner, 1961] Page 32 35. ^ Bundesarchiv Euthanasie" im Nationalsozialismus 36. ^ Bundesarchiv: Euthanasie-Verbrechen 1939 - 1945 (Quellen zur Geschichte der „Euthanasie“-Verbrechen 1939-1945 in deutschen und österreichischen Archiven. Ein Inventar. Einführung von Harald Jenner) 37. ^ Quellen zur Geschichte der „Euthanasie“-Verbrechen 1939-1945 in deutschen und österreichischen Archiven. Ein Inventar [1] 38. ^ Willi Kammerer; Anja Kammerer- Narben bleiben die Arbeit der Suchdienste - 60 Jahre nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg Berlin Dienststelle 2005 ( Published by the Search Service of the German Red Cross. The forward to the book was written by German President Horst Köhler and the German interior minister Otto Schily) 39. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik April 1950 40. ^ Bundesministerium für Vertriebene, Dokumentation der Vertreibung der Deutschen aus Ost-Mitteleuropa Vol. 1-5, Bonn, 1954-1961 41. ^ Die deutschen Vertreibungsverluste. Bevölkerungsbilanzen für die deutschen Vertreibungsgebiete 1939/50. Herausgeber: Statistisches Bundesamt - Wiesbaden. - Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1958 See pages 102, 143,174,323 381 42. ^ a b c Dr. Rűdiger Overmans- Personelle Verluste der deutschen Bevölkerung durch Flucht und Vertreibung. (A parallel Polish summary translation was also included, this paper was a presentation at an academic conference in Warsaw Poland in 1994), Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI-1994 43. ^ German Federal Archive, Siegel, Silke Vertreibung und Vertreibungsverbrechen 1945-1948. Bericht des Bundesarchivs vom 28. Mai 1974. Archivalien und ausgewählte Erlebnisberichte. Bonn 1989 44. ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-48656531-1 45. ^ a b c Ursprünge, Arten und Folgen des Konstrukts „Bevölkerung“ vor, im und nach dem „Dritten Reich“ Zur Geschichte der deutschen Bevölkerungswissensch: Ingo Haar Die deutschen ›Vertreibungsverluste‹ – Forschungsstand, Kontexte und Probleme, in Ursprünge, Arten und Folgen des Konstrukts „Bevölkerung“ vor, im und nach dem „Dritten Reich“ Springer 2009: ISBN 978-3-531-16152-5 46. ^ Herausforderung Bevölkerung : zu Entwicklungen des modernen Denkens über die Bevölkerung vor, im und nach dem Dritten Reich Ingo Haar, Bevölkerungsbilanzen“ und „Vertreibungsverluste. Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte der deutschen Opferangaben aus Flucht und Vertreibung Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften 2007 ISBN 978-3-531-15556-2 47. ^ Ingo Haar, Die Deutschen „Vertreibungsverluste –Zur Entstehung der „Dokumentation der Vertreibung Tel Aviver Jahrbuch, 2007, Tel Aviv : Universität Tel Aviv, Fakultät für Geisteswissenschaften, Forschungszentrum für Geschichte ; Gerlingen [Germany] : Bleicher Verlag 48. ^ Hans Henning Hahn and Eva Hahnova : Die Vertreibung im deutschen Erinnern. Legenden, Mythos, Geschichte. Paderborn 2010, ISBN 978-3-506-77044-8 Pages 659-726

49. ^ Christoph Bergner, Secretary of State in Germany's Bureau for Inner Affairs, outlines the stance of the respective governmental institutions in Deutschlandfunk on 29 November 2006, [2] 50. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office) 51. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office) 52. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office) 53. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office) 54. ^ Marschalck, Peter. Bevölkerungsgeschichte Deutschlands im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert- Suhrkamp 1984 55. ^ Bruno. Gleitze, Deutschlands Bevölkerungsverluste durch den Zweiten Weltkrieg, „Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung” 1953, s. 375-384 Gleitze estimated 400,000 excess deaths during the war and 800,000 in post war Germany 56. ^ Alan S. Milward, The Reconstruction of Western Europe 57. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office) 58. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office) 59. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office) 60. ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-48656531-1 Page 335 61. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office) 62. ^ Rűdiger Overmans Soldaten hinter Stacheldraht. Deutsche Kriegsgefangene des Zweiten Weltkriege. Ullstein Taschenbuch vlg., 2002 63. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office) 64. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office) 65. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office) 66. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office) 67. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office) 68. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office) 69. ^ Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. Page 4 70. ^ Austria facts and Figures Page 44 71. ^ Die deutschen Vertreibungsverluste. Bevölkerungsbilanzen für die deutschen Vertreibungsgebiete 1939/50. Herausgeber: Statistisches Bundesamt - Wiesbaden. - Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1958 72. ^ Rűdiger Overmans, Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-48656531-1, p. 265 73. ^ a b German President Horst Köhler, Speech on September 2, 2006 [3] 74. ^ Wolfgang Benz: Feindbild und Vorurteil: Beiträge über Ausgrenzung und Verfolgung. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1996, ISBN 3-423-04694-5, S. 139 75. ^ Ursprünge, Arten und Folgen des Konstrukts „Bevölkerung“ vor, im und nach dem „Dritten Reich“ Zur Geschichte der deutschen Bevölkerungswissensch: Ingo Haar Die deutschen ›Vertreibungsverluste‹ – Forschungsstand, Kontexte und Probleme, in Ursprünge, Arten und Folgen des Konstrukts „Bevölkerung“ vor, im und nach dem „Dritten Reich“ Springer 2009: ISBN 978-3-531-16152-5 Page 373 76. ^ Paterson, Tony (September 11, 2010). The Independent (London) http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/merkel-ally-quits-after-claiming-nazis-didnt-start-war2076379.html. 77. ^ Rüdiger Overmans, Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-48656531-1, pages 284-292 78. ^ Bischoff, Gunter; Ambrose, Stephen (1992), "Introduction", in Bischoff, Gunter; Ambrose, Stephen, Eisenhower and the German POWs, New York: Louisiana State University Press, ISBN 0-8071-1758-7

