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The English Teachers Guide to Korea

The English Teachers Guide to Korea

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Published by Nagasnz
Published by ATEK Press, a division of the Association for Teachers of English in Korea
Website: http://atek.or.kr/
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Published by ATEK Press, a division of the Association for Teachers of English in Korea
Website: http://atek.or.kr/
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The Association for Teachers of English in Korea provides the following services to the general public, members and

nonmembers alike:
• • • •
Monitoring of proposed legislation and regulations which may affect noncitizen English teachers in Korea. Translation of proposed and existing legislation and regulations (domestic and international) and analysis of their possible effects on non-citizen English teachers in Korea. Advocacy for English teacher concerns at the national and local levels. The English Teacher's Guide to Korea, which will be made available in PDF for free download from our website (http://atek.or.kr).

ATEK provides the following benefits and services to members:
• • • • Full access to ATEK's Employer Rating System, to make and review ratings. Access to the member forums. Access to professional development and lesson planning materials. Information on how to check to see if your employer is correctly reporting your income, paying your taxes and making proper deductions from your pay. Copies of labor, tax, pension, and health insurance complaint forms, translated into Korean, and instructions about how to go about filing a complaint. Local social networks (the Provincial and Metropolitan Associations that send reps to our national council). Access to data from the ATEK Member Survey, which enables ATEK to track average salaries and weekly hours by region and type of teaching job, average level of satisfaction with various job types, average length of stay of foreigners working in Korea, average pay and benefit increases when resigning for a second year, and much more. Want to know if your contract offer is above or below the average salary for someone in your city and education level? Get access. Advisories to the government based on ATEK Member Survey information on non-citizen English teacher's problems and needs (does one particular city have a higher rate of teachers reporting pay withholding fraud? That city's government might want to know that.) An online application that translates letters home to parents into Korean, so that you can communicate with parents and let them know how their child is doing. Representation of member concerns to relevant government agencies and other groups. Responses to media items of interest to non-citizen English teachers.

• •

• •

All these resources are available on our website at http://atek.or.kr

The English Teacher's Guide to Korea
Living, Working, and Thriving in Korea Sparkling

By Tony Hellmann, M.Ed. Tom Rainey-Smith Jason Thomas, M.App.Ling. Matthew Henderson

ATEK

Press

This book was designed and laid out entirely with open source software. Individual sections copyright © 2009 by the respective authors, all rights reserved, except as licensed below. Used by permission. Published by ATEK Press, a division of the Association for Teachers of English in Korea. Design and composition by Tony Hellmann. Copyedited by Jason Thomas
Cover: Art by Jeffrey Morabito. www.jeffreymorabito.com. Photo by Trey Ratcliff, www.stuckincustoms.com

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works License 저작자표시-비영리-변경금지 2.0 대한민국 이용자는 아래의 조건을 따르는 경우에 You are free:
한하여 자유롭게 : 이 저작물을 복제, 배포, 전송, 전시, 공연 및 방송할 수 있습 니다. 다음과 같은 조건을 따라야 합니다 : 저작자표시. 귀하는 원저작자 를 표시하여야 합니다. to Share – to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work. Under the following conditions: Attribution. You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). Noncommercial. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. 비영리. 귀하는 이 저작물을 영 리 목적으로 이용할 수 없습니 다. 변경금지. 귀하는 이 저작물을 개작, 변형 또는 가공할 수 없 습니다. No Derivative Works. You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work.

 

귀하는, 이 저작물의 재이용이나 배포의 경우, 이 저작물에 적용된 이용허락조건 을 명확하게 나타내어야 합니다. 저작권자로부터 별도의 허가를 받으면 이러한 조건들은 적용되지 않습니다.

For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. The best way to do this is with a link to this web page. Any of the above conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder.

Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and authors have used their best
efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor the authors shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.

This book is published in both print and electronic formats. Printed in the Republic of Korea 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

This book is dedicated to all the teachers: those that have come before, those that have gone on, and those that remain, at or far from home.

There is a Korean word, sinparam, that expresses the pathos, the inner joy, of a person moved to action not by coercion but by his own volition. Param is the sound of the wind; if a person is wafted along on this wind, songs burst from his lips and his legs dance with joy. A sinparam is a strange wind that billows in the hearts of people who have freed themselves from oppression, regained their freedom, and live in a society of mutual trust. --Cheong Kyeong-mo

FOREWORD
From its quiet beginnings in 1883, when the Korean government opened up the first English language school to train interpreters, teaching of English has developed into a three trillon won a year industry. English proficiency is required to be competitive in law, finance, and many other professional fields. An English test is even an entrance requirement to become a police officer today. For the first 100 years, the teachers were looked up to. Many were missionaries who, most Koreans feel, came to help their forbears in a spirit of self-sacrifice. Later, in the 1960s and '70s, they were young American Peace Corps volunteers, many of whom, like the present American Ambassador to Korea, Kathleen Stephens, went on to contribute to the country in other ways. Then, things seemed to get more difficult. I don't know if this was the start, but I recall a howl or protest about 25 years ago after a Frenchman wrote an article in Le Monde, the French daily, describing how he had enjoyed life in Korea, drinking, seducing women and teaching language despite being completely unqualified. After this, people started looking askance at foreign teachers, and the authorities introduced regulations requiring them, somewhat unnecessarily as many were just conversation teachers, to have university degrees. As their image in the media worsened, additional regulations followed, with the introduction of fingerprinting for foreign residents (now repealed, but still favored by some government officials), and recently, the introduction of drug and HIV tests.

Ever since, it seems, despite their contribution and the appreciation of colleagues and students, expatriate teachers of English have had to contend publicly with unfair accusations about their behavior, often backed with completely misleading statistics and/or statements reported in the press. The long-suffering English educator community took this in stride, and they continued to come to teach, dutifully meeting the requirements set for them. However, they lacked a unified voice with which to appraise the media and government of their needs. Now, with the formation of their first association, I sense that this situation is about to turn into something more appropriate and professional. And, here in your hands, is the first piece of evidence to support my assumption. The English Teachers Guide to Korea was conceived by the founders of the Association for Teachers of English in Korea (ATEK) to help make the transition from the normalcy of home to expatriate life a little easier. And it does a very good job of doing so, with its practical advice and historical lessons. It's better than anything else we have produced so far in the expatriate community. But that, I guess, that's how it should be. The writers are teachers, after all. --Michael Breen, author of The Koreans

PREFACE
Looking back on our experiences in Korea, there were times when all of us lost time, money or sanity because we were lacking accurate information. How many things have each of us learned through trial and error? The English Teacher's Guide to Korea was conceived of to help make the transition to expatriate life a little easier. When the ATEK founding directors were deciding what benefits to offer members when ATEK launched, we knew that our most valuable asset was information. We developed concepts for wikis, directories, and this book. Initially we were only going to offer it to members, but after some discussion, we realized that holding this information back from any English teacher just isn't right: we need to offer something to everyone. --The Authors I would like to thank my better half, Wu Junjun, for being patient and encouraging, even when my duties with ATEK took me away from her. Ben Wagner, Professor of Law at Kyung Hee University, very graciously dogged a Korean prosecutor for a legal citation I needed, and his tireless work for the rights of expatriates in Korea is appreciated. I am forever grateful for his support. Alan Timblick and Simon Hong at the Seoul Global Center have provided ATEK with top notch business consulting, and helped to find us the answers which we could not retrieve on our own; for that I am also grateful. Heekyoung Han at ix

the Seoul Global Center is chiefly responsible for the joint ATEK-SGC publishing effort that resulted in 1,000 copies of this book being made available free to English teachers in Korea. Most importantly, I'd like to thank the other authors: Tom, Jason, and Matt, for putting up with my demands and working so hard on the material they contributed. It shows, and I could not work with a finer group of educators. My deepest appreciation and sincerest thanks goes to them. --Tony Hellmann I’d like to thank all those people who encouraged me to pursue the idea of ATEK, and all those who have helped me out along the way. Whether it was Mr. Sung first taking me out to lunch to discuss the idea of setting up a teachers’ organization, teachers phoning me to talk to me about the everyday issues they face, our legal counsel who has encouraged us to pursue this idea in new and novel ways, my friends at Amnesty International Korea and G48 who have always provided me with encouraging words and mental support, or those who worked with us closely along the way, they all deserve my deepest gratitude. I would also like to say that ATEK has been very fortunate to have some very impassioned and hardworking people dedicating countless hours and resources to this guide. Lastly, I’d like to thank my family here in Korea and back in New Zealand, especially my loving fiancé who has stood by me, helped with translation work, withstood my moments of inspiration, and been my pillar x

of strength and support and my truest confidant. --Tom Rainey-Smith My thanks to teachers Kim Seok-cho and Hwang Hyeon-su for their comments on earlier drafts related to ELT and co-teaching. Special thanks to every member of the Korean Teachers Union for their tireless efforts to change the status quo, and to my ATEK colleagues for the same. --Jason Thomas I'd like to thank my wife for allowing me time away from her and our baby son while I was writing my contribution to this book. Thanks also to the Seoul Metropolitan Government, the Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation and the Korea Tourism Organization for their excellent interactive online English language maps and information systems. Thanks also to The Yongsan City Government for their excellent handbook, A Guide for Expats Living in Yongsan which is available for free in the foyer at the Yongsan-gu office. --Matt Henderson

xi

Contents
Foreword.......................................................................................................vii Preface............................................................................................................ix Introduction.....................................................................................................1 Chapter 1: Korea, Past and Present..............................................................3 Republic of Korea Country Profile.............................................................3 Demographics........................................................................................5 Socio-economic Situation.....................................................................6 Korean History at a Glance.........................................................................7 Korean Culture............................................................................................9 Diet............................................................................................................10 The Experience of Dining...................................................................11 Climate and Geography............................................................................14 Calendar Holidays.....................................................................................16 Other Calendar Celebrations (not holidays)........................................17 A Few Notes on the Korean Language.....................................................17 Romanization of Korean.....................................................................17 Origins of Hangul................................................................................18 Korean Language Today.....................................................................20 Major Differences Between Korean and English................................21 Chapter 2: Understanding the Korean Education System.......................23 A Brief History of Education and the Role of English in Korea..............23 Historical Education............................................................................23 20th Century Education.......................................................................24 English Education from Beginning to Present....................................26 The Korean Education System..................................................................40 Overview.............................................................................................40 Elementary Schools.............................................................................41 Middle Schools....................................................................................42 High Schools.......................................................................................44 Supplementary Test-prep Education...................................................44 Higher Education.................................................................................45 National Administration......................................................................46 Local Administration...........................................................................50 Accountability ....................................................................................50 Evaluation ...........................................................................................51 Teacher Evaluation .............................................................................51 Education System Strengths................................................................52 Education System Areas for Continued Development .......................53 Chapter 3: Obtaining Employment and Moving to Korea.......................57 Visas in Korea...........................................................................................57

Visa Types...........................................................................................57 Who Can Work in Korea?...................................................................57 How to Get a Visa...............................................................................58 Finding the Right Job................................................................................59 Job Types.............................................................................................59 Resumes and Interviews......................................................................61 Chapter 4: At Work......................................................................................69 Introduction to English Language Education in South Korea..................69 Communicating with Students, Coworkers, and Others...........................70 Teaching and Co-teaching...................................................................70 Why We Have Trouble Communicating with Koreans: High Context and Low Context Sociolinguistic Differences.....................................79 The Korean Learner of English: English-Korean Cross-Linguistic Challenges.................................................................................................83 Phonological Differences....................................................................83 Communicative Differences: An Example..........................................87 Differential Use of Vocabulary by Language......................................88 Planning Language Lessons......................................................................90 Learning Objectives............................................................................92 Activities.............................................................................................93 Chapter 5: Living as an Instructor in Korea............................................115 Reasons to Register with Your Embassy.................................................115 Alien Registration...................................................................................116 Daily Life................................................................................................117 Waste Disposal..................................................................................117 Paying Bills.......................................................................................121 Housing.............................................................................................122 Relocation Services...........................................................................125 Health Care.............................................................................................126 Overview...........................................................................................126 First Response (Ambulance).............................................................127 Medical Facilities..............................................................................128 Pharmacies........................................................................................128 Specialized Medicine........................................................................128 Services...................................................................................................130 Eye Care and Vision..........................................................................130 Postal.................................................................................................131 Banking and Money..........................................................................132 Mobile phones...................................................................................140 Internet..............................................................................................140 Telephone..........................................................................................141 Public Facilities.......................................................................................142 Public Baths and Toilets....................................................................142 Sports and Recreation.............................................................................143 Traditional Sports..............................................................................143

National Sports Leagues....................................................................144 Stadiums............................................................................................144 Other Public Recreational Facilities..................................................144 Bookstores and Libraries........................................................................144 Bookstores in Korea..........................................................................144 Libraries in Korea..............................................................................145 Korean Language Lessons......................................................................147 Courses..............................................................................................147 Korean Language Providers..............................................................147 Chapter 6: Knowing Your Rights..............................................................154 Legal Problems.......................................................................................154 Overview...........................................................................................154 Traffic Violations...............................................................................154 Non Traffic-related Criminal Charges...............................................154 Civil Action (Lawsuits).....................................................................156 Employer/Employee Disputes...........................................................156 Korean Criminal Law and You...............................................................156 Differences between Korean and Western Criminal Justice Systems ...........................................................................................................158 Legal Procedures...............................................................................161 Selections from the Immigration Control Act.........................................173 Important Articles for Instructors......................................................173 Pay and Deductions.................................................................................175 Taxes..................................................................................................175 Pension and Severance Pay ..............................................................178 Health Insurance................................................................................181 What to Do if You Suspect Withholding Fraud.................................182 Seeking Legal Support............................................................................182 Employment......................................................................................182 Criminal/Civil....................................................................................182 Chapter 7: Travel Inside and Outside of Korea.......................................183 Korean Immigration................................................................................183 Important Introductory Notes............................................................183 Immigration Contact Center..............................................................183 Services.............................................................................................184 Single Re-entry Permit......................................................................187 Multiple Re-entry Permit..................................................................187 Immigration Offices Nationwide.......................................................188 Foreign Embassies..................................................................................191 Australia............................................................................................191 Canada...............................................................................................191 Ireland ...............................................................................................191 New Zealand.....................................................................................192 South Africa.......................................................................................192 United Kingdom................................................................................192

United States of America...................................................................193 Public Transportation..............................................................................194 Intra-City Travel/Commuting............................................................194 Cross-Country (Intercity) Travel.......................................................228 Air and Sea Travel.............................................................................231 Appendices..................................................................................................239 Appendix 1: Survival Phrases for Living and Working in Korea...........239 The Basics.........................................................................................239 Numbers, Counting, and Dates.........................................................240 Emergency Situations........................................................................244 Getting Around..................................................................................246 Consumer Transactions.....................................................................248 On the Phone.....................................................................................262 Expressing Feelings...........................................................................264 Appendix 2: Korean Foods and their Approximate Nutritional Values. .269 Rice Dishes........................................................................................269 Rice Cakes (Ddeok)..........................................................................270 Kimchi...............................................................................................271 Soups.................................................................................................272 Stews.................................................................................................276 Vegetable Dishes...............................................................................278 Greens (Namul).................................................................................279 Tofu (Dubu) Dishes...........................................................................280 Noodles..............................................................................................280 Meat Dishes.......................................................................................281 Korean Barbecue...............................................................................282 Fish and Seafood Dishes...................................................................283 Side Dishes........................................................................................284 Vinegared Sides (Muchim)................................................................286 Dumplings (Mandu)..........................................................................287 Snacks................................................................................................288 Sweets................................................................................................289 Sauces and Condiments.....................................................................290 Beverages..........................................................................................291 Korean-Chinese Dishes.....................................................................292 Appendix 3: Sample Lesson Plan, with All Required Materials............293 Introductory Information...................................................................293 Lesson................................................................................................294 Guided Practice.................................................................................336 Independent Activity.........................................................................341 Feedback............................................................................................345 Closure..............................................................................................347

INTRODUCTION
Living and working in a foreign country where one doesn't speak the native tongue presents significant challenges. How does one access services? For that matter, what services are available, and how do they compare and contrast with services in one's country of origin? What does one need to know in order to minimize potential conflicts in a workplace with a substantially different set of expectations and social mores? What does one who has never taught before need to know before they step into an English classroom as a teacher for the first time? The questions are both substantial and without end. This book is designed to help provide answers to some of these questions, and to report good, accurate information from reliable sources. Much of the information in this guide is scattered across the Internet on websites that cannot verify the truthfulness of statements contained therein. Other information is available only in Korean, and has been translated and presented in this guide. Still other information is original work written specifically for inclusion in this book. We hope this guide makes expatriate life a little more convenient, a little less perplexing, and generally better. There is something in it for everyone. Chapter One provides social, political, economic, cultural, and historical facts about Korea, to give you a sense of Korea's present situation, and how it has arrived at it. It also presents some information on Korea's spoken and written language. Chapter Two explains the Korean education system,

beginning with a broad history of education in Korea, a more specific look at the history of English education, and then a detailed profile of the current Korean education framework. Chapter Three covers the visa system for English teachers (and some others) in Korea and provides a description of different types of jobs for English teachers. Finally, an article is presented which provides information on how to find a job, including what to look for, what to watch out for, and what particulars you need to know before signing a contract. Chapter Four details things one needs to be aware of when interacting with Koreans (both students and coworkers) in a work setting. Cultural and communicative differences are explained. There is an article on working with a co-teacher which may be of particular interest to public school teachers. There are resources for those seeking information on how to actually teach, including lesson planning, activity preparation, and classroom management. Chapter Five introduces a variety of goods, services, and activities essential to (or convenient for) daily living. The health care system is covered in greater detail than most other guides (I interviewed a Korean doctor for part of it). Transportation is covered in depth as well. Chapter Six attempts to explain everything a foreign resident of Korea needs to know to understand their rights as residents, as workers, and as immigrants (whether temporary or otherwise). Criminal and traffic law are covered in some detail, and civil law is touched upon as well. Labor standards are also outlined.

Chapter Seven covers travel, detailing immigration permits and procedures. It also provides information on airports and airfields around Korea, and foreign embassies. Finally, the appendices provide additional information of use: an extensive list of “survival phrases” written in English and Korean is available; a great number of Korean foods are listed, along with their macronutrient compositions; and a detailed lesson plan is presented. This guide is a work in progress, with the first edition is a starting point. Future editions will expand upon the information presented herein, and provide new information as well. I and the other authors hope that some of what we've written is of use to you. --Tony Hellmann, Editor of the First Edition

The Association for Teachers of English in Korea provides the following services to the general public, members and nonmembers alike:
• • • •
Monitoring of proposed legislation and regulations which may affect noncitizen English teachers in Korea. Translation of proposed and existing legislation and regulations (domestic and international) and analysis of their possible effects on non-citizen English teachers in Korea. Advocacy for English teacher concerns at the national and local levels. The English Teacher's Guide to Korea, which will be made available in PDF for free download from our website (http://atek.or.kr).

ATEK provides the following benefits and services to members:
• • • • Full access to ATEK's Employer Rating System, to make and review ratings. Access to the member forums. Access to professional development and lesson planning materials. Information on how to check to see if your employer is correctly reporting your income, paying your taxes and making proper deductions from your pay. Copies of labor, tax, pension, and health insurance complaint forms, translated into Korean, and instructions about how to go about filing a complaint. Local social networks (the Provincial and Metropolitan Associations that send reps to our national council). Access to data from the ATEK Member Survey, which enables ATEK to track average salaries and weekly hours by region and type of teaching job, average level of satisfaction with various job types, average length of stay of foreigners working in Korea, average pay and benefit increases when resigning for a second year, and much more. Want to know if your contract offer is above or below the average salary for someone in your city and education level? Get access. Advisories to the government based on ATEK Member Survey information on non-citizen English teacher's problems and needs (does one particular city have a higher rate of teachers reporting pay withholding fraud? That city's government might want to know that.) An online application that translates letters home to parents into Korean, so that you can communicate with parents and let them know how their child is doing. Representation of member concerns to relevant government agencies and other groups. Responses to media items of interest to non-citizen English teachers.

• •

• •

All these resources are available on our website at http://atek.or.kr

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
Living, Working, and Thriving in Korea Sparkling

By Tony Hellmann, M.Ed. Tom Rainey-Smith Jason Thomas, M.App.Ling. Matthew Henderson

ATEK

Press

This book was designed and laid out entirely with open source software. Individual sections copyright © 2009 by the respective authors, all rights reserved, except as licensed below. Used by permission. Published by ATEK Press, a division of the Association for Teachers of English in Korea. Design and composition by Tony Hellmann. Copyedited by Jason Thomas
Cover: Art by Jeffrey Morabito. www.jeffreymorabito.com. Photo by Trey Ratcliff, www.stuckincustoms.com

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works License 저작자표시-비영리-변경금지 2.0 대한민국
이용자는 아래의 조건을 따르는 경우에 한하여 자유롭게 : 이 저작물을 복제, 배포, 전송, 전시, 공연 및 방송할 수 있습 니다. 다음과 같은 조건을 따라야 합니다 : 저작자표시. 귀하는 원저작자 를 표시하여야 합니다.

You are free:
to Share – to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work. Under the following conditions: Attribution. You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). Noncommercial. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. No Derivative Works. You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work.

비영리. 귀하는 이 저작물을 영 리 목적으로 이용할 수 없습니 다. 변경금지. 귀하는 이 저작물을 개작, 변형 또는 가공할 수 없 습니다.

 

귀하는, 이 저작물의 재이용이나 배포의 경우, 이 저작물에 적용된 이용허락조건 을 명확하게 나타내어야 합니다. 저작권자로부터 별도의 허가를 받으면 이러한 조건들은 적용되지 않습니다.

For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. The best way to do this is with a link to this web page. Any of the above conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder.

Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and authors have used their best
efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor the authors shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.

This book is published in both print and electronic formats. Printed in the Republic of Korea 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

CHAPTER 1: KOREA, PAST AND PRESENT
REPUBLIC OF KOREA COUNTRY PROFILE
• • • • • • • Capital City: Seoul (10.1 million). Population: 48.46 million (2007). Language: Korean (Written form: Hangul). Currency: Won (notes issued in denominations of 1,000, 5,000, and 10,000 (with a 50,000 won note to be issued in 2009). Foreign residents: 1.1 million. Tourism: 6,155,000 visitors (2005). National flag: Taegukgi (the circle symbolizes the harmony of yin (blue) and yang (red) and the four trigrams represent heaven, earth, fire and water). National flower: Mugunghwa (Rose of Sharon, blooms July through October). Territory: 99,678km2 (South Korea only, which takes up 45% of the Korean peninsula and is roughly the same size as Portugal, Hungary or Iceland). 75% of the territory of Korea is mountainous and 17,000km is formed by coastline. Highest mountain: Halla Mountain (1950m). Longest rivers: Nakdong River (521.5km), Han River (481.7km). Major cities: Seoul (10.1 million), Busan (3.5 million), Incheon (2.6 million), Daegu (2.5 million), Daejeon (1.5 million), Gwangju (1.4 million), Ulsan (1.1 million). Climate: Temperate with four distinct seasons. Spring and fall are typically short and dry due to a migratory anticyclone weather pattern, summer is hot and humid (50-60% of the total rainfall happens during summer), and winter is cold and dry with snowfall. Average temperature of hottest month

• •

• • •

(August): 23 – 26 degrees centigrade. Temperature during coldest month (January): -6 – -7 degrees centigrade. • Religion: According to a 2005 census, half the population actively engages in religious practices. Buddhism (43.0%), Protestantism (34.5%) and Catholicism (20.6%) are the three most popular religions. Political System: Representative democracy with president elected to a single 5-year term by direct popular vote. Division of power among the executive, legislature (unicameral National Assembly) and judiciary. President: Lee Myung-bak (2008). Suffrage: Universal at 19 years of age. Elections Presidential: every 5 years. National Assembly: every 4 years. Local Councils: every 4 years.

• • •

SOURCES
Facts and Figures, Koreanet: The official website of the Republic of Korea, http://www.korea.net/ (Retrieved 2/12/08) Explore Korea Through Statistics 2007, Korea National Statistical Office, http://www.nso.go.kr/eng2006/emain/2007_explorekorea_e/co ntent/print.pdf (Retrieved 2/12/08)

DEMOGRAPHICS
The World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Western Pacific (2006) reports: The population of the Republic of Korea as of 2006 was 48 297 184, with a density of 485 persons per square kilometer. Fast population growth was once a serious social problem in the Republic, as in most other developing nations. Due to successful family planning campaigns and changing attitudes, however, population growth has been curbed remarkably in re-

cent years. The country saw its population grow by an annual rate of 3% during the 1960s, but growth slowed to 2% over the next decade. In 2006, the rate stood at 0.33% and is expected to further decline to 0.01% by 2020. A notable trend in the population structure is that it is getting increasingly older. The 2006 population estimate revealed that 9.5% of the total population was 65 years old or over, while the number of people in the 15-64 age group accounted for 71.9%. In the 1960s, population distribution formed a pyramid shape, with a high birth rate and relatively short life expectancy. However, age-group distribution is now shaped more like a bell because of the low birth rate and extended life expectancy. Youths (15 and younger) will make up a decreasing portion of the total, while senior citizens (65 and older) will account for some 15.7% of the total by 2020.

SOCIO-ECONOMIC SITUATION
The Republic of Korea was once of the world's poorest agrarian societies. In less than forty years, it has dramatically transformed the economy. An outward-oriented economic development strategy, which used exports as the engine of growth, contributed greatly to the radical economic transformation. This is shown through the per capita Gross National Income (GNI): in 1962 the average worker made US$ 87 a year, while in 2005 the average worker made about US$ 16,291. This amount of success is impressive, considering many other countries with per capita GNI's similar to South Korea's in 1962 have been unable to make these kinds of gains. The World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Western Pacific (2006) notes that: The Republic of Korea has developed rapidly since the 1960s, fueled by high savings and investment rates and a strong emphasis on education. The nation became the 29th member country of the Organization

for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 1996. With a history as one of the fastest growing economies in the world, the Republic of Korea is working to become the focal point of a powerful Asian economic bloc during the 21st century. The Northeast Asian region commands a superior pool of essential resources that are the necessary ingredients for economic development. These include a population of 1.5 billion people, abundant natural resources and large-scale consumer markets.

KOREAN HISTORY AT A GLANCE
Archaeological findings indicate that the Korean Peninsula was occupied by humans as early in the Lower Paleolithic period. Korea began with the founding of Joseon (The name Gojoseon is almost always used for this kingdom to prevent confusion with the Joseon dynasty founded in 14th century; the prefix Go- means 'old' or 'ancient') in 2333 BC by Dangun, the mythical first King. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled much of the northern Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria. After numerous wars with the Chinese Han Dynasty, Gojoseon disintegrated, leading to the Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea period. In the early centuries of the Common Era, Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye, and the Samhan confederacy occupied the peninsula and southern Manchuria. Of the various small states, Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla grew to control the peninsula as the Three Kingdoms. The unification of the Three Kingdoms by Silla in 676 led to the North-South States period, in which the much of the Korean peninsula was controlled by Unified Silla, while Balhae succeeded the northern parts of Goguryeo. In Unified Silla, poetry and art was encouraged, and Buddhist culture flourished. Relationships between Korea and China remained relatively peaceful during this time. However, Unified Silla weakened under internal strife, and surrendered to Goryeo in 935. Balhae, Silla's neighbor to the north, was formed as a successor state to Goguryeo. During its height, Balhae controlled most of Manchuria and parts of Russia. It fell to the Khitan Empire in 926.

After the North-South Period, successor states fought for control during the Later Three Kingdoms period. The peninsula was soon united by Wang Geon of Goryeo. Like Silla, Goryeo was a highly cultural state and created the Jikji in 1377, a book made using the world's oldest movable metal type. The Mongol invasions in the 13th century greatly weakened Goryeo. However, Goryeo continued to rule Korea as a tributary ally to the Mongols. After the fall of the Mongolian Empire (Yuan Dynasty), Goryeo continued its rule independently. After severe political strife and continued invasions, Goryeo was replaced by the Joseon Dynasty in 1388 following a rebellion by General Yi Seong-gye. General Yi declared the new name of Korea as Joseon in reference to Gojoseon, and moved the capital to Seoul. The first 200 years of the Joseon Dynasty was marked by relative peace and saw the creation of Hangul by King Sejong the Great in the 14 century and the rise and influence of Confucianism. In the latter of the 16th century, Joseon was invaded by a newly unified Japan. During the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592– 1598), centuries of peace had left the dynasty unprepared, and the lack of technology and poor leadership from the Joseon government and generals led to the destruction of much of the Korean peninsula. However, continued Korean dominance at sea led by Admiral Yi Sunsin, the rise of local militias, and the intervention of Ming China put Japan under great pressure to retreat in 1598. Today, Admiral Yi is celebrated as one of Korea's foremost heroes and his turtle ships, used with great success against the Japanese, are considered the world's first ironclad warships, although lack of hard evidence of iron plating sparks much debate. During the last years of the Joseon Dynasty, Korea's isolationist policy earned it the name the "Hermit Kingdom," primarily for protection against Western imperialism. In 1897, King Gojong proclaimed Korea an empire, to reflect that it was no longer under the protection of the Chinese Qing Dynasty. He oversaw the partially successful modernization of the military, economy, real property laws, education system, and various industries, until the Empire of Korea was annexed by Japan in 1910, beginning a 35-year period of Japanese rule.

After Japan's defeat in World War II the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to temporarily occupy the country, with the Soviet Union in the North, and the United States in the South. The purpose of this occupation was to establish a Korean provisional government which would eventually become independent. Though elections were scheduled, the two superpowers backed different leaders and two states were effectively established, each of which claimed sovereignty over the whole Korean peninsula. The Korean War (1950-1953) left the two Koreas separated by the DMZ, remaining technically at war through the Cold War to the present day. North Korea is a communist state, often described as Stalinist and isolationist. Its economy collapsed in the 1990s. South Korea went through a succession of dictators (until 1988) and eventually became a capitalist liberal democracy. It is now one of the largest economies in the world.

KOREAN CULTURE
Korea has a very diverse and distinct culture. It is important to familiarize yourself with the customs, belief systems, and values so that you can better understand the culture and find your own place within it. Korea has a long history of isolation and defending itself from would-be foreign occupiers and is a relatively homogeneous society, both ethnically and culturally. It is also important to remember that democracy, which was fought long and hard for through the years of Japanese occupation and subsequent military dictatorships, is relatively new (Korea's first democratic election was in 1988) and highly cherished. Multiculturalism is a relatively new concept, but the growing number of foreign spouses and foreign workers is having a large impact. While Korea holds on to the many aspects of its traditional culture, younger generations have grown up in a very different society and are more receptive to social change. While Korea has undergone huge progress since the days of military dictatorship, there are many taboos that can prove exclusionary to different subsets of the population. Gay men and lesbians are not well-accepted, but there is a strong community that is gaining acceptance. The role of women

has also markedly improved, but there is still much room for improvement. Korean culture places much importance on formality and hierarchy and this is reflected in the language with the careful use of register when addressing people of different social status or age and in body language; older people and those of higher social status are more respected and spoken to in honorific language reflective of their comparative rank. Because of the importance of formality, it is important to identify where a person fits in the social spectrum and what age they are in order to address them correctly. Therefore it is usual for people to inquire about your age and background when first getting to know you. Taking the time to understand Korean culture will help your time spent here be much more enjoyable and rewarding. For a deeper understanding of communicative differences between Koreans and Westerners, see the sub chapter entitled Communicating with Students, Coworkers, and Others on page Error: Reference source not found of this book.

DIET
Koreans were an agricultural people long before their modern industrious nature was brought forth, and many Korean dishes are as distinctive as is wider Korean culture. Much of the food enjoyed in Korea today has stood the test of time and can be traced back to far-off origins which were in turn informed by Korea’s distinct seasons, geography and cultural practices. Dining is also an integral part of the culture as a whole, and the collective experience of sharing food is a wonderful and informative experience for those new to the country. The Korean diet consists largely of rice, meat and pickled vegetables. There are a multitude of flavors and spices used in Korean cooking and you are sure to find a favorite dish somewhere amongst them. Red chili is an essential ingredient in many dishes and it may take some time for your palette to become accustomed to the heat. That said, there are many non-spicy dishes to whet your appetite.

THE EXPERIENCE OF DINING
Experiencing modern Korean cuisine can be described in the following ways: many foods have regional differences and long histories stemming from food prepared for the common people, that reserved for nobility, or that traditionally served only to royalty; side dishes are an essential component of Korean cuisine; dining itself is a communal experience and dining etiquette is based on Confucian culture; meals are eaten sitting around a low shared table on the floor; grains such as rice are commonly included in and as an accompaniment to many dishes; vegetarian dishes are somewhat rare as meat and seafood are used as stock and key ingredients in most dishes; and spices, seasoning, strong flavors and distinctive aromas are key characteristics. The most famous food is kimchi. The most common variety is made from pickled cabbage and red chili sauce, but many kinds of vegetables can be used to make kimchi. Most sauces are made using seafood. Other popular dishes include bibimbap, a rice-based dish served with vegetables, a fried egg and red chili paste (it can be made with or without meat), bulgogi (Korean barbecue), and galbi (ribs). One of the most popular dishes is a food adapted from the Chinese called jajangmyeon. Its chief ingredients are black bean sauce and noodles. Korean food is served with a multitude of side dishes (usually including kimchi and pickled radish). These dishes are shared by all and are replenished for free at restaurants. Much food is thrown out after meals as it is often nearly impossible to finish everything available!

VEGETARIAN LIFE IN KOREA
It is important to start with the basics: Korea is by no means an easy place for a vegetarian to live. The reality is that it can feel like an almost daily struggle to keep meat in some form or another out of your diet. The concept is not easily translated or understood, and it is important to learn some basic expressions to explain your dietary requirements or choices. That said, with a little knowledge and by following some basic advice, living as a vegetarian or vegan in Korea is totally achievable and, with a few adjustments, should not impact your decision on whether to come to Korea negatively. This author is

vegetarian and has many friends who successfully live as vegetarians here also. There will undoubtedly be frustrations at first, but these can easily be incorporated into the experience of cultural adjustment that everyone must go through – and that doesn’t include changing your diet!

HOW TO ORDER VEGETARIAN FOOD
There is a range of vegetarian dishes available in Korea (see Food in Korea for a sample), but there are also many ways that fish or meat byproducts can be added to food without your knowledge. As the concept of vegetarianism is not well understood in Korea, it is important to specify exactly what you can and cannot eat. The best way to avoid having any unwanted traces of fish or meat in your meal is to explain that you are allergic to all meats and/or other food items that you do not eat. It may feel dishonest at first, but it is simply the safest and best way to ensure that no such food enters you diet. Some common meals that can be prepared vegetarian include kimbap, bibimbap, jjolmyeon, bibimguksu, doenjang-jjigae, and sundubujjigae.

WHERE TO EAT VEGETARIAN
Many Korean Buddhists have adopted a vegetarian diet and therefore Buddhist restaurants often offer a good selection of vegetarian and vegan food. There are also many buffet restaurants that offer a wide variety of fresh vegetables and cooked grains. While there are many various vegetarian restaurants and food retailers around the country, the best and biggest range is in Seoul due to its size. You can visit the following websites for more information and links: http://www.vege.or.kr/ (Hangul only). http://seoulveggieclub.wordpress.com http://english.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/FO/FO_EN_6_6.jsp http://animalrightskorea.org/vegetarianism/vegetarianism-inkorea.html

TIPS FOR SURVIVAL
• •

Cook at home more often Follow recipes for Korean dishes and substitute tofu for meat

• • • •

Familiarize yourself with side dishes as many of these are vegetarian Find a local vegetarian community and become a part of it Be very specific when ordering food Be tolerant and be prepared to explain that you need an order to be made again from scratch when dining out

The Seoul Metropolitan government has a great Seoul restaurant guide online at http://www.visitseoul.net/jsp/english_new/food/food_main.jsp. See Appendix Two: Korean Foods and their Nutritional Values on page Error: Reference source not found for a list of many Korean foods and their descriptions.

CLIMATE AND GEOGRAPHY
Korea becomes hot and humid in the summer and is cold and dry in the winter. The four seasons each bring their own conditions with spring and autumn (fall) typically being shorter than the longer summer and winter months. Temperatures vary around the country, and while summer brings the monsoon rains which often lead to flooding in the southern regions, winter brings snowfall down to sea level. Yellow dust blows in from China to the north in the spring and can make breathing somewhat unpleasant. Air pollution in the northern, highly-populated cities can also be hazardous, particularly around Incheon and Seoul. Surrounded by sea, the peninsula is bordered to the north by North Korea (itself bordered to the north by China and Russia) with the West Sea (Yellow Sea) to the west and the East Sea (Sea of Japan) to the east. Most of the country is covered with mountainous terrain, and thus hiking is a favorite pastime for people of all ages.

CALENDAR HOLIDAYS
Date Jan 1 1st day of the 1st lunar month March 1 8th day of the 4th lunar month May 5 June 6 August 15 15th day of the 8th lunar month October 3 December 25 Celebration Name New Year’s Day – Sinjeong 신정 Lunar New Year’s Day – Seollal 설날 Days off* 1 3

Independence (Declaration) Day – Samiljeol 3-1-절 Buddha’s Birthday – Seokgatansinil 석가탄신일 Children’s Day – Eorininal 어린이날 Memorial Day – Hyeonchung-il 현충일 Liberation Day – Gwangbokjeol 광복절 Literally means “restoration of light” Korean Thanksgiving – Chuseok 추석

1 1

1 1 1 3

National Foundation Day – Gaecheonjeol 개천절 Christmas – Gidoktansinil 기독탄신일

1 1

* Some holidays may fall on the weekend, in which case the number of actual working days off will be reduced. For example, if Seollal falls on a Sunday, the three days of festivities will be Saturday, Sunday and Monday, so you will only have one day off work.

OTHER CALENDAR CELEBRATIONS (NOT HOLIDAYS)
Date July 17 October 1 October 9 Celebration Name Constitution Day – Jeheonjeol 제헌절 Armed Forces Day – Gukgunuinal 국군의 Hangul Day – Hangeullal 한글날

A FEW NOTES ON THE KOREAN LANGUAGE
While some scholars have tried to identify a connection between Korean and Japanese, the Korean language is more often placed in the Altaic language family alongside Turkic, Mongolic and TungusManchu languages. Chinese characters (hanja) were used to represent the language up until the mid-15th century when a native system was introduced by the monarch King Sejong. While Korean is perhaps limited in its use as it is not widely spoken outside of the country, 1 it is very useful to learn some basic expressions and survival language during your time spent here. It is also an important part of getting to know and understand the culture. There are many academies, universities, and community and government programs set up to teach the language to foreigners inside Korea. See Appendix One: Survival Phrases for Living and Working in Korea for phrases one may find useful.

ROMANIZATION OF KOREAN
George M. McCune was a doctoral student at the University of California-Berkeley who was born in Korea and was a lifelong Korea scholar. In 1937, Edwin O. Reischauer was on his way to China to collect information for a paper he was writing in Japan. He stopped in Korea and was then forced by political events in China to stay in Korea for a couple of months. During this period McCune and Reischauer began development of a Romanization system with Korean linguists. Development continued after Reischauer left, until
1 At least 71 million people (roughly the population of North and South Korea when combined) speak the Korean language, including in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Japan, the United States of America, the Philippines, and Russia (including those states formerly part of the Soviet Union). In China, Korean is widely spoken in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and is also widely spoken inside the large Korean communities throughout the United States and Canada. It is currently the 16th most commonly spoken language in the world.

the McCune-Reischauer system was published in 1939, in that year’s Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society. The McCune-Reischauer system, as it was called, became the most common system in use outside Korea. In Korea, however, debates raged and various systems were adopted by the government at different times, some similar to the McCune-Reischauer system, and others not, thereby causing much confusion. In 2000, the government adopted Revised Romanization, which is the system in use in this book. It is incrementally replacing the McCune-Reischauer system over time. The reason one sometimes see cities like Daegu and Busan written as Taegu and Pusan, is because the latter is their correct spelling in the McCune-Reischauer system. If you see Romanized Korean with apostrophes or diacritic marks over the vowels, chances are good it is McCune-Reischauer. At the time of printing of this book, almost all major traffic signs are written in the government's Revised Romanization, as well as all materials printed by the government after 2000. As the McCune-Reischauer system is becoming increasingly obsolete over time, we don't recommend you learn it, unless you specifically wish to read a book written in it.

ORIGINS OF HANGUL
The indigenous Korean alphabet Hangul2 was commissioned in 1443 by King Sejong the Great and developed in order to increase literacy in the Joseon kingdom. Promulgated in 1446, Hangul is based on phonological and metaphysical representations (Yin/Yang and heaven, earth and man).3 Its symbols represent the position of the mouth and tongue when they produce the corresponding sounds that make up the language. It was originally made up of 28 graphemes (17 consonants and 11 vowels), or letters, but in its modern form consists of 10 vowels and 14 consonants which are combined to form syllabic sets. Originally called Hunminjeonguem, meaning ``proper sounds to instruct the people," the modern word Hangul, literally meaning “Korean language,” was first used in the 1910s.

2 3

Under Revised Romanization, Hangul is properly spelled Hangeul. However, it is considered a word in the English language and in English the conventional spelling is as it appears in this book. Baxter, David, “The Korean Language,” Korean Through English, Ed. Lee Sang-Oak et al., Seoul: Hollym, 1993, pp. 113-27.

