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Crowded Coasts Competition for coasts How physical factors create a variety in a range of different coastal environments.

Global - Quick coasts facts 1. 3 billion people live within 100km of the coast Coastal population densities are typically 80 people / km2 50% more than non coastal areas; they rise to 1000+ in the Nile and Ganges deltas. Migration is a key component of growth Define the following terms:

Coast Onshore zone Offshore zone Dynamic Equilibrium

2. Classify the main factors that influence the coast. Land Sea Weather and Climate Human activities

3. Identify the human and physical features from the aerial photograph below.

4. Create a mind map below showing how people may upset the dynamic equilibrium of the coast.

How may people upset the dynamic equilibrium of the coast?

The factors that have led to exponential population growth in some coastal environments. Coastal Goods Coastal Services

The factors below show why the coastal zone has always attracted settlers and been favoured by developers. 1. Annotate the diagram above identifying which do you think is the most important and why?

2. Provide evidence below that the coast is a magnet for people.

3. List the goods and services provided by coastal ecosystems. Goods Services

4. Complete the table below showing awareness of these factors detailing named examples. Factors leading to population growth Biodiversity Example

Fishing

Flat land

Recreation and Tourism

Transport and Trade

Farming

Equable Climate

Fertile soil

Investigate and contrast the development of two stretches of crowded coast Case Studies/examples Lancashire Coastal plain Reasons for growth

Blackpool, UK Or Brighton Benidorm, Spain

Boscombe, UK

Coping with the pressure How development cab lead to patterns of zoning in coastal areas and how competition for space put pressure on the coastal environments. Coastal developments create patterns resulting from the competition for space. This can lead to pressure on coastal environments. 1. The sea and shoreline can distort the patterns of land use. Hotels and guest houses are attracted to sea views or promenade sites. Tourist and recreational attractions are linked to piers or key sites. Annotate the aerial photograph of Brighton showing elements of a typical seaside resort.

Pier

Funfair

Arcades, candy floss, ice creams, cafe

Zone of smaller hotels

Traffic congestion

Groynes to protect disappearing beach

Mixture of tourist and medium grade and smaller shops

Large hotels with variable occupancy rates

Park and pleasure gardens

Guest houses, very few en suite

Zone of Bed and Breakfasts

Shopping area

2. What is the nature of tourism in Brighton today? Waterfront: Bars/nightclubs: Festivals: Stage/hen weekends: Shopping (The Lanes):

3. Define the following terms Stakeholders

4. Complete the conflict matrix below for the Key Stakeholders in Lyme Bay, Dorset Wildlife Wildlife Scallop dredgers Trawlers Potters Diving and angling Other recreation Scallop dredgers Trawlers Potters Diving angling and Other recreation

5. Describe the use of the Lyme Bay coast in Dorset creates both competition and conflict. Competition Conflict

6. Explain the value of Coral Reefs Biodiversity: The protection they provide for low lying coasts: Their rich fish stocks: Recreation and tourism appeal:

7. Explain how development of Coral reefs can have negative environmental impacts of the reef. Primary Impacts Secondary Impacts Decline

8. Complete the table below detailing the value of both this habitat and the human impacts upon the habitat. High Value coastal habitats Mangroves Value of the habitat Human impacts on the habitat

Salt Marshes

9. Define the following term Land reclamation

10. Complete the key below and annotate on the map built up areas and reclaimed land in Tokyo bay. Add notes to support the case study. Notes:

Key Reclaimed land Built up are not on reclaimed land

Economic benefits versus environmental costs Outline the Dibden Bay issue:

List the positive and negative economic and environmental impacts on the Dibden Bay Development. Economic impacts Positive Negative Environmental impacts Positive Negative

List 4 stakeholders below and identify the reasons for support or objection Stakeholders Reasons for support or objection

Create a mind map on the next page showing the impacts on the pressure show below on the coast.

Pressures on the Coasts

Increasing risks The growing level of coastal development faces increasing risks from coastal erosion and flooding. Rapid coastal erosion along vulnerable coasts The impact of rising sea levels in areas of dense population and high value installations, particularly those that may be subject to tsunamis and storm surges. Define the following terms: Sea level rise Isostatic change Eustatic change

Draw three annotated diagrams to explain how the following occur make reference to the factors influencing the magnitude of the hazards. Coastal erosion

Tsunami

Storm surges

Key words to include in annotations:

You should be aware of the risks posed by the growing incidence of coastal hazards and potentially their social, economic and environmental impacts

Produce brief case studies of: Case studies Rapid cliff erosion (Holderness) Location and impacts

Rising sea levels linked to storm surges (New Orleans, Hurricane Katrina or UK, 1953)

Tsunamis (Asian Tsunami 2004)

Coastal management How is coastal management adapting to new ideas and situations? You should be aware that there are a range of coastal management and defence strategies. What are their advantages and disadvantages? Define the following terms: Hard engineering Soft engineering Coastal Squeeze

Select 6 hard/soft engineering techniques and explain their nature and purpose, strengths and weaknesses Technique Nature and purpose Strengths Weaknesses

What are the problems with the hard enginerring approach?

Outline the following approaches to a Shoreline Management Plan (SMP). Approach Hold the line Strategic retreat Do Nothing Advance the line Description including advantages and disadvantages

Describe the three criteria coastal management strategies should be judged on Feasibility Cost-effectiveness Appropriateness

The aerial photograph below shows the stretch of coast between Hastings and Pett Level, East Sussex. Annotate the map with the management strategies used along this coastline.

Management strategies for the future 1. Describe the following

Shoreline management plans (SMP)

Sediment Cells

Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM)

Sustainable coastal management

2. List the factors that make it difficult to predict the future of coastal areas.