World War II casualties of Poland
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Approximately six million Polish citizens perished during World War II. Most were civilian victims of the war crimes and crimes against humanity during the occupation by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. Statistics for Polish World War II casualties are divergent and contradictory. This article provides a summarization of these estimates of Poland's human losses in the war and their causes. The official Polish government report on war damages prepared in 1947 put Poland's war dead at 6,028,000; 3.0 million ethnic Poles and 3.0 million Jews not including Polish citizens from the Ukrainian and Belarusian ethnic groups. This figure was challenged by Polish scholars when the communist system collapsed in 1989. The Polish historian Czesław Łuczak put total losses at 6.0 million; 3.0 million Jews, 2.0 million ethnic Poles, and 1.0 million Polish citizens from the other ethnic groups not included in the 1947 report on war damages.[1][2] [3] In 2009 the Polish government-affiliated Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) published the study "Polska 1939– 1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami" (Poland 1939-1945. Human Losses and Victims of Repression Under the Two Occupations) that estimated Poland's war dead at between 5.6 and 5.8 million Poles and Jews, including 150,000 during the Soviet occupation.[4] Poland's losses by geographic area include about 3.5 million in the borders of present day Poland, and about two million in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union.[5] Contemporary Russian sources include Poland's losses in the annexed territories with the Soviet war dead.[6] In Poland this is viewed as inflating Soviet casualties at Poland's expense.

German-Soviet Partition of Poland 1939

Causes of Poland's Casualties See also: World War II crimes in Poland Most
Polish citizens who perished in the war were civilian victims of the war crimes and crimes against humanity during the occupation by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. Jewish Holocaust Deaths Approximately three million Polish Jews were victims of the Holocaust. • In Nazi extermination camps: According to Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers 1,860,000 Polish Jews were murdered in the Nazi death camps - 490,000 Belzec; 60,000 Sobibor; 800,000 Treblinka; 150,000 Chełmno; 300,000 Auschwitz; 60,000 Majdanek. An additional 970,000 Jews from other countries were transported to these camps and murdered.[7]

An additional 1.0 million Polish Jews were murdered in German executions outside the camps or perished in aggravated deaths in the Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland: Human Losses of the ethnic Polish population According to the figures published by the Polish government in exile in 1941 the ethnic Polish population was 24,388,000 at the beginning of the war in September 1939.[8] The IPN puts the death toll of ethnic Poles under the German occupation at 2,770,000 and 150,000 due Soviet repression. The main causes of these losses are as follows. Acts of War

1939 Military Campaign-About 150,000 Polish civilians were killed in the 1939 Military Campaign. Many were killed in the Luftwaffe's terror bombing operations, including the bombing of Frampol[9] and Wieluń,[10] bombing of Sulejów.[11] Massive air raids were conducted on these, and other towns which had no military infrastructure.[12] Civilians were strafed from the air with machine gun fire in what became known as a terror bombing campaign. Columns of fleeing refugees were systematically attacked by the German fighter and dive-bomber aircraft.[13] The Siege of Warsaw (1939) caused a huge toll of civilian casualties. From the very first hours of World War II, Warsaw, the capital of Poland, was a target of an unrestricted aerial bombardment campaign by the German Luftwaffe. Apart from the military facilities such as infantry barracks and the Okęcie airport and aircraft factory, the German pilots also targeted civilian facilities such as water works, hospitals, market places and schools. Warsaw Uprising Between 150,000 and 200,000 Polish civilians died in the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, mostly from mass murders such as the Wola massacre.

Murdered in Prisons or Camps, and in mass executions During the occupation many NonJewish ethnic Poles were killed in mass executions, including an estimated 37,000 people at the Pawiak prison complex run by the Gestapo. Polish researchers of the Institute of National Remembrance have identified about 400,000 victims in camps and prisons, including 148,000 killed in executions and 240,000 deaths among those deported to concentration camps, including 7075,000 at Auschwitz. During the occupation, communities were held collectively responsible for Polish attacks against German troops and mass executions were conducted in reprisal.[7][14] Many mass executions took place outside prisons and camps such as the Mass murders in Piaśnica. Psychiatric patients were executed in Action T4. Farmers were murdered during pacifications of villages. Forced Labor in Germany Non-Jewish ethnic Poles in large cities were targeted by the łapanka policy which the German occupiers utilized to indiscriminately round up civilians off the street to be sent as forced laborers to Germany. In Warsaw, between 1942 and 1944, there were approximately 400 daily victims of łapankas. Poles in rural areas and small towns were also conscripted for forced labor by the German occupiers. According to research by the Institute of National Remembrance between 1939 and 1945, 1,897,000 Polish citizens were taken to Germany as forced laborers under inhuman conditions, which resulted in many deaths. However, Czesław Łuczak put the number of Poles deported to Germany at 2,826,500 [15] Although Germany also used forced laborers from Western Europe, Poles and other Eastern Europeans who were viewed as racially inferior were subjected to intensified discriminatory measures. They were forced to wear identifying purple tags with "P"s sewn to their clothing, subjected to a curfew, and banned from public transportation. While the treatment of factory workers or farm hands often varied depending on the individual employer, most Polish laborers were compelled to work longer hours for lower wages than Western Europeans. In many cities, they were forced to live in segregated barracks