As the Korean language developed, so did discrepancies between the spoken and written forms of the language; some words could not be fully expressed using the writing system adopted from Chinese characters (hanja) (this problem is known as eonmunichi).4 Thus the need for a new writing system arose and was identified by King Sejong. According to the introduction of the Hunmin-Jeongeum (A Book on Explanations and Illustrations of the Korean Alphabet), in his own words, Sejong developed Hangul for the following reasons: 1) to develop national5 identity through an indigenous writing system; 2) create a written language that would be accessible to all; and 3) to make the learning of foreign languages easier.6 Despite these honorable intentions, hanja remained the preferred script of scholars and the upper classes, while Hangul remained the preserve of women and the uneducated. In fact, its development and dissemination faced strong opposition from the elite and it was the subject of protest by Confucian scholars from as early as 1444. Its use was banned outright in 1504, but revived again in 1527.7 It was not until the early 20th century that it achieved predominance in all spheres of written Korean. While many scholars believe that King Sejong developed Hangul single-handedly, there is a lack of evidence to either confirm or deny this claim fully.8 Either way, his legacy is a source of much pride to Koreans and will likely remain so for many years to come.

KOREAN LANGUAGE TODAY
While the Japanese added a further barrier to its continuation by attempting to entirely replace Korean with Japanese in the late 1930s, Hangul has survived with its reputation intact. While its importance
4 5 6 7 8 Lee, Ki-Moon, “Hangul in the Perspective of Modern Times,” National Institute of the Korean Language, Jan 2008, retrieved 19 Feb 2009, <http://www.korean.go.kr/eng_hangeul/short/003.html> “Nation” is perhaps too modern a term to be used here and more likely refers to an identity for the Joseon Kingdom and its inhabitants linking back to their recorded history. National Institute of the Korean Language, “Short Writings on Hangeul,” National Institute of the Korean Language website, Dec 1996, retrieved 19 Feb 2009, <http://www.korean.go.kr/eng_hangeul/short/001.html> National Institute of the Korean Language, “Chronology of Hangul,” National Institute of the Korean Language website, retrieved 19 Feb 2009, <http://www.korean.go.kr/eng_hangeul/supply/pop04.html> King Sejong carried out much of his work in secret and employed his princes to work on this problem of trying to develop the Hangul alphabet (Hunmin-Jeongeum), but it was only his second daughter, Princess Chongoi, who was able to come up with a satisfactory solution. According to Lee (see above reference), he rewarded her with hundreds of slave families.

as a written language had been understood by scholars in China and Japan for hundreds of years, the earliest Western grammars and dictionaries were not written until the late 19th Century, corresponding to lack of contact with outside nations prior to this period. In fact it was not really until the 1960s that the international community began to recognize the ingenuity of the written Korean language and accord it praise.9 More recently, UNESCO developed the King Sejong Prize for Literacy in cooperation with the South Korean government in 1989. This prize is awarded to governmental agencies and non-governmental organizations that fight illiteracy, especially through the promotion of indigenous languages in developing countries.10 Modern Korean has continued to evolve, with the adoption of many foreign language words, most noticeably those borrowed from English. This is likely to increase as the role of English becomes more important inside Korea. Hanja still persists in academic writing and in newspapers and is also likely to remain a feature of the language for many years.11 Korea celebrates its indigenous language every year on October 9, known as Hangul Day.

MAJOR DIFFERENCES BETWEEN KOREAN AND ENGLISH
SPEECH LEVELS
The Korean language has a more developed system of register or speech levels than any other language in the world. This means that it is considered extremely important to take into account the age, gender and social position of the person you are speaking to and to vary your speech accordingly. There are up to 7 different speech levels used in the language, and these are formed using different final verb endings. While these can be understood in two main categories, 1) Formal Speech and 2) Informal Speech, the range of levels means that these can also be broken down into the subcategories of 1) Formal-High,
9 10 Kang, Chang-Seok, “Making Principals of Hangul and its Graphic Shapes,” National Institute of the Korean Language website, Dec 1996, retrieved 19 Feb 2009, <http://www.korean.go.kr/eng_hangeul/short/004.html> United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, “UNESCO King Sejong Literacy Prizes Supporting Literacy in Multilingual Contexts,” UNESCO website, retrieved 23 Nov 2008 <http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.phpURL_ID=53673&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html> Hanja is a compulsory subject at secondary school level and students of all ages work hard to prepare themselves for the yearly Hanja examination, which can help them to enter better schools.

11

Neutral and Low, and 2) Informal-High and Informal-Low. Some forms persist only in writing. It is common to mix forms of speech in everyday conversation, but when in a formal situation or unsure of one’s place, it is advisable to use the higher forms.12

PERSPECTIVE
As with many different languages, there are words and expressions used in Korean that cannot be translated directly into English (and vice versa). Baxter claims that while English can be viewed as a language of the head, Korean should be viewed as a language of the heart. He illustrates this point by explaining that by utilizing all of the added components that the Korean language has on offer one can describe colors by how they make the viewer feel rather than just as they appear, something absent in English.13 The Korean language might also be viewed as less ego-centric than English, not simply in the fact that from a grammatical perspective the subject is frequently omitted without detriment to meaning, but also in the way certain expressions are framed. An example of this is when you visit someone’s home and it is referred to as “our house” rather than “my house,” or when you are introduced to someone’s wife and she is referred to as “our wife” 14 (not to be taken literally). Cultural perspective informs much of the language. It is interesting to note that when a Korean gestures to indicate their mind, they will usually point to where their heart is located.

12 13 14

Chang, Suk In, Hong Kyung Pyo and Ihm Ho Bin, Korean Grammar for International Learners, New Edition, Seoul: Yonsei University Press, 2001, p. 199 – 212. Baxter, David, The Korean Language, p. 126. This is an interesting observation given that Hangul is often praised for being such a highly rational system. Baxter, p. 127.

The Association for Teachers of English in Korea provides the following services to the general public, members and nonmembers alike:
• • • •
Monitoring of proposed legislation and regulations which may affect noncitizen English teachers in Korea. Translation of proposed and existing legislation and regulations (domestic and international) and analysis of their possible effects on non-citizen English teachers in Korea. Advocacy for English teacher concerns at the national and local levels. The English Teacher's Guide to Korea, which will be made available in PDF for free download from our website (http://atek.or.kr).

ATEK provides the following benefits and services to members:
• • • • Full access to ATEK's Employer Rating System, to make and review ratings. Access to the member forums. Access to professional development and lesson planning materials. Information on how to check to see if your employer is correctly reporting your income, paying your taxes and making proper deductions from your pay. Copies of labor, tax, pension, and health insurance complaint forms, translated into Korean, and instructions about how to go about filing a complaint. Local social networks (the Provincial and Metropolitan Associations that send reps to our national council). Access to data from the ATEK Member Survey, which enables ATEK to track average salaries and weekly hours by region and type of teaching job, average level of satisfaction with various job types, average length of stay of foreigners working in Korea, average pay and benefit increases when resigning for a second year, and much more. Want to know if your contract offer is above or below the average salary for someone in your city and education level? Get access. Advisories to the government based on ATEK Member Survey information on non-citizen English teacher's problems and needs (does one particular city have a higher rate of teachers reporting pay withholding fraud? That city's government might want to know that.) An online application that translates letters home to parents into Korean, so that you can communicate with parents and let them know how their child is doing. Representation of member concerns to relevant government agencies and other groups. Responses to media items of interest to non-citizen English teachers.

• •

• •

All these resources are available on our website at http://atek.or.kr

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
Living, Working, and Thriving in Korea Sparkling

By Tony Hellmann, M.Ed. Tom Rainey-Smith Jason Thomas, M.App.Ling. Matthew Henderson

ATEK

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This book was designed and laid out entirely with open source software. Individual sections copyright © 2009 by the respective authors, all rights reserved, except as licensed below. Used by permission. Published by ATEK Press, a division of the Association for Teachers of English in Korea. Design and composition by Tony Hellmann. Copyedited by Jason Thomas
Cover: Art by Jeffrey Morabito. www.jeffreymorabito.com. Photo by Trey Ratcliff, www.stuckincustoms.com

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CHAPTER 2: UNDERSTANDING THE KOREAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
A BRIEF HISTORY OF EDUCATION AND THE ROLE OF ENGLISH IN KOREA
HISTORICAL EDUCATION
Korea's first national education system originated in 992 with the establishment of 360 government-run provincial schools (hyanggyo) across Korea.1 They served primarily children of the upper class (yangban). Education focused on the national civil service examinations (gwageo). Although such education was in high demand, the hyanggyo were ultimately unable to compete with privately run academies (seowon). The last remaining hyanggyo were officially closed near the end of the Joseon Dynasty in 1894, but many were reopened as public elementary schools in 1900. Seowon were educational institutions of Korea serving upper class pupils during the mid- to late Joseon Dynasty.2 They were private institutions, and combined the functions of a Confucian shrine and a preparatory school. Like the hyanggyo, seowon were primarily focused on preparing students for the national civil service examinations. Most seowon were closed by an edict of the regent Yi Ha-eung (commonly known as Daewongun). He banned the unauthorized construction of seowon in 1864, and finally, in 1871, he ordered all but a handful closed.3 The provincial yangban were outraged by these measures, and this is among the reasons that the regent was driven from power in 1873; however, the seowon remained closed.

1 2 3

Seoul National University Educational Research Institute, 한국교육사 Hanguk Gyoyuksa / History of Korean Education, Seoul: Gyoyukgwahaksa (교육과학사), 1997. Park, Eui-soo (박의수), Kang Seung-kyu (강승규), Jeong Yeong-su (정영수), Kang Seon-bo (강선보), 교육의 역사

와 철학 (Gyoyugui yeoksawa cheolhak, History of education and philosophy), Seoul: Dongmunsa, 2002, p. 70. Lee, Ki-baik (tr. by E.W. Wagner & E.J. Shultz), A New History of Korea (Rev. Ed.), Seoul: Ilchokak, 1984, p. 262.

While hyanggyo and seowon served pupils from the yangban families, education was available for the masses as well. Seodang were private village schools providing elementary education during the Goryo and Joseon dynasties. They were primarily occupied with providing initial training in the Chinese classics to boys of 7-16 years of age, but often served students into their twenties. 4 Not regulated in any fashion, seodang could be freely opened by anyone. Widespread during the Goryeo period, these flourished during Joseon times and were the dynasty's most common educational institution. It has been estimated that 16,000 existed at the end of the Joseon period. The teacher or headmaster of the seodang was called the hunjang. The teaching method emphasized rote learning by reading and memorizing an assigned passage each day; after reading the passage more than 100 times over, students would recite it to the hunjang. In the 20th century, many seodang were modernized and known as "improved seodang" ( 개량 서당), and eventually accredited as primary schools under the Japanese occupation regime.5 This was part of a dramatic expansion of private education in this period; from 1883 to 1908, some 5,000 private schools were established in Korea.6 The first regulations instituted with respect to seodang were passed by the Japanese occupation regime in 1908. Beginning in 1918, regulations on education became much more stringent and repressive; the number of seowon dropped sharply. A small number of seodang operate today in South Korea as private academies providing extracurricular instruction.

20TH CENTURY EDUCATION
During the period of Japanese occupation (1910–1945), the Japanese occupiers strictly controlled the education system. While the numbers of public schools increased during this period, educational opportunities were restrictive and most Koreans were excluded from the benefits. Despite this, national independence leaders continued to educate for future independence. Independence from Japan was followed directly by an American military occupation in the south. The United States occupation established a US-style education system
4 5 6 Park, et. al., p. 72. Lee, p. 368. Park, et. al., p. 105.

consisting of six years of primary school, six years of secondary school, and four years of higher education. This system persists in its modernized form today. Accompanying the staggering rate of economic and industrial growth in Korea in the last 30 years, the development of education is, in many ways, just as remarkable. Illiteracy, which was widespread following the Japanese colonial period, was steadily eliminated through the years of industrialization. Today Korea has nearly 100% literacy. In fact, since 1948 South Korea has achieved more in terms of measurable educational achievement than any other country of comparable GDP.7 A recent report released by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development8 asks the question, “Will the expansion of tertiary education continue at this rapid pace, driven by an ever-rising demand for the highly skilled?” This question has no better respondent than Korea. According to this same report, 97% of people aged 25 to 34 now finish an upper secondary education, placing Korea in first place amongst OECD nations. 53% of people from this same cohort complete a tertiary level of education, which means that attainment levels have increased five fold in a 30-year period. Despite the huge emphasis on educational achievement, which has been accompanied by increasing rates of tertiary enrollment, it is interesting to note that educational attainment does not translate directly into increased benefits in future employment as employment rates are lower among higher educated people in Korea, but higher among the lower educated, when compared to other OECD countries.

ENGLISH EDUCATION FROM BEGINNING TO PRESENT
ORIGINS
Contact with the English language was minimal prior to the opening of the first English language school near the end of the Joseon Dynasty. Early Korean contact with western culture per se had come about in the most part as a consequence of missionary, commercial and diplomatic endeavors. More importantly, Korean contact with
7 8 Seth, Michael, “Letter to the Editor,” Korea Times Online, Oct 10 2008, retrieved 30 Oct. 2008 <http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2008/01/113_17113.html> Education Directorate of the OECD, “Education at a Glance 2008: OECD Indicators,” OECD website, retrieved 19 Feb 2009 <http://www.oecd.org/document/9/0,3343,en_2649_39263238_41266761_1_1_1_1,00.html>

English speakers had been incidental and had not impacted education in any meaningful way. This changed in 1883 when the Joseon government opened the first English language school, heralding the introduction of English language education to Korea. The signing of the 1882 Korean-American Treaty and the 1883 Korean-Great Britain Treaty were the first formal diplomatic treaties with Western nations, the former allowing the United States to set up a legation in Seoul. At the time the Joseon government expanded its administrative structure to include departments to deal with matters of defense and international diplomacy and trade, and enlisted the help of foreign advisors to these departments. As diplomatic and commercial relations with the United States developed, so did the need for interpreters who could speak the English language. Under Chinese influence, the Joseon Royal Court decided to open the Dongmunhak, or Common Script Learning, in December 1882 and it officially opened its doors in September 1883. Located in what is today Jae-dong, Jongno-gu in Seoul, its mission was to train interpreters within a one-year timeline in order to further economic and diplomatic relations with foreign nations. Historically translators had come from the jungin (“middle people”) class, but the government declared that this school would consider admissions based only on academic ability, regardless of applicants’ class background. The school commenced with a student population of around 40, producing 20 graduates within a few months of opening, but was almost as quickly closed two years later with the introduction of a formal school by the government in 1886. Yugyeong Gongwon (Public Institute of Education), also known as the Royal English School, opened on the 23 rd of September, 1886 and was located in Jeong-dong, Jung-gu, Seoul. Former students of Dongmunhak served as assistants to US instructors. This school was established with cooperation from the United States, a conscious decision made by the Korean government in order to reposition itself away from Chinese influence and instead garner relations with the US – esteemed as a progressive and modern country by Korean elites at the time. This was an institution for the elite; King Gojong ordered male relatives of high ranking public servants working for the Office of Internal Affairs and Foreign Affairs officials to attend the new school in order to learn English to enable them to conduct diplomatic

business in the language. In a very real sense, with the introduction of English as the preferred language of the newly “modernised” Korean elite, English became an avenue for gaining political position. One note-worthy historical figure who attended this school, deeply resented by Koreans today, is Prime Minister Yi Wan-yong who helped draft the treaty that would cede control of Korea to Japan in 1910. Despite Yugyeong instructors being cut from missionary cloth, regulation imposed directly prior to the school opening (on September 12, 1886) forbade the teaching of religion. Religion would have to wait its turn, but it would be a very resilient vessel for the passage of English in education in the years to come. Classes at Yugyeong Gongwon initially focused on elementary English, using English language instruction and texts, and as students gained a better grasp of the language they were to be taught other subjects (including math, natural science, geography, and economics) through English. In May of 1889 the 3-year graduation period was extended to a more comprehensive 7 years. Unfortunately, the school suffered from a low attendance rate from those registered for classes and a high drop out rate. After numerous issues with both students and personnel, the school closed eight years after it opened. Factors contributing to the school's closure include cultural ignorance by both the foreign teachers and the Korean students; an inability of the students—used to a privileged lifestyle—to adjust to rigorous scholarly pursuits; and a misalignment of the students' and teachers' vision of the school's purpose. Students saw it as a way to secure a good government position; teachers saw it as a vehicle for providing a well-rounded liberal arts education. Coinciding with the Gabo Reform (see below), it closed in 1894 and was replaced by the new government-sponsored English Language School, this time with British instructors. The same year the English Language School and the Japanese Language School were merged to become the Foreign Language School. The Chinese Language School was also set up in the same year followed by the French Language School in 1896, and the German Language School in 1898, all merging into the Foreign Language School in the proceeding years. While they had previously been run

from different locations, in 1907 the schools were brought together under one roof, before being closed down permanently in 1911. For whatever reasons the graduation process was difficult to complete and the English language school also bequeathed a low completion rate. The first graduates of the English Language School were not produced until 1903, and with 911 students having entered the school from March 1896 to April 1910, less than 9% successfully completed the program. In 1897 a new joint English language program opened between the Office of Education and Baejae Hakdang (today a prestigious middle and high school). It lasted until 1902 when it lost government backing and the language of instruction changed from English to Korean. Baejae would offer English as a regular subject from 1907. In October 1900 the Government Middle School (today known as Gyeonggi Middle and High School), the most advanced modern educational provider in Korea of its time, opened its doors and included the teaching of English in its curriculum. Around this time, with the influence of the Enlightenment Movement (as it was called), the opening of private schools including those specialising in foreign language education spread rapidly. Many proponents of the movement had received an English education (including Syngman Rhee who had attended Baejae Hakdang in the 1890s). The “Independence Club” had been launched in 1896 and produced a newspaper, the Tongnip (Independent), which alternated its pages with print in both Hangul and English.

ROLE OF MISSIONARIES
As the Yugyeong Gongwon was opening its doors in Seoul, Methodists and Presbyterians were establishing their own schools. There was an important difference between the mission schools and the Yugyeong Gongwon, though: instruction was offered to students regardless of their social class or other status which might alienate them from mainstream Korean society. The poor, orphans, and women could all be educated at mission schools. Methodists set up a school in 1885 (which would come to be known as Baejae Hakdang), followed by Ewha Hakdang (a prestigious women’s university today) in 1886, while Presbyterians established Gyeongsin School in 1886 and

Jeongsin School in 1890. Instruction was in English and focused on the teaching of the bible. Many of these institutions would go on to widely expand their curricula. As the trend of establishing private schools continued, up until the Japanese annexation of 1910, even under increasing government control, missionary schools flourished, numbering 796 in the year of annexation, and provided one of the few remaining channels for English education.

GABO REFORM
Following the Japanese invasion of the Korean peninsula (then known as the Kingdom of Joseon) in 1894, a pro-Japanese government was formed, which began the Gabo Reform. Carried out under external pressure from Russia, Japan and the United States who were contending for influence inside the country, these reforms formally separated Korea from Chinese control and abolished slavery. Appointment to the government became based on merit alone (i.e. children of yangban families no longer received appointments based on their family background). Major reforms were also undertaken in education. In 1894, the government announced the introduction of a modern educational system and agreed upon the establishment of primary schools, middle schools, professional schools, universities, technical schools, foreign language schools, and ordinary schools.

JAPANESE ANNEXATION
In November 1905, Japan declared Korea a protectorate following the Portsmouth Agreement of September 1905, whereby it gained recognition from Russia of its dominance over Korea. So began the government by the residency-general of Korea. The first Japanese Resident-General, Ito Hirobumi, was placed directly under the Korean sovereign; the residency-general began its operation in February 1906. In 1906 many of the regulations that had come about as a result of the Gabo Reform were repealed or replaced and Japanese language was introduced in common schools as a compulsory subject while their curricula were stripped of all other foreign languages. While government-controlled schools lost their ability to run English language courses, private schools flourished. The majority of these offered English language instruction. In 1908 the ordinance for private

schools was promulgated, reducing the amount of control private schools had over their own curricula. In 1909 a revised ordinance was implemented which restricted foreign language school admissions to common school graduates and defined the scope of English language education. 12 hours of English instruction were to be taught in a week, with only one hour dedicated to English speaking skills. The Treaty of Annexation, signed in 1910 by the Japanese General Terauchi Masatake and Korean Prime Minister Yi Wan-yong, formally made Korea a colony of Japan. The Japanese then went about centralizing the Korean education system under the command of the governor-general and splitting it in two: one for Koreans and one for Japanese settlers. Control of education was viewed as an important means of controlling the Korean population and that English education was not encouraged as it played no part in serving this purpose. One of the policies the Japanese government adopted to aid the colonization of Korea was the spread of the Japanese language, and this policy was realized in the curriculum of common schools. In accordance with the ordinance for common schools, Japanese was introduced as a required subject, and other foreign languages were eliminated from the curriculum. While the government-controlled schools deprived their students of English language education, private schools maintained independent management and were unrestricted in their selection of subjects, thus, offering a larger number of cultural subjects, such as English language instruction. By the promulgation of the ordinance for private schools in 1908, however, Japan began to exert its control: the curricula of private schools were subject to Japanese regulation, and a number of private schools established by Korean civilians were forced to close under the pretext that they did not satisfy the requirements stipulated by the ordinance. Mission schools, which received less Japanese interference, maintained English language education. Advances in English education under Japanese rule were closely tied to the prevailing education policies of the Japanese administration, which shifted several times. Initially, Japanese became

a required subject and foreign languages (including English) were eliminated from the curriculum. Mission schools (such as Yeonhi Professional School and Severance Joint Medical Professional School, which merged to become Yonsei University; and Ehwa Hakdang, now Ehwa Women's University) were regulated less strictly and thus made the most substantial contributions to the development of English language education during colonial rule. 1919 was marked by the March First Movement where Koreans took to the streets en masse to protest the Japanese colonial occupation and the brutal suppression of it by Japanese forces. This is turn marked a turning point in colonial policy where regulations were relaxed somewhat, as the Japanese government took a new conciliatory approach and adopted educational reform as its top priority. The government's shift in educational policy brought about a noteworthy improvement in English language education in the next two decades. The government began to allow Koreans to attend English teacher training programs in Japan, but this was a doubleedged sword: while it produced more English teachers in Korea (as they became teachers at government or public schools upon their return to their homeland), their Japanese-influenced pedagogy exerted important, long lasting influence on English language education in Korea. The grammar-translation method of instruction, which requires students to memorize numerous grammatical rules and exceptions as well as enormous vocabulary lists, was given the most attention in class, and thus students were more likely to develop passive language skills (such as reading) rather than active skills such as speaking (Kim, 2008). The last fourteen years of Japanese rule saw Japanese policy changed again, beginning in 1931 when Japan invaded Manchuria and a more militaristic faction came to power in the Japanese government. Kim (2008) notes: In contrast to the lenient “cultural policy”during the previous decade, the new colonial government began an era of harsh rule. Minami Jiro, an expansionist militarist, was appointed as the new governor-general in August 1936 and sought the total assimilation of Koreans. Under the slogan of ``Japan and Korea are One Entity,'' he launched a sweeping campaign to

eradicate the Korean national identity. During the final decade of colonial rule, Japan's primary goal was to fully assimilate Koreans for the purpose of war. In order to meet the increasing need for a labor force that understood the Japanese language, Japanese language education was given an unparalleled emphasis, and the language was forced upon Koreans as their daily means of communication. In 1937, the governor-general ordered all instruction delivered in Japanese and that students not be allowed to speak Korean (either in or outside class). In addition, government-required worship at Shinto shrines emerged as a critical issue: many missionaries viewed Shintoism as idolatry. Mission schools that refused to observe the mandate faced being closed: many did, or were transferred to Japanese or Korean owners.9 In October 1940, the president of the United States ordered the State Department to completely withdraw all American expatriates in Korea. By 1942, all missionaries, along with other Americans in Korea, had been repatriated. The positions and school proprietorships that the American missionaries had maintained were eventually taken over by the Japanese.10 In 1940, Japan began to use Korean students to aid their war effort, dispatching Japanese soldiers to schools who began giving military drills to students. A student-soldier system was instituted in October 1943. Older Korean students were forced into military service while young students were exploited as a labor force. In May of 1943, the entire population of private-school students in Seoul was mobilized for the backbreaking purpose of dredging a reservoir.11 Students in other regions were forced into munitions factories. Consequently, classes were neglected or abandoned. In March 1945, the government announced a suspension of all classes; students were compelled to do more work at munitions factories or for other military purposes. In May 1945, the government announced a wartime educational ordinance that committed education solely for the purpose of the execution of war. The schools
9 10 11 Kim, Eun-gyong, “English Education Under Japanese Rule (V),” Korea Times Online, 10 Aug 2008, retrieved 19 Feb 2009, <http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/include/print.asp?newsIdx=32370> Kim, 2008. Kim, 2008.

were converted into military structures, and all school training was diverted for the purpose of producing food and military supplies. Japan's brutal rule ended with the Allies' victory; Korea was liberated on August 15, 1945. “Many of the drastic measures taken by the colonial government...dealt debilitating blows to the development of English language education, and the educational field therefore suffered a sharp decline during the last decade of Japanese colonial rule.”12

THE SYLLABUS PERIOD UNDER THE U.S. MILITARY ADMINISTRATION (1946-1954)
This transitional period began directly following independence from Japanese imperial rule. Until the first national curriculum appeared, Korean education followed the educational system of the United States. “K-12” education began in this period, with students enrolling for kindergarten followed by up to twelve grades, at which time they graduated high school. As in America at that time, twelve years of schooling was not compulsory. The Basic Education Law was passed in 1949, and provided for the creation of a unified system arranged as 6 years of compulsory free education beginning at age seven, three years of non-compulsory tuition-based middle school, three years of non-compulsory tuition-based high school, and four years of tuitionbased college. The transition from the multilevel secondary education system of the colonial period to a unified 6-3-3 ladder system was completed by 1951. The fact that Americans trained or influenced Korean educators had a strong impact on educational policy-making and administration. The primary goal of this period was to replace the existing imperial education system so as to foster Western-style democracy. English education was greatly expanded during this period and in subsequent periods. The occupation was keen to impose order on the population and institute a government friendly to its interests in the region. This meant in large part repopulating the bureaucracy and police forces with Koreans. When the American forces took effective control of the country, English became the official language of the occupation; after 40 years of Japanese control and increasingly repressive language
12 Kim, 2008.

policies designed to exterminate the Korean national identity, another occupier (albeit considered a much more benevolent one by many Koreans of the era), introduced English as the language of rule. By the time U.S. administration had spread to the provinces, it found that People’s Committees had set up a number of schools in the interregnum that followed the initial withdrawal of Japanese forces. English-speaking Koreans had an obvious advantage if they wanted to become a part of the US-controlled military government as it assumed power from People’s Committees around the country. Command of the English language was an asset at the time that could help you further a career in the new political apparatus that was being built up around the former Japanese colonial one. In December of 1945 the Military English Language School was set up to offer English language training to Korean military officers who would go on to work for the constabulary. Many of those who were chosen to make up the first class of the school would go on to fill the top ranks of the Republic of Korea Army after 1948.

THE FIRST NATIONAL CURRICULUM (1955-1962)
The Korean War (1950-1953) destroyed the national economy. In addition, ideological confusion between democracy and communism existed. The government decided that this called for a strong educational policy. The highest priority of this curriculum was to ideologically “stamp out” communism and train skilled workers.

THE SECOND NATIONAL CURRICULUM (1963-1972)
The second national curriculum (that is, the first national curriculum revision) appeared after a military coup deposed Rhee Syngman in 1960. Sensing a need to solidify its power, the new military administration designed a policy which emphasized the establishment of a national identity, the modernization of the state and the noncommunist unification of the North and the South Korea. These were accepted as educational objectives. A number of important events in the history of modern Korean education happened during this period. In August 1968 the Ministry of Education decided to institute a college entrance examination system to prevent unqualified high school graduates from entering colleges and to restrict the chaotic expansion of private universities and colleges. In 1969, middle school

entrance examinations were abolished, leading to the democratization of middle schools. Prior to 1969, entrance exams allowing only the best students to attend top-ranked middle schools. In The period from 1945–1970 witnessed a dramatic expansion of education and during this time illiteracy was virtually eliminated. As a result, today South Korea boasts one of the highest literacy rates in the world. Among the many problems in Korean education identified at that time were rapid expansion, shortage of available resources, large class sizes, inadequate teacher education programs and relatively low student achievement. Despite the recognition of modern educational thoughts and methods, there were still problems with poor materials and equipment, fragmented rote learning and outdated methods of teaching. The Korean Educational Development Institute (KEDI) was established in August 1972 with the support of the MOE for the purpose of providing a nation-wide approach to a solution. KEDI was established as an independent non-profit organization whose primary function is to undertake comprehensive and systematic educational reforms through a series of research and development programs. It was funded for its first five years with a $7.5 million USAID loan.

THE THIRD NATIONAL CURRICULUM (1973-1981)
The second revision was accompanied by the amendment of the national constitution, which was needed in order to maintain the contemporary military dictator's rule of Korea. It was developed and promulgated by the central government (not KEDI).

THE FOURTH NATIONAL CURRICULUM (1982-1988)
Unlike the former three periods of curricular development, this curriculum was produced by KEDI, and not by the central government. This reflected a public demand for Korea to stop following foreign curriculum models and to produce its own curriculum, which would be more appropriate. Thus, this curriculum contained some fresh ideas. For example, the idea of curriculum integration appeared for the first time in this curriculum document. Private companies could produce textbooks and localization of the curriculum was discussed. The purpose of this curriculum was to establish a well-organized educational program emphasizing national spirit, science and technology education, and education for the whole person.

THE FIFTH NATIONAL CURRICULUM (1989-1994)
The curriculum during this era was not significantly different than the fourth. The new president was a former four-star general. He ordered a ceremonial reform of national curriculum, but wanted to maintain the framework of the fourth-national curriculum, which had been made by his predecessor. The goals of this curriculum were to help educate people, attain subjectivity, autonomy, creativity, and morality.

THE SIXTH NATIONAL CURRICULUM (1995-1999)
In 1993, a new democratic government came to power. This government aimed at the total reformation of the Korean school system. In this period, the metaphor of the corporation appeared in educational discourses for the first time. According to governmental policy, which was characterized by introducing the idea of globalization and free-market system, the epitome of school reforms was focused on strengthening competitive power. Parents and students were treated as consumers. The official objective of this curriculum was to cultivate morality and creativity. The sixth national curriculum was the first to see English instruction required in primary schools (beginning in 1997). Since 1995, native speakers have been hired to teach English in middle schools in an effort to enhance English acquisition and prepare students for the "Age of Globalization."

THE SEVENTH NATIONAL CURRICULUM (2000-PRESENT)
This curriculum was implemented gradually, beginning in 2000. In its development, the Presidential Commission on Education Reform advised that, in preparation for the 21st Century, the development of creativity in elementary school, junior high school and high school children should be given high priority. Responding to the Commission's advice, the number of compulsory subjects was decreased, and the importance of the optional subjects was stressed. Also, the curriculum was diversified according to different achievement levels. Consequently, this curriculum consists of two parts: a national compulsory curriculum for grade 1 to 10 students, and optional courses for students in grade 11 and 12. The national compulsory curriculum is also being organized according to the different levels of difficulty rather than by grade and year. The well-educated Korean citizen promoted by this curriculum is defined as a person who seeks to develop her/his own individuality on the basis of well-rounded and wholesome development; a person who demonstrates creative ability on the basis of a solid grounding in basic knowledge and skills; a person who explores career paths on the basis of broad intellectual knowledge and skills in diverse academic disciplines; a person who creates new values on the basis of understanding the national culture; and a person who contributes to the development of the community where she/he lives, on the basis of democratic citizenship. Today families collectively spend around 3 trillion won on private English education per year – half the total annual amount spent on private education. Koreans students spend over 15,000 hours learning English in the ten year period between middle school and university. With 1.9% of GDP spent on private English instruction and proficiency tests in 2006, English is considered not only an invaluable skill to have in order to get ahead in life, but it is also seen as a necessary one.

ADDITIONAL SOURCES
Cumings, Bruce, The Origins of the Korean War, Vol. 1 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981).

Cumings, Bruce, Korea’s Place in the Sun (New York: W.W. Norton, 2005). Jeon, Hyo-Chan, Making an Efficient Investment into English Education. Samsung Economic Research Institute, 21 Nov. 2006, http://www.seriworld.org/01/wldContV.html? mn=B&mncd=0101&key=20061121000001&sectno= Kim, Eun-gyong, History of English Education in Korea, Parts 1 – 19, serialized at Korea Times Online, www.koreatimes.com. Lee, Yung-dug, Educational Innovation in the Republic of Korea (Paris: UNESCO, 1874). http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0001/000123/012319eo.pdf

THE KOREAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
In South Korea, primary education is compulsory and free. In some rural areas this also applies for the three years of middle school. South Korean students attend school for 220 days a year, the minimum required academic year length for primary, middle and high schools. In 2006 the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development introduced no school every other Saturday and as of 2007 schools follow a five day school week due to the growing acceptance of the forty hour week. In 2008, the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development was merged with the Ministry of Science and Technology to become the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology. As the name of the ministry has changed several times in the last ten years, for the sake of clarity, this ministry will be referred to simply as the Ministry of Education (MOE) in this article, although other versions of the name apply at different points in history. Korea has a single-track 6-3-3-4 system (elementary school, 6 years; middle school, 3 years; high school, 3 years; university, 4 years). In South Korea, a student's grade level designation is reset as the student progresses through elementary, middle and high school. Thus, a student in the first year of middle school (equivalent to 7th

grade in the United States) is referred to as "First grade in middle school (중학교 1 학년)". The academic year consists of two terms. Instructional hours vary from 24 to 34 periods per week depending on the school level. In 2007, there were 19,865 schools in South Korea and of those 5,982 were private. The MOE reported 11,883,628 students and 506,682 teachers.

ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
Elementary school consists of grades one to six, with students entering at age six (western age) and finishing at age twelve. Students learn subjects including, but not limited to, Korean, mathematics, science, social studies, language arts, fine arts, and music. Usually, the class teacher covers most of the subjects; however, there are some specialized teachers in professions such as physical education and foreign languages, including English. About 20 years ago, English used to be taught first in middle school, but now students begin learning English in the third year of elementary school. Many parents choose to send their children to private educational institutions called hagwon (학원) after school (see Supplementary Test Prep Schools on page Error: Reference source not found). More schools in the country are recruiting native English speakers to facilitate learning English. Alongside public elementary schools there are a number of private elementary schools in Korea, usually distinguishable by the uniforms their students wear (public elementary school students do not wear uniforms apart from physical education clothing). These schools follow a similar curriculum as public elementary schools, but often offer superior facilities, a higher teacher-to-student ratio, and extra programs. They also usually offer a higher standard of learning. Though highly desirable, they are prohibitively expensive for many Korean parents. South Korea has the lowest social expenditure on services for young children in the OECD, as a percentage of GDP. Korea spends 6.1% of GDP on care for young children, while the OECD average is 11.2%. Expenditure on pre-primary educational institutions (kindergartens only) as a percentage of GDP is 0.16%. The OECD average is 0.6% of GDP.13
13 Education Directorate of the OECD, Starting Strong II: Early Childhood Education and Care, Paris: OECD, 2006, pp.

Elementary schools are called chodeung-hakgyo (초등학교). The South Korean government changed the name in 1996 to the current form from gukmin hakgyo ( 국 민 학 교 ) meaning citizens' school. This was done as a gesture of restoring national pride. The word, abbreviated from hwangguksinminui-hakgyo ( 황국신민의 학교), means "school for the subjects of the imperial state" carried over from Japanese colonial rule.

MIDDLE SCHOOLS
Middle schools are called jung hakgyo (중학교) in Korean, which literally means middle school. They consist of three grades. Most students enter at age twelve and finish at fifteen. These three grades correspond roughly to grades 7-9 in the North American system and 2nd to 4th form in the British system. Middle school in South Korea marks a considerable shift from elementary school, with students expected to take studies and school much more seriously. At most middle schools regulation uniforms and haircuts are enforced fairly strictly, and some aspects of students' lives are highly controlled. Like in elementary school, students spend most of the day in the same homeroom classroom with the same classmates; however, students have different teachers for each subject. Teachers move around from classroom to classroom, and few teachers apart from those who teach special subjects have their own rooms to which students come. Homeroom teachers (dam im seonsaengnim: 담임 선 생 님 ) play a very important role in students' lives, and have considerably more authority over and responsibility for their students' than their western counterparts. Most middle school students take six lessons a day, and in addition to this usually have an early morning block that precedes regular lessons and a seventh lesson specializing in an extra subject to finish the day. Unlike with high school, middle school curricula do not vary much from school to school. Maths, English, Korean, and science form the core subjects, with students also receiving instruction in art, PE, history, hanja (Chinese characters), ethics, home economics, and computers. What subjects students study and in what amount may vary from year to year. All regular lessons are 45 minutes long. Before school, students have an extra block, 30-or-more minutes long, that
369-376.

may be used for self-study, watching Educational Broadcast System (EBS) broadcasts, or for personal or class administration. As of 2008, students attend school from Monday to Friday, and have a half-day every 1st, 3rd, and 5th (calendar permitting) Saturday of the month. Saturday lessons usually include Club Activity (CA) lessons, where students may participate in extracurricular activities. In the late 1960s the government abolished entrance examinations for middle school students, replacing it with a system whereby elementary school students within the same district are selected for middle schools by a lottery system. This has the effect of equalizing the quality of students from school to school, though schools in areas where students come from more privileged backgrounds still tend to outperform schools in poorer areas. Until recently most middle schools have been same-sex, though in the past decade most new middle schools have been mixed, and some previously same-sex schools have converted to mixed as well. As with elementary schools, students are promoted from one grade to the next regardless of knowledge or academic achievement, the result being that classes often have students of vastly differing abilities learning the same subject material together. In the final year of middle school, examination scores become very important for the top students hoping to gain entrance into the top high schools, and for those in the middle hoping to get into an academic rather a technical or vocational high school. Otherwise, examinations and marks only matter insofar as pleasing parents and teachers (or avoiding their wrath). There are some standardized examinations for certain subjects, and teachers of academic subjects are expected to follow approved textbooks, but generally middle school teachers have more flexibility over curricula and methods than do teachers at high school.

HIGH SCHOOLS
High schools are called godeung hakgyo (고등학교) in Korean, literally meaning "high-level school." They consist of three grades, with students beginning at age sixteen and commonly graduating at age 19. High schools in Korea can be divided into specialty tracks in accord with a student's interests and career path. For example, there are science, foreign language and art specialty high schools which

students can attend after passing entrance examinations; these schools are generally highly competitive. Other type of high schools include public high schools and private high schools, both with or without entrance examinations. These high schools do not specialize in a field, but are more focused on sending their students to college. For students who do not want a college education, vocational schools specializing in fields such as technology, agriculture or finance are available. Students are employable right after graduation. Regarding the schedule of many high school students, it is not abnormal for them to arrive home from school at midnight, after intensive "self-study" sessions supported by the school. The curriculum is often rigorous, with as many as eleven or more subjects. Some students choose to attend private academies to boost their academic performance. Core subjects include Korean, English and math, with emphasis on social and physical science subjects. It is critical to note that the type and level of subjects may differ from school to school, depending on the degree of selectivity and specialization of the school. High school is not strictly mandatory, unlike middle school education in Korea. However, according to a 2005 study of OECD member countries, 97% of South Korea's young adults do complete high school. This was the highest recorded percentage of any country.

SUPPLEMENTARY TEST-PREP EDUCATION
Most South Korean children spend their entire high school life preparing for the all-important college entrance examination. The College Scholastic Ability Test (CSAT), called suneung (수능) in Korean, is the higher education exam accepted by all South Korean universities. A large number of privately owned institutions, called hagwon (학원) exist in order to provide after school instruction in various subjects. As the university entrance exam is such an important factor in education, many parents spend a significant portion of their income to send their children to these institutes in order to prepare them for the exam, many beginning hagwon instruction in elementary school.

HIGHER EDUCATION
There are four categories of institutions for higher learning: (1) colleges and universities with four-year undergraduate programs (sixyear in medical colleges), (2) junior colleges, (3) universities of education and colleges of education, and (4) miscellaneous schools like theological colleges and seminaries. Law schools are currently being established at select universities and plan to begin admitting students in 2010. About 80 percent of all Korean institutes of higher education are private. In accordance with the Education Act and the relevant presidential and ministerial decrees, all institutes of higher education, whether public or private, come under the supervision of the Ministry of Education. The Ministry has control over such matters as student quotas, qualifications of teaching staff, curricula, degree requirements, and so on. Higher education aims at teaching and studying fundamental academic theories and their various application as necessary for the progress and enlightenment of society and the global community, with the aim of nurturing the nation's future leaders. The unit for measuring the completion of each course is a credit. Each university oversees the requirements for the completion of each credit, the minimum credits necessary for graduation, the standard credits and maximum credits required to be taken each semester, the method to obtain special credit, and credits required for the completion of preparatory courses on the basis of school regulations. Korea's public funding for higher (tertiary) education (as a percentage of GDP) is the lowest in the OECD.14

NATIONAL ADMINISTRATION
South Korea’s education system has undertaken significant reform in order to align the curriculum with the “knowledge based society” of the 21st century. The Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (MEST) established in 2008 by restructuring the scope of the former Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development, is the
14 Education Directorate of the OECD, “Education at a Glance 2008: OECD Indicators,” OECD website, retrieved 19 Feb 2009 <http://www.oecd.org/document/9/0,3343,en_2649_39263238_41266761_1_1_1_1,00.html>, Table B4.1.

central government body responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies related to academic activities. Like other ministers, the Minister of Education Science and Technology is appointed by the president. They are mainly chosen from candidates who have an academic background and often resign after a fairly short term (around one year). The Public Education Enforcement Plan, a component of the seventh curriculum revision, was introduced in 2004 with the goal of South Korea becoming a strong nation firmly grounded on knowledge and information. “In 2005, South Korea changed to an ‘on demand’ curriculum revision system, which whenever there is a need for curriculum or text book revision the appraisal is carried out immediately and the necessary changes applied accordingly. This flexibility helps to deliver knowledge that is up to date and alive...”15 South Korea has a highly centralized education system and standardized educational content. The existence of a curriculum evaluation system helps promote quality assurance.16 The evaluation system is responsible for:      Development and achievement tests implementation of national level

Participation in international comparative studies of student achievement Development and implementation of diagnostic tests of basic skills of elementary students Conducting studies on research and development in educational evaluation and long term development planning Conducting training on educational evaluations.17

EDUCATIONAL AND CURRICULUM ORGANIZATION
The first ten years of school education from primary first grade to high school grade are set as a national common basic education period. During this period, students learn from a national curriculum.
15 16 Choi, E., Korean Educational Policies and Current Issues, Cheongju, Korea: Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development, 2006, p. 6. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, “The School Curriculum of the Republic of Korea,” Ministry of Education, Science and Technology website, 3 Dec 2007, Retrieved 2 Feb 2009 <http://english.mest.go.kr/data/upFile/ english/200712030350262417.doc> Korea Institute for Curriculum Evaluation, Korea Institute for Curriculum Evaluation website, Retrieved 19 Feb 2009, <http://www.kice.re.kr/en/functions/curriculum.jsp>

17

In revising the national curriculum, the MEST judged that a flexible level differentiated curriculum would address each student’s different ability, interest aptitude and career direction; and also promote gifted and talented education while satisfying the requirements of a common basic education.18 The types of level differentiated curriculum include: 1) Step by Step Curriculum Applied to the core subjects of mathematics and secondary level English. Mathematics is taught step by step with a curriculum divided into twenty levels for students in grades 1 – 10. The English curriculum has eight levels, taught from 7th through to 10th grade. 2) In-depth and Supplementary Curriculum This is for advancing or lagging students in the subjects of Korean language (1st – 10th grade, social studies (3rd – 10th grade) and primary English (3rd – 6th grade). 3) Elective Curriculum High school students in grades 11 and 12 can choose from a number of electives that reflect their differing abilities, aptitude, needs and interests. Selection is made by students according to their ability and career development. Teachers at the start of the year are given a structured syllabus of what should be taught. School text books and teacher training support such syllabuses and there is regular testing to ensure that all students are at or above the required standard. There is also a very clear expectation that all students by the end of each year level will have reached the required level of ability. High schools are separated into two types: general (academic) and vocational. In high school a flexible level-differentiated curriculum is provided for second and third year students, choosing from seventy nine electives. Electives are set by each metropolitan/provincial education office and school with a minimum of twenty eight units each, for up to fifty percent of students. Schools are granted more autonomy in designing curriculum. Roles are divided between the MOE, schools and metropolitan/provincial

18

Korean Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, 2007.

education offices in designing and operating the curriculum, so as to ensure efficiency and educational quality. Recent developments organization include:    in educational and curriculum

Development of diversified text books A level-differentiated evaluation system Enhancement of teacher expertise through training programs and lessened workloads in order to develop expert teaching skills Improving the school environment to enhance leveldifferentiated curriculum delivery through the provision of teaching and learning materials for each level Improvements in the administrative and financial system English education development: As of 2006, English is taught from primary first grade; one native English teacher will be placed in every middle school by 2010; incentive points will be given to English teachers of Korean nationality who possess English certificates and qualifications and pilot based English immersion education.

 

The Ministry of Education, Science and Technology administers the national school curriculum and this is periodically revised. Individual schools are given a degree of control over their own curricula in accordance with regional guidelines and curriculum standards. Seven curriculum revisions have taken place since the first curriculum was introduced in 1954, with the Seventh Curriculum coming into effect with implementation staggered from 1997 to 2004, covering the first year of primary school through to the first year of high school (ten years in total), and the Eighth Curriculum phase-in beginning in 2009. It is made up of the Basic Common Curriculum and the Selected Curriculum at the level of high school. After the 10th grade, students are able to decide which courses they will take. The latest national curriculum is student-oriented and is designed to promote individual talent, aptitude, and creativity. It defines the desired image of an educated person as a person who:  seeks individuality as the basis for the growth of the whole personality;

   

exhibits a capacity for fundamental creativity; pioneers a career path within the wide spectrum of culture; creates new value on the basis of understanding the national culture; contributes to the development of the community on the basis of democratic civil consciousness.

LOCAL ADMINISTRATION
The school council system was first introduced in 1995 in 355 schools, to enhance autonomy in creative school management and develop education tailored to local characteristics and demands. In 1998, all national primary and secondary schools were mandated to establish school councils, and in 2000 all private schools were mandated to establish school councils. The school council has five to fifteen members according to the school size with students and parents forming 40%–50%, teachers 30%-40% and local representatives 10%-30%. School principals are automatically included in the committees as teacher members and the president and vice president of the committee are elected from nonteacher members. Public school committees hold appraisal rights for the establishment and revision of school charter regulations; budgetary planning, which has strengthened the financial power of schools; accounts settlement; curricular operations including selection of textbook and educational material; after school and vacation classes; other extra curricular programs; and the formation and management of school committees, fees, school lunches, et cetera.

ACCOUNTABILITY
Although the delegation of power to schools has made schools more autonomous, it does not give school management a free hand to do anything it wants. As a school community has been empowered, it is necessary to ensure the accountability of school education. An external evaluation committee has been established with provincial and metropolitan offices of education administering school evaluations, usually on an annual basis but there are cases where the evaluation occurs once every two years. Each office is responsible for

the preparation of evaluation areas, criteria, methods, and establishing an evaluation committee. Schools are given a grade based on evaluation fields and a final rankings list of all schools. The results of school evaluations are used for supervision consultations and as a basis for providing financial awards to well-performing schools.

EVALUATION
Previously most schools used a norm-referenced evaluation, meaning students were ranked according to the average total score they received by combining grades from all subject areas. Class instruction was designed for students to achieve good grades on their test scores at the expense of achieving the genuine goals and objectives of education. As a consequence, it is reported that school education has failed to develop student abilities to understand and think in comprehensive and creative ways. In order to address this concern the MOE introduced Diverse Student Evaluation Methods which is aligned to the curriculum for a knowledge based society. A prominent feature of this policy in relation to evaluation is the diversification of the criteria for evaluating students. Since 1998, in primary and secondary education performance based evaluation methods are used to develop student’s abilities to understand and think in comprehensive and creative ways. These include written exams, oral tests, discussions, demonstrations, lab experiments, interviews, clinical observations, written reports, research papers and portfolios.

TEACHER EVALUATION
The OECD found that in Korea, evaluation on teacher performance failed to provide systemic influence on their career development and that the country lacked a tool to differentiate between teachers according to their performance ability. The recommendation was to set up an objective evaluation standard; and make use of the standard as a tool for school development and improvement. The majority of primary school teachers are graduates of four years of college education. “Previously the principal evaluated teachers and reflected evaluation results in teacher promotion.”19 Also, the MOE recognized the growing need for the improvement of teacher quality and
19 Choi, p.11.

professionalism, in particular people’s trust for the teaching profession through teacher evaluation that is both appropriate and impartial. A survey conducted in 2005, revealed 77.4% of South Koreans agreed that a teacher evaluation system was necessary. “Previously, principals were appointed based on seniority. Under the new policy in a trial commencing in September 2006, principals will be selected partially through job offerings or open competition so as to recruit those who possess good management skills, in addition to expert knowledge in education.”20 “The whole process of teacher selection and training is also under review.” 21 The Korean proverb “One should not even step on the shadow of one’s teacher,” highlights the degree of respect traditionally given to teachers.

EDUCATION SYSTEM STRENGTHS
 South Korean people have a very high zeal for education and believe that “human capital developed through education is their most valuable resource.”22 There is a strong after school learning program for students’ including arts, sports and foreign languages. This provides learning opportunities for low income students. The student participation rate in these programs is 60%. South Korean people have high respect for members of the teaching profession and the salary of teachers at all levels in South Korea is relatively high compared to other countries. Special education in South Korea has made great strides both in number and quality of programs since the enactment of the Special Education Promotion Act in 1977. Introduction of the ‘alternate school’ policy for students with special needs. Promotion of educational development in remote areas and educational programs for gifted students. A well developed and supported e-Learning focus.

  

20 21 22

Choi, p.12. Choi, p.10. Weidman, J., and Park, N., “Recent Trends and Developments in Education in the Republic of Korea,” World Education News and Reviews, 2002, p. 1.

In 2005 South Korea was ranked in first place in the OECD rankings in terms of the number of younger people who have completed an upper secondary education, leading a small group of countries including Norway and Japan, where more than 90% of students reach this level. The South Korean government spends about half the amount on school students as the USA but its performance in maths is much higher. South Korea has experienced a spectacular expansion of higher education during the last five decades.

EDUCATION SYSTEM AREAS FOR CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT  In recent times there has been a strong emphasis on teacher evaluation; however school evaluation/accountability is still in the process of development.

Private education costs are high. For example, the main focus in South Korea is in preparing students for college admissions exams and subsequent enrollment into preferred universities. This cost is one of the highest among OECD countries. There have been so many reform measures and laws introduced within the last fifty years, educational policies in South Korea are generally referred to as forever changing policies.23 Drift of children from wealthy families to educational facilities outside South Korea. MOE recently promulgated an independent private high school policy aimed at keeping more students at home. The South Korean education system, despite its success in achieving high test scores has been criticized for encouraging students to conceive of themselves as being in fierce competition with their friends and peers. “South Korea is probably the most education–orientated country in the world. Seven out of ten students receive private tutoring for an average of 6.8 hours a week, and private

23

Weidman and Park, p. 1.

expenditure for education accounts for an average 12.7% of household expenses.”24
 

Corporal punishment is still widespread in primary and secondary institutions.25 South Korea has a heavy reliance on summative assessment (to the exclusion of other modes of assessment), and specifically on discrete item testing.26

ADDITIONAL SOURCES
All documents were retrieved from the indicated websites in November 2008. South Korea’s Education Success, BBC News, 13 Sep. 2005, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/education/4240668.stm Card, James, Life and Death Exams in South Korea, Asia Times Online, http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Korea/GK30Dg01.html. Donnelly, Kevin, What will it take to get a national curriculum off the ground this time?, Online Opinion, http://www.onlineopinion.com.au/view.asp?article=585. Kim, G., Education Policies and Reform in South Korea, (2002) Kim, H., National Identity in Korean Curriculum, Canadian Social Studies, Vol. 23, No. 3, (Canada: University of Alberta, 2004). Lee, I., Park, J., Kim, O., Kim, O., A Study on the Development of Model and Standards for Improvement of Teacher’s Professional Competency in Student Evaluation, (Korea: Korea Institute of Curriculum and Evaluation, 2004). Park, J., Special Education in South Korea, Council for Exceptional Children (2002).

24 25 26

Na, James, “The Asian Craze for Education,” Guns and Butter, May 2005, retrieved 25 Nov 2008 <http://gunsandbutter.blogspot.com/2005/05/asian-craze-for-education.html> Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, “Concluding Observations on Second Report,” OHCHR Committee on the Rights of the Child, 18 March 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.197, paras. 7d, 38 and 39 Dietel, R.J., Herman, J.L. and Knuth, R.A., “What Does Research Say about Assessment?,” Oak Brook, IL: NCREL, FinchPark website, retrieved 19 Feb 2009, <http://www.finchpark.com/courses/assess/research.htm>

Education in South Korea, Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_South_Korea.

The Association for Teachers of English in Korea provides the following services to the general public, members and nonmembers alike:
• • • •
Monitoring of proposed legislation and regulations which may affect noncitizen English teachers in Korea. Translation of proposed and existing legislation and regulations (domestic and international) and analysis of their possible effects on non-citizen English teachers in Korea. Advocacy for English teacher concerns at the national and local levels. The English Teacher's Guide to Korea, which will be made available in PDF for free download from our website (http://atek.or.kr).

ATEK provides the following benefits and services to members:
• • • • Full access to ATEK's Employer Rating System, to make and review ratings. Access to the member forums. Access to professional development and lesson planning materials. Information on how to check to see if your employer is correctly reporting your income, paying your taxes and making proper deductions from your pay. Copies of labor, tax, pension, and health insurance complaint forms, translated into Korean, and instructions about how to go about filing a complaint. Local social networks (the Provincial and Metropolitan Associations that send reps to our national council). Access to data from the ATEK Member Survey, which enables ATEK to track average salaries and weekly hours by region and type of teaching job, average level of satisfaction with various job types, average length of stay of foreigners working in Korea, average pay and benefit increases when resigning for a second year, and much more. Want to know if your contract offer is above or below the average salary for someone in your city and education level? Get access. Advisories to the government based on ATEK Member Survey information on non-citizen English teacher's problems and needs (does one particular city have a higher rate of teachers reporting pay withholding fraud? That city's government might want to know that.) An online application that translates letters home to parents into Korean, so that you can communicate with parents and let them know how their child is doing. Representation of member concerns to relevant government agencies and other groups. Responses to media items of interest to non-citizen English teachers.

• •

• •

All these resources are available on our website at http://atek.or.kr

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
Living, Working, and Thriving in Korea Sparkling

By Tony Hellmann, M.Ed. Tom Rainey-Smith Jason Thomas, M.App.Ling. Matthew Henderson

ATEK

Press

This book was designed and laid out entirely with open source software. Individual sections copyright © 2009 by the respective authors, all rights reserved, except as licensed below. Used by permission. Published by ATEK Press, a division of the Association for Teachers of English in Korea. Design and composition by Tony Hellmann. Copyedited by Jason Thomas
Cover: Art by Jeffrey Morabito. www.jeffreymorabito.com. Photo by Trey Ratcliff, www.stuckincustoms.com

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CHAPTER 3: OBTAINING EMPLOYMENT AND MOVING TO KOREA
There are several steps in the process of getting a job in Korea, which involve a number of factors. These steps are covered in this chapter indepth.

VISAS IN KOREA
VISA TYPES
There are a number of different visas that foreign English teachers come to Korea to work on. They are listed and described below: Visa Length of Description Stay C-4 90 days Short-term employment. This visa is used for English camp jobs. It is used not only for English teachers, but short-term workers in many fields. E-1 1 year Visiting professor. This visa is for those teaching at universities. E-2 1 year Foreign language instructor. This is the most common visa issued to foreign English teachers. F-2 1-2 years Residency. For those married to Korean citizens. F-4 2 years Overseas Korean. This visa is for individuals of Korean heritage who are citizens of Canada or the USA. F-5 Indefinite Permanent Residency. H-1 1 year Working holiday. This visa is available to citizens of Australia, Canada, and New Zealand only.

WHO CAN WORK IN KOREA?
Under the laws of the Republic of Korea as of this book's printing, citizens of Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America are permitted to obtain C-4, E-1, E-2, F-2, and F-5 visas if they meet the other requirements for the visa.

To work in Korea as an English teacher on a C-4 (camp job) or E-2 (foreign language instructor) visa, one must possess a four-year bachelor's degree, in any field of study, and be from one of the following countries: Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom, or the United States of America. To obtain an E-1 (visiting professor) visa, one must possess a graduate degree (masters or doctoral) in either the field one plans to teach, or in education. Obtaining F series visas can be a complicated process, and are beyond the scope of this book. Contact the Korean Immigration Service for more information.

HOW TO GET A VISA
Different visa types require different types of documentation. This documentation changes from time to time. One should obtain the most up-to-date information from your prospective employer, who should be able to tell you exactly what documentation you need to gather. The basic process is the same for C-4, E-1, and E-2 visas (although the required documentation is different): Accept a job. Your new employer will either mail or email you copies of your contract. Sign them and mail them along with all required documentation back to your new employer. Your employer will take the documentation to immigration, who will process the visa request and issue a “visa issuance number,” which your new employer will send to you. Take that number to your nearest Korean consulate and fill out an application. You will leave your passport with the consulate. When you pick it up, it will have your visa affixed to it. What is widely different between C-4, E-1, and E-2 visas is the amount of paperwork required. At the time of this writing, C-4 visas require only a copy of your degree, a copy of your transcript, and a criminal background check. E-1 visas require degree and transcript originals (or copies with an apostille), plus a letter from a previous university or similar institution you taught at describing your duties (if you taught university for-credit classes, that should be mentioned in the letter), and a letter of transfer if you are currently working at a Korean university. E-2 visas require degree and transcript originals (or copies with an apostille), a criminal background check with an apostille, and after one arrives in Korea, a drug test and medical

checkup. For specifics of what the E-2 documentation should look like, ask your employer.

FINDING THE RIGHT JOB
Finding the right job is not dissimilar to finding the best orange in the produce section at your supermarket. At first glance they all appear similar. When looking more closely, you can see that some are larger and some are smaller. Some have obvious blemishes and some have blemishes you only see when you pick them up. Some are different shades of orange. How do you know which one is the best? The answer is: you can't know for sure until you arrive and start working, just like you can't know about an orange for sure until you peel one and eat it. However, you can approach looking for a job with a critical eye, and that will reduce your chances of ending up in a bad situation. Let's start with some basics about different job types.

JOB TYPES
UNIVERSITY JOBS
Universities typically offer low hours per week and long vacations; twelve hours per week for 2.2 million won monthly with four months paid vacation is considered by many to be a decent offer. Some universities may offer more money for those hours. This is for a departmental job (teaching in an English department, for example), not a university language institute job. Many universities have language institutes attached to them (dubbed “unigwan” by the foreign teaching community) where they teach English to students and/or to non-students. Often these university institutes require higher hours per week and give substantially less paid vacation than university departments. The benefit of a university job besides the low hours and long vacation is that the job is very stable: there is little likelihood that a university will suddenly go out of business! Pay is on-time, proper deductions are usually made, and many universities are on a private pension system that is superior to the national pension scheme, especially for people staying more than a single year (although some university pension schemes take several years to “vest,” before you

are entitled to the money in them; check with each institution about its policies). Competition is high for many university jobs, with successful applicants often having a graduate degree and several years experience teaching in Korea. Many universities prefer to hire someone already in Korea, so if you are applying from outside the country, you may be at a disadvantage.

PUBLIC SCHOOL JOBS
Public school jobs typically require 22 teaching hours per week, and usually require you to be at the job site 40 hours per week, from 8:30 to 4:30 Monday through Friday. Public schools usually offer between ten and thirty days of vacation each year, and often have specific dates that you are allowed to take vacation time, which revolve around the school calendar (you will be asked to take vacation when students are on breaks). The job is stable and pay is on-time. You will usually be co-teaching with a Korean (see the section on co-teaching), though some schools prefer that you teach on your own. Though salary levels vary by province, a new teacher may receive about 1.9 million, while someone with documented experience and a TESOL certificate may receive 2.3 million or more. Jobs in rural areas pay slightly higher.

PRIVATE ACADEMY (HAKWON) JOBS
Hakwon positions are by far the most common type of job in Korea. They vary widely in size, customer base, management style, pay, and many other factors. Fairly common among hakwons are 10 to 15 days paid vacation a year, and about 2.1 million won a month for someone with no experience. Some hakwons are large chains, and many others are small businesses. Some of the large chains are actually franchises, so they too are run like small businesses; good or bad reports from one franchised hakwon have no meaning for another, run by a different owner. Teachers' experiences at hakwons are very different; some have good experiences and form close relationships with their bosses or the owner, while others have terrible experiences. There is little government regulation of labor practices, so complaints from English teachers are more common with hakwons than with public schools or universities.

CAMP JOBS
Summer and winter English camps are common in Korea. Camps usually employ teachers for about a month. They may front the money for you to fly to Korea, and then deduct it from your pay, or they may ask that you pay for your own flight. Salary is usually around 2 million for a month for someone with no experience, although some camps pay more. Expect to work long days (you may have duties in the evenings) and take at least some of your meals with the campers. Housing is often shared with another teacher. Camp jobs are an excellent introduction to Korea for those unsure about committing to a year.

RESUMES AND INTERVIEWS
When you answer a job listing, the employer or recruiter will ask for a resume and photo. While submitting a photo may be unusual in your home country, it is standard practice in Korea. If the employer is interested in hiring you, you will be contacted for an interview. Most phone interviews are very different from Western-style interviews; they are short and will often not include many probing questions, such as “What do you see as your greatest strength?” The prospective employer wants to hear your English: is it clear, or heavily accented? They may ask why you are interested in teaching English in Korea. They will likely invite you to ask questions as well. Be prepared for a job offer on the spot at the end of the interview: hakwon managers/owners often interview foreign English teachers after already deciding they want to hire them. You do not have to accept on the spot. Remember that English teachers are in great demand, and that you can negotiate salary, ask to see the contract, or make other stipulations. They will either meet them, or they'll tell you why they can't. If you get a bad vibe, just say no, as there are lots of other employers all over Korea.

AVOIDING A POTENTIALLY BAD SITUATION
Ninety-eight percent of those taking a first job teaching English in Korea will not have the ability to inspect their new workplace or apartment before taking the job. This means that they are relying on what their employers are telling them about the job, apartment, pay,

benefits, et cetera. If you cannot come and look around, then you must gather as much information as you can (from as many sources as you can) to make the best possible decision. Start by asking your prospective employer some questions.

QUESTIONS TO ASK A PROSPECTIVE EMPLOYER
These questions will help you get a sense of what kind of employer you may be working for. Also, they will show the employer that you are an “informed” employee. If you are not extended a job offer after asking all these questions, that may be an indicator that the employer isn't doing everything legally and thinks you might make trouble. In that case, passing on your application is doing you a favor.

WORKING HOURS
What are the working hours? When do teachers prepare for classes? How long do they prepare for classes? How long are the rest periods? How many classes will you teach per day? How much time will you spend teaching per class? What hours will you work during school breaks? Will you work Saturday and/or Sunday? If so, what hours?

JOB DUTIES
Are there other job duties that are not written in your contract? If so, how often will you perform these duties?

WAGES & OVERTIME
Does your employer always pay overtime wages? Did your employer pay your wages in cash or deposit your wages into your Korean bank account? Are you able to set up an account anywhere, or is a particular bank required? How does your employer calculate overtime wages?

PAY RECEIPT
Does your employer provide pay receipts that clearly stated the date of pay, pay period dates, overtime wages earned, monthly salary

including deductions from your monthly salary for ( 1 ) pension, ( 2 ) income tax and ( 3 ) health insurance?

HEALTH INSURANCE
When will your employer provide you with a health insurance card?

LIVING CONDITIONS
How big is the apartment? What is it furnished with?

PAID ANNUAL LEAVE
When and how may you use your paid annual leave?

DISCIPLINE
What should you do if you have a problem with an uncontrollable student in the classroom?

PAID SICK LEAVE
How do teachers use a paid sick leave day? Does your employer require them to work another day to make up for the hours missed?

WORK ATTIRE
What are the work attire expectations?

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
How are teachers evaluated? How does the school handle it when a parent or student complains about the teacher or teaching method?

CURRICULUM
Is there a curriculum, or will you be expected to set the curriculum? If you are expected to set the curriculum, are there materials available (books, etc.) to work with?

REFERENCE (VERY IMPORTANT)
How many foreigners have worked at this school before me? Are there any current or former employees I can talk to? If the answer to the former question is any number greater than zero, and the answer to the latter question is “no,” for any reason, proceed with extreme caution.

Getting information about a job from only your prospective employer is not dissimilar to asking a lion whether or not it is okay to come into the lion's den. It will be important for you to get information from at least one other source. A good source is often a current or former English teacher at that school. Try to schedule an appointment to speak to them over the phone, when they are not at work. If they are at work, you may not get honest answers, as the teacher is probably within earshot of their boss or coworkers. Don't just listen to the content of the teacher's answers to your questions:. Is there stress in their voice when they answer some questions? Which ones don't they answer right away? Do they sound evasive or guarded? What is the general feeling you get from the conversation? Here are the questions. Note that some are the same as the questions I suggested you ask your employer: the answers should be the same too.

QUESTIONS TO ASK A CURRENT OR FORMER TEACHER WORKING HOURS
What were your working hours? When did you prepare for your classes? How long did you prepare for your classes? How long were your rest periods? Did your employer allow you to use your rest period freely? How many classes did you teach per day? How much time do you spend teaching per class? What hours do you work during school breaks? Do you work Saturday and/or Sunday? If so, what hours?

JOB DUTIES
What job duties did you perform that were not written in your contract? How often did you perform these duties?

WAGES & OVERTIME
Did your employer always pay overtime wages? Did your employer pay your wages in cash or deposit your wages into your Korean bank account? Were you able to set up an account anywhere, or did your employer

require you to use a particular bank? How did your employer calculate overtime wages?

PAY RECEIPT
Did your employer provide pay receipts that clearly stated the date of pay, pay period dates, overtime wages earned, monthly salary including deductions from your monthly salary for ( 1 ) pension, ( 2 ) income tax and ( 3 ) health insurance?

HEALTH INSURANCE
When did your employer provide you with a health insurance card? Did your employer pay contributions for both parties to the National Health Insurance Corporation? Did your employer respect your right to medical privacy?

TAXES/PENSION/SEVERANCE PAY
Did your employer always deduct the correct amount for income taxes from your monthly salary? Did your employer pay deductions from your monthly salary for income taxes to the tax office? Did your employer pay into the Korean Pension Plan? Did your employer always pay severance pay upon completion of your contract?

LIVING CONDITIONS
Was your apartment clean upon arrival? Were you provided with all the furnishings as stated in your contract? Were all the furnishings/appliances in working order when you moved into your apartment? Were the bills in your name or your employer's name? If the bills were in your employer's name, did your employer deduct the correct amount from your monthly salary for utilities? Did your employer respect your right to privacy?

PAID ANNUAL LEAVE
When and how do you use your paid annual leave?

PROBLEMS
Has the employer ever been abusive towards students? Has the employer ever been abusive towards teachers? Has the employer ever done anything that made you feel uneasy, concerned, or afraid?

PAID SICK LEAVE
Did you use a paid sick leave day? If so, how did your employer react? If teachers used a day of paid sick leave, did your employer require them to work another day to make up for the hours missed?

TURNOVER
How long do teachers usually stay? How many teachers have left since you came? Why did they go? Why is the teacher I will be replacing leaving?

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
How are teachers evaluated? How does the school handle it when a parent or student complains about the teacher or teaching method? In addition to questioning your potential employer and current or former employees, it is probably a good idea to post a request for information on one or more websites serving English teachers in Korea. Ask if anyone has any information good or bad about a particular school. Mention the school by name and the boss by name as well (sometimes schools change names if their reputations come under fire, and sometimes bad bosses move to new schools).

The Association for Teachers of English in Korea provides the following services to the general public, members and nonmembers alike:
• • • •
Monitoring of proposed legislation and regulations which may affect noncitizen English teachers in Korea. Translation of proposed and existing legislation and regulations (domestic and international) and analysis of their possible effects on non-citizen English teachers in Korea. Advocacy for English teacher concerns at the national and local levels. The English Teacher's Guide to Korea, which will be made available in PDF for free download from our website (http://atek.or.kr).

ATEK provides the following benefits and services to members:
• • • • Full access to ATEK's Employer Rating System, to make and review ratings. Access to the member forums. Access to professional development and lesson planning materials. Information on how to check to see if your employer is correctly reporting your income, paying your taxes and making proper deductions from your pay. Copies of labor, tax, pension, and health insurance complaint forms, translated into Korean, and instructions about how to go about filing a complaint. Local social networks (the Provincial and Metropolitan Associations that send reps to our national council). Access to data from the ATEK Member Survey, which enables ATEK to track average salaries and weekly hours by region and type of teaching job, average level of satisfaction with various job types, average length of stay of foreigners working in Korea, average pay and benefit increases when resigning for a second year, and much more. Want to know if your contract offer is above or below the average salary for someone in your city and education level? Get access. Advisories to the government based on ATEK Member Survey information on non-citizen English teacher's problems and needs (does one particular city have a higher rate of teachers reporting pay withholding fraud? That city's government might want to know that.) An online application that translates letters home to parents into Korean, so that you can communicate with parents and let them know how their child is doing. Representation of member concerns to relevant government agencies and other groups. Responses to media items of interest to non-citizen English teachers.

• •

• •

All these resources are available on our website at http://atek.or.kr

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
Living, Working, and Thriving in Korea Sparkling

By Tony Hellmann, M.Ed. Tom Rainey-Smith Jason Thomas, M.App.Ling. Matthew Henderson

ATEK

Press

This book was designed and laid out entirely with open source software. Individual sections copyright © 2009 by the respective authors, all rights reserved, except as licensed below. Used by permission. Published by ATEK Press, a division of the Association for Teachers of English in Korea. Design and composition by Tony Hellmann. Copyedited by Jason Thomas
Cover: Art by Jeffrey Morabito. www.jeffreymorabito.com. Photo by Trey Ratcliff, www.stuckincustoms.com

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CHAPTER 4: AT WORK
INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION IN SOUTH KOREA
English has been formally taught in Korea for 125 years, but demand for the language was restricted to a relatively small group of specialists until the mid-1990s, when “globalization” became a mantra in major media and the administration of Kim Young-sam and English was promoted as an essential element of globalization. Koreans now spend 3 trillion won annually on private English lessons, far more than any other nation. Education culture is testing-oriented and has been for centuries (though many teachers are attempting to change this). For men in the yangban or elite class, social status was largely determined by your position in the king’s bureaucracy, and you were not admitted to this service unless you scored well on the gwageo, the civil service examination, which was administered in Chinese. When Japan colonized the peninsula early in the twentieth century, knowledge of Japanese came to determine your position in the civil service. This may help to explain the hostility toward English expressed by some nationalists. Until 1945, an independent Korean intellectual tradition had, in many respects, been stifled by the dominance of foreign languages. Now, a foreign language once again acts as a gatekeeper to academic and professional success in Korea, and it is the language we are here to teach. The government now requires universities to deliver some content in English, and Korean professors are lecturing their Korean students in English. City governments interview Korean applicants in English. If you want to study Chinese literature or Korean history at a top school, you need a good score on the English section of the suneung, the college entrance test. English is seen everywhere. It is no surprise that some feel that Korean, finally allowed to thrive, is again under threat. Keep this in mind.

COMMUNICATING WITH STUDENTS, COWORKERS, AND OTHERS
TEACHING AND CO-TEACHING
Collaborating with other teachers to deliver language lessons can be a rewarding experience, but it isn’t always easy. This section explores some of the problems and frustrations that foreign instructors in primary and secondary schools report, and provides suggestions.

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Many teachers report a more “relaxed” classroom culture than they are accustomed to, and some are shocked when students continue or even begin conversations with other students while a teacher is addressing the class. There is a simple explanation for this: conventional classrooms are text- and lecture-based, not activityoriented. Tasks based on a text are usually quite simple: listen and repeat, listen and select item a) or b) and so on. Lectures focus on some grammar point or vocabulary item that students might need for the test but will not need to use. Simply stated, learners rarely need to listen to the teacher in order to participate in a lesson. You may well have other ideas about what you want to happen during class. There is no single strategy that works for every teacher in every classroom, so you’ll have to develop your own ways to get students’ attention. Frequent use of activities that require students to actually use target language will encourage students to pay attention when target language is presented. This brings us to…

ACTIVITY PROCEDURES
Some teachers become frustrated when their co-teacher translates activity directions. Why should learners listen to you, if your coteacher will immediately translate everything you say into Korean? Here are your options: 1) Let your co-teacher translate the procedure. This certainly is more efficient, especially for more complex and engaging learning activities. After all, most learning happens during the activity itself (if it is well-designed), not while learners are waiting for it to begin.

2) Let your co-teacher translate, but make sure they do not tell students to begin the activity. Rather, repeat the directions yourself. You may find that many students, once they have an idea of what you’re telling them, will want to listen again! This can develop learner confidence as well as comprehension skills. 3) Ask your co-teacher not to translate, but rather to ask “comprehension check” questions. This can tell you what steps must be repeated or modeled again. “Do you understand?” is the worst possible comprehension check question. Teachers know this, but may sometimes need to be prompted with an appropriate information question, e.g. “What should student A do after filling in the gaps?” Do not be discouraged if you find that learners often fail to understand your directions. Delivering activity procedures effectively in L2—especially to beginners—is probably the most difficult skill for a language teacher to acquire.

LESSON PLANNING
Of course, activities work best when your co-teacher has a clear understanding of what the activities are designed to accomplish, and the goals of the lesson. Unfortunately, some teachers will take little interest in your lesson plans and are content to be themselves directed in the classroom, especially if they cannot see how your lesson is related to the syllabus, i.e. the textbook. If you can, try to insist on regular meetings with your coteachers. At these meetings, negotiate what it is that you and they should actually do during class. Ideally, you will share the role of directing lessons, rather than limit your co-teacher’s role to e.g. monitoring to assist learners or to keep them on-task. If all they’re doing is observing “your” lessons, they’ll naturally lose interest. Finally, feedback is an integral part of professional development. I know of one teacher who brings to weekly meetings “two things I appreciated, one thing I have concerns about.” She asks her co-teachers to do the same. This could be very effective, if done with care.

UNDERSTANDING SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
If you don’t know what “SLA” is, get thee to a bookstore! If you’re a monolingual (or “natural” bilingual), then your knowledge of how

second languages are acquired will necessarily be abstract and incomplete, and your co-teacher with their “poor English” way ahead of you. This doesn’t necessarily mean that their way is the “best” way, because there is no agreement on what the “best” way to learn a language is. If you haven't already, do some research, start learning an additional language, or both. Then you’ll be in a better position to engage your co-teachers in informed discussion of approaches that might work for your learners. I suggest that you read the aims of the current curriculum carefully (see appendix) and base most of your own goals on it.

ENGLISH-AS-SUBJECT VS. ENGLISH-AS-LANGUAGE
There is a tension, some might say a contradiction, present in nearly every EFL classroom on the planet, and in South Korea it is impossible to avoid. If you teach in a school, then English is a subject, like mathematics or chemistry. And in any subject, students are to acquire a body of knowledge particular to that subject area: vocabulary, relations, formulas and patterns, and the like. Teachers are aware of course that “knowledge” has an interesting yet annoying habit of changing, as understandings and perceptions change. But in order to plan and deliver a syllabus, and above all to assess students on uptake of syllabus content, it becomes necessary to “freeze” knowledge. Freezing knowledge of elementary algebra or inorganic chemistry perhaps does not cause too many problems, but freezing a living language does. Compare the following texts. Which text is authentic, and which from a textbook? Which would you present to a class of beginners?1 Text A A: Excuse me, please. Do you know where the nearest bank is? B: Well, the City Bank isn't far from here. Do you know where the main post office is? A: No, not really. I'm just passing through. B: Well, first go down this street to the traffic light. A: OK. B: Then turn left and go west on Sunset Boulevard for about two blocks. The bank is on your right, just past the post office.
1 Nunan, D., Teaching grammar in context, ELT Journal, 52 (1998), p. 105.

A: All right. Thanks! B: You're welcome. Text B A: How do I get to Kensington Road? B: Well you go down Fullarton Road-A: --what, down Old Belair, and around...? B: Yeah. And then you go straight-A: --past the hospital? B: Yeah, keep going straight, past the racecourse to the roundabout. You know the big roundabout? A: Yeah. B: And Kensington Road's off to the right. A: What, off the roundabout? B: Yeah. A: Right. Many teachers will present text A to beginners, for the simple reason that they can then teach the indirect question form, and then assess its uptake. That the form is not always used by people when asking for directions is, sadly, irrelevant. That the form is far too complex for a beginner to use accurately is also irrelevant. It is a pattern. It is easy to test. If you wanted to write test items for text B, you’d need a map of London. Ironically, the fact that English is a living language and, more importantly, an international language beyond the control of any one group of language users, suggests that you need not be overly concerned by “mistakes” in textbooks. Languages change as they travel. For example, uncountable nouns commonly become countable. A Korean might say the following:
• •

Although it is a hard work, I enjoy it. An old man showed a great patience.

This same process also causes differences in the norms of so-called standard varieties of English. • ...iceberg lettuces are down in price • Some small initial fall-off in attendances is unavoidable.

“Lettuce” and “attendance,” as seen in these examples taken from British newspapers, can be countable in Standard British English, but are uncountable in Standard U.S. English.2 You might not want to hear a student say something like the following:

My teacher like it when I use a subordinate clause correctly.

In fact, you might want to call attention to that absent morpheme '-s': “She like it?” But if a speaker at an international conference in Karachi, for example, used a similar construction, only a pedant would much care about that absent morpheme. After all, you probably do not want to hear that morpheme in these constructions: • Does she like it? Did she like it? • Would, could, should she like it? • We suggest that she like it. Do not imagine that the particular variety of English that you are most comfortable with is the “best” or “most correct” or “the standard.” There has never been “one English to rule them all,” no matter what the Prince of Wales might believe, and there never can be. Natural language users are too creative, and too practical, for this ever to happen.

WORKSPACE
Some schools like to “show off” their foreign instructor or give them office space that is easily accessible to students. Some instructors are fine with this, others are not. A considerate school will ask you where you would prefer to work when you’re not in the classroom.

YOUR CO-TEACHER
There may be times when you don't understand your co-teacher's motivations for his/her actions, or the motivations seem territorial, defensive, or resistant to change (even though you think your suggestions are self-evident truths: doesn't EVERYONE know that students will learn food words better if we make sandwiches in class?). A brief look at what your co-teacher may be going through and how Korean work culture affects their decision-making might help.
2 Lowenberg, P., Assessing English proficiency in the expanding circle, World Englishes, (???) p. 21.

Before beginning a discussion about culture, it is important to note that culture has no laws, only tendencies, and some people adopt their culture's tendencies more than others. Of the ones who don't march to the beat of the cultural drum, failures are often shunned as deviant or stupid, and successes are often lauded as visionary or brilliant. What are presented in this section are guidelines about Korean tendencies toward thought and action, not hard-and-fast rules for how all Koreans behave or how the Korean mind always operates. Bear in mind that there are few absolutes in cultural analysis. First of all, one significant difference between Korean and Western work culture is that in the West, informing your boss of a problem you had and how you solved it, demonstrates that you are competent. In Korean culture, this is not necessarily so. If you to report to a Korean boss that you've been having trouble with one of your students, and you described an intervention that has reduced the trouble, a Korean boss may think "Why does this worker have these problems? I don't hear about problems from the other workers." This kind of work culture means that you manage problems yourself and do not report them upwards. Reporting a problem to your superior is admitting you have a problem, which implies that you are not competent. In a casual conversation about Korean work culture with a director of a government center in Seoul, I was told “The worst time of day for a Korean manager is right before it is time to go home. This is the time when workers who have been trying all day to contain problems that are beyond their abilities will report them to their bosses, admitting that they couldn't solve the problems themselves.” Add to this concept the idea that one is held responsible for changes and new ideas that go poorly. I don't mean that a Korean teacher may be formally disciplined when parents complain about a new activity that she is conducting, but that the boss (and coworkers) may think badly of her. This is something that all Koreans are aware of. Making a change, or doing something new, is "sticking your neck out," because your professional reputation is affected by the outcome. For this reason, Koreans often will agree in private that a suggestion is a good idea, but will only publicly throw their support behind a sure thing: an idea that they think can't possibly go wrong. Keeping in mind these cultural considerations, imagine that you are a Korean teacher. This is not a two-year gig for you. This is

your career. You were born in this town, were a student in this town, and expect to work your entire career in this town's school system. You have been assigned a Western co-teacher. You are explicitly charged with the following responsibilities: (1) make sure he understands his duties; (2) help him understand our students and our culture; (3) assist him with lessons in the classroom; and (4) be a liaison between him and school management. You are also implicitly expected to do the following: (5) ensure that he does his job properly; (6) ensure that he has no problems or issues; (7) ensure he doesn't do anything that will harm the school's reputation or upset the parents. What are the consequences of failure to meet any of these duties? You'll look bad. If you look bad often enough, that may harm your chances for promotion, advancement, or cause special opportunities to be offered to others, instead of you. It isn't realistic that you can control all of these things, yet that's the way things stand. Now Garrett, the new foreign teacher, has a master's degree in TESL, and he seems to know a better way to do just about everything in the classroom. If you follow even half of his suggestions, you'll be teaching in a very different style than all the other teachers. Management won't like it. Parents won't like it ("What do you mean you're only teaching my son 30 new words per week? All the other teachers teach 50 per week!) You tell Garrett that you don't think his suggestions will work. "But why?" he asks. "The Communicative Language Approach is exactly what the advanced seniors need. All the TESL literature for the past 40 years says that grammar-translation is the least efficient technique. I can show the principal hard research." You say that it doesn't matter, but you have a hard time explaining why, because all the cultural factors that come into play are things you know intuitively, so they are difficult to define. Of course, not every problem is because of cultural differences. Some really are about personality or temperament, however, try to give your co-teacher the benefit of the doubt, at least in the beginning. The reason she gets testy about something may come from the confluence of her culture and her work environment; it may just be because she doesn't like you, because you make her life stressful due to the pressures exerted upon her (by the school) as your co-teacher; it may be because you unwittingly approach professional or interpersonal conflict in a way that Koreans have a hard time with;

or it may simply be because either you or your co-teacher is inflexible, unwilling to see the other side, or hard to get along with. You'll be happier in the long run if you can gain some understanding of your co-teacher. Have him or her read this article and tell you what he or she thinks: maybe he or she thinks some parts are exactly right, and/or other parts are utter nonsense. Either way, you'll have a better understanding of what makes your co-teacher tick.