behind barbed wire. Social relations with Germans outside work were forbidden, and sexual relations ("racial defilement") were considered a capital crime punishable by death. Malnutrition and Disease Prior to the war the area which became the General Government was not self sufficient in agricultural production and was a net importer of food from other regions of Poland.[16] Despite this food deficit the German occupiers confiscated 27% of the agricultural output in the General Government, thus reducing the food available for the civilian population.[17] This Nazi policy caused a humanitarian crisis in Poland’s urban areas. In 1940 20 to 25% of the population the Government General depended on outside relief aid.[18] Richard C. Lukas points out “To be sure, the Poles would have starved to death if they had to depend on the food rationed to them."[19] To supplement the meager rations allocated by the Germans Poles depended on the black market in order to survive. During the war 80% of the population’s needs were met by the black market[20] During the war there was an increase in infectious diseases caused by the general malnutrition among the Polish population. In 1940 the tuberculosis rate among Poles, not including Jews, was 420 per 100,000 compared to 136 per 100,000 prior to the war.[21] During the occupation the natural death rate in the General Government increased to 1.7% per annum compared to the prewar level of 1.4%[22] Kidnapping of children by Nazi Germany Part of the Generalplan Ost involved taking children from Poland and moving them to Nazi Germany for the purpose of Germanization, or indoctrination into becoming culturally German. The aim of the project was to acquire and "Germanize" children with purportedly Aryan traits who were considered by Nazi officials to be descendants of German settlers in Poland. The Institute of National Remembrance cited a source published in the People's Republic of Poland in 1960 that put the number of children kidnapped in Poland at 200,000 of whom only 30,000 were eventually returned to Poland, the others remained in post war Germany.[23] Soviet Repression In the aftermath of the September 1939 German and Soviet invasion of Poland, the territory of Poland was divided between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union (USSR). The Soviet occupied territories of Poland, with total population of 13.0 million, was subjected to a reign of terror. According to research published in 2009 by the Institute of National Remembrance about 1.0 million Polish citizens from all ethnic groups were arrested, conscripted or deported by the Soviet occupiers from 1939 to 1941; including about 200,000 Polish military personnel held as prisoners of war; 100,000 Polish citizens were arrested and imprisoned by the Soviets, including civic officials, military personnel and other "enemies of the people" like the clergy and Polish educators; 475,000 Poles who were considered "enemies of the people" were deported to remote regions of the USSR; 76,000 Polish citizens were conscripted into the Soviet Armed forces and 200,000 were conscripted as forced laborers in the interior of the Soviet Union. When the Soviet forces returned to Poland in 1944-1945 there was a new wave of repression of Polish citizens from all ethnic groups including 188,000 deported, 50,000 conscripted as forced labor and 50,000 arrested.[24] The Institute of National Remembrance puts the confirmed death toll due to the Soviet occupation at 150,000 persons including 22,000 murdered Polish military officers and government officials in the Katyn massacre. They pointed out that Czesław Łuczak estimated the total population loss at 500,000 ethnic Poles in the Soviet occupied regions.[25] Andrzej Paczkowski puts the number of Polish deaths due to Soviet repression at 90,000–100,000 of the 1.0 million persons deported and 30,000 executed by the Soviets[26] According to Zbigniew S. Siemaszko the total of those deported was 1,646,000 of whom 1,450,000 were residents and refugees (excluding POWs).[27] According to Franciszek Proch the total of those deported was 1,800,000 of whom 1,050,000 perished.[28] Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia An estimated 50,000 to 100,000 [29][30][31] ethnic Poles were killed in an ethnic cleansing operation carried out by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) beginning in March 1943 and lasting until the end of 1944 in the Nazi occupied Volhynia and Eastern Galicia.[25] The Institute of National Remembrance maintains that 7,500 ethnic Ukrainians were also killed during this interethnic conflict [4][32]

Losses of other ethnic minorities The figure of 5.6 to 5.8 million war dead estimated by the IPN was for only the Jewish and ethnic Polish population. They did not provide figures for the the death toll of Polish citizens from the other ethnic minorities. Ukrainians, Belarusians and Lithuanians According to the figures published by the Polish government in exile in 1941 there were about 7.0 million Polish citizens from ethnic minorities at the beginning of the war in September 1939, mostly Ukrainians, Belarusians, Polishchuks and Lithuanians living in the eastern regions of Poland annexed by the USSR.[33] The IPN did not estimate the death toll of Polish citizens from these ethnic minorities. The IPN maintains that accurate figures for these losses are not available because of border changes and population transfers, according to their figures 308,000 Polish citizens from the ethnic minorities were deported into the interior of the Soviet Union and were into the Soviet armed forces. During the German occupation Polish citizens from ethnic minorities were deported to Germany for forced labor.[4][32] Ethnic Germans In prewar Poland about 800,000 persons were identified as ethnic Germans.[34]According to the IPN 5,437 ethnic Germans were killed in the 1939 military campaign. The IPN also puts the number of Polish citizens conscripted into the German armed forces at 250,000 of whom 60,000 were killed in action. Tens of thousands of ethnic Germans were killed during the Nazi evacuation from Poland in 1944 and 1945, and as a result of repression NKVD and Red Army or died in post war internment camps.[4] During the war the Nazi occupiers instituted the Volksliste in the Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany to register ethnic Germans in Poland. Many Polish citizens were pressured to sign the Volksliste in order to avoid Nazi reprisals. About 1 million persons were on Volksliste groups 1 and 2 that included Polish citizens of German descent; Volksliste groups 3 and 4 included 1.7 Polish citizens that were subject to future Germanisation.[35] In addition 61,000 .[36] ethnic Germans were living in the General Government. During the war 522,149 ethnic Germans from other nations were settled in Poland by the Third Reich.[4] By 1950 670,000 ethnic Germans from prewar Poland had fled or were expelled and about 40,000 remained in Poland; about 200,000 Polish citizens who were on Volksliste groups 1 and 2 during the war were rehabilitated as Polish citizens.[37] [38]