TEN RULES FOR CO-TEACHING
1. Do NOT correct a teacher in front of students. Ever. If you believe that a particular language item is wrong or is being taught incorrectly, discuss it with the teacher after class. They can always revisit and revise the item in a future lesson. 2. Do NOT trash the textbook in front of students. It is no secret that the national curriculum is inadequate, misguided, and wretchedly dull. Teachers must deliver it. 3. Unless you are a radical egalitarian, DO use a title, either Ms./Mr. or seonsaengnim. 4. DO listen carefully to suggestions from other teachers. Chances are very good that they know the students better than you do. 5. DO allow students to “code-switch” or use some Korean, as long as they remain on task. Research shows that “externalizing” mental processes—working through a problem out loud—in collaboration with others spurs cognitive/linguistic development. 6. DO involve your co-teachers in lessons. DO encourage them to involve you as well. You should be more than a live supplement to the CD-ROM. 7. Do NOT feel you must place your hand over your heart when the Korean national anthem is sung at assemblies. Simply standing silently is polite. 8. Do NOT participate in the physical or verbal abuse of a student. Record names, times and places for particularly violent abuse, in case police or parents later become involved. Do your documentation as soon as possible after the incident. 9. At dinner-meetings, do NOT feel obliged to accept soju from the vice-principal or anyone else, unless you want soju. A polite refusal should offend no one.

10. DO have fun. If you’re not enjoying a lesson, it is safe to assume that students aren’t enjoying it either.

WHY WE HAVE TROUBLE COMMUNICATING WITH KOREANS: HIGH CONTEXT AND LOW CONTEXT SOCIOLINGUISTIC DIFFERENCES
In Korean, much unspoken information is derived from context. When a Korean says “Where are you going?” to another Korean, the literal translation is “Where going?” and the subject is assumed to be “you” from the context: there is only one person speaking to another, so whom else could it be? If there were three people together, and one person abruptly walked away, the same question “Where going?” would mean “Where is he going?” and everyone would understand it to mean that, from the context: there is only one person whose destination is in question, therefore he must be the subject of the question. This is a simple example of what Hall calls a “high context” language.3 In a high context language, the actual words may not contain the entire message, yet the expectation is that the entire message has been understood. Because of this, Koreans won't commonly correct you nor explain things to you, because you are assumed to know what everyone else knows. Park notes: Since Koreans think that they are close to each other in terms of what they have experienced or can share, they are reluctant to jot down what does or does not have to be done. On the other hand, the English discourse using a low context culture tends to be expressive because less information is assumed to be shared across ethnocultural boundaries. Thus, speakers of English at large need to provide detailed information as a common underlying bond for communication to be effective.”4 A problem between a Korean school and one of their English instructors is an excellent illustration of this difference. When the
3 4 Hall, E.T., Beyond Culture, New York: Anchor Books, 1997 Park, M.S., Communication Styles in Two Different Cultures: Korean and American, Seoul: Han Shin Publishing, 1997, p. 24.

author of this article was employed at a private English academy (hakwon) the branch manager hired a new native English instructor from the United States. He sent his paperwork over and the manager sent it to immigration. Eventually immigration sent his visa issuance number, and our manager informed him of it through email. However, the manager neglected to tell him that he now had to take that number back to the Korean consulate where they will issue his visa. He flew to Korea and started work. When the hakwon took him to immigration to get his Certificate of Alien Registration, he was asked for his visa, and he pulled out the visa issuance number he was given. Upon inspection of his passport, it was learned that he entered Korea on a three month tourist visa! Hakwon management blamed him for the mistake; he should have known that one must get their visa issued before coming to Korea. His defense was “How was I supposed to know if you didn't tell me?” The American, low-context language expectation was that the person or entity who had all the knowledge would impart all of it to the person whose knowledge was incomplete. After all, the hakwon had hired other foreign teachers and understood the process. From a Western perspective, it was clearly the hakwon's responsibility to make sure a new teacher had all the necessary information to process their visa. When the American said “How was I supposed to know if you didn't tell me?” the response from management was “How are we supposed to know what you do and don't know? We can't tell you everything. Did we need to tell you to get to the airport a couple hours before your flight? No. Did we need to tell you that you have to go to the ticketing counter before going to your gate? No. You already knew these things and we didn't have to inform you. So how should we know that you didn't know what to do with your visa number?” As he had been technically teaching illegally, he had to immediately take a trip to Japan to get a teaching visa, and the hakwon made him pay for the trip, because it was “his fault.” When he requested a meeting with the owner, branch manager, and foreign manager to explain his position and protest having to pay for the trip (which they were deducting from his pay), he was nearly fired. The owner said “I think someone who doesn't know how to secure a teaching visa is not qualified to do this job.”

According to Kim, in Korea, “it is indeed perceived by the listener as an insult, violation, or intrusion into his personal space for the speaker/writer to provide detailed information beyond what is actually required.”5 Clearly, the entire problem revolved around the interaction between a high-context culture (Korean) and a low-context culture (American). The low context culture assumed that all necessary information would be transmitted in the message. The high context culture assumed that the other person already knew what needed to be done, or would ask the right questions or do the research to find out what needed to be done. The take-home message here: be careful. The high-context/low-context difference can also be seen when trying to convey information through an interpreter. Often, a foreigner from a low-context culture will say “Okay, please translate exactly what I'm saying.” Immediately the Korean who is translating is in a difficult situation, because in order to be clear (what would be considered “clear” in a low-context culture) the foreigner starts at the beginning, which may cover information that the receiver already knows. So an exchange like the following may take place: Foreigner (to apartment maintenance man, through a translator): Two days ago, my hot water stopped working, so I showed you and asked you to fix it. You said that the hot water would be on in a couple hours, but it wasn't, and then I couldn't find you again to show you. Then yesterday I finally found you and told you that the hot water was still not working, and you told me that it would be on by four o'clock. Then it wasn't on by four o'clock. It still isn't on. What's going on? Translator (in Korean, to maintenance man): Literally: Water still not working. Meaning: Her hot water still isn't working. Foreigner (to translator): I asked you to translate exactly. That was
5 Kim, I.S., “Korean Language as Pragmatic Based Discourse,” Korean Language Education, 1 (1989), p. 19.

pretty short. Translator, nodding to foreigner: Yes, yes, he understands everything. The foreigner is now exasperated because she is not able to communicate in the way she is accustomed. Her manner of communicating (going through the entire situation from the beginning to the present) shows the listener that she has been inconvenienced and that she is not happy about it. However, in a high-context culture, this is assumed: the maintenance man knows that she first complained two days ago and now that he has been informed that her hot water is still not working, he knows that she's been inconvenienced without having to be told. In his culture, to tell him what he obviously already knows is somewhat rude. The translator, being Korean, knows this, and is trying to balance the foreigner's needs with the maintenance man's cultural needs. The take-home message here is: be careful. The fundamental assumptions which underpin how you communicate are different from the people living all around you. Know that all human behavior is purposeful (i.e., everyone has a reason for everything they do). If you see something you don't understand or doesn't appear to make sense, it in fact makes sense to the person performing the action, but their fundamental assumptions are different from yours. When I see a Korean do or say something that would appear irrational, ill-advised, or even stupid if done in America, I don't think “That's stupid.” Instead, I usually think “There is obviously something I don't understand about what's happening here,” because I recognize that my fundamental assumptions are likely different. Conversely, I recognize that my communications may not always be received the way I intend them, so if I have something important to say, or want to say something about a subject that may be delicate, I usually seek guidance from a close Korean friend about the best way to approach saying it. A new teacher to Korea may not yet have a “sounding board” for such situations, however, so exercise caution if that is the case for you.

THE KOREAN LEARNER OF ENGLISH: ENGLISH-KOREAN CROSS-LINGUISTIC CHALLENGES
This section seeks to present some of the communication difficulties faced by Koreans learning English, through exploration of some of the differences between the Korean and English languages.

PHONOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES
Phonology is the study of sound as the human vocal apparatus produces it. The sound system of English is so different from the sound system of Korean that native Koreans learning English encounter a multitude of phonological snares. English has a number of sounds that do not exist in Korean, including: Sound f Common Substitution Korean learners of English tend to start with a "p" and force air between their lips (as an interlabial fricative, for those of you who have studied phonology). If you close your eyes, and listen to the sound produced, it sounds almost identical to an f. However, problems arise when they pair the substitute sound with other consonants, as in "free," which sounds markedly different when pronounced using the common "f" substitution discussed here. Other times they may pronounce an "f" as an unmodified "p," so that the word "coffee" comes out as "coppee." Korean learner of English often substitute a "b" sound so that Vancouver comes out as "Bancouber." "S" is often substituted so that "think" comes out as "sink." "D" is often substituted so that "this" comes out as "dis."

v θ (th as in "third") ð (th as in "the")

ʒ (zh as in vision) and z

"Z" and "ʒ" are both often pronounced as a vague "j" (dʒ) sound, so that "zip" comes out sounding like "jip" and "pizza" like "pija."

The branch of phonology that deals with the restrictions on possible phonetic combinations is called phonotactics. Korean phonotactical rules allow for words to end only in vowels or a select few consonants. As a result, when speaking English, Korean learners of English have a tendency to add a vowel to an English word that ends in a consonant that could not occur at the end of a Korean word; for example, the plural "s" occurs frequently in English. but no words end with the "s" sound in Korean. This is why you may hear Korean learners of English say "Englishee," and "shirtsuh," instead of "English" and "shirts." According to Park Myung-seok of Dankook University, "Such superfluous vowels can be removed by practicing letting the final consonant just fade away, rather than making it end abruptly."6 Many of these substitutions are reinforced by standard Korean pronunciation of foreign names; for example, the Hangul spelling of Vancouver is

밴 쿠버 (Baenkubeo). Also, Korean-English

interlanguage, commonly called "Konglish," routinely makes substitutions like the ones described in the above table. As a result, many of the substitutions have been fossilized (deeply ingrained over time) and must be "unlearned," so that new pronunciation habits can be developed.7

HOMOLOGOUS PAIRS
Teaching students homologous pairs may greatly help their understanding of English pronunciation. Two sounds are said to be homologous when the mouth organs are moved exactly the same way to make both sounds, the only difference being that the voice is used for one, and the other is made without Homologous Pairs in use of the voice. A voiced sound cannot English and Korean be properly reproduced without using Unvoiced Voiced one's voice, and an unvoiced sound K G cannot be properly reproduced if one's P B voice is used. One pair that occurs in CH J 6 Park, M.S., p. 4. 7 Park, M.S., pp. 3-7. T D F V S Z SH ZH

both English and Korean is p/b and ㅍ/ㅂ. P is voiceless, while b is voiced. Both English and Korean have a number of homologous pairs, so the concept can be taught first with native Korean sounds, before being applied to English sounds. In the table to the left, you can see the homologous pairs identified in both Korean and English. You should observe that the first four pairs occur in both English and Korean, while the next pair occurs exclusively in English (f/v). The last two pairs are special: the unvoiced sounds occur in both Korean and English, but the voiced sounds occur exclusively in English. This means the students already know how to properly place their vocal organs to accurately reproduce the "z" and "zh" sounds; the teacher merely needs to train them to make an "s" or an "sh" sound while engaging their voice, and good "z" and "zh" sounds will emerge. Similarly, if a teacher can train students to make a proper "f" sound, teaching "v" is just "f while using one's voice." After learning these concepts and proper pronunciation of these sounds, you may find your Korean students use the correct pair, but still the wrong sound. "In Korean, voiced consonants are only positional variants of corresponding voiceless ones: a consonant is voiced when it comes between other voiced sounds...a Korean speaker tends to use a voiced consonant instead of a correct voiceless one between between voiced sounds; for example, 'Pick up' is often pronounced like 'pig up.'" The source of this error is the Korean habit of using voiced consonants in some positions and unvoiced ones in others.8 There are other consonant situations that learners of English often have trouble with, such as p, t, and k when they occur at the end of a word (referred to as unvoiced stops). The "p" in stop phonetically different from the "p" in "park," for example. This is confusing to Korean learners of English. One of the most difficult is "t," which sounds different in the words "ten" and "city." If you listen to many American English speakers say "writing," it sounds like "riding." Thus, it is common to see Korean learners of English substituting a "d" for the "t" in words like "water."

8

Park, M.S. p. 4-5

Consonant clusters (like glimpsed, as the "e" is silent, or threetwelfths) are also problematic, as Korean phonotactic rules don't allow for sounds that begin to approach the pronunciation complexity of f followed by θ followed by s without intermediary vowels as occurs in the aforementioned twelfths. To mitigate consonant clusters, Korean learners of English are likely to insert superfluous vowels, for example pronouncing the "e" in "published" (Park, 1997). Professor Park notes that it is extremely difficult for Korean speakers to read the following stanza at normal speed: Amidst the mists and coldest frosts With stoutest wrists and loudest boasts He thrusts his fists against the posts And still insists he sees the ghosts. English vowels also present difficulty to Korean learners of English. Koreans have trouble with English diphthongs. A diphthong (also known as a gliding vowel) is a vowel that experiences a change in quality during its pronunciation, such as the word eye. Eye begins with [a] (as in "father) and ends with [ɪ] (as in "be") with the tongue gliding smoothly from the [a] to the [ɪ]. These kind of sounds do not exist in Korean, so Korean learners of English commonly either leave out the glide or pronounce the diphthong as two distinct vowels. In fact, when a foreign word containing the [aɪ] diphthong is written in Hangul, it is written as 아이: two distinct vowels. Korean learners of English "cannot hear this glide and so cannot tell the difference between the vowel [i] as in sit and the diphthong [iy] as in "seat" and in reproducing both [i] and [iy] he tends to use the Korean [i] (이) which gives an in-between effect. A native speaker of English cannot tell whether the Korean speaker has said "it," or "eat." This is just one example of several difficulties Korean learners of English have with English vowels.

COMMUNICATIVE DIFFERENCES: AN EXAMPLE
Korean students have a very different classroom culture than their Western counterparts. In Korean culture, when a teacher asks a student a question, the student is expected to give the answer, and if the student cannot give the answer, feels somewhat ashamed that they failed to live up to the teacher's expectations. After all, the teacher chose them to relay a piece of information to the whole class. Other

students who know the answer to the question may feel superior in that moment, and the student who can't answer the question knows this, hence contributing to that feeling of shame. Therefore, when the teacher asks a question and the student doesn't know the answer, the student will avoid eye contact and be silent. The teacher, recognizing that the student doesn't know the answer, will ask another student, thereby taking the focus off of the first student. However, in Western culture, not having the answer to a question doesn't carry so much stigma. A student asked a question to which he or she doesn't know the answer, will simply say “I don't know” and the teacher will likely ask someone else. Problems can arise when you put a Western teacher in front of Korean students. The teacher will ask a student a question, such as “What is this?” The student, not knowing the answer, will study their book (or their desk) intently and not respond. The Western teacher often thinks the student either didn't hear or didn't understand the question, and so they ask again “What is this?” The student again fails to respond, now highly embarrassed. The teacher may ask a third time, because in Western culture, the student may be perceived as ignoring the teacher, which is disrespectful. This teacher and student are locked into a vicious spiral, with the teacher demanding an answer so that he/she can be respected, and the student declining to answer so that he/she is not humiliated. The Korean student may be thinking “Everyone in the room knows I don't know, so why force me to acknowledge my ignorance out loud?”

DIFFERENTIAL USE OF VOCABULARY BY LANGUAGE
Does “see” mean the same thing in English as it does in Korean? You would think so, but the correct answer is “sometimes.” Used as “to view,” the meaning of the Korean word boda (보다) and its English equivalent “to see,” are the same. However, in Korean, one can not literally say “I'd like to see the manager,” as “see” in Korean only means “view.” In English, the context tells the listener that in fact you want to speak with the manager, but in Korean “see” is not used in this manner. You need to say “I want to talk to the manager.” These kinds of language-transfer issues work both ways, so be mindful of this when you speak.

In addition to using words in ways Koreans would not use them in their own language, native speakers of English use a ton of idioms and metaphors when they speak, often more than they realize. An idiom is any expression where two words, when used together, have a a different meaning than they have when used separately. For example, a Korean learner of English learns the word “up,” which is a direction toward an elevated position. But “shut up” doesn't mean to close something above you; “beat up” doesn't mean to hit something above you, and “mess up” doesn't mean to make something untidy above you. These are just a few; we have break up, crack up, trip up, jack up, etc. Idioms are extremely confusing to someone trying to learn to speak English. If one understands Latin roots, prefixes and suffixes, and is faced with a word never before seen, one may be able to decipher the meaning. However, there is no intuitive mechanism to decipher the meaning of an idiom, no guide you can give your students which will be of general use when learning them; idioms must be memorized. Native speakers of English, called upon to teach English as a Second or Foreign Language, must pay close attention to their choice of words, as idiomatic expressions occur so naturally and automatically in their speech that they may not realize their students have no idea what they are saying. For example, take this sentence: Marcy had cold feet, so she called off the wedding. Most native speakers would recognize right away that “cold feet” is an idiom. However, did you notice that “called off” is an idiom as well? When teaching beginning and intermediate students, take care to speak plainly, and use idioms deliberately, not unconsciously.

PLANNING LANGUAGE LESSONS
Apparently, there are teachers who are able to walk into any classroom and improvise learning activities that are interesting, meaningful and memorable for their students. Such an ability (if it really exists) would clearly require years or even decades of classroom experience. As for us lesser beings, we will need to think about what we want our students to accomplish in the time they spend with us. If you're new to teaching English, and you find yourself 'winging it' on a regular basis, then you're doing a serious disservice

to your students. At bare minimum, when you walk into the classroom, you need to at least have a goal in mind for that lesson, meaning that you have a particular learning objective that you want the students to achieve. Are you planning on improving pronunciation of a particular English sound? Do you want students to work on intonation when asking questions? Decide on a goal. Why? Because while exposing students to a native English speaker who doesn't have a clear idea of what he's teaching or how he's teaching it is better than sitting them in front of an English-language TV show and expecting them to learn speaking skills, it is just barely better. Better than just having a learning objective in mind is having an idea as to what methods we want to use to achieve the objective. If it's writing, which genre will they write? Have they encountered enough examples of the genre? How will they share their work, and how will you provide feedback? If it's speaking, what roles will they play, or what topics will they discuss? How will you make sure that everyone is participating? If you want to include a language focus, at what stage will you introduce (or revise) it? Your students will expect you to have a plan that is carefully grounded in their needs and interests. They're counting on you! You don't have to be a slave to the plan, of course. You should take advantage of learning opportunities as they arise--and if you've established a good rapport with your students, you may find that such opportunities appear frequently. Writing a lesson plan, even if it is a brief sketch, allows you to imagine the lesson before it happens. By taking the time to plan beforehand, you are better able to:
• • • •

think critically about your material and ways of using it effectively; organize learning activities and think ahead about grouping; anticipate potential problems and consider strategies for working with them; and make the most of the limited time that your students are exposed to live, interactive English.

There are many lesson plan models. Here is one possible format:

Description Number and level of students: Length of class: Textbook: Work done in previous class: Pre-planning Skills: Grouping: Supplementing the textbook: Learning By the end of the lesson, students should be able to … Materials and Equipment: Objectives:

Activities, Timing and Directions:

Name Activity

of

Time

Directions

Assigned Work:

Comments:

Evaluation:

Let’s look at some of the features of a typical lesson plan.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
While objectives sometimes take “detours” as a lesson progresses, you should have a clear idea of what your objectives are: what, specifically, learners should be able to do better, understand, and care about as a consequence of their participation in that particular lesson. Here are some examples:
• • •

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to ask for directions to a post office. By the end of the lesson, students should be able to identify the features of a procedural recount. By the end of the lesson, students should be able to explain some of the purposes of The War on Terror.

ACTIVITIES
WARM UP
Every good lesson begins with a brief warm up. You do not need to lead the warm up activity yourself—in fact, it’s best to use an activity that allows everyone to contribute, such as a class survey done in pairs. The warm up should be related to the lesson content and objectives in some way. Here are some common warm up activities: Brainstorm - This can be done in groups or whole class. You can sneak a bit of vocabulary that students will need later into this activity. Describe the picture - Show a picture and have learners take turns saying something about it. Beginners can make simple observations like "three people" while advanced students might invent a story that goes with the picture. If they aren't allowed to repeat what someone else has said, they will pay attention when each person speaks. Class survey - Here students collect information from as many students as possible. They should note responses and report their findings to a group or the class.

Question of the day - Ask one or two simple questions. Have students write a response then share it with a group or the class. Sing a song - You may not have much of a singing voice, but singing along with others is good fun in any language. Twenty questions - One player is chosen to be the answerer. That person chooses a person, place or thing but does not reveal this to the others. All the other players are questioners. They each take turns asking a question which can be answered with a simple "Yes" or "No." This can be an engaging way to introduce a character or topic. So your students have warmed up to the lesson; what comes next? If you want to do an extended listening activity, then you’ll probably need a pre-listening activity. If you want to do an extended reading activity, then you’ll want—you guessed it—a pre-reading activity. The activities outlined below will help your students get the most out of the texts they hear and read.

PRE-LISTENING
Why do a pre-listening activity? Outside the classroom, it isn’t often that we listen to something without having some idea of what we are going to hear. When we’re listening to an interview with a famous person, for example, we usually know something about that person already. A waiter knows the menu from which a guest is choosing their food. In a second language, listening is not an easy skill to develop – we’re dealing with unfamiliar sounds, identifying these sounds as words, and linking these words together into thought structures, all at once. This is even more difficult if we do not know the topic under discussion, or who is speaking to whom. So, simply asking the students to listen to something and answer some questions is a little unfair, and makes developing listening skills much harder. Many students are anxious about listening, and can be discouraged when they listen to something but feel that they understand very little. It is also harder to concentrate on listening if you have little interest in a topic or situation. Pre-listening activities can handle all of these issues: they can generate interest, build confidence and facilitate comprehension.

AIMS AND EXAMPLES OF PRE-LISTENING ACTIVITIES
Establishing the context - This is the most important thing to do— even formal proficiency tests give an idea about who is speaking, where and why. In everyday life we normally have some idea of the context of something we are listening to. Generating interest - Motivating students is obviously a key task. If they are going to do a listening about sports, looking at some dramatic pictures of sports players or events will raise their interest or remind them of why they (hopefully) enjoy sports. Personalization activities are very important here. A pair-work discussion about the sports they play or watch, and why, will bring them into the topic, and make them more willing to listen. Activating schemata or current knowledge - “We are going to listen to a news report on China’s recent space flight.” This will set the context, but if you then go straight into the listening, students will have had no time to transfer or activate existing knowledge (schemata) which may have been learned in Korean. What do they know about China’s space program? What were the astronauts doing? What problems did they face? Why is the flight important? What other countries have active space programs and why? Acquiring knowledge - Students may have limited knowledge of a topic, so providing this will build their confidence for dealing with a listening. This could be done by giving a related text to read, or, a little more fun, a quiz. Activating language items - Activating schemata is important, but so is activating the language that may be used in the listening. Knowledge-based activities can serve this purpose, but there are other things that can be done. For example, if students are going to listen to a dialog between a parent and a teenager who wants to stay overnight at a friend’s, why not have your students role play the situation before listening. They can brainstorm language beforehand, and then perform the scene. When students have time to think about the language needs of a situation, they are better prepared for a listening activity. Predicting - Once we know the context for something, we are able to predict possible content. Try giving students a choice of things that

they might (or might not) expect to hear, and ask them to choose items they think will be mentioned. Pre-learning vocabulary - Large numbers of unknown words can make a listening impossible, even if students are listening for “gist.” Their confidence is certainly affected. Select some vocabulary items for students to learn before the listening, perhaps by matching spoken words to definitions, followed by a simple practice activity such as a cloze (see page 37). Your choice of pre-listening activity allows you to rank the main listening activity for different ability levels. If you have a class who are generally struggling with listening work, then they will benefit from more extensive pre-listening work. If you wish to make the listening demanding, you could simply do work on establishing context. Thus, the same listening text can provide work for different groups of learners. Encouraging your students to bring their own knowledge and skills to their listening work can only help them. These skills are as much a part of listening as understanding pronunciation or listening for details.

PRE-READING
The principles that apply to effective pre-listening activities also apply to pre-reading activities. Pre-reading activities are sometimes called enabling activities, because they provide a students with background that organizes the activity and helps them comprehend the material. These experiences involve understanding the purpose (or purposes) for reading and building a knowledge base necessary to deal with the content and structure of the text. Good pre-reading activities elicit prior knowledge, develop schemata, and focus attention.

AIMS AND EXAMPLES OF PRE-READING ACTIVITIES
Accessing current knowledge. Also referred to as activating schemata, these activities should prompt students to “re-assemble” what they already know about the subject of the text they’re going to read. “Alex the monkey is going to tell us about the rainforest that he lives in. Ready? Let’s read!” won’t be very helpful. What do students know about rainforests? How did they learn this? What are some things that make rainforests interesting, special and unique? Most rainforests are

under threat. Why? Who works to protect rainforests? What do these people do? Writing your way into reading - With this activity, students write about their experiences related to the topic. When planned carefully, this is an effective way to personalize the material that they will read. It can bring them closer to the text: if students are imagining participating in some way with the text, it becomes more real (and much more interesting) for them. Asking questions based on the title or headline - This is selfexplanatory and involves asking questions that “follow up” student responses . If an image accompanies the title, you could cover the title and ask students to guess it based on the image. Semantic mapping - Semantics refers, basically, to the structuring of meaning. Semantic mapping is a strategy used to represent concepts graphically. The majority of learners are “visual” learners, and mapping assists these learners in particular. Semantic maps show the relations or ideas that make up a concept. There are a number of relationships between a concept and the knowledge that students associate with the concept. For any concept there are at least these three types of associations: • associations of class—the order of things the concept falls into; • associations of property—the attributes that define the concept; and • associations of example—exemplars of the concept. A semantic map is created by students, with your guidance. Here is a straightforward example: You: Tell me some things that you think of when you hear the word “transportation.” Students: Cars. Bicycle. Bus. Running? You: (listing words on board) Okay you've got some good examples here. Where do people use bicycles and buses? Students: The street! School! River! (laughter) You: Well it might be difficult to ride a bicycle in a river. What’s an easier way to travel in water?

Students:

Boats. Canoes.

You: Right so we have water and “the street,” no streets in water, streets are on land. We move in water, on land, where else? In a conversation like this, it is almost inevitable that class, properties and examples will emerge. Transportation means the movement of people and objects. Transportation is exemplified by means of transport such as ships and trains. One property of transportation is the idea of medium, moving through or over something—land, water or air. As the conversation proceeds, other ideas of these sorts of relations might emerge and can then be rearranged on the board into a proper semantic map:

Source: www.kidbibs.com

Making predictions based on previewing - Predicting is inherently motivating. Again, try giving students a choice of things that they might (or might not) expect to read, and ask them to choose language items they think will be mentioned. If the text is a type of narrative, ask students to predict the problem(s) that the protagonist(s) will encounter. Identifying the text type or genre - If your students are familiar with the framework and features of common text types, then this will assist them in reading comprehension (as well as in their own writing). It is never too early to teach text type. The most common text types are: • recounts (e.g. journal entries, news articles)

• • • • •

information reports (e.g. encyclopedia articles) expositions (e.g. opinion essays, advertisements) explanations (e.g. science articles) narratives (e.g. short fiction) procedure (e.g. recipes, game instructions)

Skimming for general idea - Once a student successfully identifies the “main idea” of a text, this can guide her as she reads. Skimming entails: (1) reading the title, subtitles and headings; (2) looking at illustrations; (3) reading the first and last sentence of each paragraph; (4) letting your eyes skim over the text, taking in key words; and (5) continuing to think about the meaning of the text. Reading the introduction and conclusion - This activity isn’t much fun if it is used with a narrative, but it can be a very useful strategy when reading an exposition. Writing a summary of the article based on previewing - This activity combines prediction with identification of main idea and key words.

WHILE LISTENING/READING
Now that your students have completed their pre- activity, it’s time to deliver the goods. So do you simply click “play?” Language teachers disagree on the usefulness of assigning specific tasks for students to complete as they listen or read. I believe that at least for the initial listen, students don’t want too many distractions. Reading is of course another matter, as students can pause and attend to reading tasks. This brings us to an important question: should reading be done aloud or silently? Some language teachers argue that “silence kills a classroom.” While this is obviously the case for speaking- and listening-oriented activities, silent reading is the best way to involve all your students. It allows them to read for comprehension, at their own pace. When a student reads out loud, she focuses on pronunciation, stress and rhythm rather than on what she is reading really means to her. And while one student reads, the rest do nothing.

POST-LISTENING AND POST-READING ACTIVITIES
Now that your students’ are hopped up with new and exciting information, what should they do with it? Employ it, or it will not be retained: speak it, write it, or lose it!

In a classic “communicative” lesson, two activities follow the main reading or listening activity: the first activity provides guided practice in the use of new language items and ideas, while the second allows an opportunity for independent use of these items. Great! In a 90 or 120 minute lesson with adult learners, there is ample time for a warm up, a pre-reading or listening activity, the main reading or listening activity, two post-reading or listening activities, and a wrap up. For those of us working with large groups of younger learners for 45 or 50 minutes, however, this is unrealistic, not matter how effective your classroom management skills. You have time for one good activity following the main reading or listening activity. How do you make the most of it?

LEARNING AS PARTICIPATION
Time for a bit of theory. For tool-using social beings like us, learning happens through participation in the world around us. Language is of course the ultimate tool—in fact, language itself largely constructs the world around us. More accurately, language constructs the world within us. I don’t mean to be metaphysical here. All I want to say is that the brain uses language to organize increasingly sophisticated schemata or thought structures to explain the world of objects and events that we encounter, that these objects and events are often people and social situations, and that learning cannot happen without them. This makes sense, and yet a great deal of language teaching practice—what teachers do—fails to appreciate what this means for language learning. There are at least two competing (but not incommensurable) metaphors for the goal of language education: that of acquisition, and that of participation. We're all familiar with the first metaphor, where language is seen as an evolving set of words and social practices (these are usually called "pragmatics"). But the more powerful metaphor for language learning is the one of participation: a proficient language user is someone who participates in language situations effectively. This means much more than the tired functionalism of some textbooks. A proficient language user does more than "invite," "offer advice" and so forth. A proficient language user participates meaningfully in communities—people and social situations—where

language is used. More, students learn through this participation. Learning could not happen without it. Participation is both the goal and the process of language learning. What your students need, then, are activities or classroom experiences that focus not on the transfer of knowledge from teacher to student as if through an Ethernet cable, but on opportunities to participate with and through language. These opportunities will necessarily promote learner autonomy, responsibility, and contribution (ARC). Autonomy: you can and must provide the scaffolding, but learning happens when students themselves do the constructing. Autonomy means more than “learning how to learn,” though this is an important element. Autonomy is promoted when student experiences, cultures and language are considered necessary aspects of classroom participation. Participation is more tangible, “really real,” when students accept responsibility both for their own learning as well as the learning of others. Students must be responsible to both their peers and to themselves in responding to the needs of their community. Responsibility requires developing an understanding of what these needs are (purpose) as well as how best to meet them (action). Contribution shapes classroom practice in ways that include students’ “lived experiences.” Contributions should not be made only to you, the teacher, but to the community, i.e. their peers. Student contributions must be valued by others, which requires the social evaluation of contributions. It is extremely important, then, that you work to build an environment of trust, care and support in the classroom.

ARC IN PRACTICE I. COOPERATIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Remember, no activity is right for every classroom situation. Developing ARC requires creativity in lesson design. However, you may find cooperative learning activities conducive to promoting ARC. Here are some of the team-learning activities developed by Spencer Kagan, with examples, where the teacher’s role is “guide on the side” rather than “sage on the stage.”

Think–Pair–Share During the first step, individuals think silently about a question posed by the instructor. The question itself might emerge from a theme that has arisen during a class discussion. Individuals pair up during the second step and exchange thoughts. In the third step, the pairs share their responses with other pairs, other teams, or the entire class. Example: “Our perfect school day” Form focus: first person plural, simple present The instructor poses one of the following questions: “What do you do in a perfect day at school?” or “What do you learn in a perfect day at school?” Students gather ideas silently for 30 seconds. In pairs, students then compare, negotiate, and co-construct ideas. Pairs could then share their ideas with the class, or with another pair (this latter is a Think–Pair–Square). Autonomy: The teacher need not “approve” of content. Students could create posters that illustrate their “perfect school day” and the class could choose their favorites. Responsibility: If students use “we,” they are responsible for compromising with their peers and achieving consensus. Contribution: Students ideas could be delivered to the director or principal, or even to the Ministry of Education. Jigsaw Groups with 4-6 students are set up. Each group member is assigned some unique material to learn and then to teach to his group members. To help in the learning, students across the class working on the same sub-section get together to decide what is important and how to teach it. After practice in these "expert" groups, the original groups reform and students teach each other. Example: “We can make English Form focus: modal auxiliary “can” or “could” interesting”

The instructor assigns one of the four language skills (speaking, listening, reading, writing) to every student. Students are tasked with developing ways to make that particular skill interesting to use. Students across the class working on the same skill get together to decide how their skill can be used or developed in interesting ways. Students then return to their original groups and share their ideas.

Autonomy: Ideas need not be submitted to the teacher for approval, though you could provide input as you monitor. Responsibility: Students are responsible to both their original and their expert groups. Contribution: Student ideas can be used in future lessons Circle the Sage First the teacher polls the class to see which students have a special knowledge to share. Those students (the sages) stand and spread out in the room. The teacher then has the rest of the classmates each surround a sage, with no two members of the same team going to the same sage. The sage explains what they know while the classmates listen, ask questions, and take notes. All students then return to their teams. Each in turn, explains what they learned. Because each one has gone to a different sage, they compare notes. If there is disagreement, they stand up as a team. Finally, the disagreements are aired and resolved. Example: “Life with an older sister” Form focus: Third-person Here, the sages are those who live with an older sister. Questions could be asked in Korean but responses should be recorded in English (Korean-English dictionaries should be available). Sage accounts are compared in the original groups. Autonomy: The teacher is not the source of knowledge. Responsibility: Students are responsible to their sage and to other group members for accurate sharing of information. Contribution: Students who might otherwise have few opportunities to contribute to English lessons can share their knowledge and experience with peers. Team–Pair–Solo Students do problems first as a team, then with a partner, and finally on their own. It is designed to motivate students to tackle and succeed at problems which initially are beyond their ability. It is based on a simple notion of mediated learning. Students can do more things with help (mediation) than they can do alone. By allowing them to work on problems they could not do alone, first as a team and then with a

partner, they progress to a point they can do alone that which at first they could do only with help. Example: “I ran away” Form focus: Simple past At the class or team level, students develop a scenario for a short story, e.g. about a young person who leaves her home. With a partner, students develop the plot. What does the young runaway experience? Students write the story individually. Autonomy: Students develop content independently of the teacher. Responsibility: Students should reach consensus with their partner. Contribution: Stories could be posted around the room for students to share. One could be selected for a school journal.

II. CLASSIC LANGUAGE LEARNING ACTIVITIES
More traditional language learning activities can be adapted to promote ARC. Pattern Drilling Students can contribute some or even all of the content for forms that are drilled. Instead of drilling a prescribed list, for example: T: Why don’t Ss: Why don’t we watch TV? we watch study TV? English?

T: Why don’t we Ss: Why don’t we study English? You can elicit and incorporate students’ ideas: T: S: See movie! What shall we

we see a

do? movie?’

T: Yun-ju said ‘Why don’t Ss: Why don’t we see a movie? Cloze

Cloze or ‘fill in the blank’ activities can be very effective and can be created online in minutes. The principal is a _________. He likes his _________. I hope he _________. man succeeds car Instead of providing the blanked words in a word bank, you can encourage students to contribute their own ideas to construct a new text:

The principal is a __bulldozer__. He likes his __church__. I hope he _prays_. A ‘mad lib’ is a cloze activity where words are chosen before the text is read, usually with humorous effect: 1. 2. 3. noun: __knee__ noun: __rig__ intransitive verb: _extrude_

The prinicpal is a ___(1)_____. He likes his ___(2)____. I hope he ___(3)____. Dictation Students can contribute the topic or text, or even write the text to be dictated. Dictoglosses, where students write as much as they are able to recall from a text instead of writing as they listen, are also effective. Surveys and Information Gaps Students can be given opportunities to design and conduct their own surveys. Information gap activities provide students an incomplete set of information, where each student has some information other students do not have. Students must communicate with each other to fill in their missing information. For example, students working in pairs might be provided a bus schedule, with some destinations and times missing (but not missing from their partner's schedule). Students need to ask each other questions to fill in the blanks on their schedule, like “At 3:31, where will the bus stop?” and “What time does the bus stop at the supermarket?” Simulations and Role Plays Simulations simulate ‘real life’ situations, while in role playing students represent and experience/interpret some ‘character type’ known in everyday life. Students can take control of the process, product and assessment of these activities which, when facilitated carefully, will present very effective language learning opportunities.

WRAP-UPS
If you’re like me, you might not allow enough time for a wrap up at the end of every lesson, but it’s an important habit to develop. It gives you an opportunity to briefly review the language items that were introduced in the lesson. It also allows students to comment on the

lesson as a whole—what they appreciated as well as what they did not find very effective or interesting. Above all, a good wrap up encourages your students to feel as though they have been participating in an event worth remembering. A simple “We did this, this and this. What did you think of this? What did you learn from this?” will suffice to begin a wrap up. If the lesson was effective, your students will likely use the opportunity to express their appreciation —and if you did deliver a good lesson, then you will deserve it!

SAMPLE LESSON PLANS
Below are lesson plans that incorporate some of the activities described in this chapter. It’s always a good idea to plan activity directions carefully—any language teacher will tell you that it is not always easy to give simple, clear directions, especially when you are delivering them in English.

SAMPLE LESSON 1—WHAT’S IT LIKE?
Description: Number and level of students: 35 students, middle school year 2, beginner-intermediate Length of class: 50 minutes Textbook: none Work done in previous class: unknown Pre-planning: Skills: integrated (speaking, listening, reading, writing) Grouping: 4-6, mixed-ability; pairs Supplementing the textbook: n/a Learning Objectives: By the end of the lesson, students should be able to better understand the experience of travel to another country, and to imagine seeing through the eyes of a traveler. Materials and Equipment: board, chalk/marker, paper Activities, Timing and Directions Name of Activity Time Directions

Warm Up

10

Pre-listening

10

Listening

10

Post-listening

15

Wrap up

5

Circle the Sage: Identify students who know someone who has lived abroad. These students are the sages. Other students circles them, and ask questions either about the person who lived abroad, or their experiences. Think-Pair-Share: Prediction: What did the teacher experience on her first day in Korea? What did she think? “Teacher’s first day in Korea.” A recount of your first day in the country. Tell the recount twice. After telling it once, have students compare their understanding of the recount with a partner. During the second telling, allow students to take notes while you write 6-8 language items on the board, e.g. “an endless traffic light.” With a partner, students write the teacher’s recount (in the first person, if this is feasible). In each pair, one student is responsible for accurate content, while the other student is responsible for accurate form (simple past tense). This should encourage collaboration. Add a drawing to the written recount and tape it to a wall. Students circulate in order to recognize each other’s efforts. The texts can be added to student portfolios or to a class journal.

Assigned work: n/a Comments:   This lesson centers on a “dictogloss” activity. Encourage collaboration with peers throughout this lesson. Research shows very clearly that all learners, whether advanced or beginner, accomplish more when working with sympathetic peers than they do when they work alone.

Evaluation:

SAMPLE LESSON 2—WHAT DO YOU DO ON SATURDAYS?
Description Number and level of students: 30-35, mixed-ability (low-beginner to advanced) but most high-beginner Length of class: 40 minutes Textbook: n/a Work done in previous class: unknown Pre-planning Skills: social: collaborating, surveying; linguistic: speaking, listening, writing Grouping: mixed-ability dyads (pairs) Supplementing the textbook: n/a Learning Objectives: By the end of the lesson, students should be able to: 1. 2. use habitual present to share (orally) their daily routines and habits participate and contribute, regardless of ability level

Materials and Equipment: handout below Activities, Timing and Directions:

Name of Activity

Time

Directions 1. Ask “What does the teacher do on Sundays?” 2. Write three Sunday routines on the board, only one of which is accurate. E.g. 1. I play golf. 2. I run 10km. 3. I read a book. 3. Think-Pair-Share: Which routine is accurate? What does the teacher really do on Sundays?

Warm-up: What does the teacher do on Sundays?

5

Name of Activity

Time

Directions 1. Revise days of the week. 2. Distribute handout. 3. Mime an activity for each day of the week. Students guess the activities and, in mixed-ability pairs, fill in the first row of the handout as you mime. Model the first activity, with the handout. On Mondays, “I watch TV.” (Mime channel surfing with a remote-con.) On Tuesdays, “I play tennis.” (Mime etc. ) On Wednesdays, “I talk with friends.” On Thursdays, “I go to a fitness center.” On Fridays, “I eat in a restaurant.” On Saturdays, “I see a movie.” On Sundays, “I read a book.” 5. Pairs report-back to confirm guesses. Write correct guesses on the board for Tuesday through Sunday. 6. Drill the verb phrases, or call-response, e.g: You: On Mondays, I— Students: watch TV! 7. Brainstorm other activities. Put these on the board. 8. Students now complete the second row of the handout with activities they engage in habitually. Explain that they should write seven different activities. Check comprehension then monitor to ensure that students are on-task. Scaffold where appropriate.

Prelistening: I do this. What do you do?

15

Name of Activity

Time

Directions 1. Explain that the next activity is a game. The goal is to find other students who do the same activities on the same days. The winner is the student with the most “matches” (one point per name). 2. Model the “game” with an advancedlevel student. E.g. You: I watch TV on Mondays. And you? Student: I go to a hakwon (on Mondays). On Tuesdays, I play tennis. What about you? You: On Tuesdays, I play computer games … It may be necessary to ask two advancedlevel students to model the “game” as well. Try to ensure that there will be a “match,” i.e., a day when both speakers do the same activity, and so can write each other’s names on the handout in the third row, in the appropriate column. You may wish to provide the models with “fixed” or fake handouts, in order to guarantee a “match.” Drill the language that the models use. You may wish to use flash cards if you have a number of struggling learners.