A Summary of the Various Estimates of Poland's Human Losses In 1947 the communist dominated government in Poland estimated war losses at 6.0
million ethnic Poles and Jews. This report did not include the losses of Polish citizens from other minorities - Ukrainians and Belarusians. In 1951 the Polish government made a reassessment of war losses that put actual losses at 5.1 million ethnic Poles and Jews, this study was to remain secret until 2004 after the communist government collapsed. In a 2009 comprehensive study by the Polish government affiliated Institute of National Remembrance the total deaths of ethnic Poles and Jews were estimated at 5.6 to 5.8 million persons including 150,000 in Soviet captivity.[4] The classification of the various ethnic groups in Poland during the Second Polish Republic is a disputed topic. The Polish government report of 1947 based their population figures on the results of the 1931 Polish census using the criterion of language spoken. The Polish demographer Piotr Eberhardt maintains that it is commonly agreed that the criterion of declared language to classify ethnic groups led to an overestimation of the number of Poles in pre-war Poland. He notes that in general, the numbers declaring a particular language do not mesh with the numbers declaring the corresponding nationality. Members of ethnic minority groups believe that the language criterion led to an overestimation of Poles.[39] The official figures for nationality from the 1931 Polish census based on the mother tongue put the percentage of ethnic Poles at 68.9%, Jews 8.6% and other minority groups 22.5%. J. Tomaszewski maintains that the adjusted census figures(taking religious affiliation into account) put the percentage of ethnic Poles at 64.7%, Jews 9.8% and other minority groups 25.5% of Poland's population.[40] Based on the analysis by Tomaszewski roughly 1.0 million persons from other minority groups (mostly Ukrainians and Belarusians) were classified as Poles in

the official figures for 1939 (3% of the 35 million total population) and about 400,000 Polish speaking Jews were also classified as Poles .

Report by Polish Bureau of War Damages In April 1947 the Polish government Bureau of
War Damages (BOW) published an analysis of Poland's war losses. This study was prepared for a conference on war reparations from Germany. Their figure of 6,028,000 Polish war dead has been cited in historical literature since then.[41][42][43]
Description in thousands % Total population of (ethnic Poles & Jews) 27,007,000 Killed 6,028,000 100.0% Causes Direct War Operations 644,000 10.7% Murdered in the extermination camps, executions, liquidation of ghettos etc. 3,577,000 59.3% Prisons, concentration camps, epidemics, extenuation, bad treatment etc. 1,286,000 21.3% Outside of camps because of extenuation, wounds, injuries, beating, hard work etc. 521,000 8.7% Source: Poland. Statement on war losses and damages of Poland in 1939–1945.[44] Notes provided in report: • Total deaths of 6,028,000 includes about 3,000,000 Jews • Population of 27,007,000 includes only ethnic Poles & Jews; 7,842,000 Polish citizens of national minorities (Ukrainians, Belarusians) and Germans are not included. • Population of 27,007,000 includes 5,193,000 Poles and Jews Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. • In addition to the above losses there was a decrease of 1,215,000 births. • Figure of 644,000 deaths caused by direct war operations includes 123,000 military casualties.

Criticism of 1947 Report of Polish Bureau of War Damages Since the fall of communism the Polish historian Czesław Łuczak maintained that the figure 6.0 million war dead is not correct because in January 1947 the communist dominated government in Poland pressured the Bureau of War Damages to come up with a figure of war losses to present at a conference on war reparations from Germany even though they had incomplete information at that time. A subsequent study by the Polish Ministry of Finance found actual losses to be about 5.1 million persons(see below).[1][2][45]

Report by the Polish Ministry of Finance The Polish government Ministry of Finance in
1951 prepared a study to investigate and detail Poland's war losses in order to document claims for war reparations from Germany. This study which remained secret until the collapse of communism included only ethnic Poles and Jews, excluding the deaths of persons from other ethnic minorities. They estimated actual losses at 5,075,700. The 1947 Polish government Bureau of War Damages figure of 6,028,000 war dead was lowered by 953,000 persons because the they had included with the dead those missing persons who remained abroad or had returned to Poland, this was confirmed by the results of the 1950 Polish census.[2][45]
Cause of Death Acts of War Murdered Prisons & Camps Forced Labor Exhaustion Total Number Persons (Poles & Jews) 550,000 3,000,700 1,083,000 274,000 168,000 5,075,700 % 10.7 57.3% 21.3% 5.4% 3.3% 100.0%

Demographic study by Kazimierz Piesowicz In 1987 the Polish Academy of Science
journal Studia Demograficzne published an article by Kazimierz Piesowicz that analyzed the demographic balance from Poland from 1939-1950. Poland's Population Balance (1939–1950)
Others (Ukrainians/Belarusians) 1. Population 1939 (by Nationality) 35,000,000 24,300,000 3,200,000 800,000 6,700,000 2. Natural Increase 1939-1945 1,300,000 1,000,000 300,000 3. Total Human Losses (6,000,000) (3,100,000) (2,800,000) (100,000) 4 . War Emigration (1,500,000) (500,000) (200,000) (600,000) (200,000) 5. Border Changes USSR (6,700,000) (700,000) (6,000,000) 6. Population gain Recovered Territories 1,100,000 1,100,000 0 0 0 7. Re-Immigration 1946-50 200,000 200,000 0 0 0 8. Deportations to USSR 1944-1947 (500,000) 0 0 (500,000) 9. Natural Increase 1946-1950 2,100,000 2,100,000 0 0 0 10. Population 1950 25,000,000 24,400,000 200,000 200,000 200,000 Source of figures: Kazimierz Piesowicz, Demograficzne skutki II wojny swiatowej Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/87, 1987. 103-36 pp. Warsaw, Poland Description Total Poles Jews Germans

1. Population 1939 -Polish sources allocate the nationality of the population by the primary language spoken, not by religion. Most Jews spoke Yiddish, however included with the Poles are about 200,000 Polish speaking Jews who are classified with the Polish group. Included with the Poles are 1,300,000 Eastern Orthodox & Greek Catholic adherents who are sometimes classified with the Ukrainian and Belarusian groups [46] 2. Natural Increase October 1939-December 1945 -After the war Polish demographers calculated the estimated natural population growth that occurred during the war. This figure is the net total of actual births less the total of deaths by natural causes from October 1939-December 1945. 3. Kazimierz Piesowicz put the total war dead at 6.0 million. He also notes that all the figures are approximated.[47] 4. War Emigration Polish citizens who remained abroad after the war. 5. Border Changes USSR The number of Polish citizens who remained in the USSR after the war. 6. Population gain Recovered Territories Germans remaining in Poland after the war in the Recovered Territories. This group included 1,100,000 German nationals who declared their allegiance to Poland. Also remaining in 1950 were 94,000 German nationals, 36,000 Germans from pre-war Danzig and 1,500 ethnic Germans of other nations.[48] 7. Re-immigration 1946-50 Poles resident in western Europe before the war, primarily in Germany and France, who returned to Poland after the war [49] 8. Deportations to USSR 1944-1947-Forced resettlement of Ukrainians and Belarusians to the USSR.[49] 9. Natural Increase 1946-1950 This is the official Polish government data for births and natural deaths from January 1946 until the census of December 1950.[49]

10. Population December 1950 Per Census The total population per the December 1950 census was 25 million.[49]

Assessment by Franciszek Proch Franciszek Proch was a Polish lawyer and journalist. During the war he was imprisoned at the Dachau concentration camp. In the post war era he resided in Germany and the United States.[50] The estimates of Franciszek Proch were cited by Tadeusz Piotrowski in his book Poland's Holocaust [51][52] Proch published Poland's Way of the Cross in 1987 in which he estimated Poland's war dead.
Description Population(Poles&Jews) Military Losses Civilian Losses (Non-Jewish) Civilian Losses Jewish Total Losses % Population

Poland 28,400,000 Under German 295,000 2,345,000 2,400,000 5,040,000 17.7% Occupation Under Soviet 65,000 885,000 100,000 1,050,000 3.7% Occupation Total Losses 360,000 3,320,000 2,500,000 6,090,000 21.4% Details provided by Franciszek Proch • Population includes 25.0 million Poles and 3.4 million Jews. • Jewish Losses- 2.4 million victims of Nazis and 100,000 of Soviet Terror. 32,000 Jews died in Polish military. • Victims of Soviet Terror- 1,800,000 deported and 750,000 released; 1,050,000 dead (15,000 Katyn; 565,000 in Labor camps; 220,000 Missing; 150,000 Died since 1955; 100,000 unaccounted for) Source:Franciszek Proch, Poland's Way of the Cross, New York 1987 [28]

Assessment by Czesław Łuczak Czesław Łuczak was a Polish historian. He was a rector of
the Adam Mickiewicz University from 1965 to 1972, and from 1969 to 1981 and from 1987 to 1991, director the University's Institute of History. He was a member of the Polish United Workers' Party in communist Poland. Estimated Total losses by Czesław Łuczak in 1993 Łuczak published Polska i Polacy w drugiej wojnie światowej (Poland and Poles in the Second World War). In a section on the demographic losses he presented estimated losses with some brief observations.[53]
Losses Number Persons During German Occupation of Poland 5,100,000 Direct War Operations(not including Warsaw Uprising) 450,000 Subtotal 5,500,000 Outside Polish Territory 500,000 Other Countries 2,000 Total 6,000,000 • Losses during the German occupation of Polish territory were 5.1 million persons. • Losses due to direct war operations, not including Warsaw Uprising were 450,000 persons. • Losses outside Polish territory were 500,000 persons. This figure includes forced labor in Germany as well as in the USSR. Losses in the USSR included mass executions and the deaths of those persons deported and resettled in the USSR. • Total Polish War losses were 6 million persons.

Estimated Total losses by Czesław Łuczak 1994[54] Czesław Łuczak authored an article in the academic journal Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik Szanse i trudnosci bilansu demograficznego Polski w latach 1939–1945. Possibilities and Difficulties of the Demographic Balance in Poland 1939-1945
Losses Number Persons by Ethnic Group

Ethnic Polish Victims During German Occupation 1,500,000 Ethnic Polish victims in Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union 500,000 Jewish Victims During German Occupation 2,900,000 Losses of Other Ethnic Groups 1,000,000 Total 6,000,000 to 5,900,000 • A summary of the main points in Łuczak's article are as follows. • The 1947 Report of the Polish Bureau of War Damages considered only Poles and Jews in the 1939 population, other minorities were not included with the losses. • The Polish Bureau of War Damages report of 1947 put Jewish losses at 3.4 million; in a subsequent report to the United Nations this figure was 3.2 million Jewish dead, thus reducing the total to 5.8 million. • Actual losses of Ethnic Poles in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union was about 500-800,000 persons. Reports published in the west estimating these losses at 1.5 million Poles in Soviet hands is not based on reliable evidence. • Losses of Ethnic Poles in the Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia range from a few thousand up to several hundred thousand persons, occasionally 200,000. The figure of 500,000 deaths mentioned by Lech Wałęsa is not based on reliable evidence. • The estimates for losses of the Jewish population in the Holocaust range from 2.7 million to 3.4 million persons. • Łuczak estimated total losses at 6.0-5.9 million Polish citizens, not less than the report of the Polish Bureau of War Damages. This figure includes 2.9 million Jews, 2.0 million Ethnic Poles and 1.0 million from national minorities the Ukrainian and Belarusian ethnic groups which were not included in the 1947 Polish government figure of 6.0 million war dead. Total losses in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union were 2.0 million persons including 500,000 Ethnic Poles. • Łuczak estimated total losses of Ethnic Poles due to the German occupation at 1.5 million persons; 1.3 million in occupied Poland and 200,000 as forced laborers in Germany. Łuczak maintains the demographic evidence points to overall losses of 1.5 million Ethnic Poles under the German occupation. • Łuczak maintains total overall losses of Ethnic Poles and Jews at about 5.0 million persons, 1.0 million less than the 1947 report of the Polish Bureau of War Damages.