Listening: How to play

5

Name of Activity

Time

Directions Students play the matching game (i.e., conduct a class survey). The survey should be conducted in English. Find a fun way to penalize students who show others their handout—this is an interview (speaking/listening) activity, not a reading activity! Monitor closely. If you find an interview being conducted in L1, strike out one of the boxes on the student’s handout, so that they have one less routine to find a match for. 1. Report-back. Identify and verify a “winner.” 2. Place the winner(s) handout(s) in the Class Journal, if one is kept.

Postlistening: And you?

10

Wrap-up: Who wins?

5

Assigned work: None Comments:
 

This is a PPP (Present, Practice, Produce) lesson. Be sure to ask lots of comprehension questions—nominate for these if you know your students’ names or have a reliable class list.

The post-listening activity is somewhat complex, so be careful with your modeling and directions. Go slow.

Future lessons. The habitual (or timeless) present is also used for schedules. In the next lesson, students could do an information gap simulation, where they are given a time and must talk to various agents (plane, train, taxi, boat) in order to find the fastest route to a particular destination. Or students could conduct another survey, this time with a more complex question form: “What do you do on Saturdays?” The lesson could have an explicit research focus, with formal predictions made before the survey is conducted, e.g. “I think that 5 students

play computer games on Friday.” Or, a survey activity could require use of the third person singular, e.g. students could compile lists of students who enjoy the same activity: Seok-jo plays soccer/likes to play soccer. Seong-in eats mandu/likes to eat mandu. And so on. A handout follows, entitled What We Do. Due to the size limitations imposed by this book, it cannot be reproduced here. You may find it online at http://atek.or.kr/documents/pdfs/I_watch_TV.pdf

SAMPLE LESSON 3—WOMYN IN KOREA
For a more elaborate lesson plan, suitable for a lesson with university or adult learners, see Appendix Three: Sample Lesson Plan, with All Required Materials on page Error: Reference source not found.

ADDITIONAL SOURCES
Ajideh, P., “Schema Theory-based Pre-reading Tasks: A Neglected Essential in the ESL Reading Class,” The Reading Matrix 3(1), 3 Apr 2003, retrieved 19 Feb 2009, <http://www.readingmatrix.com/articles/ajideh/article.pdf> British Council, www.teachingenglish.org.uk. ReadingQuest, www.readingquest.org. For links to language teaching resources, visit: http://atek.or.kr/index.php/ efl-links

The Association for Teachers of English in Korea provides the following services to the general public, members and nonmembers alike:
• • • •
Monitoring of proposed legislation and regulations which may affect noncitizen English teachers in Korea. Translation of proposed and existing legislation and regulations (domestic and international) and analysis of their possible effects on non-citizen English teachers in Korea. Advocacy for English teacher concerns at the national and local levels. The English Teacher's Guide to Korea, which will be made available in PDF for free download from our website (http://atek.or.kr).

ATEK provides the following benefits and services to members:
• • • • Full access to ATEK's Employer Rating System, to make and review ratings. Access to the member forums. Access to professional development and lesson planning materials. Information on how to check to see if your employer is correctly reporting your income, paying your taxes and making proper deductions from your pay. Copies of labor, tax, pension, and health insurance complaint forms, translated into Korean, and instructions about how to go about filing a complaint. Local social networks (the Provincial and Metropolitan Associations that send reps to our national council). Access to data from the ATEK Member Survey, which enables ATEK to track average salaries and weekly hours by region and type of teaching job, average level of satisfaction with various job types, average length of stay of foreigners working in Korea, average pay and benefit increases when resigning for a second year, and much more. Want to know if your contract offer is above or below the average salary for someone in your city and education level? Get access. Advisories to the government based on ATEK Member Survey information on non-citizen English teacher's problems and needs (does one particular city have a higher rate of teachers reporting pay withholding fraud? That city's government might want to know that.) An online application that translates letters home to parents into Korean, so that you can communicate with parents and let them know how their child is doing. Representation of member concerns to relevant government agencies and other groups. Responses to media items of interest to non-citizen English teachers.

• •

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All these resources are available on our website at http://atek.or.kr

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
Living, Working, and Thriving in Korea Sparkling

By Tony Hellmann, M.Ed. Tom Rainey-Smith Jason Thomas, M.App.Ling. Matthew Henderson

ATEK

Press

This book was designed and laid out entirely with open source software. Individual sections copyright © 2009 by the respective authors, all rights reserved, except as licensed below. Used by permission. Published by ATEK Press, a division of the Association for Teachers of English in Korea. Design and composition by Tony Hellmann. Copyedited by Jason Thomas
Cover: Art by Jeffrey Morabito. www.jeffreymorabito.com. Photo by Trey Ratcliff, www.stuckincustoms.com

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CHAPTER 5: LIVING AS AN INSTRUCTOR IN KOREA
REASONS TO REGISTER WITH YOUR EMBASSY
As you may know, you can register with your embassy as a foreign resident of Korea. Many people think that registering with the embassy is only important in countries with unstable governments, where there might be a chance that your government may have to evacuate all its citizens, and therefore needs to know your whereabouts. In actuality, there are much more likely reasons than that. Reason #1: If you die, how will your parents or other family know? Two weeks before this article was first penned, an American was found dead in his apartment, of natural causes. The US Embassy was duly notified by the Korean authorities. He had not registered with the embassy, and so the embassy had no listing for his next of kin. It took them two weeks of searching before they finally found his family. Officers searched public directory listings and Google, among other things. Many people think that their government has a huge database that lists every person in the country, cross-referenced by next of kin, but this just isn't the case. People (healthy and sick) die all the time. Imagine your mother or father getting a phone call from the government one day, saying “We regret to inform you that your son died three weeks ago. We're very sorry, but he wasn't registered with the embassy and we only just located you today.” Reason #2: Embassies send out newsletters with topics of interest to expatriates. You'll want to know about the new virus that has erupted, anti-foreigner riots happening nearby, a new scam that targets foreigners, or when the deadline is for voting in your home country. These are the kinds of things that are contained in your embassy's newsletter. And, if there is need for evacuation, there will likely be an emergency email about that too.

ALIEN REGISTRATION
Application for your Certificate of Alien Registration (commonly called the Alien Registration Card, or ARC) should be organized within 90 days of your arrival in the country (the previous time frame was 30 days from date of entry, but due to the new visa regulations this period has been extended) – if you are working without a registration card after that you are working illegally. Although many employers will help you attain your registration card, you should be aware that it is technically your responsibility. Every Korean citizen is issued an identity registration number and all new residents are issued an alien registration card. You will be asked to provide a passport size photo for this (considering the complexity of the new visa application requirements, it is always handy to have some passport-sized photos at hand). You should be taken to the nearest immigration office (the jurisdiction of each immigration office is defined by geography, by gu, and therefore it depends on where you live) and asked to fill out an application form. The telephone line for the immigration department has a multilingual service which will help you identify which office you need to contact should you have any queries (dial 1345 to use this service). The immigration office will hold your passport until the alien registration card has been issued. This usually takes about one week. If your employer does not make an attempt to get you a registration card, you should contact the immigration office yourself so that you do not end up working illegally. There is no legitimate reason for your employer not to want you to be registered. You need your registration card in order to be fully registered with the immigration department and in order to claim medical insurance (which will greatly reduce your medical costs). Besides this, it is a good idea to carry your registration card with you at all times. It will help you at the bank, video store and other places.

DAILY LIFE
WASTE DISPOSAL
There are four types of waste: recyclable, food, household, heavy items. It important to become familiar with the waste regulations so that you can avoid having to pay fines, which are imposed for incorrect disposal of waste, and save yourself money by recycling a large percentage of your waste. And, of course, it’s good for the environment.

RECYCLING
Recycling is compulsory. It is also a cheaper option than having to purchase waste bags, as recycling does not need to be packaged. All recyclable goods can be put out on a particular day of the week for collection (this differs by location). Some larger apartment complexes have recycling areas where you are expected to separate out the different types of goods that are to be recycled into piles. These are glass, plastic, paper, metal (cans). If you do not recycle you are liable for a heavy fine. The following parameters offer good guidelines for what to do with recyclable goods: Recyclable Items Newspapers, notebooks, wrapping paper, corrugated cardboard, paper bags, paper boxes, milk cartons. Items with paper. Unrecyclable Items Plastic-coated paper bags, plastic-coated paper cups. Instructions Tie newspapers, calendars, magazines, or notebooks in 30cm bundles (ensure that cartons are clean before disposing).

Paper

Recyclable Items Beer bottles, liquor bottles, soda bottles, items with glass.

Unrecyclable Items Sheet glass, mirrors, heat-resistant dishes, milky white bottles, cosmetic bottles, china dishes. Paint containers, oil containers, or other containers of toxic material.

Instructions Wine, beverage, and medicine bottles must be cleaned before disposing.

Glass

Metals

Beverage cans, spray can bottles, butane gas bottles, iron tools, iron wires, aluminum, stainless steel dishes. Items with iron or aluminum.

Metal chairs and stainless steel should be placed separately. Cans of beer, beverages, and powdered milk should be compressed before throwing away. Cleans these items thoroughly to reduce smell.

Styrofoam

Shock-absorbing materials for electronic products, boxes used to transport fruits or fish, clean instant noodle containers. Items with ‘PET, HIPE, LDPE, PP, PS, PVC, or OTHER’ recycle symbols on the container.

Disposable dishes.

Plastic

Writing instruments, buttons, sockets, electric heaters, toys, baby walkers, phones, disposable cameras, etc. Foil tops, container labels.

Detergent and shampoo containers should be disposed only after rinsing with water.

Milk packs

Milk packs

Rinse before disposal.

Recyclable Items Fluorescent lamps Plastic bags Batteries Unbroken florescent lamps, light bulbs. Plastic bags.

Unrecyclable Items Broken lamps or bulbs. Instant noodle wrappers, dirty plastic bags. Discharge at designated spot at each dong office.

Instructions

NOT RECYCLABLE

DISPOSABLE WASTE
Disposal of other waste must be completed using specially-marked council bags that can be purchased from supermarkets and mini marts. Not all supermarkets or corners stores or mini marts sell the official bags, which include the name of your area, so you will need to make sure you purchase the correct bags. There is a large fine for putting out rubbish in unofficial bags (e.g. shopping bags). Potentially dangerous or loose goods such as glass from light bulbs, plant matter and other inedible garden matter must be broken down and first wrapped in a firm bag before being placed inside an official refuse bag.

FOOD WASTE
Food waste needs to be packed into small bags and taken out at the same time as other non-recyclable waste. Some apartments have their own food waste collection bins. This will save you having to buy official bags. These bins are periodically emptied and the food waste is then taken and disposed of. What qualifies as food waste? Everything that can be consumed by animals should be considered food waste. Bear in mind the following exceptions: Do not include the following in your food waste Fruit and Vegetables Hard nut shells or outer coverings such as shells of chestnuts, walnut, peanut, acorn, coconut, pineapple,

coconut palm, cherry or grape stems, etc (although citrus peels are okay). Onion peels, roots of green onion, garlic peels, corn husks, etc. Meat Fish and Seafood Others Bones and/or feathers from beef, pork or poultry. Shells of clam, abalone, sea squirt, crab, lobster, etc. Swellfish innards, fish bones. Tea bags, herb medicine residue, egg shells, etc

LARGE ITEMS
Large volume wastes such as refrigerators and furniture, which are hard to dispose of, should be reported to the Sanitation Division of the District Offices (or Dong offices) 3 days before disposal. A written notice for the fee to be paid at the bank will be given. The fee is determined according to the size of the article. Fees range from 3,000 won for a television or washing machine to 15,000 won for a large wardrobe or a piano.

PAYING BILLS
There are two possible ways to pay your bills: by automatic payment and through billing statements.

AUTOMATIC PAYMENT
If available, you can set up an automatic billing option when the amount owed will automatically be payed from your bank account or credit card periodically.

BILLING STATEMENTS (INVOICES)
Billing statements (called General Inter-bank Routing Orders – GIROs) are a more common way for foreign instructors to pay their bills. These are sent out monthly to your home or school address. You should be clear where you would prefer them to be sent as they all include a payment deadline which will be roughly a week after the date of receipt. Some apartments will consolidate your bills into a single monthly payment. This probably means that they control your gas and electricity suppliers and have contracted out to them. Otherwise

you may have to set up your own contracts with various providers (for example, if you want to subscribe to cable television or the internet) and will receive bills separately. Bills can be paid at any branch of any bank. There are often machines which are designed specifically to process invoices. If you are able to use these they will deduct the money directly from your debit card, or there is an option to place cash into the machine to cover the cost of the invoice. Multiple invoices can be paid off in one transaction. You will need to tear off the large part of the invoice and feed it into the machine, and will keep the receipt for your own records. There is often a friendly staff member who will greet you upon entry into the bank – this person will often be able to show you how to use the machine if you show him or her your invoice. Otherwise, you can collect all your invoices together and take them to a bank teller who will process them for free for you. It is worth becoming familiar with using the automatic machines so as to save time waiting in line.

HOUSING
Housing in Korea is relatively small compared to Western countries. The majority of the population live in apartment blocks consisting of uniform structures and standardized interiors. Apartment sizes are measured in ‘pyeong’ – a pyeong is 3.35 square meters, which was traditionally the space a Korean man took up when he laid down on the ground with arms and legs outstretched. The smallest onebedroom studio apartment is about 7 pyeong. It is advisable to expect somewhat cramped living conditions, although this is completely relative to what you are used to in your home country. Housing tends to get more expensive the closer to the center of the city you live. Some schools in far-removed locations may offer you on-site accommodation. It is worth confirming what kind of accommodation comes with your job and whether or not you will be sharing living arrangements with someone else (another instructor for example). Most contracts offer either housing or a living stipend to cover rent, although some do not offer either of these. During your first teaching contract in Korea it is advisable to apply for a job that includes housing. As always, ask to speak to an instructor currently

living in housing supplied by the employer – this will give you an indication of what your living conditions will be like. Please be aware that it is customary to leave one's home dirty for the new tenants to clean. There is a prevalent belief that it is bad luck to move into a clean house and therefore it is common to have to clean your new home yourself when first moving in.

HOUSING FACILITIES WATER SUPPLY
Tap water is adequate for drinking in many regions, but using a filtration/purification system or purchasing bottled water is advisable. The average amount used by a household in Seoul per month costs 3,380 won. For any inconvenience related to the water supply, you can report it to your local waterworks offices or in Seoul dial 121. For hot water information see Gas (below).

ELECTRICITY
In Seoul, an average household consumes 263 kw per month for a charge of 25,000 won. Any inconvenience related to the supply of electricity should be reported by dialing 123. The voltage used is 220V / 60hz, and most wall sockets require a European-style plug (some buildings may have US-style sockets, but don't be fooled: it still requires 220V, so plugging a 110V device in will guarantee your device is damaged.

GAS (LIQUID NATURAL GAS)
Petroleum and gas are used for heating and cooking in many homes. Hot water for domestic use, ondol radiant floor heating, and air conditioning, all generally use LNG gas. If you want to connect your utilities to the gas system, contact a real estate agency for assistance.

TELEPHONE / INTERNET / SATELLITE
Some providers offer package deals that allow you to purchase multiple services from one provider (e.g. land-line, hi-speed internet and satellite TV), potentially saving you money. Land-line telephone service information is available from Korea Telecom (KT) by calling 100 (On a mobile phone, dial 02-100),

Ext.#8. You can expect to pay 60,000 won for installation and a monthly basic charge of 5,200 won. There are three major companies offering internet services: KT Megapass (tel : 02-100, toll free from a land-line) and Hana Fos (tel : 02-106). Initial cost of installation is around 30,000 won and monthly service charges range from 25,000 to 30,000 won. There are also many other (smaller) providers and be aware that some areas are only covered by a single provider. Charges may differ somewhat. Skylife is a representative satellite provider in Korea. A foreigner can sign up for Skylife services by calling 02-1588-3002. For English, send an email request to english@skylife.co.kr. To watch satellite programs you need an antenna, receiver, smart card and remote control. The Skylife staff will install this equipment. Monthly rates vary depending on contract length and package selected.

HEATING
Many homes have traditional underfloor heating (although the floor is now heated using modern technology rather than an underfloor fire!) called ondol which can be regulated to keep the house warm during winter.

AIR-CONDITIONING
Many people consider air-conditioning a necessity in the summer. Standing and wall-mounted units are available at all appliance stores, but can be expensive to purchase.

COOKING
All apartments include a two-burner range that can be used for cooking food. It is very rare to find an apartment with an oven, although microwaves are common and a relatively inexpensive option.

RELOCATION SERVICES
This section is most relevant for those who have already stayed in Korea and are looking to move from one location to another. There are a number of different relocation services offered by professional moving companies, starting from a basic “you pack” service to full service. The cost of moving the contents of your home will vary

depending on provider and on the type of service you require (from roughly 200,000 won to 1,300,000 won). The low-end services require you to pack the contents and load the truck yourself, while the highend services will box everything, move everything, unbox everything at the destination, and will even clean your new home for you. Some services also include storage for those people who are not moving from one place directly to another. It is best to avoid moving on a ‘no spirits day’ (son-eobneun-nal), as many people choose these days to move and fees are increased. These days happen up to six times a month (they fall on the 9th, 10th, 19th, 20th, 29th and 30th days of the lunar calendar), so it is best to check in advance with your provider.

HEALTH CARE
OVERVIEW
Regarding overall health care resources, according to the World Health Organization there are 92,056 physicians in South Korea as of 2007, and 2,082 hospital-level health care institutions. The ratio of physicians-to-people in Korea is comparable to Canada. The mortality rate and life expectancy is comparable to the United States and other industrialized nations. It is important to know that in Korea, the English term “hospital” is used for any physician's office, whether that be at an urban general hospital, or a one-doctor clinic. When most Koreans ask “Did you go to the hospital?” they generally mean “Did you see a doctor?” Make sure they have your alien registration number, so that your insurance is being billed. Because the cost of medical care is so low compared to some Western countries, foreigners sometimes think they are paying the “insured” rate when in fact they are not. One teacher went to see a doctor for the flu and was asked for 17,000 won after the appointment. She thought that was the fee with insurance, and was happy to pay such a low rate. She came to learn later that the rate for her with insurance was 3,000 won! She had mistakenly given her foreigner number incorrectly, and the clinic thought she had no insurance since the number she gave didn't show up in the computer.

Some people have been asked to pay a foreigner “tax” or “fee” when visiting a doctor. The government does not tax foreigners in this way, and any fees levied are coming directly from the provider. Few providers engage in this practice and it is usually easy to find another provider who does not. Be advised a typical visit to a doctor's office for a cold or flu-like symptoms usually costs between 3,000 and 5,000 won. Doctors usually have the ability to communicate to their patients in English, although this may be very limited (many Korean medical terms are identical to the English terminology, although pronunciation may be different). As it is very important to understand your results or advice, please take a piece of paper for the doctor to write on or the phone number of a Korean-speaking colleague or friend. On the same token, having your symptoms written in Korean for the doctor to see is also useful. See also Appendix One: Survival Phrases for Living and Working in Korea at the end of this guide for medical and illness related words and phrases in Korean.

FIRST RESPONSE (AMBULANCE)
Dial 119 for an ambulance. Ambulances in Korea respond quickly in urban and suburban areas, but do not have the same level of equipment or staffing as in many Western countries. Foreigners used to a large truck staffed by two paramedics and a driver with the training and equipment to treat a wide range of medical conditions en-route to a hospital may be surprised to see a mid-size van with a driver and one medical technician, with limited capability to do much more than keep patients stable en-route to the hospital.

MEDICAL FACILITIES
Modern emergency medical services are available in every city with 250,000 people or more, and in many smaller cities as well. Many doctors have some knowledge of English. Specialized non-emergent medical care (such as care requiring a cardiologist, oncologist, endocrinologist, or other specialists) is available in Seoul, Incheon, Pusan, Daegu, Gwangju, Daejeon, Ulsan, and a few other large cities, but is difficult to locate in some suburban and most rural areas.

The Seoul Global Center provides a free medical referral service with foreign volunteers. If you are looking for information on international clinics in Seoul, please contact the MRS team at 010-47698212 or 010-8750-8212.

PHARMACIES
Pharmacies are well-supplied, though not all psychiatric medications may be available, and insulin may not be available at some. Pharmacies near major hospitals usually carry a wider range of medications, including insulin. Virtually all pharmacies carry oral contraceptives (birth control pills) and they are available over-thecounter without a prescription. The Korean word for birth control pill is 피 임 약 (pi-im yak). Emergency contraception (the morning after pill), on the other hand, requires a prescription.

SPECIALIZED MEDICINE
GYNECOLOGY
Foreigners may receive the full range of diagnostics and treatments they would expect from a hospital back home, including cervical exams and pap smears. Those familiar with such services in their home countries should be advised that the customs surrounding such exams are a little different in Korea. For example, it is not uncommon for the professional gathering your health history (including sexual history questions) to do so at the front desk within earshot of everyone in the waiting room. Women are advised to wear a skirt or dress to their appointment; in Korea it is customary to receive gynecological services such as pap smears, sonograms, and cervical exams with one's underwear removed, but skirt on. Korean medical professionals will assume you know this and will be startled and embarrassed if they enter the exam room to see a foreigner naked from the waist down.

CONTRACEPTION FOR WOMEN
Korea practices modern contraceptive methods including oral contraceptives (most not requiring a prescription), intra-uterine devices, sterilization, injectables, hormonal implants, and female barrier devices. Virtually all pharmacies carry oral contraceptives

(birth control pills) and they are available over-the-counter without a prescription.

ABORTIONS
Chapter 27 of the Criminal Code prohibits procuring and administering abortions. However, in 1973, the Maternal and Child Health and the Mother and Fatherless Child Health Acts established a wide array of exemptions from this prohibition. Even though the Korean legal system may punish those that procure and perform an abortion, prosecutors rarely prosecute those that do so because of the exceptions, the fact that doctors can fit their case into the exemptions, and the fact that the attitude of Koreans towards abortion has drastically changed since the imposition of the law. Today, a woman that is pregnant in Korea that wishes to undergo an abortion usually visits her local OB/GYN and the doctor usually performs the abortion or the doctor refers the patient to a clinic that will perform the abortion. In Korea, an abortion can usually be performed up to 28 weeks from conception, but at the 28-week mark, the abortion may be detrimental to the health of the mother.

DIABETES
Diabetes is also widespread in South Korea, with more than two million people suffering from the disease. Insulin is available with a prescription. While not all pharmacies carry insulin, pharmacies near major hospitals usually do. The Korean word for diabetes is dang nyo byeong (당뇨병).

ASTHMA
Asthma treatment is fully modern in Korea. Asthma medication is available with a prescription. Both “rescue inhalers” and longer term dry powder inhalers (Seretide/Advair) are available with prescription, for a modest fee (around 5,000 won).

MENTAL HEALTH
Living and working in a foreign country is stressful, and access to Western-style mental health treatment is limited. Individuals suffering from mental conditions that are exacerbated by stress may find Korea a very difficult environment to live and work in. Not all psychiatric medications are available in Korea. Western-style psychotherapy is

difficult to find, even in big cities, because mental health professionals who are both qualified to conduct psychotherapy and fluent in English are rare. There is a major stigma in Korean society associated with seeing a mental health professional, so foreigners are cautioned to use discretion (e.g. asking the English-speaking secretary at one's work to help one find a psychiatrist may not be the best option).

SERVICES
EYE CARE AND VISION
CONTACT LENSES AND GLASSES
When purchasing wither contact lenses or glasses (spectacles), free testing is provided to find the right vision correction for you. Generally, no appointment or prior booking is necessary. Glasses are also easily acquired and lenses are often cut on the spot. A range of frames is usually available, starting at as little as 10,000 won for basic frames to 200,000+ for designer brands. Complete spectacles can be purchased for as little as 40,000 won. Contact lenses are available without prescription over the counter at all optical stores and can be purchased in hard or soft forms, for long-term and single-use (disposable) wear. Costs vary depending on brand and lens type.

POSTAL
Korea Post runs Korea’s national postal system. Post offices are open from 09:00 ~ 18:00 Monday to Friday, and some offices are open on Saturday mornings until 13:00. Visit their website for more information: www.koreapost.go.kr. To post a letter, a postcard or a small package, you may put it in one of the mail boxes on the street, or visit a post office. For over-sized items, you have to visit the post office. The following providers also offer courier and cargo services: Cargo Service Tel DHL Korea 82-1588-0001 Fedex 080-023-8000 UPS 82-2-1588-6886 URL www.dhl.co.kr www.fedex.com/kr_english www.ups.com/content/kr/en/

Hanjin Express EMS

82-2-728-5114 82-2-1588-1300

www.hanjin.co.kr www.epost.go.kr

Receiving Mail. Mail from outside of Korea can be addressed to you in either Hangul or English. Postal Codes. Visit www.koreapost.go.kr for a national directory of postal codes.

BANKING AND MONEY
Korean won are issued in coins of 10, 50, 100 and 500 won, and in paper denominations of 1,000; 5,000; and 10,000; with 50,000 won notes to be issued in 2009. There are also “checks” which are issued in denominations of 100,000 won (white) and 1,000,000 won (blue), and are used like cash. They are called checks because they are issued by banks, not by the government, but work just like cash. You can get them in some ATMs and at banks.

ATMS
Some Korean ATMs have an English option, but many do not. Even the ones that in English offer limited menus that may not offer all the options available from Korean menus. The most frequently used are withdrawal, deposit, and funds transfers, but lesser used functions such as bill/utility payment, report lost/stolen card, and overseas wire transfer may be useful to you as well. ATMs use various Korean words for these functions, so the most common ones are listed below. If one needs to use a Korean-language ATM, one also needs to know that 최소 means “cancel” and 확인 means “confirmation” or “confirm.” Often, after inserting your card or account book, the first screen you see after choosing your transaction type will be instructions admonishing you to use the ATM carefully, and warning against fraud. It may look like this:

Push 확인 to continue.

Withdraw Cash

or The button on the right literally says “Cash (Check) Withdrawal” Note that 출금 means “withdrawal” and appears on both buttons. Balance Inquiry

or Electronic Funds Transfer

or

or

Electronic funds transfers allow you to send money to anyone with a Korean bank account instantly. After selecting this option, you will be prompted to insert your card and enter your PIN number. Upon completing this step you will see a screen that looks a something like this:

This screen prompts you to select the payee's bank. 기타 means “other.” Select that if the payee's bank does not appear on this screen. You will be prompted to enter the bank code. Next, you will be prompted to enter the payee's account number, with a screen similar to this one:

After entering the payee's account number, you will be prompted to specify the amount of money you wish to send, on a screen like this:

Note that you must specify how many man (만: 10,000) won and cheon (천: 1,000) won separately. For example, if I wanted to transfer

314,563 won to someone, I would enter 31 만 4 천 563 원. Next, you will get a transaction confirmation screen, like the one below:

Touch 학인 to confirm. You may get one more screen (not shown) asking if you want a paper receipt or not. Touch 학인 if you want one, or 취소 if you don't. Passbook Update

Use this button to have the machine update your passbook. Open your passbook as if you are reading it and insert it into the machine open. The ATM will print an update in your book and return it to you. Pay Bills

or Note: The button on the right actually says “pay tax” but at some ATMs, the bill paying menu is accessed with this button. Use this button to pay any number of bills. Common options are:

KT (Phone, Cable, Broadband Internet)

Power Bill

Pay Taxes

Paper Bill

Water Bill

Health Care*

National Pension*

Pay Traffic Fines *English teachers should not be making health care or national pension payments through an ATM. Their employers should be deducting these from their monthly pay. These options exist for small business owners and independent contractors.

After selecting one of the above buttons, you will see a screen prompting you for your invoice number (not shown). Your invoice number is printed on your bill/statement/traffic citation. Pay Taxes

Sometimes the taxes button is separate from the bills button. Pay Tuition

People can pay their university tuition through many ATMs. Report Lost/Stolen Card or Passbook

Overseas Remittance

or To send money overseas via ATM, one must register for this service with their bank. Your registered account(s) will show on the next screen. Transaction without Card or Passbook

If you do not have your bank card or passbook, but know your account number, you may select this option and enter your account number to access ATM services for your account. Some banks have special services for foreigners. See the ATEK Products and Services Wiki for more information.

MOBILE PHONES
The major phone network companies have English speaking representatives who can help you register for a phone and service contract, or you can go into a store and sign up for a phone. You will need to have your alien registration card, bank book, and passport ready when you call or go in. There are several rate plans available for those who wish to be billed monthly, and prepaid phones are available too. Some prepaid services require users to purchase time on a prepaid card which can be recharged or replaced by a new card when the money runs out. Check the validation period on your prepay cards as they will have an expiration date. See the websites of the two main providers (below) for more information: SK Telecom: www.sktelecom.com/eng/index.html www.lgtelecom.com LG Telecom:

INTERNET
Korea is one of the world’s largest internet users per capita and also boasts one of the fastest networks in the world. According to a government poll taken in June and July of 2008, 77 percent of the Korean population use the internet. From this percentage, on average 13.7 hours are spent online a week per person. This is easily visible in the number of internet cafes that dot the landscape, whether in the center of a large city or in a largely residential area. Internet access is easy and the internet itself is efficient and relatively affordable. For wireless users, it is useful to know that many cafes offer wireless connection services free-of-charge to customers.

INTERNET CAFES (PC방)
As mentioned above, you can find these everywhere. They are called PC bangs and are basically the same as internet cafes. Most PC bangs charge a minimum of 1,000 won or more for 1 hour. Additional time can be purchased and there are often incremental discounts the longer

you spend in one sitting. You pay after using the service. You will be given a card with a code that you will need to enter in order to log on to a computer and your time will be recorded by the computer so as to charge you accordingly.

ADDITIONAL SOURCE
Jin, Hyun-joo, “77% of Koreans Use Web,” Korea Herald, 1 Oct 2008, republished online at Asia Media: Asia Media News Daily, http://www.asiamedia.ucla.edu/article.asp?parentid=98237 (retrieved 15 Oct 2008).

INTERNET AT HOME
Korea offers both dial-up and broadband services. You will need to specify your needs when applying for your internet connection. It is useful to ask co-teachers and/or colleagues to help you with these matters. There are three major companies offering internet services: KT Megapass (tel : 02-100, toll free from a land-line), Hana Fos (tel : 02-106, also toll free) and Powercomm (02-1600-7000). Initial cost of installation is about 30,000 won and monthly service charges range from 25,000 to 30,000 won. Not all three of these companies may be available in a given area. There are also many other (smaller) providers. Be aware that some areas are only covered by a single provider. Charges may differ somewhat from one company to the next.

TELEPHONE
Land-line telephone service information is available from Korea Telecom (KT) by calling 02-100, Ext.#8. You can expect to pay about 60,000 won for installation and a monthly basic charge of 5,200 won.

INTERNATIONAL CALLS
There are multiple providers who allow you to use their service to make a call to an overseas phone number. Be aware that when using Korea Telecom’s (001) service you will be billed separately (others should be included in your landline or mobile bill). Korea Telecom (001) Dial 001 + Country Code + Area Code + Phone number

LG Dacom (002) Dial 002 + Country Code + Area Code + Phone number Onse (00365) Dial 001 + Country Code + Area Code + Phone number Serome (00770) Dial 00770 + Country Code + Area Code + Phone number SK Telecom (00700) Dial 00700 + Country Code + Area Code + Phone number

INTERNATIONAL CALLING CARDS
You can also purchase international calling cards from most convenience stores. Different cards are better suited for calling different countries and/or global regions, so make sure you choose one that allows you to call to the country you will be calling.

PUBLIC FACILITIES
PUBLIC BATHS AND TOILETS
Jjimjilbang (

찜 질 방 , literally ‘fomentation rooms,’ but loosely

translated as ‘steam rooms’) are popular places among Koreans. Often whole families will go together to bathe and enjoy the other facilities available. They often include public baths which are segregated by gender, as well as unisex areas that include sauna and cooling rooms of differing temperatures, entertainment areas (for example: library, mini-movie theatre, PC room), massage services, and a communal rest area (which you can sleep all night in, if you don't mind sleeping on the floor of a moderately lit room). If you are uncomfortable with public nudity then you may wish to avoid the public baths. They are usually open 24 hours and cost around 6,000 won for a day or 12,000 won for a night (prices will vary from place to place). If you are in need of a cheap place to sleep, this is as cheap as it gets in Korea. Western-style (sitting) toilets are commonly installed in homes and in many public bathrooms, although the traditional (squatting) toilet is still often found in public areas such as the subway, restaurants, bars and cafes. It is advisable to carry toilet paper with you at all times as many public toilets do not provide this. Vending machines selling toilet tissue are commonly found outside public toilets.

SPORTS AND RECREATION
There is a strong public awareness of fitness in Korea. Mountain hiking is an extremely popular pastime and there are recreational facilities available to the public free of charge. In the larger cities, where the air is more polluted, it may not be recommendable to do some forms of exercise like running outdoors, but there are plenty of gyms and fitness clubs where you can do these things. There are at least four major sports festivals held annually in Korea: the Children’s National Sports Festival, National Sports Festival (October), National Sports Festival for People with Disabilities, and the National Winter Sports Festival (January). Two events which helped promote and develop major sports in Korea are the 1988 Seoul Summer Olympic Games and the 2002 Soccer World Cup, which was jointly held by Japan and Korea. The former played a major role in opening Korea up to the international community and the latter saw the development of many modern sporting facilities around the major cities.

TRADITIONAL SPORTS
Taekwondo, hapkido and ssireum (often described as Korean wrestling) are all popular forms of traditional martial arts still practiced and taught today. Taekwondo has gained international popularity and is often taken up by instructors living in Korea as a source of fitness or simply as a fun recreational activity. There is likely to be a training gym near your workplace, so ask a native teacher to help you register if you are interested in joining.

NATIONAL SPORTS LEAGUES
Korea Professional Football League (K-League) Korea Baseball Organization (KBO) Korean Basketball League (KBL) Korean Volleyball League (V-League)

STADIUMS
Stadiums are great recreational facilities. Because of the 2002 FIFA World Cup, all of Korea’s major cities include a modern stadium.

Stadiums are often surrounded by running tracks, exercise equipment, sports fields, climbing walls, and the like, and are therefore excellent places for serious exercise or just a kick around.

OTHER PUBLIC RECREATIONAL FACILITIES
Exercise equipment can be found in many public parks, alongside public walkways, and off mountain trails. There are also many outdoor badminton and basketball courts around public walkways and parks. Climbing is also popular in Korea and climbing walls can be found in many parts of the country and are usually free to use (although you will need to bring your own climbing equipment).

BOOKSTORES AND LIBRARIES
BOOKSTORES IN KOREA
There are a number of large bookstores in the major cities, many of which include comprehensive sections for foreign language books, the biggest of which will be English. Some of the larger bookstores are listed below, but also included are some second-hand bookstores that sell English language books. If you are in Seoul and have spare time, there is the possibility of finding a nice little bargain amongst the stacks of text books, art books, comic books, technical manuals and novels (you name it) that line the pavement opposite the Dongdaemun textile market, and wading through the piles can be a pleasure in itself for book lovers. What follows is a list of bookstores that contain English language sections and/or specialize in English instruction material. They are listed in alphabetical order. For further information visit their websites (as listed below). Please visit ATEK’s online wiki for a more comprehensive list recommended by other instructors living in Korea. Small Bookstores English+: http://www.englishplus.co.kr/. English Bookstore GLOVI: http://www.glovi.co.kr/. Itaewon Foreign Bookstore: (No website) Tel: (02) 793-8249, Cell: 016711-8249, E-mail: itaewon@korea.com. Seoul Selection: http://www.seoulselection.com/.

What The Book?: http://www.whatthebook.com/. Large Bookstores Yeongpung Bookstore: http://www.ypbooks.co.kr/. Kyobo Bookstores: http://www.kyobobook.co.kr/. Bandi & Luni's: http://www.bandinlunis.com/main.htm

LIBRARIES IN KOREA
According to the National Library of Korea there are over 600 public libraries in the country. However, most do not contain a large number of English language books. For this reason it is best to visit a major public library if you have the time and access. Alternatively, university libraries may offer a comprehensive range of books in the English language, but access to them is limited to registered students.

NATIONAL ASSEMBLY LIBRARY
A relatively unknown gem is the National Assembly Library. Located on Yeouido Island, Seoul in the National Assembly building, it is primarily a resource for members of the National Assembly. Although books cannot be withdrawn from the library, there are copying facilities and areas inside the library that allow you to sit and read in comfort. You will have to turn in your alien registration card and obtain a pass at the desk before entering.

NATIONAL LIBRARY OF KOREA
The National Library of Korea is located in Seocho-gu, Seoul. Opened in 1945, it contains a digital multimedia center, Northeast Asian Collections Room, North Korean Collections Room, and an Old & Rare Collection. For opening times (which vary according to section) and further information, see their website at http://www.nl.go.kr/.

NATIONAL DIGITAL LIBRARY
You can visit the National Digital Library online at http://www.dlibrary.go.kr/NEL_ENG/Index.jsp. As the most comprehensive database for materials on pre-1950 Korea, it contains sources and information from and on the Japanese Occupation period including old newspapers (pre-1945), official gazettes (1894-1910), periodicals (pre-1950), over 1400 Korean academic journals, and the original images of Korean rare books and old maps are available

online through more than 70 databases of eight Korean national libraries (including those mentioned above): the National Library of Korea (국립중앙도서관), the National Assembly Library (국회도서관), the Supreme Court Library ( 법원도서관), the KAIST Digital Science Library ( 한국과학기술원 과학도서관 ), the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information ( 한국 과학 기술 정보 연구 원 ), the Korea Education & Research Information Service (한국교육학술정보원), the Korea Agricultural Science Digital Library ( 농촌진흥청 농업과학도서 관 ), and the Korea Knowledge Portal ( 국 가 지 식 포 털 ). In total, it contains over 3,000,000 items.

ADDITIONAL SOURCE
Digital Resources for Korea Studies, Harvard College Library, http://hcl.harvard.edu/research/guides/korean/ (retrieved 15 Oct. 2008).

KOREAN LANGUAGE LESSONS
As with much of this guide, the information provided below is not exhaustive, but is intended as an outline for those interested in developing their language skills without having to diminish their savings. As these types of services will continually develop and spring up around the country thanks to hard-working people, please see the ATEK Products and Services Guide for Korean language lesson providers in your area.

COURSES
Many of the major universities in Korea offer Korean language courses. These may not be practical for most instructors, depending on your teaching schedule and on your commitment to learning the language. Many instructors are interested in developing their Korean language ability through less formal and cheaper options. Many of the major hakwon run Korean language courses at a reasonable price and class times tend to be more flexible. For those who are interested in a more intensive and tailored language course, private tutors are also available, but will charge accordingly.