Assessment by Tadeusz Piotrowski Thaddeus Piotrowski is a Polish-American sociologist.
He is a Professor of Sociology in the Social Science Division of the University of New Hampshire at Manchester. Poland's War Dead estimated by Tadeusz Piotrowski in 2005 [52]
Description Total Population War Dead Ethnic Poles 22,700,000 2,000,000 Jews 3,400,000 3,100,000 500,000 Other Minorities 9,000,000 Total 35,100,000 5,600,000 Poland's War Dead estimated by Tadeusz Piotrowski [52] Description Amount German Occupation 5,100,000 Soviet Occupation 350,000 Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia 100,000 Total 5,600,000

Assessment by Kazimierz Bajer An analysis of Poland's war losses by Kazimierz Bajer was
published in the journal of the veterans of the Armia Krajowa. Bajer calculated the estimated population losses of the 12 million ethnic Poles over the age of 15 who were capable of resistance during the German and Soviet occupation.[55] Bajer's figures were used by Polish government affiliated Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) to estimate the war dead of the ethnic Polish population.[25]
Calculation of Population Capable of Resistance

Total Population September 1939 Population Not Ethnic Polish Ethnic Polish Population Losses 1939 Campaign Population Not Capable of Resistance Population Capable of Resistance-October 1939

35,339,000 A. (10,951,000) B. 24,388,000 C. (849,000) D. (11,526,000) E. 12,013,000

Source of figures: Bajer, Kazimierz Zakres udziału Polaków w walce o niepodległość na obszarze państwa polskiego w latach 1939-1945, "Zeszyty Historyczne Stowarzyszenia Żołnierzy Armii Krajowej", (Kraków) 1996 Pages 10–13 A.Population of 35.339 million includes about 240,000 in Polish annexed Zaolzie area around Český Těšín.[56] B.Population not ethnic Polish includes 2,916,000 Jews.[57] C.Ethnic Polish population includes 435,000 Polish speaking Jews.[58] D.Losses 1939 Campaign-(Killed 296,000; Prisoners of War 449,000; emmigrated from Poland 104,000).The IPN put the 1939war dead at 360,000. E. Population Not Capable of Resistance( 100% ages 1–14; 50% ages 15–19; 30% women 20-39; 100% over 70 years and 632,000 disabled)
Losses of Ethnic Polish Population Capable of Resistance Population Capable of Resistance Oct 1939 12,013,000 Less War Dead 1944/45 (170,000) B. Return of Wounded soldiers 70,000 Deported to USSR (663,000) Conscripted in Soviet Armed Forces (76,000) Conscripted in German Armed Forces (200,000) Conscripted for Work USSR (250,000) Forced Labor in Germany (1,897,000) Entered on Volksliste (815,000) C. Arrested in USSR (150,000) Prisoners in Concentration Camps (138,000) Murdered (506,000) A. Deaths In Prisons & Camps (1,146,000) A. Deaths Outside of Prisons & Camps (473,000) A. Murdered in Eastern Regions (100,000) Invalids (530,000) Total Losses (7,044,000) Population Capable of Resistance-May 1945 4,969,000 Source of figures: Bajer, Kazimierz Zakres udziału Polaków w walce o niepodległość na obszarze państwa polskiego w latach 1939-1945, "Zeszyty Historyczne Stowarzyszenia Żołnierzy Armii Krajowej", (Kraków) 1996 Page 14 A. Bajer uses the 1947 Bureau of War Damages figures as the base to compute his estimate of ethnic Polish war dead.
[59]

B.The IPN put the war dead in 1944/45 at 183,000.

C.Bajer put the number of Polish citizens on the Volksliste at 2,224,000. According to Bajer's calculations 200,000were conscripted into the German Armed Forces, 937,000 were ethnic Germans, 272,000 were Poles involved in the Polish resistance and 815,000 were not involved in the resistance movement.

Report by the Institute of National Remembrance The Polish government affiliated
Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) in 2009 estimated total war dead at between 5,620,000 and 5,820,000 persons. They did not provide a detailed population balance showing how the figures were derived. They did however breakout the figures of the total war dead [25] [60]
Description Human Losses Ethnic Poles -German Occupation 2,770,000 Jews-Holocaust 2,700,000 to 2,900,000 Victims Soviet Repression 150,000 Total War Dead 5,620,000 to 5,820,000 Losses of Polish People (Poles)-(ludności polskiej (Polaków))-Due to German Occupation[4] Description Losses 1939/40 1940/41 1941/42 1942/43 1943/44 1944/45 Total Direct War Losses 360,000 183,000 543,000 Murdered 75,000 100,000 116,000 133,000 82,000 506,000 Deaths In Prisons & Camps 69,000 210,000 220,000 266,000 381,000 1,146,000 Deaths Outside of Prisons & Camps 42,000 71,000 142,000 218,000 473,000 Murdered in Eastern Regions 100,000 100,000 Deaths other countries 2,000 Total 504,000 352,000 407,000 541,000 681,000 270,000 2,770,000 • The Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) figures are taken from the study by Kazimierz Bajer Zakres udziału Polaków w walce o niepodległość na obszarze państwa polskiego w latach 1939-1945, which is detailed above. The IPN noted that Bajers study was an attempt to calculate the overall losses of ethnic Poles.[4] • The authors of the report point out that the figure of 2,770,000 deaths during the German occupation should be treated with caution. They maintain that it is difficult to obtain accurate information on the exact number and causes of Poland's losses.(Liczbę tę należy traktować orientacyjnie, gdyż dla samej Warszawy historycy mają problem z ustaleniem liczby ofiar bezpowrotnych) They hope that ongoing projects in Poland will be able to provide more accurate information in the future.[25] • Figure of 2,770,000 Poles does not include 100,000 victims of massacres in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia.[25] • The Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) puts the confirmed death toll due to the Soviet occupation at 150,000, they pointed out that Czesław Łuczak based on a population balance estimated the total population loss at 500,000 ethnic Poles in the Soviet occupied regions.[25] • By June 2009 the Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) was able to confirm the information regarding 1.5 million of the total estimated 5.8 million war dead (Do końca czerwca 2009 r. lista ta obejmuje zweryfikowane informacje o 1,5 mln osób.).[25] In 2012 the Institute of National Remembrance was able to identify 3,474,449 victims and those persons persecuted under the German occupation (Obecnie, w bazie programu można znaleźć informacje o 3,474,449 ofiarach i osobach represjonowanych pod okupacją niemiecką) [61]

Assessment by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum The United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum believes that The Nazi terror was, in scholar Norman Davies's words, "much fiercer and more protracted in Poland than anywhere in Europe." Reliable statistics for the total number of Poles who died as a result of Nazi German policies do not exist. Many others were victims of the 1939-1941 Soviet occupation of eastern Poland and of deportations to Central Asia and Siberia. Records are incomplete, and the Soviet control of Poland for 50 years after the war impeded independent scholarship. The changing borders and ethnic composition of Poland as well as vast population movements during and after the war also complicated the task of calculating losses In the past, many estimates of losses were based on a Polish report of 1947 requesting reparations from the Germans; this often cited document tallied population losses of 6 million for all Polish "nationals" (Poles, Jews, and other minorities). Subtracting 3 million Polish Jewish victims, the report claimed 3 million non-Jewish victims of the Nazi terror, including

civilian and military casualties of war.'Documentation remains fragmentary, but today scholars of independent Poland believe that 1.8 to 1.9 million Polish civilians (non-Jews) were victims of German Occupation policies and the war. This approximate total includes Poles killed in executions or who died in prisons, forced labor, and concentration camps. It also includes an estimated 225,000 civilian victims of the 1944 Warsaw uprising, more than 50,000 civilians who died during the 1939 invasion and siege of Warsaw, [3]

Military Casualties Poland lost a total of about 140,000 regular soldiers killed and missing. The Polish resistance movement lost an additional 100,000 fighters during the war. [62] The official Historical Journal of the Polish military has published statistics on Polish military casualties. The following schedule details these losses [63][64] The Polish contribution to World War II included the Polish Armed Forces in the West, and the 1st Polish Army fighting under Soviet command.
Description Campaign Poland 1939 Free Polish Forces Warsaw Uprising(Resistance forces) Total Killed Wounded Missing Prisoners of War 95-97,000 130,000 650,000 33,256 42,666 8,548 29,385 18,000 25,000 146,256 to 148,256 197,666 8,548 697,500 Total 876,000 113,855 60,443 1,050,298

The figure of 95-97,000 killed in the 1939 campaign includes 17-19,000 executed by Soviets in 1940 and 10,000 deaths of wounded in German captivity. The Armia Krajowa resistance movement which had a strength of about 400,000 fighters in 1944 lost 100,000 killed in the struggle against the German occupation and 50,000 imprisoned by the Soviet Union at the end of the war.[65]

References
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consumption in Poland of 246.4 kg. per capita, the Governmant General region produced only 202.7 kg. per capita) ^ Jan Tomasz Gross, Polish Society Under German Occupation Princeton University Press, (1979) ISBN 0691-09381-4 Page 99 ^ Jan Tomasz Gross, Polish Society Under German Occupation Princeton University Press, (1979) ISBN 0691-09381-4 Page 100 ^ Richard C. Lukas, Forgotten Holocaust: Poles Under German Occupation, 1939-44 Hippocrene Books, 2001 ISBN 0-7818-0901-0 Page 31 ^ Jan Tomasz Gross, Polish Society Under German Occupation Princeton University Press, (1979) ISBN 0691-09381-4 Page 109 ^ Jan Tomasz Gross, Polish Society Under German Occupation Princeton University Press, (1979) ISBN 0691-09381-4 Page 102 ^ Zieliński, Henryk. Population changes in Poland, 1939-1950.[New York] Mid-European Studies Center, National Committee for a Free Europe 1954 ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 page 99 ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 page 30 ^ a b c d e f g h Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 page 9 ^ Stephane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard Univ Pr, 1999 ISBN 0-674-07608-7 p. 372 ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947 McFarland & Company, 1997 ISBN 0786403713 Page 297 ^ a b Franciszek Proch, Poland's Way of the Cross, New York 1987 Pages 99-147 ^ Paul Robert Magocsi. (1996). A History of Ukraine. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pg. 621 ^ Resolve the Ukrainian Question Once and For All: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ukrainians in Poland, 19431947, Timothy Snyder, Working Paper, Yale University, 2001 ^ Grzegorz Motyka, Od rzezi wołyńskiej do akcji "Wisła". Konflikt polsko-ukraiński 1943- 1947. Kraków 2011, p.447 ^ a b Wojciech Materski, Tomasz Szarota (2009), POLSKA 1939-1945 STRATY OSOBOWE I OFIARY REPRESJI POD DWIEMA OKUPACJAMI. Internet Archive. Retrieved March 13, 2013. ^ Maly Rocznik Statystyczny Polski-London 1941 ^ Maly Rocznik Statystyczny Polski-London 1941 ^ Ryszard Kaczmarek, Polacy w Wehrmachcie, Wydawnictwo Literackie, Kraków 2010, p.412, ISBN 978-8308-04488-9 ^ Maly Rocznik Statystyczny Polski- London 1941 ^ Gerhard Reichning, Die deutschen Vertriebenen in Zahlen, Teil 1, Bonn 1995. Page 36 ^ Stanisław Jankowiak, Wysiedlenie i emigracja ludności niemieckiej w polityce władz polskich w latach 1945-1970,Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Warszawa 2005, ISBN 83-89078-80-5 ^ Piotr Eberhardt, Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-Century Central-Eastern Europe: History, Data, Analysis M.E. Sharpe, 2002 ISBN 0-7656-0665-8 p. 112 ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947 McFarland & Company, 1997 ISBN 0786403713 page 294 ^ Keegan, John The Second World War 1989 ^ Messenger, Charles Chronological Atlas of World War Two 1989 ^ Richard C Lukas Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles Under German Occupation 1939-1944 1986 ^ Poland. Bureau odszkodowan wojennych(BOW), Statement on war losses and damages of Poland in 1939– 1945. Warsaw 1947 ^ a b Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami.Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 ^ U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington-1954 ^ Kazimierz Piesowicz, Demograficzne skutki II wojny swiatowej Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/87, 1987. 10336 pp. Warsaw, Poland. ^ Stanisław Jankowiak, Wysiedlenie i emigracja ludności niemieckiej w polityce władz polskich w latach 1945-1970, p.211-212, Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Warszawa 2005, ISBN 83-89078-80-5 ^ a b c d Ludnosc Polski w XX wieku / Andrzej Gawryszewski. Warsaw 2005. ^ Franciszek Jozef Proch ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski,Poland's Holocaust McFarland & Company, 1997 ISBN 0786403713 ^ a b c Poland World War II casualties