KOREAN LANGUAGE PROVIDERS
ANDONG
Andong National University 388 Songchon-dong, Andong-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do Tel: 54-820-5326 http://eng.andong.ac.kr/ Contact Person: Kim, Sang Hyo lang@andong.ac.kr

BUSAN
Busan Foundation for International Activities
1st Floor in City Hall 2001, Jungangno, Yeonje-gu, Busan Tel : 865-0133 http://www.bfia.or.kr/english/foreigner3_2.html Busan Metropolitan City Volunteer Center (Korean Language Program) Busan Water Authority (10th F) 273-20bunji, Yangjeong 2-dong, Busanjin-gu, Busan Tel : 864-1365 http://vt.busan.go.kr Pusan National University Institute of International Exchange & Education San 30bunji, Jangjeon 3-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan Tel : 510-1982 http://international.pusan.ac.kr/new/english/sub/s4.asp bangjy77@pusan.ac.kr Pukyung University Foreign language Education Center Daeyeon 3-dong Nam-gu, Busan Tel : 620-6952 http://web.pknu.ac.kr/~flec/korean/school_regular.htm Pusan University of Foreign Studies (Korean Language & Culture Center ) #314 Korean Language & Culture Center San55-1bunji, Uam 1-dong, Nam-gu, Busan Tel : 640-3633 http://eng.pufs.ac.kr/html/00_main/ wy0200@pufs.ac.kr Busan Campus of Youngsan University Korean Language School 249bunji, Bansong 3-dong, Haeundae-gu, Busan Tel : 540-7104 http://www.ysu.ac.kr/eng/ kols@webmail.ysu.ac.kr Dong-eui University Foreign Language Education Center Central Library (6th F) San24 Gaya-dong, Busanjin-gu, Busan Tel : 890-1770~2 http://language.deu.ac.kr Dong-a University Office of International Affairs Dong-a Univ. 840bunji Hadan 2-dong, Saha-gu, Busan Tel : 200-6342 http://global.donga.ac.kr/english/lectures/lectures.html global@donga.ac.kr Silla University Korean Language Institute Silla Univ. San 1-1bunji Gwaebeop-dong, Sasang-gu, Busan Tel : 999-5755 http://www.silla.ac.kr/eng/ interpro1@silla.ac.kr Korean Language Institute For Foreigners KLIFF Geumjeong-gu, Jangjeon-1 dong, 388-12, Busan

Tel : 513-0131 http://www.kliff.co.kr jennakang@hanmail.net

Association for Foreign Workers' Human Rights in Busan Yusin Bldg.(4th F) 193-9bunji, Jeonpo 2-dong, Busanjin-gu, Busan Tel : 802-3438 http://fwr.jinbo.net noja@kornet.net Korea-Japan Cultural Exchange Association Byeogam Bldg. 1157-2bunji Choryang 3-dong, Dong-gu, Busan Tel : 465-7323 http://www.kojac.or.kr lesson@kojac.or.kr International Friendship Program (PNUF) Pusan National University Inmungwan Room 120 Tel : 019-9669-1123 http://cafe.daum.net/pnuf pnufmail@daum.net

CHANGWON
Changwon National University Language Education Center 65 Sonamu 5-gil, Changwon-si, Gyeongnam +82-55-279-8041 http://www.changwon.ac.kr/~lang/ Contact: Choi, Mi Kyung cielbleu03@hotmail.com

CHEONAN
Sunmoon University Korean Language Institute 381-7 Samyong-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do +82-41-559-1332 http://kli.sunmoon.ac.kr Contact: Shin, Nyeong Mok ymshin62@daum.net

CHEONGJU
Chungbuk National University International Education Center 12 Gaesin-dong, Huengduk-gu, Cheongju +82-43-261-3299 http://cie.chungbuk.ac.kr/ Contact: Hwang, Sun Young jiayou@chungbuk.ac.kr

CHUNCHEON
Hallym University Korean Language Education Center 39 Hallymdaehak-gil, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do +82-33-248-2973 http://www.klec.or.kr/eng Shin, Jae Eun de2973@hallym.ac.kr

DAEJEON
Chungnam National University Language Education Center 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon +82-42-821-8804 http://www.cnu.ac.kr/~lang_res/korean/koreanlanguage_eng.htm Roh, Hyun Seo flec@cnu.ac.kr Hyechon College Korean Language Institute 333 Boksu-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon +82-42-580-6158 http://www.hcc.ac.kr/ (tno website for Korean Language Institute) Cho, Yeon Gil atkorea@hcc.ac.kr

GWANGJU
Chonnam National University Language Education Center 333 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju +82-62-530-3630 http://language.chonnam.ac.kr/cnu_lec_eng/Curriculum/index01.asp Contact: Moon, Ji Yul jymoon@jnu.ac.kr

INCHEON
Inha University Language Training Center 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon +82-32-860-8302 http://site.inha.ac.kr/ltc/ Kim, Mi Kyung mk0914@inha.ac.kr

JEONJU
Chonbuk National University Language Education Center 664-14 1 ga Dukjin-dong, Dukjin-gu, Jeonju +82-63-270-2250 Lee, Bo Eun lec@chonbuk.ac.kr

NONSAN
Geumgang University Korean Language Program 14-9 Daemeong-ri, Sangwol-myeon, Nonsan-si, Chungcheongnam-do +82-41-731-3043 http://glc.ggu.ac.kr/ Lee, Hak Yong leigh@ggu.ac.kr

SEOSAN
Hanseo University Institute of Language and Culture 360 Daegok-ri, Haemi-myun, Seosan-si, Chongchungnam-do +82-41-660-1302 http://www.hanseo.ac.kr/eng/ Lee, Yoon Soo leeys95@hanseo.ac.kr

SEOUL
Chung-Ang University Korean Language Institute 221 Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul +82-2-820-6122 http://korean.cau.ac.kr/ Kim, Young Chan youngcha@cau.ac.kr

Dongguk University Center for Korean Language Education Institute of International Education, 26, 3ga Pil-dong, Jung-gu, Seoul +82-2-2260-3471 http://iie.dongguk.edu Kim, Tae Hyung iie@dgu.edu Ewha Women’s University Language Center 11-1 Daehyun-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul +82-2-3277-3182 http://elc.ewha.ac.kr:1004/en/index.asp Park, Hyun Sook kfl@ewha.ac.kr The Hansung Institute of Language Education 389 3ga Samseon-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul +82-2-760-4374 www.hansung.ac.kr/~klp Lim, So Young yerama@chol.com Hanyang University International Language Institute 17 Hangdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul +82-2-2220-1663 http://www.hyili.hanyang.ac.kr/eindexB.html Choi, Il Yong hyili@hanyang.ac.kr Korean Language & Culture Center at Korea University (KOLA) 1 5ga Anam-dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul +82-2-3290-1455 korean@korea.ac.kr Oh, Hyun Joo http://kola.korea.ac.kr/klcc/index_english.html Kyunghee University Institute of International Education (IEE) 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul +82-2-961-0081 khsd3040@khu.ac.kr Park, Young Hui http://eng.iie.ac.kr/ Paichai University Educational Center for Korean as a Foreign Language 439-6 Doma-dong,Seo-gu, Daejeon +82-42-520-5730 http://w2.pcu.ac.kr/~eckfl/en_index.php Shin, Eun Kyung & Lee Eun Young eckfl@pcu.ac.kr Seoul National University The Korean Language Education Center (KLEC) Language Education Institute San 56-1 Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul +82-2-880-5488, 8570 http://lei.snu.ac.kr/english/pages/SD00009_00.jsp Kim, So Young klp@snu.ac.kr

Sogang University Korean Language Education Center (KLEC) 1 Sinsoo-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul +82-2-705-8088~9 http://klec.sogang.ac.kr Woo, Hak Geun ckss@sogang.ac.kr Sookmyung Women's University International Institute of Language Education 52 Hyochangwon-gil, Chungpa-dong, Yongsan-gu, Seoul +82-2-710-9623 http://www.sookmyung.ac.kr/ Lee, Gil Im lingua@sookmyung.ac.kr Sungkyunkwan University Language Institute Korean Language Program 53 3ga Myeongnyun-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul +82-2-760-1224 http://home.skku.edu/sli/korean_index_en.php Cho, Yong Woo skkuinfo@hotmail.com Yeungnam University Korean Language Program (KLP) 412-1 Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do +82-53-810-1628 http://cip.yu.ac.kr/cip/sub03_a.htm Jeon, Woo Seok daniel@yumail.ac.kr Yonsei University Korean Language Institute The Institute of Language Research and Education 134 Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul +82-2-2123-3465 http://www.yskli.com Lim, Bang Ul myshin@yonsei.ac.kr, yskli@yonsei.ac.kr EKO Language center Co., Ltd 637-18 Woojin Bld. 2,3F Yeoksam-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul +82-2-552-5155 http://www.ekolc.com Lee, Sun Ok info@ekolc.com Ganada Korean Language Institute 201-1 Seongdo Bld.3F.Donggyo-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul +82-2-332-6003 http://www.ganadakorean.co.kr/eng/main.htm Park, Kyung Hee ganada@ganadakorean.com Korean Language Education Culture Center 619-2 Jeongjin Bld. 3F Sinsa-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul +82-2 -511-9314 http://www.edukorean.com/English/index/index.asp info@edukorean.com (Saito Chika), kecc@edukorean.com (Hye Jin Jung) National Institute for International Education Development 181 Dongsung-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul +82-2-3668-1328~1329 (Day), +82-2-3668-1324 (Holidays, Nights) http://www.ied.go.kr gyohak@moe.go.kr

SUWON
Ajou University Korean Language Education Center San 5 Woncheon-dong, Youngtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do +82-31-219-1675 http://wwwold.ajou.ac.kr/~afl/kor_s/ koli@madang.ajou.ac.kr

ULSAN
Ulsan University International Affairs and Education San 29 Muger 2-dong, Nam-gu, Ulsan +82-52-259-2079,2080 http://www.ulsan.ac.kr/eng/international/korean.aspx Hyeon, Ji Hye _jh7@naver.com

The Association for Teachers of English in Korea provides the following services to the general public, members and nonmembers alike:
• • • •
Monitoring of proposed legislation and regulations which may affect noncitizen English teachers in Korea. Translation of proposed and existing legislation and regulations (domestic and international) and analysis of their possible effects on non-citizen English teachers in Korea. Advocacy for English teacher concerns at the national and local levels. The English Teacher's Guide to Korea, which will be made available in PDF for free download from our website (http://atek.or.kr).

ATEK provides the following benefits and services to members:
• • • • Full access to ATEK's Employer Rating System, to make and review ratings. Access to the member forums. Access to professional development and lesson planning materials. Information on how to check to see if your employer is correctly reporting your income, paying your taxes and making proper deductions from your pay. Copies of labor, tax, pension, and health insurance complaint forms, translated into Korean, and instructions about how to go about filing a complaint. Local social networks (the Provincial and Metropolitan Associations that send reps to our national council). Access to data from the ATEK Member Survey, which enables ATEK to track average salaries and weekly hours by region and type of teaching job, average level of satisfaction with various job types, average length of stay of foreigners working in Korea, average pay and benefit increases when resigning for a second year, and much more. Want to know if your contract offer is above or below the average salary for someone in your city and education level? Get access. Advisories to the government based on ATEK Member Survey information on non-citizen English teacher's problems and needs (does one particular city have a higher rate of teachers reporting pay withholding fraud? That city's government might want to know that.) An online application that translates letters home to parents into Korean, so that you can communicate with parents and let them know how their child is doing. Representation of member concerns to relevant government agencies and other groups. Responses to media items of interest to non-citizen English teachers.

• •

• •

All these resources are available on our website at http://atek.or.kr

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
Living, Working, and Thriving in Korea Sparkling

By Tony Hellmann, M.Ed. Tom Rainey-Smith Jason Thomas, M.App.Ling. Matthew Henderson

ATEK

Press

This book was designed and laid out entirely with open source software. Individual sections copyright © 2009 by the respective authors, all rights reserved, except as licensed below. Used by permission. Published by ATEK Press, a division of the Association for Teachers of English in Korea. Design and composition by Tony Hellmann. Copyedited by Jason Thomas
Cover: Art by Jeffrey Morabito. www.jeffreymorabito.com. Photo by Trey Ratcliff, www.stuckincustoms.com

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This book is published in both print and electronic formats. Printed in the Republic of Korea 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

CHAPTER 6: KNOWING YOUR RIGHTS
LEGAL PROBLEMS
OVERVIEW
Foreigners who run afoul of legal problems in Korea face significant challenges. Korean courts are of course conducted in Korean, and most Koreans represent themselves pro se (that is, without a lawyer). Unless one is fluent in Korean, it will not be possible to represent oneself pro se in court, which means services of a lawyer may be necessary. Criminal defense attorneys and civil lawyers are expensive, usually requiring three to five million won up front as an initial retainer. Labor lawyers are generally much more affordable, and may work for as little as a few hundred thousand won, depending on the complexity of your case. Legal problems can be grouped into four categories:  Traffic violations (which may or may not include criminal charges)  Non traffic-related criminal charges  Civil action (lawsuits)  Employer-employee disputes

TRAFFIC VIOLATIONS
Traffic violations are covered in depth later in this chapter. If a traffic case goes to court, the other party is most likely to represent him or herself pro se.

NON TRAFFIC-RELATED CRIMINAL CHARGES
Criminal charges are also covered in depth further on in this chapter. Remember that in a case where private property is damaged or someone is injured, a private cash settlement with the victim will be taken into consideration, and can result in a reduced penalty, suspended sentence, or even dismissal of the charges.

CIVIL ACTION (LAWSUITS)
Unlike in Western countries, it is common for Koreans to sue pro se (without a lawyer representing them). This can be problematic for foreigners, as retaining a lawyer to defend yourself will cost you a lot of money, while suing you pro se won't cost the plaintiff much. There is a persistent rumor in the foreign community that if you lose a lawsuit and are ordered by the court to pay damages to the plaintiff, you will be barred from leaving Korea until the damages are paid. This is patently untrue. You can leave Korea whenever you like, and the plaintiff has little recourse to recover his/her court ordered damages. However, if you have fines resulting from criminal charges or have tax problems, it is possible that you may be subject to an exit ban.

EMPLOYER/EMPLOYEE DISPUTES
Foreign workers in Korea sometimes have disputes with their employers, related to: contract disputes; disputes regarding pay; problems related to tax, pension, and/or medical insurance; and a number of other problems. If you feel your rights have been violated, you may file a complaint with the relevant authority: the labor board, the national tax service, or the national pension scheme. The Association for Teachers of English in Korea has copies of labor, pension, and tax complaint forms on their website, along with English translations of the forms and their instructions, in the Member Resource Library.

KOREAN CRIMINAL LAW AND YOU
The Constitution of the Republic of Korea, as amended and promulgated October 29, 1987, states the following: Article 12 1. All persons shall enjoy personal liberty. No person shall be arrested, detained, searched, seized or interrogated except as provided by Act. No person shall be punished, placed under preventive restrictions or subject to involuntary labor except as provided by Act and through lawful procedures.

2. 3.

No one shall be tortured or be compelled to testify against oneself in criminal cases. Warrants issued by a judge through due procedures upon the request of a prosecutor shall be presented in case of arrest, detention, seizure or search: Provided, That in a case where a criminal suspect is an apprehended in flagrante delicto, or where there is danger that a person suspected of committing a crime punishable by imprisonment of three years or more may escape or destroy evidence, investigative authorities may request an ex post facto warrant. Any person who is arrested or detained shall have the right to prompt assistance of counsel. When a criminal defendant is unable to secure counsel by his own efforts, the State shall assign counsel for the defendant as prescribed by Act. No person shall be arrested or detained without being informed of the reason therefor and of his right to assistance of counsel. The family, etc., as designated by Act, of a person arrested or detained shall be notified without delay of the reason for and the time and place of the arrest or detention. Any person who is arrested or detained, shall have the right to request the court to review the legality of the arrest or detention. In a case where a confession is deemed to have been made against a defendant's will due to torture, violence, intimidation, unduly prolonged arrest, deceit or etc., or in a case where a confession is the only evidence against a defendant in a formal trial, such a confession shall not be admitted as evidence of guilt, nor shall a defendant be punished by reason of such a confession. All citizens shall have the right to be tried in conformity with the Act by judges qualified under the Constitution and the Act. Citizens who are not on active military service or employees of the military forces shall not be tried by a court martial within the territory of the Republic of Korea, except in case of crimes as prescribed by Act involving important classified

4.

5.

6.

7.

Article 27 1.

2.

military information, sentinels, sentry posts, the supply of harmful food and beverages, prisoners of war and military articles and facilities and in the case of the proclamation of extraordinary martial law. 3. All citizens shall have the right to a speedy trial. The accused shall have the right to a public trial without delay in the absence of justifiable reasons to the contrary. The accused shall be presumed innocent until a judgment of guilt has been pronounced. A victim of a crime shall be entitled to make a statement during the proceedings of the trial of the case involved as under the conditions prescribed by Act.

4. 5.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN KOREAN AND WESTERN CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMS
Reading the above sections of the Korean Constitution may lead one to conclude that the Korean and Western legal systems are virtually the same. Although this may seem so, there are a number of very significant differences. The main point to remember is that a foreigner in Korea is subject to Korean laws, not the laws of their home country (although some foreigners may be subject to both; the citizens of some countries are still subject to some or all of the laws of their country even when abroad). Below are some of the particulars of the Korean legal system.

ACCESS TO COUNSEL
A foreigner who is used to having his or her lawyer present at every step of legal proceedings, may be disconcerted to find that under Korean law an attorney need not be present during questioning of a suspect by the public prosecutor's office. Police and public prosecutors may also question a suspect without an attorney present. However, the suspect may refuse to answer questions during the police and public prosecutors' interrogations. In such cases, the authorities will usually allow counsel to attend.

COMMUNICATION
Americans, British, and other foreigners accustomed to their "one phone call" may be taken aback when Korean authorities do not allow

them that privilege. Under the Consular Convention, Korean police officials must notify the Embassy as soon as a foreigner is arrested. The Police may make this notification in writing, however, and it might be a few days or more before the Embassy is apprised of an arrest. In practice, if a foreign suspect taken into police custody has relatives or an attorney in Korea, law enforcement is required to and will notify the suspect's family and attorney of the arrest promptly.

DOUBLE JEOPARDY
Perhaps the most marked difference between foreign and Korean legal systems is the possibility of double jeopardy in Korea. Having been found innocent of a crime is no protection against being tried again for the same offense. If the prosecutor feels the verdict is incorrect, he may appeal that verdict and retry an already-acquitted individual.

BAIL
Bail is legally possible under Korean statutes. However, bail is frequently not granted and may not be as readily available as in your home country.

SMUGGLING AND OTHER CUSTOMS VIOLATIONS
Korean customs laws are as strict as, if not stricter than many Western laws. Violators of these laws are subject to fines up to ten times the normal customs duty, confiscation of the contraband, and jail sentences of up to ten years. Importing or exporting certain prohibited articles detrimental to national security, public health or public morals (such as classified government information or counterfeit money) is punishable by imprisonment of up to 10 years or a fine of up to 20 million Won. Importing or exporting goods which differ from those reported to customs authorities or failing to report imported or exported goods may result in imprisonment of up to 5 years prison or fine a fine equal to the higher of 10 times the normal duty or the purchase price of the goods. Deliberately misstating the quantity of merchandise to evade payment of duty can result in 3 years prison and fines of 500% of the regular duty or purchase price of goods, whichever is higher. In the past, confiscated merchandise has included gold ingots, jewelry and

unset precious stones, as well as bear bladders, deer antlers, and other items used in Oriental medicine. It is also possible that the goods and any vehicle or other articles used to bring the goods into or out of Korea may be confiscated.

DRUGS
Drugs and drug abuse are governed by the Narcotic Substance Control Act of 2000 as well as by the Criminal Act. These laws regulate the import, export, manufacture, preparation, subdivision, sale, intermediate sale or purchase, and purchase of narcotics, as well as possession of narcotics for the purpose of import, export, manufacture, preparation, subdivision, selling or purchase; serving as an intermediary for buying and selling of narcotics. Provisions under these laws mandate minimum prison sentences of one year. Korean government policy is aimed at discouraging the use of dangerous and habit-forming drugs in the country. Korean statutes classify marijuana as a "dangerous narcotic." Parole is virtually never given in drug-related cases. Recent legislation provides that trafficking or abusing drugs may result in prison for an indefinite term and confiscation of illegal proceeds and the illegal substance.

LEGAL PROCEDURES
QUESTIONING
Police officers are allowed to stop and question individuals who are suspected of having committed crimes or who are considered likely to commit crimes. However, police officers cannot force such individuals to answer their questions. Public prosecutors and police officers, before listening to statements from suspects, are required to inform them of the fact that they can refuse to give statements. Police officers should identify themselves by name, rank, and agency (e.g. “I am Officer Kim with the Busan Metropolitan Police Agency,”) but if they do not, you have the right to ask them for that information. If you are questioned by a person who is in plain clothes (such as a detective), they have an obligation to show you identification and should do so without your having to ask. If a police officer requests that you get in his/her car so that he/she may take you to a police station for questioning (or for any other reason), doesn't

provide you with a clear reason, and you do not want to go, you have the right to refuse. Simply put, if you are not being arrested, you do not have to go. If the police officer insists, you can call 112 for help immediately or contact the police inspection unit at the local police station afterward. You also have the option of making a complaint to your embassy. Sources inside a major metropolitan police agency tell ATEK that they believe this to be a very effective method to ensure fair treatment. Lawyers must be present at trials but are not allowed to be present during most phases of a criminal investigation. If you request that your lawyer be present for questioning, your request may be refused. However, you may refuse to answer questions without your lawyer present or request help and advice from your embassy. If you do so, the police will try to find a way to assist you with a lawyer. It is important that you remain calm and make requests, as if you are asking for their help. Making demands, threatening lawsuits or action from your embassy, or displaying a belligerent attitude will mainly just cause you problems. Some phrases that you may find helpful include:
• Am I being investigated for a crime? Je ga beomjweiro josada neun geongayo? 제가 범죄로 조사받는 건가요? What is the crime? Jweimyeongi mweongayo? 죄명이 뭔가요? Am I being arrested? Je ga chepodwi neun geongayo? 제가 체포되는 건가요? I need an English interpreter. Yeongeo tongi pilyohamnida. 영어통역이 필요합니다. I would like to contact a lawyer. Byeonhosawa mannago shipeoyo. 변호사와 만나고 싶어요. I don't understand what my rights are. Can someone please explain them to me? Jeoui gweoliga mueotinji ihaega andweiyo, dareun sarami jeoege seolmyeongeun hejuseyo. 저의 권리가 무엇인지 이해가 안되요, 다른 사람이 저에게 설명을 해주 세요? I would like to talk to the police inspector. Kyeongchal cheongmundamdanggwan hagoiyagihago shipeoyo. 경찰 청문담당관 하고 이야기하고 싶어요?

• • • • •

ARREST
A warrant is generally required before an individual can be arrested in Korea. No warrant is required, however, for an individual caught in the act of committing a crime. In addition, no warrant is required where an individual is suspected of committing a serious crime if there is a risk that evidence of the crime may be destroyed or that the individual may try to escape. There is a general right of arrest when one of the following applies:
  

a person is caught or pursued in the act of committing an offense where it is suspected he/she is going to flee his/her identity cannot be established.

An arrested individual has the right to receive immediate assistance from a lawyer. Do not request or demand a courtappointed lawyer, as such lawyers are appointed after you are arrested, charged with a crime, and brought before a judge. The court makes the decision, and generally Korean courts only appoint lawyers for people who are mentally incapacitated, over 70 years old, or indigent. Within the limits of the law, an arrested individual may receive visits from a lawyer or other interested person, may receive medical treatment, and may receive authorized medication.

THE ROLE OF YOUR EMBASSY IN AN ARREST
According to the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (1963) Article 36, your consulate has the following rights: (1) consular officers shall be free to communicate with nationals of their State and to have access to them. Nationals of the foreign State shall have the same freedom with respect to communication with and access to consular officers of the foreign State; (2) if you so request, the Korean police shall, without delay, inform your consular post if you are arrested or committed to prison or to custody pending trial or are detained in any other manner. Any communication addressed to the consular post by a person arrested, in prison, custody or detention shall be forwarded by the authorities without delay. The authorities shall inform you without delay of your rights under Article 36,

subparagraph 2; (3) consular officers shall have the right to visit a national of their State who is in prison, custody or detention, to converse and correspond with him and to arrange for his legal representation. They shall also have the right to visit any national of their State who is in prison, custody or detention in their district in pursuance of a judgment. Nevertheless, consular officers shall refrain from taking action on behalf of a national who is in prison, custody or detention if he expressly opposes such action. Please note that the term “consular post” used above applies to both a consulate and an embassy (an embassy is actually made up of several different entities, including a diplomatic mission, a consular mission, and others). In other words, there is a consular post at your embassy. We have included specific messages for foreign nationals from their respective embassies below. All these statements are taken from embassy websites, retrieved August 15, 2008. Note that they all conform to the Vienna Convention as enumerated above.

AUSTRALIA
“Consular staff cannot use their position to influence unduly or bypass local laws or processes, even when these would appear by Australian standards to be unfair or unnecessarily arduous. While consular staff can sometimes use their knowledge and understanding of the local environment to facilitate support, they must work within the legal and administrative constraints applying in their host country.” Australian consular officials can provide assistance to you if you are arrested, notify next of kin, provide a list of local lawyers, conduct prison visits, and ensure an Australian receives the same treatment as could reasonably be expected by the host country's own citizens. Australian consular officials cannot provide funds to pay your legal costs, represent you at legal proceedings or give legal advice, cannot get you out of prison or obtain special treatment for you in prison.”

BRITAIN
The British Consulate maintains a detailed booklet outlining help available for British nationals who have been arrested or imprisoned

overseas, which can be found here: http://ukinkorea.fco.gov.uk/resources/en/word/3059742/doc-consularprison-pack. Summary information follows: “The British Consulate can answer questions about your welfare and about prison regulations but not questions about legal matters. You should ask your lawyer or the court these kinds of questions. We can give you a list of English-speaking lawyers. When a British citizen is arrested and detained in Korea the Korean authorities must inform the British Embassy. This is usually done in writing and normally takes a week to ten days to reach us. We may be informed much more quickly by friends or relations. In Korea you do not have the right to make a telephone call when you are arrested. However you can ask the prison/detention officer to inform your nextof-kin. He can do this direct or he can call the Embassy and ask us to pass on a message. For reasons of confidentiality we are not permitted to tell anyone that you have been detained or what the charges are without your permission. The Embassy must have your permission to discuss your case, or to confirm your detention, with anyone. However, if your family becomes aware of the detention (e.g. via the media) it will add to their distress if we cannot discuss the case with them, so please consider your decision carefully about whether you wish us to inform your family. N.B. If the prisoner is a minor (under 18), we must inform the next of kin.” As soon as we have been notified (whether by family, friends or officially) we will apply for a visiting permit and you will be visited within two working days of us receiving the permit. Please note that it can take seven to ten days for a permit to arrive although in most cases it is quicker. We will send you information on the Korean judicial system and ask your next-of-kin if they would like to receive it too. We can also give your next-of-kin the address of the prison and the prison bank account number in case they wish to transfer any money to you, or tell them how to transfer money to you, without bank charges, through the Foreign & Commonwealth Office in London.”

How the British Embassy Cannot Help

“We cannot get you out of prison, pay fines or stand bail, or interfere in local judicial procedures to get you out of prison or secure you an earlier trial date; we cannot investigate a crime. We cannot intervene with police or prosecutors except to assure that British Nationals are treated no worse than Koreans would be under the same circumstances. There are no British government funds to pay for Lawyers, fines or other legal expenses. If a British National cannot get funds to pay a Lawyer, he must rely on a court-appointed defender. If he is held in Immigration Detention awaiting deportation, we cannot supply a ticket home except through a repatriation loan when all other possible sources of funds are exhausted. We cannot supply British food, bedding, clothing or other amenities.”

CANADA
“We can contact, at your request, your relatives or friends and ask them to send you emergency funds. If you are arrested, we can try to ensure equitable treatment under local laws. At your request, we can inform relatives and friends about your arrest and try to ensure that legal rights and processes are extended to you consistent with the standards of the host country.”

NEW ZEALAND
“The Embassy, by regulation, cannot enter any case; conduct any investigation; or act as lawyers or mediators in any personal professional conflicts experienced by New Zealand citizens. If you do find yourself in need of an attorney, we can provide you with a list of attorneys; however, we are unable to recommend any specific lawyer from this list. We will attempt to answer all your questions or complaints.”

SOUTH AFRICA
“The South African Embassy can contact and visit SA citizens arrested or detained and, in certain circumstances, arrange for messages to be sent to relatives or friends. South African missions abroad, and Consular staff in particular, cannot: intervene in court proceedings; get you out of prison; give legal advice or instigate court proceedings on your behalf; get better treatment for you in hospital or prison than is provided for local nationals; or investigate crimes.”

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
“The U.S. Embassy cannot assist prisoners with legal representation. When a consular officer visits someone who has been arrested, we provide a list of local attorneys who are known to speak English and to have dealt with foreigners’ cases. In most cases, the Embassy is promptly notified by Korean law enforcement officials of the arrest or detention of any U.S. citizen. American Citizen Services (ACS) makes every effort to make an initial visit to the detainee soon after the arrest, with follow up visits periodically. Arrangements will be made for more frequent visitation as circumstances warrant. Our job is to ensure that the arrested U.S. citizen is being treated fairly under local laws, understands the charges, has access to legal counsel, and has any special or emergency needs met to the extent possible. The Embassy can also keep a detainee’s relatives or friends informed of the situation if that is the person’s wish.”

DETENTION
The police can detain individuals for up to 10 days before formal charges are filed. At the end of this period, police must move the case to the prosecutor’s office. A public prosecutor then has ten days after in which to determine whether or not to indict the individual; however, the public prosecutor may make a request to the court for an additional 10-day extension. The courts normally grant these requests. There is no formal arraignment procedure in the Korean legal system. Apart from detention in jail, foreigners may be forbidden to leave the country if legal actions are still pending. Such individuals may be held in immigration detention or may merely be subject to an exit ban.

COMPLAINTS ABOUT THE POLICE
If one feels one was treated unfairly by the police, or is unsatisfied with how they have handled a situation, one may contact the police inspector's unit. Every local police agency in Korea has an Inspection Unit that is charged with reviewing the agency's performance and ensuring that police perform their duties correctly. Ask your local police station for the number to the Police Inspection Unit, or to speak with someone from their office. If one does not wish to lodge one's

complaint through the police department, one may also contact one's embassy.

INVESTIGATION AND INDICTMENT
While one is in custody pending trial, the Public Prosecutor’s Office (PPO) investigates the alleged offense. The PPO may interview the accused and any witnesses and collect any evidence with the help of the police. When there is enough evidence to open a prosecution, the investigation stage is formally closed and the trial stage is opened. The PPO must then produce an indictment which sets out the details of the accused, the crime of which he is accused, when and where it took place, the legal definition of the crime and the criminal laws applicable to the case. When the judge receives the indictment, date(s) for the trial will be set.

TRIAL
There are six kinds of courts in Korea: •The Supreme Court, •High Court, •District Court, •Family Court, •Patent Court, and •Administrative Court. Trials are conducted at the District Court level. Courts are required to complete a case within six months of receipt from the public prosecutor’s office.

APPEALS
After sentencing, appeals may be submitted to the original court within seven days. In some cases, further appeals to the High Court and Supreme Court are possible. The prosecutor may also file requests for appeal of verdict and/or sentence.

PAROLE
In Korea, the law makes a provision for the early release of prisoners serving a sentence. The public prosecutor is obliged to consider automatically whether you should be released when you have served two-thirds of your sentence. In practice, however, a minimum of approximately two-thirds (usually about 70%) of a sentence must be

served before parole is considered. Foreign inmates are usually treated more leniently than Koreans by parole boards, but the same policy of serving at least two-thirds of the sentence before parole is granted still applies. Parole is never granted in drug cases. It is common practice to deport prisoners on release.

BAIL
In certain circumstances the prosecutor may give you bail after being detained for a certain period and before your court appearance for sentencing. This is on the understanding that you will not flee the country. You will then be moved from the detention/holding centre to the nearest immigration centre. The prosecutor/immigration authorities will want assurances from the embassy that you will not flee the country. The embassy or the immigration authorities will hold onto your passport. The embassy must have your written permission from you to hold on to your passport until the outcome of your court case.

LEGAL REPRESENTATION
Any individual who is arrested for anything more than a minor violation is urged to obtain competent legal counsel promptly. The court will appoint a lawyer for any accused individual who is a minor, is over 70, is deaf, is mentally challenged or incapacitated, or cannot afford a lawyer. Foreign nationals used to a vigorous public defender should know that Korean public defenders are regular lawyers doing pro bono work, and that the defense in such cases can be pro forma, with little attempt to exonerate the accused. You can employ a lawyer for yourself at any time after your arrest. Normally, if you employ a privately-engaged lawyer, he or she will ask for a large advance on estimated legal fees (which may be very high) before he or she will take on your case. Your embassy cannot pay legal fees or guarantee to a lawyer that you will pay them. If you do not have a lawyer when you come to trial, the court will appoint a legal-aid lawyer free of charge. If you cannot afford a privately-engaged lawyer you can apply before the trial for a legal-aid lawyer through the prison. The court may also appoint a lawyer at the request of the accused. The court will automatically appoint a legal-aid lawyer if the

offense is so serious or the case is so complicated that you will need legal assistance to help defend yourself. The same applies if it is obvious that you are not capable of handling your own defense.

PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN CRIMINAL TRIALS
As of January 1, 2008, a new system which allows ordinary citizens to participate in criminal trials as jurors has been introduced in Korea. Upon the request of the defendant, the jury consisting of 5 to 9 citizens attends a felony criminal trial along with professional judges and provides advisory opinions. Jurors are required to independently consider whether the defendant is guilty or not and reach a unanimous verdict; failing that, they depend on majority vote. The jury also presents individual opinions on sentencing after the discussion with judges. However, the jury verdict and its view on sentencing do not have binding power over the judges’ decision.

LIFE IN A CORRECTIONAL FACILITY
Foreigners are normally treated fairly by Korean correctional authorities. Special sections are generally set aside for foreigners. Medical treatment is available in all correctional facilities. Medical problems a correctional doctor cannot handle are referred to local hospitals. Correctional officials are generally interested in making sure that foreigners in their custody are treated as humanely as possible, without opening themselves to accusations of favoritism. Inmates are allowed to read, listen to the radio and watch TV. Inmates are not allowed to smoke or drink alcohol. But, they are allowed to drink coffee and tea. Foreign inmates are sometimes kept in solitary cells but they often get a chance to talk to other inmates if they work. Meals are adequate. Foreigners sometimes cannot fully adjust to the Korean diet, so they are often provided with western food upon request. Inmates may earn money in the correctional work program or have money sent by relatives. These funds can be used to buy a small quantity of supplemental food. Visitors are allowed but the number and length of visits are strictly controlled. Incoming and outgoing mail is censored. Telephone calls are permitted by inmates who have obtained 1st or 2nd ranks. Other inmates are able to make telephone calls only upon permission by the wardens.

Many correctional facilities have workshops where some inmates may be allowed to work at various trades and earn pocket money. Prisoners who have special skills or who have demonstrated good behavior may be given opportunities in prison by performing tasks in fields where they have previous experience. Inmates are given a ranking of 1-4 depending on behavior, participation in work programs, and other relevant factors. Authorities consider this ranking when deciding whether to grant parole. Inmates may be corporally punished for assaulting or talking back to guards, or for refusing to cooperate or follow instructions. After inmates submit and act contrite, they are often again treated kindly. Foreign inmates should not expect to be spared punishment if Korean prisoners would be punished for the same behavior.

SOURCES
British Embassy, Information for British Nationals Detained/Imprisoned in South Korea, http://ukinkorea.fco.gov.uk/resources/en/word/3059742/docconsular-prison-pack (retrieved 30 Sep. 2008). Personal correspondence with Ministry of Justice (March 2008). Unpublished interview with Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency (Sep. 2008). US Embassy, Teaching in Korea, http://seoul.usembassy.gov/teach.html (retrieved 30 Sep. 2008).

SELECTIONS FROM THE IMMIGRATION CONTROL ACT
URL of Entire Act: http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UN PAN011498.pdf

IMPORTANT ARTICLES FOR INSTRUCTORS
■ ARTICLE 17 (SOJOURN AND ACTIVITY SCOPE OF FOREIGNERS)
(1) Any foreigner may sojourn in the Republic of Korea within the scope of his/her status of sojourn and period of sojourn. (2) No foreigner sojourning in the Republic of Korea shall engage in any political activity. (3) If a foreigner sojourning in the Republic of Korea is engaged in any political activity, the Minister of Justice may order him/her in writing to suspend such activity or may take other necessary measures.

■ ARTICLE 18 (RESTRICTION ON EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGNERS)
(1) If a foreigner desires to be employed in the Republic of Korea, he/she shall obtain the status of sojourn eligible for employment under the conditions as prescribed by the Presidential Decree. (2) No foreigner having the status of sojourn as referred to in paragraph (1) shall work at any place other than the designated working place. (3) No person shall employ any person having no status of sojourn as referred to in paragraph (1). (4) No person shall mediate or solicit for any employment of a person having no status of sojourn as referred to in paragraph (1).

■ ARTICLE 22 (RESTRICTION ON SCOPE OF ACTIVITY)
If it is deemed necessary for the public peace and order or important national interests of the Republic of Korea, the Minister of Justice may restrict the scope of residence or activities of foreigners, or determine necessary matters to be observed by them.

■ ARTICLE 33-2 (PROHIBITION ON USING FOREIGNER REGISTRATION CERTIFICATES AS MEANS TO SECURE FULFILLMENT OF OBLIGATION)
(2) Any person shall be prohibited from committing the act falling under each of the following subparagraphs: 1. The act of being provided with or coercing any foreigner to provide his passport or foreigner registration certificate for the purpose of

using it as a means to secure a contract for job or the fulfillment of obligation;

■ ARTICLE 81 (INVESTIGATION OF FOREIGNER STATE OF THINGS BY IMMIGRATION CONTROL OFFICIALS, ETC.)
(1) In order to investigate whether or not any foreigner sojourns lawfully in accordance with this Act or any order issued under this Act, the immigration control officials or public officials belonging to related agencies as determined by the Presidential Decree may visit the foreigner, the foreigner's employer, representative of the organization to which the foreigner belongs or foreigner's work place, or those who provide the foreigner with accommodation, and to ask them any question or demand them to present other necessary materials. (2) No person who is asked any question or is demanded to present materials under paragraph (1), shall refuse it without any justifiable reason.

PAY AND DEDUCTIONS
Workers in Korea generally have deductions made from their monthly paychecks. There is a deduction for the National Health Insurance premium, the National Pension Service, and the National Tax Service. Sadly, withholding fraud is one of the most common types of pay dispute reported by foreign workers in Korea. Some employers will withhold funds from a worker's monthly pay, but not actually deposit the funds where they should go. For example, they may withhold a worker's pension payment, but not actually pay it into his/ her pension fund and match it. Or, they may tell a worker that he/she is covered under the National Health Insurance program, when in reality he/she may not be. Fortunately, there are ways to verify this information. All employers are legally required to complete a Receipt for Wage & Salary Income Taxes Withholding form in February. Ask for a copy of this document. It will have a registered signature stamp. Also, be sure to ask your employer to detail which deductions they are making from your wage and ask to see original documentation detailing your membership to each of the above schemes.

TAXES
As is the case in any country, it is important to be aware of your tax situation while in Korea and to keep abreast of any issues that may arise related to taxation.1 This is an area that many teachers neglect to consider thoroughly, but taking a few easy steps can help you to avoid future problems. By equipping yourself with some basic knowledge you can avoid the surprise of a smaller paycheck. You may verify how much money your employer should be withholding for tax purposes online, courtesy of the Korean National Tax Service, here: http://www.nts.go.kr/eng/help/help_52.asp? top_code=H001&sub_code=HS05&ssub_code=HSE2. To verify how much has already been withheld, you may call the NTS foreign help line at 02-397-1440.

1

For a history of the taxation system in Korea visit: http://www.nts.go.kr/eng/data/KoreanTaxation2005(Part_1).pdf.

ARE YOU A RESIDENT OR NON-RESIDENT?
Domicile: the residence where you have your permanent home or principle place of inhabitance and to where, if you decide to leave, you intend to return to in the future. Resident: A person who has a domicile in Korea, or, someone who has a job that requires them to live in Korea for a year or more. A resident is subject to being taxed from sources within and outside of Korea. Non-Resident: A person who does not meet the residency criteria above. A non-resident is only subject to income tax on income made within Korea. Most E-2 visa holders fall into this category. For tax purposes, an individual ceases to be a resident the day following their departure from Korea or on the day when they acquire a domicile in Korea. A non-resident becomes a resident on the last day of the 1-year period of having a place of residence in Korea.

MONTHLY TAX WITHHOLDING
Regardless of whether you are a resident or non-resident, when you receive employment income, your personal income tax is withheld monthly by your employer. That is, an employer paying wage & salary income must deduct income tax monthly from the earnings of their employees based on the “Simplified Tax Withholding Table” issued by National Tax Service (NTS) and the total of these deductions is paid to the local district tax office by the tenth day of the following month. However, an employer who has no more than ten employees on average from January to December of the preceding year may pay taxes withheld to the government every half-year, after obtaining approval of the district tax office concerned.

FILING YOUR YEAR-END TAX SETTLEMENT
Your wage & salary income tax liability for the year is settled and finalized in February of the next year through a year-end exact tax computation(Year-end Tax Settlement). Then, the total of your monthly withholding (the amount withheld over the entire year) is treated as a credit against the overall amount of tax payable for the tax year.

While it the employer customarily files a year-end tax settlement on your behalf in February of the following year, it is your responsibility to see to it that the tax settlement is actually filed. If it is not, and you file no tax return, you may be held liable. Schools employing teachers illegally may not declare their tax situation correctly, which can affect you. Protect yourself by being aware of the tax year and filing time and ensuring that your employer is able to provide you with the necessary documentation (see below) in the event that you need to file on your own. If your employer withholds this documentation for any reason, you have good grounds to suspect that they are not following correct procedures. You are liable to pay a penalty if you fail to file your own taxes in the event that your employer will not do this on your behalf. Returns must be filed to with the District Tax Office that has jurisdiction over your place of residence. If you are concerned that your employer is not paying your taxes properly, contact the International Taxation Division of the Korean Tax Office in Seoul at 02-720-4793 or 02-720-4222, the NTS foreign help line at 02-397-1440, the nearest tax office branch, or visit the National Tax Service of Korea online at http://www.nts.go.kr. The latest (2008) English language guide is available online: http://www.nts.go.kr/eng/korean/korean_04.asp? top_code=K001&sub_code=KS04&ssub_code=KSC4.

DOES EVERYONE HAVE TO FILE AN INCOME TAX RETURN?
Residents must file an Income Tax Return annually in May. Alien residents can be exempted from this process if one of the following describes your situation:
• • • • • You received only wage and salary earnings from which your income tax was withheld and paid by and through the employer or taxpayers associations. You received only retirement income from which your income tax was fully withheld through the employer or taxpayers association. You received only interest income from which income tax was fully withheld. You received only dividend income from which income tax was fully withheld. You received only other income from which income tax was fully withheld.2

2

EFL Law http://www.efl-law.com/tax.php (Accessed 16/02/08).

The latest (2006) English language guide is available online: http://www.nts.go.kr/eng/korean/korean_03.asp? top_code=K001&sub_code=KS03&ssub_code=KSB3. Documentation needed for filing includes your Alien Registration Card, your Report of Exemption & Deduction Income, and your Receipt for Wage & Salary Income Tax Withholding (obtainable from your employer), and any receipts or documents necessary for calculating the total gross income amount less covered expenses such as medical or moving expenses, or credit card interest paid.

TAX EXEMPTION
Under Article 20 of the Korean Tax Code some non-citizen employees are entitled to an initial two-year tax exemption. The exemption applies to teachers working at government-run or governmentdesignated institutions, including national universities and universityrun institutes, those employed through government-run programs (such as the Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education), research centers and other recognized educational institutions. The national tax office should have a list of every such place of employment. Contact them on the number provided below if in doubt. Please note that Canadians are not entitled to this exemption. Contact the Korean Tax Office in Seoul at 02-720-4793 or 02720-4222 for more information.

PENSION AND SEVERANCE PAY
As a non-citizen aged between 18 and 59 working and residing in Korea you are covered by the national pension scheme if you are working in a workplace covered by the scheme (see below for the difference between workplace coverage options). It is important to know which pension scheme you are paying into as this will help determine whether or not you can claim severance pay (see page 28). National Pension Scheme (Gukmin Yeongeum) - Most non-citizen English language instructors pay into a pension scheme operated by the National Pension Service and are therefore covered by severance pay law. Under the National Pension Scheme, your employer deducts 4.5% of your salary, matches it and deposits the entire 9% into your pension account each month. You can request a statement which

indicates how much has been deposited to your account, Visit the nearest National Pension Scheme office to request it. You can also call 02-1355 for more information. Private School Pension (Sarib Hakgyo Yeongeum) - Private secondary and higher education institutions may opt to provide pension coverage through a private pension scheme. Unlike the National Pension Scheme, these schemes are operated by insurance companies and private foundations and this may exempt them from severance pay law. Ask your employer to clarify which scheme you are covered by and ask whether or not you are entitled to severance pay. Private school pensions do not follow the deduction and matching system of the National Pension Scheme (4.5% deducted and matched), so be sure to find out how the compensation system works.

LUMP-SUM REFUNDS
A lump-sum refund is a complete refund of your pension premium contributions made into the Korean National Pension Program. As stipulated in the National Pension Act, lump-sum refunds are paid to non-citizens who are nationals of those countries with either reciprocal social security agreements between their country and Korea (refer to Article 126 of the National Pension Act and Article 113 of the Enforcement Decree of the National Pension Act) or nationals from countries that have Social Security Agreements with the Korean government. Here is a basic guide:3 Country Social Security Agreement
YES YES YES NO NO YES YES

Lump-sum refund
YES YES NO NO NO NO YES

Exempt from NPS contributions
YES -

Australia Canada Ireland New Zealand South Africa UK US

3

Based on and information available on the NPS website.

APPLICATION FOR LUMP-SUM REFUND
If you are applying in Korea (before departing the country) you will need a completed application form, your passport, your Alien Registration Card, your bank book, and a plane ticket showing departure from Korea. You will need to visit your local NPS office to carry out this process. See a list of regional offices at http://www.npc.or.kr/apppage/english/contact/contact_01.jsp. If you are applying after departure from Korea you will need an application form (notarized from a notary agency of the country in which you reside and attested to by the Korean Consulate or Embassy), a copy of your passport, and a copy of your bankbook or other such bank statement showing the account number and bank routing number. When you apply for a lump-sum refund through an agent in Korea, the application must be submitted by post mail.

SEVERANCE PAY
Called daechigeum (대지금) in Korean, most instructors are entitled to severance pay, but make sure that you ask your employer (1) to clearly define whether or not you are entitled to it; (2) if not, to explain why; and (3) to show you where this is detailed in your contract. Better to have this conversation before you sign the contract, rather than find out when you go to buy the round-the-world ticket that you have been saving for at the end of your contract and find you can’t afford it!

WHAT IS SEVERANCE PAY AND WHO GETS IT?
Severance Pay is basically an extra month of pay paid to an employee by their employer at the completion of a 12-month contract (e.g. if you work one day less than your 12-month contracted period you are no longer entitled to severance pay). This is calculated by adding the income earned over the 3 last months and dividing by 3, excluding any bonuses received. Your employer should pay this to you within 14 days from the end date of your contract. As severance pay is subject to different provisions of the Tax Code it may be hard to work out the exact amount you will receive in advance. You are not entitled to Severance Pay if you work under 15 hours a week or less than 60 hours per month, if your work for a company that has 5 or fewer employees, or in some cases if your employer pays into a private school pension scheme.

LABOR STANDARDS ACT, ARTICLE 34 (SEVERANCE PAY SYSTEM)
(1) An employer shall establish a severance pay system whereby an average wage of more than 30 days shall be paid for each year of consecutive years employed as a severance pay to a retired worker; however, if the worker was employed for less than one year, this shall not apply. In establishing the severance pay system stipulated in paragraph (1), a differential severance pay system shall not be permitted within one business. An employer may, at the request of workers, pay severance pay in advance for the period of continuous employment of the worker concerned by adjusting the balances of remunerations before his retirement, irrespective of the provisions of paragraph (1). In this case, the number of years of continuous employment for the computation of severance pay shall be counted anew from the moment the latest adjustment of balances has been made. In cases where an employer has enrolled in pension insurance program for retirees or a retirement lump sum payment trust as prescribed by the Presidential Decree (hereinafter referred to as “pension insurance, etc.”) for workers, whereby workers, as the insured or a beneficiary, receive lump sum payment at the time of retirement, or draw their pensions, it shall be deemed that the employer has set up a severance pay scheme in accordance with paragraph (1). The amount of lump sum by the retirement insurance, etc., however, shall not be smaller than that of severance pay pursuant to paragraph (1).4

(2) (3)

(4)

HEALTH INSURANCE
Every person enrolled in the National Health Insurance system is issued a health insurance card, which folds up like a booklet and is about the size of a passport. If your employer has not given you a health insurance card, you may not be covered. Any doctor's office in Korea can verify whether or not you are covered. Just give them your Alien Registration Card number and they can check. Alternately, you can call the National Health Insurance Corporation and verify your enrollment (or complain about not being enrolled). Call 02-3902000.

WHAT TO DO IF YOU SUSPECT WITHHOLDING FRAUD
If your employer is withholding pay improperly and you are unable to resolve the situation to your satisfaction by speaking with your employer about the issue, you may want to consider legal support.
4 English translation from Korea4Expats website at http://www.korea4expats.com/article-severance-paykorea.html (accessed 17/02/09). The website offers a full unofficial English translation of the Labor Standards Act at http://www.korea4expats.com under Working & Business.

SEEKING LEGAL SUPPORT
EMPLOYMENT
If a dispute with your employer appears unresolvable, you may seek the help of a nomusa (노무사), which is a labor attorney. A labor attorney can help you negotiate a settlement with your employer, or can file a complaint and represent you in a labor hearing. Nomusa sometimes work on a contingency basis, only collecting a fee if they recover a settlement for you. Others will ask for a retainer. Be advised that retaining a labor lawyer and/or filing a complaint with the labor board should be the last option, used when all other methods of dispute resolution have failed, because such activities will sour what remaining relationship you may have with your employer. The Seoul Global Center can provide you with legal resources and answer questions related to the process of filing a complaint with the relevant authorities.

CRIMINAL/CIVIL
If you require a criminal defense attorney, be prepared to pay a retainer of 5 million won or more. If you are the recipient of a civil lawsuit, do not fear: contrary to popular rumor, you will not be detained in Korea until the suit is resolved, and if a judgment is entered against you, you do not have to stay in Korea until it is paid off. Your embassy and the Seoul Global Center can provide you with a list of attorneys who may be able to assist you.

The Association for Teachers of English in Korea provides the following services to the general public, members and nonmembers alike:
• • • •
Monitoring of proposed legislation and regulations which may affect noncitizen English teachers in Korea. Translation of proposed and existing legislation and regulations (domestic and international) and analysis of their possible effects on non-citizen English teachers in Korea. Advocacy for English teacher concerns at the national and local levels. The English Teacher's Guide to Korea, which will be made available in PDF for free download from our website (http://atek.or.kr).

ATEK provides the following benefits and services to members:
• • • • Full access to ATEK's Employer Rating System, to make and review ratings. Access to the member forums. Access to professional development and lesson planning materials. Information on how to check to see if your employer is correctly reporting your income, paying your taxes and making proper deductions from your pay. Copies of labor, tax, pension, and health insurance complaint forms, translated into Korean, and instructions about how to go about filing a complaint. Local social networks (the Provincial and Metropolitan Associations that send reps to our national council). Access to data from the ATEK Member Survey, which enables ATEK to track average salaries and weekly hours by region and type of teaching job, average level of satisfaction with various job types, average length of stay of foreigners working in Korea, average pay and benefit increases when resigning for a second year, and much more. Want to know if your contract offer is above or below the average salary for someone in your city and education level? Get access. Advisories to the government based on ATEK Member Survey information on non-citizen English teacher's problems and needs (does one particular city have a higher rate of teachers reporting pay withholding fraud? That city's government might want to know that.) An online application that translates letters home to parents into Korean, so that you can communicate with parents and let them know how their child is doing. Representation of member concerns to relevant government agencies and other groups. Responses to media items of interest to non-citizen English teachers.

• •

• •

All these resources are available on our website at http://atek.or.kr

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
Living, Working, and Thriving in Korea Sparkling

By Tony Hellmann, M.Ed. Tom Rainey-Smith Jason Thomas, M.App.Ling. Matthew Henderson

ATEK

Press

This book was designed and laid out entirely with open source software. Individual sections copyright © 2009 by the respective authors, all rights reserved, except as licensed below. Used by permission. Published by ATEK Press, a division of the Association for Teachers of English in Korea. Design and composition by Tony Hellmann. Copyedited by Jason Thomas
Cover: Art by Jeffrey Morabito. www.jeffreymorabito.com. Photo by Trey Ratcliff, www.stuckincustoms.com

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This book is published in both print and electronic formats. Printed in the Republic of Korea 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

CHAPTER 7: TRAVEL INSIDE AND OUTSIDE OF KOREA
KOREAN IMMIGRATION
IMPORTANT INTRODUCTORY NOTES
Korean Immigration advises that all non-citizens carry a form of identification on their person such as a passport or alien registration card at all times. All services can be acquired by visiting your local immigration office in person. If you are unsure of the contact details of your local immigration office, please check the list in this chapter or call the free Immigration Contact Center phone service provided by the Korean government (see below). All the following services except for Foreigner Registration and Reissuance of Foreigner Registration Card can be applied for via e-application. In many cases an appointed agent (which could include your employer) can carry out the process for these services on your behalf. It is also useful to schedule an appointment at your local immigration office in advance to avoid long waiting times. E-applications are accepted until three business days before the expiration of the applicant’s status. An appointment for visitation can be reserved until a day before the desired date of appointment as long as it's within your permitted term of stay. Visit http://www.hikorea.go.kr/pt/CvlapplInfoPageR_en.pt? locale=en to fill out an e-application form or to book an in-person appointment over the Internet.

IMMIGRATION CONTACT CENTER
This free government service is available from 9am~6pm on weekdays only. Dial 1345 anywhere, from a local or cellular phone to access this service and follow the automated voice prompts (3 for English), as follows: Press 0 to speak directly to a counselor. Press 1 for immigration office locations, jurisdiction and service hours. Press 2 to inquire about the result of a pending visa application.

SERVICES
FOREIGNER REGISTRATION
Necessary Documents Professorship (E-1) • A Copy of Business registration certificate Foreign Language • Passport • Application form for foreigner registration • One color photo (3cm x 4cm) • KRW 10,000 (Government Revenue Stamp) Instructor (E-2) • A Copy of Business registration certificate • Original copy of Health Examination for Employment obtained in Korea (includes TBPE drug test and HIV test) issued by a Public Health Center, General Hospital, National Hospital or Public Hospital. • Passport • Application form for foreigner registration • One color photo (3cm x 4cm) • KRW 10,000 (Government Revenue Stamp)

REISSUANCE OF FOREIGNER REGISTRATION CARD
Alien registration cards are issued at the Immigration Office appropriate to you. See our list of Immigration Offices on page 9 to discover which one you should visit. Application for re-issuance must be made within 14 days and cards will be reissued for the following reasons: registration card was lost or stolen, damaged, lack of space for necessary items to be displayed, changes in details on the existing card (name, sex and nationality). Necessary Documents • Passport • Application form for re-issuance of Foreigner Registration card • Document stating reason for re-issuance application (where lost) • One color photo (3cm x 4cm)

Old registration card (if existing card is rendered useless from wear/tear, lack of space, or change of details arise as per Article 35 Section 1 of the Immigration Act) KRW 10,000 (Government Revenue Stamp)

REPORTING CHANGE OF ALIEN REGISTRATION INFORMATION
The following changes must be reported to your local immigration office within 14 days of being made or you will be considered in breach of Immigration Act Article 35, and liable to be fined: • Name, sex, date of birth or nationality • Passport number, date of issuance or expiration date Necessary Documents • Passport and Foreigner Registration card • Application form of Report on changes of particulars of Foreigner Registration card

EXTENSION OF STAY
Note: E-2 visa holders must visit their local immigration office in person to complete this process, whereas E-1 visa holders are able to apply via e-application. Permission for Extension of Stay must be acquired before expiry of current permission of stay. Therefore, it is important to check the expiration date of you alien registration card, which usually expires before your actual teaching contract ends. Even if you have decided to leave the country, in order to extend your stay legally for up to 30 days and avoid fines, you will need to visit your local immigration office before the date of expiry. It is advisable to do this a couple of weeks before to avoid any last-minute rush. For those who plan to extend their stay for longer periods, Korean Immigration states that you must apply before 2 months from the date of expiration. When applying for the extension after the expiration date, you will pay the penalty according to Article 25 of Immigration Act. Necessary documents Instructor (E-2) • Passport and foreigner registration card • Application forms for the extension of stay • An employment contract

• • • •

Original copy of Health Examination for Employment obtained in Korea (includes TBPE (drug) test and HIV test) issued by a Public Health Center, General Hospital, National Hospital or Public Hospital Issuance of proof of (lack of) criminal records (the records must be affixed with the relevant nation’s Apostille) ※ Nationals of countries that have not signed the Apostille treaty, (Canada, China, etc) must get their records verified by their local Korean consulate or their consulates in Korea, and those already in Korea who were issued their criminal records from their consulates in Korea have no need for an Apostille ※ The Korea Immigration Service will not recognize criminal records issued by online web services or E-mail and notarized by a consulate in Korea as valid ※ Canadian citizens applying for a visa from within Canada must submit a criminal background check which includes a "Vulnerable Sector Screening" ※ Exempt: Native instructors invited by the Ministry of Education A copy of registration of educational institute establishment and operation A copy of business registration A reference KRW 30,000 (Government Revenue Stamp) Reasonableness of continuous activity to teach foreign language Foreigners that fit the descriptions listed below shall be limited: ※ A foreigner with no qualification; ※ A foreigner personally teaching foreign language in the place other than educational institute or educational organization; ※ A foreigner with unsteady domestic stay status such as frequent change/addition of place of employment or duplicated employment.

STANDARD OF THE REVIEW OF PERMISSION FOR EXTENSION OF STAY
1. 2.

SINGLE RE-ENTRY PERMIT
Single re-entry permit may be applied for at the airport immigration offices on the date of departure. This can be used for a single re-entry and is valid for up to one year. Necessary Documents 1. Passport and Foreigner Registration Card 2. Application for Re-entry Permit 3. KRW 30,000 (Government Revenue Stamp)

MULTIPLE RE-ENTRY PERMIT
Multiple re-entry permits are valid for multiple re-entries and are valid for up to two years. Necessary Documents 1. Passport and Foreigner Registration Card 2. Application for Re-entry Permit 3. KRW 50,000 (Government Revenue Stamp)

SOURCES
Hi Korea: e-Government for Foreigners, http://www.hikorea.go.kr/pt/main_en.pt (retrieved 10 Nov 2008). Korea Immigration Service, http://immigration.go.kr/HP/IMM80 (retrieved 10 Nov 2008).

IMMIGRATION OFFICES NATIONWIDE
HEAD OFFICE
Immigration Bureau, Government Complex, Gwacheon, Gyeonggido, Ph: 02-2110-3433 1, Jungangdong,

REGIONAL OFFICES
Busan Immigration Office, 17-26, Busan Immigration Office, Jungangdong 4-ga, Jung-gu, Busan Gamcheon Branch Office, Busan Ph: 051-461-3021 International Fish Market, 761, Amnamdong, Seo-gu, Busan Ph: 051-254-3917~8

Busan Immigration Office, Ulsan Branch Office, 139-16, Maeamdong, Nam-gu, Ulsan Ph: 052-261-7545

Cheongju Immigration Processing Center, 148 Mipyeongdong, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju, Chungcheongbukdo Ph: 043-290-7511 Cheongju Immigration Office, Chuncheon Immigration Office, 791 Bihadong, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju, Chungcheongbukdo Ph: 709-10, Hyoja 2 dong, Chuncheon, Gangwondo 043-236-4901 Ph: 033-244-7351 Chuncheon Immigration Office, Donghae Branch Office, Dongin Bldg. 4F, 847 Cheongokdong, Donghae, Gangwondo Ph. 033-535-5721

Chuncheon Immigration Office, Goseong Branch Office, Sacheonri, Hyunnaemyeon, Goseonggun, Gangwondo. Ph: 033-680-5100 Chuncheon Immigration Office, Sokcho Branch Office, 53-3, Dongmyeongdong, Sokcho, Gangwondo. Ph: 033-636-8613

Gwangju Immigration Office, Mokpo Branch Office, 982-2, Ogamdong, Mokpo, Jeollanamdo Ph: 061-282-7294 Gwangju Immigration Office, 366-1, Hwajeong 3 dong, Seo-gu, Gwangju Ph: 062-381-0015

Daegu Immigration Office, 1012- Hwaseong Immigration 1, Geomsadong, Dong-gu, Daegu Processing Center, 238-7, Ph: 053-980-3511 Madomyeon, Hwaseong, Gyeonggido Ph: 031-355-2016 Daegu Immigration Office, Pohang Branch Office, 58-13, Hanggudong, Buk-gu, Pohang, Gyeongsangbukdo Ph: 054-247-2971 Incheon Immigration Office, 1-31, Hangdong 7-ga, Jung-gu, Incheon Ph: 032-890-6300

Daejeon Immigration Office, 16-8,Incheon Airport Immigration Jungchondong, Jung-gu, Daejeon Office, 2172-1, Unseodong, JungPh: 042-254-8811 gu, Incheon.. Ph: 032-740-7013 Daejeon Immigration Office, Daesan Branch Office, Hanseong Bldg. 3F, 197-8, Daesanri, Daesaneup, Seosan Chungcheongnamdo Ph: 041-681-6181 Incheon Airport Immigration Office, City Air Terminal, 159-6, Samseongdong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul Ph: 02-551-6922

Gimhae Immigration Office, 2350,Incheon Airport Immigration Daejeo 2 dong, Gangseo-gu, Busan Office, Gimpo Branch Office, 712Ph: 051-979-1321 1, Bangwhadong, Gangseo-gu, Seoul Ph: 02-2664-6202

Jeju Immigration Office, 673-8, Seoul Immigration Office, 319-2, Geonipdong, Jeju Ph: 064-722-3494 Sinjeong 6 dong, Yangcheon-gu, Jeonju Immigration Office, San27, Seoul Ph: 02-2650-6212 Hoseongdong 1-ga, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabukdo Ph: 063-245-6161 Seoul Immigration Office, Sejongno Branch Office, SK Hub Bldg. 2F, 89-4, Gyeongundong, Jongno-gu, Seoul Ph: 02-732-6214

Jeonju Immigration Office, Gunsan Branch Office, 49-32, Suwon Immigration Office, 919-6, Jangmidong, Gunsan, Jeollabukdo Guundong, Gwonseon-gu, Suwon Ph: 063-445-2581 Ph: 031-278-3311 Masan Immigration Office, 2-6, Wolpodong, Masan, Gyeongsangnamdo Ph: 055-222-9272 Suwon Immigration Office, Osan Branch Office, Songtan, P.O. Box 3, Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggido Ph: 031-666-2677

Masan Immigration Office, Geoje Suwon Immigration Office, Branch Office, 535-5, Majeondong, Pyeongtaek Branch Office, 570, Geoje, Gyeongsangnamdo Manhori, Poseung-myeon, Ph: 055-681-2433 Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggido Ph: 031683-6937 Masan Immigration Office, Sacheon Branch Office, 44-5, Donggeumdong, Sacheon, Gyeongsangnamdo Ph: 055-835-4088 Masan Immigration Office, Tongyeong Branch Office, 171-10, Donghodong, Tongyeong, Gyeongsangnamdo Ph: 055-645-3494 Uijeongbu Immigration Office, Seoyoung Bldg, 493-8, Uijeongbu 2 dong, Uijeongbu, Gyeonggido Ph: 031-828-9499 Yeosu Immigration Office, 944, Hwajangdong, Yeosu, Jeollanamdo Ph: 061-684-6971 Yeosu Immigration Office, Gwangyang Branch Office, 1359-5, Jungdong, Gwangyang, Jeollanamdo Ph: 061-792-1139

Adapted from: Korea Immigration Service website, http://seoul.immigration.go.kr/.

FOREIGN EMBASSIES
AUSTRALIA
Seoul: Embassy
Telephone: 02-2003-0100 Address: 11th Fl, Kyobo Building, 1 Jongno 1-Ga, Jongno-Gu, Seoul Website: http://www.southkorea.embassy.gov.au/

CANADA
Seoul:
Telephone: Fax:

Embassy

02-3783-6000 02-3783-6239 (General & Administration) 02-3783-6112 (Consular) 02-3783-6113 (Public & Cultural Affairs) 02-3783-6114 (Immigration) Address: 16-1, Jeong-dong, Jung-gu, CPO Box 6299, Seoul, Korea 100-662 Website: http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/world/embassies/korea/

IRELAND
Seoul: Embassy
Telephone: 02-774-6455 Fax: 02-774-6458 Email: seoulembassy@dfa.ie Address: 13F. Leema Building, 146-1 Soosong-dong, Chongro-gu, Seoul, Korea 110-140 Website: http://www.irelandhouse-korea.com/

NEW ZEALAND
Seoul: Embassy
Telephone: 02-3701-7700 Fax: 02-3701-7701 Email: nzembsel@kornet.net Website: http://www.nzembassy.com/home.cfm?c=8 St. Address: Kyobo Building, 15th Floor, 1 Jongno 1-ga, Jongno-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea Postal Address: KPO Box 2258, Seoul, 110-110, Republic of Korea

SOUTH AFRICA
Seoul:
Tel: Fax:

Embassy
02-792-4855 02-792-4856

Address: 1-37 Hannam-dong, Yongsan-gu, Seoul 140-885, Seoul, South Korea Website: http://www.southafrica-embassy.or.kr/index.php

UNITED KINGDOM
Seoul: Embassy
Telephone: 02-3210-5500 Fax: 02-725-1738 Address: Taepyeongno 40, 4 Jeong-dong, Jung-gu 100-120, Seoul Website: http://ukinkorea.fco.gov.uk/en

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Seoul:
Tel: Fax: Website: Korean: E-mail: Address:

Embassy
02-397-4114 02-397-4101 http://seoul.usembassy.gov/ http://korean.seoul.usembassy.gov/ seoul_acs@state.gov 32 Sejongno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-710, Republic of Korea

Busan:

American Presence Post

Tel: 051-863-0731 Fax: 051-863-0734 Website: http://busan.usconsulate.gov/ Korean: http://korean.busan.usconsulate.gov/ Address: 32 Sejongno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-710, Republic of Korea

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
INTRA-CITY TRAVEL/COMMUTING
SUBWAY
The Seoul subway system is one of the safest, cleanest and most efficient in the world. It is a great way to avoid the traffic congestion of such a busy city. The Seoul system currently consists of twelve lines which will take you just about anywhere inside and outside the greater Seoul metropolitan area. Some of these lines are still under construction, and will be completed within the next few years. Busan, Daejeon, Daegu, Gwangju also have two or three lines each. Each line is color-coded and in Seoul the most common lines are numbered 1 to 8. All the subway stops are numbered, and have their name written in English. At your departure station you can either buy a ticket from the ticket office (shown below), which is usually manned, or you can use the ticket vending machine. The fare will vary depending on how far you want to travel, but there will usually be a large subway map up on the wall near the ticket office which will display all of the stations and the fare required to get there from your location.

PAYING WITH CASH

If the ticket office is manned, simply tell the office person your destination, and hand your money over. To use the vending machine, just press the button for the number of tickets you want, then press the button for the fare amount for your destination, and feed in the displayed amount of notes or coins. The ticket and any change will pop out of the bottom. To enter the subway, feed your ticket into the slot on the turnstile machine and walk through. Make sure that you collect your ticket when it pops out at the top of the machine, because you will

need it again when you get to your destination! Some turnstiles only accept T-money, but don't worry, at least one of the turnstiles at the entrance will take your ticket.

If you travel further than the amount allowed for on your ticket, an alarm will sound as you exit the turnstile at your destination. Don't panic! Just look around for a ticket office, and pay the extra 100 won or so. The staff are usually very cooperative and understanding, even if they don't speak English. Some stations have a machine near the turnstiles where you can “top-up” your ticket before you exit.

In Seoul, you can also buy a 30-day/60-trip pass which start at around 40,000 won, but these are limited to certain lines and may not be as flexible as you would like.

PAYING BY T-MONEY IN SEOUL (AND SOON NATIONWIDE)

The T-money card system is a very efficient and convenient way to pay for your public transport. You can buy a T-money card at any subway station ticket office, or any convenience store displaying the T-money logo. Simply say, “Ti meo-ni ka-deu juseyo.” (티 머니 카드 주 세 요). They cost about 2000 won. To load credit onto it, hand the card and cash to the person at the ticket office and say “Ka-deu chungjeon hae juseyo” ( 카드 충전 해 주세 요 ). They will recharge your card for you. Then you just have to wave your card over the sensor on top of the turnstile (the sensor has the T-money logo on it) and you're on your way. Because these cards use radio-frequency technology, the sensors can read the cards through a wallet or handbag, so you don't even have to take the cards out to use them. As well as being very convenient, the T-money system has the added advantages of allowing you to get a 100 won discount per ride, and you can transfer between buses and the subway system and vice-versa up to four times (five rides) for no extra charge (as long as you do so within 30 minutes – or 60 minutes between 9pm and 7am). If you pay cash, you have to buy a new ticket when you transfer between the buses and subway. Some taxis also have a T-money sensor, which is handy – but be aware that some drivers may not want to use this facility either because they don't know how to operate the machine or they want you to pay cash so that the tax man can't keep track of it. One thing to watch out for with T-money cards is that they do seem to wear out after a few months. They can often still be read by the train turnstile sensors, but become unreliable with the bus sensors. The best bet would be to buy a new card, and get someone at a subway ticket office to transfer any remaining balance to your new

card. If you get stuck on a bus with a broken T-money card and no cash, the driver will probably take pity on you and let it slide. If he's in a bad mood, you'll need to bail out at the next stop. Another small hassle with T-money is that sometimes the display on the turnstile gets a broken LED and displays what looks like an incorrect remaining balance on your card. You may think that the system has ripped you off,when actually everything is OK. Before you jump to conclusions, check your card on a different turnstile the next time you use the subway, or get someone at the ticket office to check your balance on their machine. You may also want to be careful about how much money you load onto your T-money card at one time. Although it's a bit of a hassle to recharge your card too often, you'll be pretty upset if you lose or break your card and it's still got 50,000 won remaining on it. It might be a good idea to just put enough on it to last you a week or so. You should also write your phone number on it with a name-pen so that a good Samaritan can contact you if you lose your card. That Samaritan may be less tempted to keep the card if the balance is low, too! A variation on the T-money theme is to get a Korean credit card with an integrated T-money chip. This has the added advantage of not wearing out, and never needing to be recharged; the accumulated fares are simply added to your monthly credit card bill. Most of the major credit cards in Korea have this facility.

FINDING YOUR WAY AROUND
Every subway station has a large map near its ticket office where you can work out your location and find your destination. You should also find yourself a subway map and keep it with you. Many of the subway offices will have a free map in English (although it's pretty large!) Many of the free expat magazines have a smaller subway map that you can cut out and keep in your wallet or purse. When you enter a station (or transfer between stations) make sure that you're going the right direction before you commit to going through a turnstile. Some of the older, poorly designed stations do not allow you to easily change to the other direction if you make a mistake. If this happens, you may have to re-swipe your card or buy another ticket. As a foreigner, you may get away with simply

jumping the turnstile, but don't count on it; it may be embarrassing to try and explain to a subway official why you appear to be trying to ride for free! The best plan will be to try and catch the attention of someone in the ticket office, and most of the time they will just let you through.

TIMETABLES
The SMRT website can show you detailed timetables (http://www.smrt.co.kr/Eng/index.jsp) but in general the subway runs between 5.30-45 am and 12.30-45 am during the week, and closes around midnight on weekends and holidays unless there's a special event such as a big sports game. Be patient if stuck in a popular nightspot after midnight, because taxi drivers become very picky and you may have a difficult time getting home.

ESTIMATING TRAVEL TIME
A good rule-of -thumb for estimating your traveling time is to allow roughly two minutes per stop, plus 5 to 10 minutes for a transfer. Many stations have a sign on the columns between the platforms which show how much time it will take to get you from your current location to every other station on that line. You can generally estimate your time very accurately this way.

KEEPING TRACK OF YOUR PROGRESS WHILE ON THE SUBWAY
All of the subway lines have an announcement in Korean and English for each station, but the train is often pretty noisy, so you have to listen carefully for your stop. This is generally only a problem on the old lines where there is no visual display to back up the announcements. The newer lines have electronic displays in the subway cars which clearly show the upcoming stations and transfer points in Korean and English. The newest trains have a traveling light display which clearly highlights the train's position in relation to the other stations. If you are on an old train with small windows and no electronic signs you will have to pay careful attention to your surroundings if you don't want to miss your stop. Keep an eye out of the window as the train enters a station and try to spot the station name in English. The sign will usually show the next station on the line, too. Above every door on the subway is a map of either the line you are on or the whole subway network. You can look at this map

and count how many stations until your stop. This is a bit of a clunky solution, but if you pay attention you should have no problems.

TRANSFERS
Getting to your destination may involve the need to transfer between subway lines, and this can sometimes be a little confusing, especially in Seoul. Try to plan your route before you go, rather than trying to work it out on-the-fly. There are some good route-planning tools listed below. A station with a transfer point will have large colorcoded signs that clearly point the way to transfer to the other line. Some also have large color-coded stripes on the wall that you can follow. You will often need to climb up or down stairs to get to the new line and sometimes the signage is not very clear, so go carefully and pay attention. You can always transfer without having to get a new ticket, so if your way is blocked by a turnstile you'd better retrace your steps and go back the way you came until you can see where you should have gone. Don't be afraid to ask someone if you get lost; most twenty or thirty-something Koreans will be able to understand you well enough to point you in the right direction.

EXITING THE SUBWAY
Most stations have several exits, and some of the larger stations with one or more transfer points can be a bit confusing. When you exit the train onto the platform, look above for signs showing the exit number you need. On some older stations an exit can only be accessed from one end of the station, and if you come out on the wrong side you'll have to either pay to re-enter the station, or climb up to the surface and find your way at street-level. Every station should have a map of the local area on the platform and near the ticket office which will show you the exits and what is around their immediate vicinity. These maps also show bus numbers which may help you work out where to transfer to a bus. Be careful you don't end up taking a bus in the wrong direction, though!

LOST AND FOUND
If you leave something behind on the subway and you notice as soon as you disembark, report to the station where the item was lost or at your arrival station. Lost and found office operating hours:

Korail Lines and Seoul Lines 1~4 : Weekdays: 9:00 am ~ 6:00 pm (and until 5:00 pm in winter), Saturdays: 9:00 am ~ 1:00 pm. (Closed Sundays) Seoul Lines 5~8 : Weekdays: 9:00 am ~ 6:00 pm (Closed Saturdays & Sundays) Incheon Line: Weekdays/Holidays: 5:30 am ~ 12:30 am (7 days a week) Lost and found offices: Korail Lines Guro Station (Suwon Line): 02-869-0089 Daegok Station (Ilsan Line): 031-965-8516 Seongbuk Station (Jungang and Gyeongchun Lines): 02-917-7445 Ansan Station (Gwacheon Line): 031-491-7790 Seolleung Station (Bundang Line): 02-568-7715 Byeongjeom Station (Cheonan Line): 031-234-7788 Seoul Lines 1 and 2 City Hall Station: 02-753-2408, 2409 Seoul Lines 3 and 4 Chungmuro Station: 02-2271-1170, 1171 Seoul Lines 5 and 8 Wangsimni Station: 02-6311-6765, 6768 Seoul Lines 6 and 7 Taereung Station: 02-6311-6766, 6767 Incheon Line Bupyeong-gu Office Station (Within the station office): 032-451-3650 Airport Express Line Gimpo Airport Station: 032-745-7777

CROWDING TIPS, SAFETY AND ETIQUETTE
If have to wait for the train at a busy platform, or you want to buy a ticket from a busy station office, it may be necessary to wait in line. Many Westerners are surprised to learn “queuing culture” is not the same in all countries. You may find yourself feeling upset if someone older than you cuts in front of you in the line. Elderly riders are allowed to take a free ticket from the ticket office counter, and will

often go straight to the window to help themselves to a ticket and be on their way – they won't hold you up, so don't worry! When you are waiting on the platform for the train to arrive, make sure that you stay behind the yellow line. This will ensure that you're far enough away from the edge of the platform that you won't accidentally fall onto the tracks in front of an oncoming train, or fall between the cars as the train comes into the station. It is possible for someone to be pushed onto the track by someone else when things get crowded, so keep your wits about you. Some stations have been fitted with sliding doors which is helping to reduce the numbers of suicides and accidents, and is also improving the air quality and lowering the noise levels, but there are still many stations with open platforms and it's better to give the edge of the platform a wide berth. When on an escalator please make sure that you stand on the right-hand side and leave the left side clear for people in a hurry to get past you. If you are with a friend, don't stand together. There has recently been a campaign to get people to stay-put on the escalators for safety reasons, (the campaign advertisement actually refers specifically to children, drunk or elderly people! If you are not in one of these categories, you can safely ignore those guidelines and walk up or down the escalators as long as you're careful). If someone is in your way, a polite “Jam-kkan man-yo” (잠깐만요) (Excuse me, please) will usually get them out of your way. If not, a more assertive “Bikyeo juseyo!” (비켜 주세 요) (Move, please!) will probably do the trick. Don't be tempted to run in the subway station. If you miss your train, don't worry - there'll be another one along in a minute or two; it's not worth risking your life for. Subway stations are made of hard and sometimes slippery stone floors, stairs and sharp corners and if you fall down you may not be getting up again. When you go through the turnstile, try not to follow too closely behind the person in front of you; sometimes the sensor will detect two people trying to slip through on one ticket and set off an embarrassing alarm. Koreans often do not walk in a straight line, and you might find that people are cutting you off or barging into you as you try to make your way around the station. Try not to let this get to you; Korean people think nothing of this if it is done to them, so it isn't

personal. One way to minimize this if someone is coming towards you is to pretend that you're not looking where you are going. If you look as if you are glancing off to the side, the oncoming person will magically and mysteriously avoid you, whereas if you are looking ahead, you will somehow become a magnet for any and all comers. Try it, it really works! Don't sit with your legs sticking out or with your knees splayed out to the sides - it takes up too much room, and is considered to be bad manners. Keep your knees together as much as possible and tuck your feet in so that the people standing won't trip over them. If you're on the subway with a friend, it's often a good time to chat. Don't forget, however, that you are not alone on the subway, and some of your fellow passengers may be quite good at English, especially in Seoul. Don't say anything that you wouldn't want someone standing next to you to hear; that is, if you're a generally polite person and usually try not to offend strangers. Also, in Korea it is considered bad manners to speak loudly on public transportation, whether that be to a friend sitting next to you, or on your cellphone.

EMERGENCY EVACUATION AND FIRE
In February 2003 an arsonist set fire to a subway car in Daegu resulting in the deaths of 198 people. 147 people were also injured, 1 but suffice it to say that if you find yourself in an emergency situation you need to take fast action to help yourself and others if you want to live. Many changes were made to all of Korea's subway systems after this tragedy (such as removing foam cushions from the seats), so things are much improved today, but it's better to be safe than sorry, so here are some things you can do to improve the odds if you are faced with an emergency:  There is an emergency intercom system at each end of every car on the front and back walls with a red call button and a microphone that can be used to communicate with the driver in an emergency. Unless your Korean is good enough you'd better delegate this task to a likely looking Korean passenger. Just say to them, "Bisang imnida!" ( 비 상 입 니 다 !) (There's an

1

“Daegu Subway Fire,”,Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, retrieved 19 Feb 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daegu_subway_fire>

emergency!) Then point to the end of the car and say, "Kigwan sa bulleo juseyo" (기관사 불러 주세 요) (Call the driver!) If you prompt people around you this will usually snap them out of their state of torpor and they'll take action. If you do nothing, then they may not either, until it is too late.  There is a fire extinguisher at each end of the subway car situated in a little recess on the front and back walls. You will need to detach the extinguisher from its retaining strap, remove the pin, point the extinguisher nozzle at the base of the fire (not the flames!) and squeeze the lever slowly. Using a sweeping motion, move the fire extinguisher back and forth until the fire is completely out. Operate the extinguisher from a safe distance, and then move towards the fire once it starts to diminish. Do not wait for someone else to take action! If you do, you may not survive. To operate the emergency door release once the car has stopped, look for a small box on the floor under the seats next to the car doors. It has a red flap. If you open the red flap on the box and turn the lever inside, the pressure system holding the doors closed will be released. You can then pry the doors apart by hand and exit the car. If you exit at a station with the double set of doors you will need to manually press the emergency release handles on the inside of the platform doors.

If you exit the car in the middle of a tunnel there will be a large-ish drop down onto the rails, so don't be surprised by that. Make your way along the side of the tunnel until you get to a station. Don't worry about being hit by another train; as you can see from the picture below there is enough room for a train to pass you as long as you stick close to the side of the tunnel.

If there is smoke in the tunnel try to stay as low as possible and take the shortest route to safety that the situation allows. Depending on the amount of crowding and resultant mayhem, it might be a good idea to make your way to the end of the train before you try to get out (as this may protect you from smoke or fire in the tunnel), but if it's too crowded then just get out any way and anywhere you can.

Here are some things you can do to minimize the problems caused by overcrowding on the subway: 1. Ty to travel at a less busy time of day wherever possible. With the exception of the morning rush hour, the rest of Korea doesn't really get going until after mid-day (especially on

weekends) so if you get up early you can often beat the crowd. However, even at really busy times you can usually squeeze your way onto the train. 2. If you are with a group of friends and your destination is not far away, it may be just as economical for you to share a 3,000 won taxi ride than to shell out 1,000 won each for the subway. Try to make your way to a door well before you get to your stop so that you don't have to crowd-surf your way through. Every time the train stops and someone gets out you should be able to wiggle you way a little further towards the door. Try to work out which side of the car the door will open on the newer trains have computerized signs in English which tell you what side to disembark on, but on the older lines you'll need to listen carefully for the announcement and look out of the window as the train arrives at the platform. If you're not planning to get off the train for a while, try to make your way to the middle of the car; that will make life easier for other people trying to get on and off the train. If you're sitting down and you see a very elderly person or a pregnant woman standing up, please offer them your seat. It's an easy way to be a good ambassador for your culture and show the people on the train that Westerners are not so bad. You may also be able to set a good example for other people on the train who have no manners. At very busy stations you may see people crowding the door trying to get in as you are trying to get out. If you are in a situation where you are not able to get out of the train because people are in your way trying to push their way on, say, “Bikyeo juseyo!” ( 비 켜 주 세 요 !) (Move, please!) This should shame one or two of them enough to give you some room to squeeze out.

3.

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6.

GET WITH THE 21 CENTURY
ST

Of course there are a lot of high-tech ways to find your way around these days, and your first point of call will be the Internet. The Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation has a very helpful and informative website where you can view a subway map (and print it out): http://www.nsubway.co.kr/korea/seoul/seoulsubwaymapen.htm They also have an interactive map which allows you to click on the stations you want to go from and to, and it will automatically calculate your traveling time and your transfer points. You can also get it to calculate a route that will minimize the number of transfers, although that journey may take more time. The map also has information on what time the last train leaves, which could be vital if you don't want to take an expensive taxi home after a night of partying! http://www.smrt.co.kr/Eng/index.jsp

ROUTE INFORMATION ON YOUR MOBILE DEVICE
If you have a PDA or PDA-style mobile phone or device, an excellent freeware program called “MetrO” is available. It has data on the public transport systems of 400 cities around the world (including Seoul, Busan and Daegu), and easily allows you to calculate journey times and transfer points: http://www.nanika.net/metro/

Downloads are available for Palm, PocketPC, Smartphone, BlackBerry, iPhone and others. There's also an on-line version available for mobile devices capable of web access whilst on the move.

BUSAN, DAEGU, DAEJEON, & GWANGJU SUBWAY INFORMATION
Busan: The Busan subway system has a good English-language website which should have most of the information you need at http:// www.subway.busan.kr/ english/main/ There's also a Wikipedia entry for the Busan Subway at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Busan_Subway Daegu: Daegu's subway system also has an English-language website at http://www.dtro.or.kr/index.html?eng. Daejeon: Daejeon's subway system website appears to be only in Korean at this stage, at http://www.djet.co.kr/index.do. However Wikipedia comes to the rescue with a basic rundown of the facilities at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Daejeon_Subway_Line_1 Gwangju: Gwangju's subway system has a website in English, however you have to go to the Korean-language site first at

http://www.subway.gwangju.kr/ then click on the tiny "English" section at the very top, right of the page.