53. ^ Czesław Łuczak Polska i Polacy w drugiej wojnie światowej Polska i Polacy w drugiej wojnie światowej Poznan (1993) Page 683 54. ^ Czesław Łuczak, Szanse i trudnosci bilansu demograficznego Polski w latach 1939–1945. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI- 1994 Pages 9-14 55. ^ Bajer, Kazimierz Zakres udziału Polaków w walce o niepodległość na obszarze państwa polskiego w latach 1939-1945, "Zeszyty Historyczne Stowarzyszenia Żołnierzy Armii Krajowej", (Kraków) 1996 (This article is available in Polish libraries and at the Stanford Univ. Library in the U.S.) 56. ^ Maly Rocznik Statystyczny Polski- London 1941 57. ^ Maly Rocznik Statystyczny Polski- London 1941 58. ^ Maly Rocznik Statystyczny Polski- London 1941 59. ^ Bajer, Kazimierz Zakres udziału Polaków w walce o niepodległość na obszarze państwa polskiego w latach 1939-1945, "Zeszyty Historyczne Stowarzyszenia Żołnierzy Armii Krajowej", (Kraków) 1996 Page 11 60. ^ Wojciech Materski, Tomasz Szarota (2009), POLSKA 1939-1945 STRATY OSOBOWE I OFIARY REPRESJI POD DWIEMA OKUPACJAMI. Internet Archive. Retrieved March 13, 2013. 61. ^ "Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod okupacją niemiecką" 62. ^ Gniazdowski, Mateusz. Losses Inflicted on Poland by Germany during World War II. Assessments and Estimates—an Outline The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs, 2007, no. 1.This article is available from the Central and Eastern European Online Library at http://www.ceeol.com 63. ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6, 64. ^ T. Panecki, Wsiłek zbrojny Polski w II wojnie światowej pl:Wojskowy Przegląd Historyczny,1995, no. 1–2, pp. 13–18 65. ^ [1] -(Polish) Armia Krajowa. Encyklopedia WIEM.]

Further reading
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Gniazdowski, Mateusz. Losses Inflicted on Poland by Germany during World War II. Assessments and Estimates—an Outline The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs, 2007, no. 1.This article is available from the Central and Eastern European Online Library at http://www.ceeol.com Jan Tomasz Gross, Polish Society Under German Occupation Princeton University Press, (1979) ISBN 0-69109381-4 Krystyna Kersten, Szacunek strat osobowych w Polsce Wschodniej. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI- 1994 Czesław Łuczak Polska i Polacy w drugiej wojnie światowej (1993) Czesław Łuczak, Szanse i trudnosci bilansu demograficznego Polski w latach 1939–1945. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI- 1994 Richard C. Lukas, Forgotten Holocaust: Poles Under German Occupation, 1939-44 Hippocrene Books, 2001 ISBN 0-7818-0901-0 Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 Nurowski,Roman War Losses of Poland Warsaw 1960 T. Panecki, Wsiłek zbrojny Polski w II wojnie światowej pl:Wojskowy Przegląd Historyczny,1995, no. 1–2 Piesowicz, Kazimierz. Demographic effects of World War II. [Demograficzne skutki II wojny swiatowej.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/87, 1987. 103-36 pp. Warsaw, Poland Poland. Bureau odszkodowan wojennych(BOW), Statement on war losses and damages of Poland in 1939– 1945. Warsaw 1947 Franciszek Proch, Poland's Way of the Cross, New York 1987 Tadeusz Piotrowski Poland World War II casualties Tadeusz Piotrowski Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947 McFarland & Company, 1997 ISBN 0786403713 U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington- 1954 United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.Poles Victims of the Nazi Era". Ushmm.org Zieliński, Henryk. Population changes in Poland, 1939-1950 New York Mid-European Studies Center, National Committee for a Free Europe 1954 Wojciech Materski, Tomasz Szarota (2009), POLSKA 1939-1945 STRATY OSOBOWE I OFIARY REPRESJI POD DWIEMA OKUPACJAMI. Internet Archive. Retrieved March 13, 2013. Victims of the Nazi Regime-Database of Polish citizens repressed under the German Occupation [2] pl:Piotr Eberhardt, 'Political Migrations In Poland 1939-1948 Warsaw2006 pl:Piotr Eberhardt, Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-Century Central-Eastern Europe: History, Data, Analysis Armonk, N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe, 2003. ISBN 0-7656-0665-8

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Andrzej Gawryszewski LUDNOŚĆ POLSKI W XX WIEKU POLSKA AKADEMIA NAUK NSTYTUT GEOGRAFII I PRZESTRZENNEGO ZAGOSPODAROWANIA IM. STANISŁAWA LESZCZYCKIEGO Bajer, Kazimierz Zakres udziału Polaków w walce o niepodległość na obszarze państwa polskiego w latach 1939-1945, "Zeszyty Historyczne Stowarzyszenia Żołnierzy Armii Krajowej", (Kraków) 1996

Entrance to Auschwitz-Birkenau Destruction of Wieluń in 1939

Victims of Wola Massacre Forced labor, workers captured by German police (Poland 1941)

Execution at Palmiry Warsaw 1944

Victims of a massacre committed by the UPA in the village of Lipniki, Poland, 1943

Katyn Massacre - Mass Graves Plaque in Lodz Poland, commemorating children Germanized by the Nazis

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