BUSES GENERAL BUS INFORMATION
Paying by Cash. When you get on the bus, drop your money into the clear plastic hopper next to the driver. If you need change and the driver isn't paying attention to you, just politely remind him for the change. For example if you want 400 won change, you would say, “Jan don sa baek won juseyo” ( 잔 돈

사 백 원 주 세 요 ). Don't

expect the driver to give you change for a 10,000 won note – that's a great way to make an enemy! If you don't have any change you can always break a 10,000 won bill by buying some gum or a bottle of water at a local kiosk or convenience store beforehand. If you don't know how much the fare should cost, simply tell the driver your destination, and he will tell you the fare (usually in Korean). Paying by T-money. When you climb onto the bus you will see the Tmoney sensor mounted around waist-level near the driver. Just wave your card near the sensor and you will hear a single beep, and see the fare flash up briefly on the sensor's display. If the sensor can't read your card it will beep 2 or 3 times and play a recorded message in Korean. Try again. If it doesn't work after a few tries, then either your card has run out of credit, or it is not working properly (see the subway section above, “Problems with T-money” for more information). In this case you'll have to pay cash for your fare, (no 100-won discount today, sorry) plead for mercy to the driver, or get off at the next stop. You can also pay for a friend with your T-money card. When you get on the bus say to the driver, “Ajeossi/Adjummani, du saram imnida” ( 아저씨 두 사람입니다) (Mister/Ma'am, two people please.) then wait until the driver sets up the transaction before you swipe the sensor. It will beep and display the number of fares you requested when it's ready to go. Your friend probably won't be able to transfer to a subsequent mode of transport for free, however. When you get off the bus just swipe your T-money card again (at the sensor by the back door), and the sensor will beep once. If you have traveled more than 10 km the sensor may display an additional

charge which has been automatically deducted. If you don't swipe your card you will not be able to transfer for free to another mode of transportation. Finding Your Way Around. Each bus stop has a color-coded signboard which lists every bus that stops there, the routes and approximately how often they come. Most of the route will be in Korean only, however some major locations also have their names written in English. It would really help to learn to read Korean if you can't already – it only takes a few hours, and will drastically improve your ability to get along in Korea - especially since some stop names are "Konglish", such as the Hamilton Hotel in Itaewon.

A bus stop sign for the little green neighborhood buses. Timetables - Bus timetables vary depending on the bus, the time of day, and whether it's a week-day, a weekend, or a holiday. Check on the sign board at your bus stop for the timings of each bus. Check the “Get with the 21st Century” section below for a more user-friendly way to get timetable information. Estimating Travel Time - Unlike trains, buses are affected by traffic congestion problems so it's difficult to always accurately estimate how quickly a bus will get to it's destination. Although the introduction of bus-only lanes is making bus travel quicker and more efficient, there can always be delays – especially in areas where subway construction is being undertaken. A very rough rule-of-thumb might be to estimate 4 or 5 minutes per stop. Check the “Get with the 21st Century” section below for a more user-friendly way to estimate traveling time. Keeping Track of Your Progress While on the Bus - Once you're on the bus, just like on the subway, most buses have an announcement

before each stop. They will usually also mention the next stop, which allows you enough time to prepare to disembark. Announcements for major centers are often made in Korean and English, but don't count on that. The buses always have a route map on the edges of the ceiling which you can use to check your progress as you go. Transfers - Just to recap, you can transfer to or from the subway or another bus for no extra charge in Seoul if you use a T-money card. The only exception is that you cannot transfer to another bus with the same number - that will incur a new, full fare. Don't forget to swipe your T-money card when you disembark. Exiting the Bus - When you want to get off the bus you need to press one of the red 'stop' buttons which are located in various positions around the interior of the bus. This will set off a buzzer and inform the driver that you want to get off. You should try to exit from the rear door of the bus unless it is so crowded that you cannot easily make your way to the back. Watch carefully for crazy motorcyclists when you exit the bus as they often overtake on the inside and show little consideration for the safety of others or themselves. Several people have been killed or injured being hit by motorcycles while getting off buses. Every now and then you may be in the situation where either you forgot to press the button, or the driver is not paying attention, and the bus is just about to pull away from your stop without letting you out. In that case you can shout, “Ajeossi! Nae ryeo juseyo.” (아저씨 내려 주세 요!) (Mister, open the door!).

CROWDING TIPS, SAFETY AND ETIQUETTE
Korea is one of the more densely populated countries in the world and more often than not the buses get very crowded. Sometimes a bus gets so crowded that it is too full to let any more people on, and you have to wait for the next bus. Here are some things you can do to minimize the problems caused by overcrowding:

Ty to travel at a less busy time of day wherever possible. With the exception of the morning rush hour, the rest of Korea doesn't really get going until after mid-day (especially on weekends) so if you get up early you can often beat the crowd.

Some stops are busier on a route than others. Sometimes the bus can be almost empty at the stop before or after your usual stop on a route. Planning to catch the bus down the road or around the corner from your regular stop can often make the difference between getting a seat or standing, or even getting on the bus at all. If you are with a group of friends, it may be just as economical for you to share a 3,000 won taxi ride than to shell out 1,000 won each for the bus. If time is of the essence, it may also be better to just bite the bullet and grab a taxi. Some buses take different routes, but end up at the same stop. You may be able to experiment with taking different buses to your destination and see which one is quicker. Check out the “Get with the 21st Century” section below for some suggestions on how to analyze your bus routes and maximize their efficiency.

Being on a crowded bus can try one's patience, and it's often very frustrating to be jammed into a crowded bus with a bunch of people. So how can you make the experience a bit less painful?

Try to make your way to the back door well before you get to your stop so that you don't have to crowd-surf your way through. Every time the bus stops and someone gets out you should be able to wiggle you way a little further to the back. If the bus is so full that you can't move, then it's OK to stay near the front door and dive out there when you get to your stop. Everyone else does it. Even if you're not planning to get off the bus for a while, try to make your way to the back of the bus anyway. That will make life easier for other people trying to get onto the bus. Be careful with shoulder bags and backpacks on the bus. If you swing your bag around too quickly on a crowded bus you may take out some poor defenseless old grandfather, or a pregnant woman. It happened to one of the authors! If you have to stand on the bus try to hold on tightly to something. Bus drivers in Korea aren't renowned for their smooth driving skills, and you can quickly become a human

pinball if the driver suddenly brakes or accelerates and you're not prepared for it.

If you're sitting down and you see a very elderly person or a pregnant woman standing, it is customary to offer them your seat. As mentioned before, it's an easy way to be a good ambassador for your culture. If there's nobody pregnant or over 60 on the bus, then it's every person for themselves! At busy bus stops you may see people trying to get on the bus through the back door as other people are trying to get out. You may even be tempted to do this yourself if there's a chance you won't make it on via the front door. Don't do it. If you are in a situation where you are not able to get off a bus or train because people are in your way trying to push their way on, say, “Bi-kyeo juseyo!” (비켜 주세요!) (Move, please!).

AN OVERVIEW OF THE SEOUL BUS SYSTEM
The Seoul Metropolitan Government introduced a new bus system in 2004. It was met with much public outcry, mainly from those who like to maintain the status-quo, although to be fair to them the changes did include a fare increase. These changes allowed the bus system to become much more efficient and easy to understand, as well as integrating the fare structure into the subway system. Additionally, the Seoul Metropolitan Government has been progressively introducing bus-only lanes into Seoul's city streets which have noticeably reduced traveling times, allowing buses to rival the subway system for reliability, simplicity and convenience. The bus numbers go from 1 to 7 depending on their routes, and are color-coded to indicate their type.  Red buses are for long-distance express travel, typically between Seoul and the outlying cities. Some express buses are also white. Fares start at 1,800 won. Blue buses are for medium-distance travel and link suburban areas to downtown Seoul. Their routes are fairly direct. Fares start at 1,000 won. Big Green buses link the blue bus routes and subway lines. These routes are generally more circuitous than blue bus routes Fares start at 1,000 won.

Small green buses called “town buses” have a single-digit number. They are for shorter-distance travel; they generally tootle around within a particular neighborhood. Fares start at 700 won. Yellow buses circle within the downtown area of cities taking in key sub-districts, business centers and shopping areas. Fares start at 800 won.

All fares are discounted by 100 won if a T-money card is used. 100 won is added to the fare for each additional 5km traveled. You can transfer up to 4 times (5 rides) if a T-money card is used, as long as you do so within 30 minutes. The districts around Seoul are numbered from 1 to 7 radiating around clockwise from the North: Central Incorporates Jongno, Jung-gu and Yongsan. Seoul District Incorporates Dobong, Gangbuk, Seongbuk and Nowon, 1 and radiates out to Uijeongbu, Yangju and Pocheon. District Incorporates Dongdaemun, Jungnang, Seongdong and 2 Gwangjin, and radiates out to Guri and Namyangju. District Incorporates Gangdong and Songpa, and radiates out to 3 Hanam and Gwangju. District Incorporates Seocho and Gangnam, and radiates out to 4 Seongnam and Yongin. District Incorporates Dongjak, Gwanak and Geumcheon, and 5 radiates out to Anyang, Gwacheon, Ulwang, Ansan, Gunpo and Suwon. District Incorporates Gangseo, Yangcheon, Yeongdeungpo and 6 Guro, and radiates out to Incheon, Bucheon, Kimpo (Gimpo), Gwangmyeong and Siheung. District Incorporates Eunpyeong, Mapo and Seodaemun, and 7 radiates out to Paju and Goyang.

The number of a bus will generally be made up of three parts; it's starting zone, it's finishing zone, then a route number. So for example, blue bus number 263 starts in Majang-dong in Seongdonggu (District 2) and finishes up in Yeouido in Yeongdeungpo-gu (District 6), and blue bus 110 starts and finishes in Jeongneung-dong in Seongbuk (District 1). This system is pretty consistent, but it's a little different for the red buses which have an extra number preceding the starting zone. (For more detailed information on bus routes see the links at the end of this section.)

GET WITH THE 21ST CENTURY
Sponsored by the Seoul Metropolitan Government, the Seoul Public Transportation System Guide is an interactive map in English which can be used to calculate your traveling times and transfer points. It also tells you which buses you should take to get to your destination most efficiently. You can also get it to incorporate the subway so that it will give you information on a combined bus/subway journey. The beauty of this system is that you can click on your starting point on

the map, then click on the destination, and it will immediately show you the best way to go - something that would be extremely difficult to work out via conventional means. You may well find a bus or combination of buses that will take you from door-to-door faster than you imagined possible - remember that when you take the subway you have to clamber up and down several flights of stairs, as well as walking to and from the stations, and that time all adds up - whereas the bus you need may well be running right past your front door.

Screenshot of the Seoul Public Transportation System Guide http://bus.congnamul.com/SeoulRouteWebApp/view_english/map.jsp If you hover your mouse over a bus stop symbol near a station it may show the station name in a little pop-up control tip. In any case, this graphical representation of the city will help you to get your bearings and learn your way around very easily, so it is highly recommended! There is an automated call system which utilizes GPS technology to let you know how far away the next bus is from your stop. At the top of the bus stop sign there's a number to call, then you

can enter the stop number. This system might be useful if you're running late and are tossing up whether or not to get a taxi. The Korean tourist organization also has a website for calculating traveling times, etc. It has a very crisp and clear interactive map in English, as well as a whole raft of information on all kinds of transport both in Seoul and cities in other parts of Korea. This site is pretty-much one-stop shopping for all of your transportation questions. http://traffic.visitkorea.or.kr/Lang/en/

GYEONGGI BUS SERVICE
The Korea Tourism organization website has bus information for local buses in Gyeonggi province. Take a look at their website for more information: http://traffic.visitkorea.or.kr/Lang/en/Bus/index.asp?CID=1&SMenu=1

TAXIS
Taxis are a very flexible and convenient mode of transport in Korea. A taxi can generally be found on almost any street at any time of the day or night. There are several kinds of taxis available out there, and they vary in price, comfort and level of service:

DELUXE (BLACK) TAXIS
These cars cater mostly to the business market. Most of them are owner-operated and the drivers are courteous and professional. Their standard of driving and safety should be reasonably high. All this comes at a premium, however, as flagfall (known as “the drop” in the USA) starts at around 5,000 won, and after the first 3km it will cost you a further 200 won every 205 meters that you travel. The good news is that they do not charge a premium between midnight and 4am.

GENERAL (REGULAR) TAXIS - PRIVATELY OWNED
These are usually modern, mid-sized sedans with a good level of comfort. Like the black taxis, they are owner-operated. This means that the standard of driving and safety should be reasonably good. They are likely to be more courteous and cooperative than the lowerquality company taxis described below. Flagfall will start at around 1,900 won, and after 2km it will cost you a further 100 won every 168 meters that you travel. A premium of 20% is added between midnight and 4am. You can identify a privately owned taxi by the "Gaein" (개인) sticker on the side of the car.

GENERAL (REGULAR) TAXIS - COMPANY OWNED
These are often (but not always) older mid-sized sedans which are owned by a taxi company, not the drivers themselves. Because of this the level of comfort, safety and service can vary widely. A good ruleof-thumb would be to avoid any taxi that is too old, or looks beatenup; good drivers will usually take care of a newer car and drive it (and you) around more carefully.

"CALL" TAXIS
These are handy if you live in a remote area and can't just hail a taxi outside your door. They may also be useful on cold or rainy days, or

if you need to get somewhere very early in the morning. Taxis will generally arrive within 10-15 minutes, however you will incur an extra 1,000 won charge over and above the normal rate. The fare may be higher if the taxi has had to travel a long way to pick you up. Here are some Seoul call taxi company phone numbers:
• • • • • Green Call Taxi: (02) 555-5858 Deluxe Call Center: (02) 3452-5830 K.T. Deluxe Call Taxi: (011) 760-4041 Power Call Taxi: (02) 555-5555 Limousine Call Va Taxi: (010) 9869-0081

HAILING A TAXI
To hail a taxi just step to the edge of the sidewalk and raise your arm. If the taxi is available it will pull over and stop for you. How can you tell whether it's available? There will usually be a little red sign lit up behind the front windshield which reads bincha ( 빈 차 ) (empty car). Sometimes the drivers forget to switch this off when they have a passenger, so it doesn't hurt to check the back seat of an oncoming taxi to see whether there's someone already in there. If you know the direction you will be going, try to get on the correct side of the road before you hail the taxi. Sometimes a driver will have to go quite a long way in the opposite direction before they can find a place to turn around. This may cost you extra time and money. Of course, if the weather is bad you may want to ignore this so you can get out of the rain as quickly as possible.

NIGHT SPOTS
Taxi drivers become very picky close to popular night spots after the trains have stopped running, and it can often become very difficult to get a driver to agree to pick you up; they're only interested in a longdistance fare, and they will keep cruising up and down the street, wasting gas and refusing the patrons crying desperately to them through the window until they find a worthy fare. In this kind of situation it may be better to try and take a bus anywhere away from that neighborhood and try to find some nicer taxis in the next neighborhood. Another alternative may be to get your friends to chip in for a motel if the buses have stopped running, otherwise you might be

waiting a long time! Sometimes it may just be better to stay out until 6 am when the subways re-open.

BARGAINING
If you have to travel a long distance it may be worth trying to bargain with the driver for a better deal. You can sometimes get the driver to agree on a set price, and he will take you to your destination without turning on the meter.

GETTING INTO A TAXI
Be careful getting into a taxi - drivers may stop in a precarious position with scant regard for the road rules or safety, so do a quick scan of the area around the taxi before you get in to make sure that your taxi isn't about to get wiped out by a dump truck, or that you aren't about to be wiped out by a passing motorcycle. You must get into the taxi from the curb side of the vehicle, and it's acceptable for passengers to use the front seat in Korea. Don't try to get in on the other side; that door is usually locked for safety reasons. If there are several of you, you may have to get in at the curb side one-by-one and then scoot across the back seat to make room for the others.

SEAT BELTS
An advantage of using the front seat is that you can use the seatbelt (wearing your seat belt is actually is legally required for all passenger cars in South Korea, but not the rear), as there may not be a belt available in the back seat. You may sometimes be able to dig the belt out from between the cushions at the back of the seat, but don't count on it. A driver may sometimes try to dissuade you from wearing a seatbelt (“I'm a good driver!”) but don't let your concern for his feelings sway you; it's better to be safe than sorry.

DIRECTIONS
Once you're settled in the driver will ask you where you want to go, "Eodi ka se-yo?" ( 어 디 가 세 요 ?) Say your destination clearly, loudly and slowly, followed by "ga juseyo". ( 가 주 세 요 .) (Take me to...). Downtown is "Shi-nae." (시내.) If you don't know how to say your destination in Korean it may be a good idea to call a Korean friend

and get them to talk to the driver. If you just want to get home, you can show the driver the back of your Korean ID card if it has your home address in Korean. When you get to your destination tell the driver, "Yeogi imnida" (여기입니다.) (“Here”) and he will pull over for you. See Appendix One: Survival Phrases for Living and Working in Korea on page Error: Reference source not found for more phrases of use with a taxi driver.

PAYING
Taxi drivers prefer cash. Some taxis have T-money terminals fitted, however one can't always use them because some drivers may not know how (or are unwilling) to operate them. Cash always works.

GETTING A RECEIPT
If you need to get a receipt for work, just say to the driver, "Yeong sujeung juseyo" (영 수증 주세요).

EXITING A TAXI
Just like when the driver stopped to pick you up, when he goes to drop you off he may well stop in a precarious place, so be careful when you get out. Check over your shoulder to make sure that there are no kamikaze motorcyclists trying to pass on the inside or you may get your arm ripped off, or worse.

SMOKING
It may be okay for you to smoke in the taxi, but please ask the driver for permission before you light up.

TRANSLATION SERVICE
Some taxis have a translation service that will enable you to speak to an English-speaking operator, which can be helpful in a situation where a driver has no idea what you're saying. If there is a sign in the taxi indicating that a translation service is available, just say, "English translation" and the driver will call up his company's Englishlanguage operator and hand his phone over to you. In the odd occasion where a driver is being particularly obtuse it may just be better to bail out of that car and try your luck with a different one.

THINGS TO WATCH OUT FOR
Crazy Driving - You may find that your driver is goosing the throttle making you feel sea-sick, or suddenly slamming on the brakes. He (or sometimes she) may also be veering wildly through the traffic at high speeds and running red lights. You may find this enjoyable, but if you're not comfortable with this style of driving you could try saying, "Cheoncheonhi ga juseyo" (천천히 가 주세요.) (Slow down, please). Being Taken to the Wrong Place - From time to time a driver will misunderstand your directions and take you to the wrong place. This can be compounded if you aren't familiar with the destination yourself and don't realize until it's too late. He's probably not trying to rip you off; it's almost always due to an honest mistake, and drivers are usually very apologetic and try their best to rectify the situation. In fact, when they do finally deliver you to the correct destination they may only charge you what the original fare would have been - you can negotiate this with the driver. Even though it's frustrating, please try to keep calm and remain polite; you will get things resolved more smoothly if you keep your cool. Not Being Taken all the Way to Your Destination - You may occasionally end up with a driver who will refuse to take you all the way to your door. This can sometimes happen if you live in an older neighborhood with crowded, narrow streets. The driver will stop on a main road near your destination and tell you to get out there. The reason for this may be that it difficult for him/her to navigate through your neighborhood, or the driver may think that he or she is less likely to pick up a new fare quickly at your destination. While this can be annoying, especially if it is raining or you have a lot of heavy groceries to carry, you have few options. You can argue with him, but the meter will continue to run. You can get his name and number from the ID card displayed on the dashboard, then complain to the company. Don't refuse to pay, as this could end up taking a lot of time to resolve, and the police may be called - which could go either way. Driver Trying to Pick up Extra Passengers - A practice you may see is a driver stopping to pick up another fare with you already in the car. He will still expect you to pay your regular fare even though the other passenger will pay him, too. This can be pretty frustrating if you are in a hurry. You can try to dissuade the driver by saying, "Hajimaseyo!"

( 하지 마세 요! Don't do that!) or "Ppali ga juseyo" ( 빨리 가 주세 요! Hurry, please!) If you're not in a hurry just go with the flow. A Korean friend once scolded one of the authors when he complained about this practice; she told him that taxi drivers are very poor and he shouldn't be getting on his high horse about such a small thing. She was right. Criminal Behavior - There have been some extremely rare cases of abduction and even murder perpetrated by taxi drivers in the past. The cases have mostly involved young women trying to get home from nightclubs and bars well after midnight. Common sense will always be the best way to prevent something like this happening to you, but keep these points in mind, too: • Women should never travel alone after 10pm. • Choose a reputable-looking owner-operated taxi. Chatterboxes and Inappropriate Questions - You may sometimes get a driver who wants to chat with you, and usually it's a pleasant enough way to pass the time and improve understanding between two cultures. Sometimes, though, you may simply not be in the mood to chat, or perhaps the driver's questions are too rude or invasive. What can you do in this situation? You can tell the driver, "Mal hago sipji anha yo" (말하고 싶지 않아 요) (I don't want to talk), but a more Korean way to handle it is to just be silent and not answer questions. One of the authors likes to just pretend to fall asleep.

CROSS-COUNTRY (INTERCITY) TRAVEL
INTERCITY AND EXPRESS BUSES
If you live outside of the Seoul Metropolitan area or you want to travel between Korea's towns and cities you can take either an Intercity bus for traveling between regional centers, or an Express bus for traveling to main centers. If your area isn't listed below, don't worry - almost every town and city has an Express Bus terminal, "Go-sok teomineol" (고속 터미널) and/or an Intercity Bus terminal "Si-oe teomineol" (시외.터미널). For example, if you lived in Pohang and wanted to go to Seoul, you'd catch a bus from the Express Bus Terminal, but if you wanted to pop

across to Gyeongju for a day's sight-seeing you'd go to the Intercity Bus terminal. For more detailed information on bus schedules and pricing visit the Korean National Tourism Information Website: http://english.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/1041_Transportation.jsp They have an on-line route search function that should get you started.

SEOUL
Seoul has several express bus terminals: Seoul Express Bus Terminal and Central City Terminal - Located in Seocho-gu near Kangnam, the Seoul Express Bus Terminal runs services to Gyeongsang-do and Gangwon-do. Right next door is the Central City Terminal which runs services to Jeolla-do and the southern coastal area. An easy way to get to there would be via subway lines 3 and 7. Get off at the Express Bus Terminal station and take the underground walkway to the terminals. Line 3 has an easier route there than line 7. Nambu Bus Terminal - Also located in Seocho-gu, this terminal is near Nambu Bus Terminal subway station on line 3, exit 5. It runs services to dozens of towns in Gyeongsang-do, Gongju, Buyeo, Nonsan, Dangjin, Seosan, Taean , Yongin, Anseong , Pyeongtaek , Incheon, Jeolla-do, Cheonan, Asan, Yesan, Daecheon, and Chungcheongbuk-do. Dong-Seoul Bus Terminal - Is located in Guui-dong, Gwangjin-gu near Gangbyeon subway station on line 2, exit 4. It runs services to all the major cities as well as dozens of towns in Gyeonggi-do, Gangwondo, Jeolla-do, Gyeongsan-do and Chungcheong-do. Sangbong Bus Terminal - Is located in Sangbong-dong, Jungnang-gu near Sangbong subway station on line 7, exit 2. It runs services to Cheongju, Daejeon, Jeonju and Gwangju as well as dozens of towns in Gangneung, Uljin, Wonju, Gimhwa, Cheorwon, I-dong , Wasuri, Sokcho, Geojin, Hongcheon, Yanggu, Chuncheon, Hwacheon and Hyeolli.

BUSAN
Busan Bus Terminal Complex and Busan Dongbu Gyeongnam Intercity Bus Terminal - This complex contains both the express and intercity bus terminals under the same roof, although they have

different ticket counters. It is located in Nopo-dong, Geumjeong-gu near Nopo-dong subway station line 1. An underground walkway leads to the terminals. The express bus terminal runs services to Seoul, Uijeongbu, Incheon, Seongnam, Gyeongju, Daegu, Daejeon, Cheongju, Jinju, Suncheon, Yeosu, Gwangju and Jeonju. The intercity bus terminal runs services to just about everywhere else. Busan Seoubu Intercity Bus Terminal - Is located in Gwaebeop-dong, Sasang-gu near Sasang subway station on line 1, exit 1. It runs services to Geoje, Masan, Jangmok, Jangseungpo, Jillye, Jinyeong, Jinhae, Changwon and Tongyeong as well as dozens of towns in Geochang, Hapcheon, Uiryeong, Namhae, Hadong, Honam, Jinju , Samcheonpo and Namwon,

TIPS FOR USING INTERCITY AND EXPRESS BUSES

When you arrive at the terminal you can purchase a ticket at the counter. If you don't speak much Korean just say the name of your destination and hand over your money. The bigger terminals are pretty well signposted as to when and where your bus will leave from, and the smaller terminals are quite simply laid-out - just walk out the back where you'll see a row of buses lined up with their destination displayed on a sign inside the front windscreen. Simply walk onto the bus and the driver will collect your ticket, either as you walk in, or he will check your ticket just before departure. You will probably need to keep your ticket and hand it back at the end of the trip, so don't lose it! Some buses require you to sit in an assigned seat, so make sure you check for a seat number on your ticket before you sit down. Every hour or so on your journey the bus will probably stop at a service area (highway restaurant and bathroom facility) for 10 to 20 minutes where you can stretch your legs, grab a bite, get some air and freshen up. It may be hard to get a comfortable temperature on the bus they're often stifling hot both in winter and summer. You can try getting the driver to turn the air conditioning up or the heater down - it sometimes works - but you'd better come

dressed for the occasion, and be prepared to add on or strip off layers of clothing as the situation demands.

SEOUL AIRPORT LIMOUSINE BUS
These buses go to and from strategic points around the Seoul metropolitan area and Gimpo and/or Incheon airports. They are generally very comfortable, however there aren't many bus stops so you may have to take a taxi or a local bus to or from the limousine bus stop nearest your house. Fares range between 8,000 to 14,000 won and you can generally use T-money, although if you take the bus from the airport you will probably need to buy a ticket from the kiosk on the sidewalk outside the arrivals terminal. Take a look at the Korea Tourism Organization website (above) for detailed information on airport buses.

AIR AND SEA TRAVEL
AIR TRAVEL
The following is a list of airports in Korea, by city. Be advised that this listing of destinations was current when this book was published, but routes may change. Please contact the airport directly (or your airline) for an updated list if you are planning to travel. Cheongju: Cheongju Airport (CJJ) Domestic Destinations: Jeju International Destinations: China, Hong Kong http://cheongju.airport.co.kr/eng/info/information.jsp Daegu (Taegu): Daegu Airport (Taegu Airport) (TAE) Domestic Destinations: Jeju and Incheon International Destinations: Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Philippines, Taipei, Thailand, Vietnam http://daegu.airport.co.kr/eng/flight/fly_schedule.jsp Seoul: Gimpo International Airport (GMP) Korea's largest domestic airport, serving Seoul and Incheon Domestic Destinations: Busan, Gwangju, Jeju, Jinju/Sacheon, Muan, Pohang, Ulsan, Yeosu International Destinations: China and Japan http://gimpo.airport.co.kr/eng/index.jsp Gwangju (Kwangju): Gwangju Airport (KWJ)

Domestic Destinations: Jeju, Seoul (Gimpo) International Destinations: None http://gwangju.airport.co.kr/eng/info/information.jsp Incheon: Incheon International Airport (ICN) Korea's largest international airport, serving Seoul and Incheon Domestic Destinations: None scheduled at the time of publication. International Destinations: Austria, Australia, Bali, Brazil, Canada, Cambodia, China, Czech Republic, Dubai (UAE), Egypt, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Macau, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines, Qatar, Russia, Saipan, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taipei, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, USA, Uzbekistan, Vietnam http://www.airport.kr/eng/airport/ Jeju (Cheju): Jeju International Airport (CJU) Jeju serves the sub-tropical Jeju island off the south coast of Korea and is a popular holiday spot for Koreans. Domestic Destinations: Busan, Cheongju, Daegu, Gwangju, Gunsan, Jinju, Seoul-Gimpo & Incheon, Ulsan, Wonju, Yeosu International Destinations: China, Japan, Taipei http://jeju.airport.co.kr/eng/index.jsp Muan: Muan International Airport (MWX) Muan airport serves Gwangju and Mokpo, and opened in 2007. Domestic Destinations: Daegu, Jeju, Seoul (Gimpo), International Destinations: China, Hong Kong, Macao, Taipei http://muan.airport.co.kr/eng/intro/introduce.jsp Busan (Pusan): Gimhae International Airport (Kimhae Int'l) (PUS) Domestic Destinations: Jeju, Seoul-Gimpo & Incheon, Yangyang International Destinations: Cambodia, China, Germany, Hong Kong,Japan, Philippines, Russia, Saipan, Taipei, Thailand, Vietnam http://gimhae.airport.co.kr/eng/info/information.jsp Yangyang: Yangyang International Airport (YNY) Yangyang services the Gangwon-do region and provides access to Seorak Mountain. Domestic Destinations: Busan International Destinations: None scheduled. Occasional charters to

China, Japan, and Taipei. http://yangyang.airport.co.kr/eng/info/information.jsp The following is a list of civil airfields (smaller than airports) that serve just a couple domestic destinations. If you live close by, they might be convenient. Gunsan: Gunsan Airport (KUV) Destinations: Jeju http://gunsan.airport.co.kr/eng/info/information.jsp Pohang: Pohang Airport (KPO) Destinations: Seoul (Gimpo) http://pohang.airport.co.kr/eng/info/information.jsp Sacheon/Jinju: Sacheon Airport (HIN) Sacheon airport serves Sacheon, Jinju, and Jiri cities in Kyungsangnam-do. Destinations: Jeju, Seoul (Gimpo) http://sacheon.airport.co.kr/eng/index.jsp Ulsan: Ulsan Airport (USN) Destinations: Jeju, Seoul (Gimpo) http://ulsan.airport.co.kr/eng/info/information.jsp Wonju: Wonju Airport (WJU) Wonju airport services Wonju in Gangwon-do. Destinations: Jeju http://wonju.airport.co.kr/eng/info/information.jsp Yeosu: Yeosu Airport (RSU) Yeosu airport serves Jeollanam-do. Destinations: Jeju, Seoul (Gimpo) http://yeosu.airport.co.kr/eng/info/information.jsp

TIPS FOR FLYING IN KOREA
International Flights

Make sure that you arrive at the airport two hours before your scheduled departure time. Although check in doesn't begin until 90 minutes before the flight, this will give you plenty of time to deal with any unexpected delays, such as those listed below. If you plan to travel abroad during your time in Korea and you're on an E-2 or F-2 visa, you will need to get a re-entry

permit from the Immigration Department before you leave Korea. This can either be done at your local Immigration Department office, or at the Immigration Department office at an international airport. Check out the airport websites listed above for information on the location of the airport Immigration offices. A single re-entry permit will cost you 30,000 won, and a multiple re-entry permit will cost you 50,000 won. If you leave Korea without getting a re-entry permit you may void your visa.

If your old passport has expired during the term of your current visa make sure that you bring your expired passport with you to the airport. This will save you some delays at the airport Immigration office when they can't find your current visa in your new passport. If you are traveling internationally from a regional airport make sure that you go to the correct terminal. You are unlikely to find your international flight at the domestic terminal, and by the time you work this out you may have missed your plane! Even if you're only flying domestically within Korea you will still need to show your passport. All domestic passengers both Korean and expatriate are required to show ID before they get on a plane, so don't get caught out. Some regional airports are also military airbases, so don't take pictures there, even if you see something cool out of the window. Remember, South Korea is still technically at war and they may not take too kindly to you snapping that Apache gunship sitting on the tarmac.

Domestic Flights 

FERRIES
Korea has a comprehensive domestic and international ferry network servicing most major coastal cities. Taking the ferry may be a good option for people who can't afford to fly, or those who want to experience something different. Ferries may also be a good backup in the event that your travel agent leaves you stranded somewhere as

happened to one of the authors and his pregnant wife one weekend in Jeju! Ferries in Korea may not be the same as you are used to in the West, however - they're generally pretty basic; you may be required to share a floor with hordes of soju-drinking, shouting peasants, and cook your own ramyeon. Some ferries do have more comfortable motel-style cabins available and whilst they're a little expensive they may be a good option for an overnight trip... unless you want to experience the local culture up close and really personal! Check out the Korean Tourism Organization website for information on domestic and international ferries in Korea: http://traffic.visitkorea.or.kr/Lang/en/Ship/

BUSAN
The Port of Busan has a website in English that may be useful for you. It has links to the companies which operate ferries out of Busan, although they may not be in English: http://www.busanferry.com/ja_service?id=en_index The Panstar Ferry Line which operates between Busan and Osaka has an Englishlanguage website: http://www.panstarline.com/EN/index.html

INCHEON
The port of Incheon has a website (mostly in Korean) which has links to the companies that operate ferries out of Incheon, although they may not be in English: http://www.incheonferry.co.kr/. Weidong Ferry which operates services from Incheon to Weihei and Qingdao in China has a website in English: http://www.weidong.com/

The Association for Teachers of English in Korea provides the following services to the general public, members and nonmembers alike:
• • • •
Monitoring of proposed legislation and regulations which may affect noncitizen English teachers in Korea. Translation of proposed and existing legislation and regulations (domestic and international) and analysis of their possible effects on non-citizen English teachers in Korea. Advocacy for English teacher concerns at the national and local levels. The English Teacher's Guide to Korea, which will be made available in PDF for free download from our website (http://atek.or.kr).

ATEK provides the following benefits and services to members:
• • • • Full access to ATEK's Employer Rating System, to make and review ratings. Access to the member forums. Access to professional development and lesson planning materials. Information on how to check to see if your employer is correctly reporting your income, paying your taxes and making proper deductions from your pay. Copies of labor, tax, pension, and health insurance complaint forms, translated into Korean, and instructions about how to go about filing a complaint. Local social networks (the Provincial and Metropolitan Associations that send reps to our national council). Access to data from the ATEK Member Survey, which enables ATEK to track average salaries and weekly hours by region and type of teaching job, average level of satisfaction with various job types, average length of stay of foreigners working in Korea, average pay and benefit increases when resigning for a second year, and much more. Want to know if your contract offer is above or below the average salary for someone in your city and education level? Get access. Advisories to the government based on ATEK Member Survey information on non-citizen English teacher's problems and needs (does one particular city have a higher rate of teachers reporting pay withholding fraud? That city's government might want to know that.) An online application that translates letters home to parents into Korean, so that you can communicate with parents and let them know how their child is doing. Representation of member concerns to relevant government agencies and other groups. Responses to media items of interest to non-citizen English teachers.

• •

• •

All these resources are available on our website at http://atek.or.kr

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
Living, Working, and Thriving in Korea Sparkling

By Tony Hellmann, M.Ed. Tom Rainey-Smith Jason Thomas, M.App.Ling. Matthew Henderson

ATEK

Press

This book was designed and laid out entirely with open source software. Individual sections copyright © 2009 by the respective authors, all rights reserved, except as licensed below. Used by permission. Published by ATEK Press, a division of the Association for Teachers of English in Korea. Design and composition by Tony Hellmann. Copyedited by Jason Thomas
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APPENDIX 1: SURVIVAL PHRASES FOR LIVING AND WORKING IN KOREA
(F) = Formal/polite (for someone of equal or higher status, or someone you don't know well).

THE BASICS
BASIC EXPRESSIONS
English Yes. No. Thank you. I am sorry. 네. 아니요. 감사합니다. (F) 미안합니다. (F) Hangul Ne. Aniyo. Kamsahamnida. (F) Mianhamnida. (F) Pronunciation

GREETINGS
English Good morning. Good afternoon. Good evening. Good-bye. (to person leaving) Good-bye. (to person staying) Hangul Pronunciation

안녕하세요? Annyong haseyo? 안녕하십니까? (F) Annyong hashimnikka? (F) 안녕히 가세요. 안녕히 가십시오. (F) 안녕히 계세요. 안녕히 계십시오. Annyonghi kasayo. Annyonghi kashipshiyo. (F) Annyonghi kyesayo. Annyonghi kyeshipshiyo.

(F) Good night. How do you do? (meeting for the first time) My name is _____. How are you? Hello? (on the phone) Do you speak English? 안녕히 주무십시 요. (F) 처음 뵙겠습니다. (F) 저는 ___ 입니다. (F) 어떠십니까? (F) 여보세요? 영어를 할수 있어 요?

(F) Annyonghi jumushipsiyo. (F) Ch'oum poepgetsumnida. (F) Chonun ______ imnida. (F) Ottoshimnikka? (F) Yoboseyo? Yeongeorul malsum halsu isseoyo

NUMBERS, COUNTING, AND DATES
Korean has two sets of cardinal numbers, depending on the situation. One set has a Chinese root, and the other set has a Korean root. Use the Korean forms for the number of items (1-99) and age (2 children, 5 bottles of beer, 27 years old). Use the Chinese forms for dates, money, addresses, phone numbers, and numbers above 100. Most Asian counting systems have a single word for “ten thousand,” and this changes the way they group large numbers. In English, 100,000 is represented as “a hundred thousands” or “a thousand one hundred times.” However, in Korean that number is represented as “십만” with 십 meaning “10” and 만 meaning “10,000.” This can be confusing for those converting numbers between English and Korean.

NUMBERS
Hangul 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 일 (하나) 이 (둘) 삼 (셋) 사 (넷) 오 (다섯) 육 (여섯) 칠 (일곱) 팔 (여덟) 구 (아홉) 십 (열)
Pronunciation Chinese-root (Korean-root)

NUMBERS
Hangul 15 16 17 18 19 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Pronunciation Chinese-root (Korean-root)

il (hana) ee (tul) sam (set) sa (net) oh (tasot) yuk (yosot) ch'il (ilgop) p'al (yodolp) gu (ahop) ship (yol)

십오 ship-oh (열다섯) (yol-tasot) 십육 shim-yuk (열여섯) (yol-yosot) 십칠 ship-ch'il (열일곱) (yol-ilgop) 십팔 shi-p'al (yol(열여덟) yodolp) 십구 ship-gu (열아홉) (yol-ahop) 이십 (스물) 삼십 (서른) 사십 (마흔) 오십 (쉰) 육십 (예순) 칠십 (이른) 팔십 (여든) ee-ship (sumul) sam-ship (sorun) sa-ship (mahun) oh-ship (shween) yuk-ship (yesun) ch'il-ship (irun) p'al-ship (yodun)

십일 ship-il (yol(열하나) hana) 십이 (열둘) 십삼 (열셋) 십사 (열넷) ship-ee (yoltul) ship-sam (yol-set) ship-sa (yolnet)

NUMBERS
Hangul 90 100 200 1K 10K 구십 (아흔) 백 이백 천 만
Pronunciation Chinese-root (Korean-root)

MONTHS
English Hangul Pronunciation

Jan Feb Mar April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov

일월 이월 삼월 사월 오월 유월 칠월 팔월 구월 시월 십일월 십이월

ilwol eewol samwol sawol ohwol yuwol ch'ilwol p'alwol guwol shiwol shibilwol shibeewol

gu-ship (ahun) baek ee-baek ch'eon man ship-man baek-man eok

100K 십만 1 Mil 백만 100 Mil 억

WEEKDAYS
Hangul Pronunciation

Dec

Sun Mon Tues Wed Thur Fri Sat

일요일 월요일 화요일 수요일 목요일 금요일 토요일

ilyo-il wolyo-il hwayo-il suyo-il mogyo-il kumyo-il t'oyo-il

EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
EMERGENCIES
English Help! Look out! Please help me. Call an ambulance! I need a doctor. There's been an accident. Please hurry! Are you ok? Is everyone ok? I'm/We're lost. I can't find my ... keys passport cellphone I've lost my ... laptop Hangul 도와줘(요)! 조심하세요! 도와주세요 응급차를 부르세 요 의사가 필요해요 사고가 났어요 서둘러요! 괜찮아요? Pronunciation Dowajueo(yo)! Joshim haseyo! Dowa juseyo Eunggubcharul bureuseyo Euisaga pal haeyo Sagoga nasseoyo Seodulleoyo! Goaenchanayo?

다들(모두) 괜찮아 Dadeul (modu) 요? goaench’anayo? 길을 잃었어요 ...을 못 찾겠어요/ 잃어 버렸어요 열쇠... 여권... 핸드폰... ...를 잃어 버렸어 요 노트북컴퓨터... Gileul ileosseoyo …eul mot chagesseoyo/ ileo beoryeosseoyo Yeolsoi… Yeogwon… Haendeupon… …reul ileo boryeosseoyo Noteubuk keompyuteo…

wallet purse cellphone bag camera

지갑... 핸드백... 핸드폰/휴대폰... 가방... 카메라...

Jigab… Haendeubaeg… Haendeupon/Hyudaepon … Gabang… Kamera…

CRIME/FIRE
English Stop, thief! Call the police! My ____ has been stolen. [Laptop] [wallet] [purse] [cellphone] [bag] [money] I'd like to report a theft. My apartment has been robbed. That man/woman hit me. I'd like to report a theft. I've been mugged. Hangul 도둑이야! 경찰을 불러요! 내 ____을(를) 도 둑맞았어요 [노트 북컴퓨터][지갑] [핸드백][핸드폰] [돈] 절도신고를 하고 싶은데요 내 아파트에 강도 가 들었어요 저 남자(여자)가 날 때렸어요 도둑을 신고하려 고요 Pronunciation Dodugiya! Gyeongchaleul bulleoyo! Nae____eul(rul) dodukmajasseoyo [noteubuk keompyuteo] [jigab] [haendeubaeg] [haendeupon] [don] Jaldoshingoreul hago shipeundeyo Nae apateue gangdogadeuleosseoyo Jeo namja (yeoja) ga nal ddaeryeosseoyo Dodukeul singoharyeogoyo Gangdoreul danghaesseoyo

강도를 당했어요

I've been attacked. Please leave me alone. Go away! I'm calling the police! Fire! Call the fire department!

공격을 당했어요

Gonggyeogeul danghaesseoyo Gonyang honja itgae hae juseyo Jeori gaseyo! Gyeongchale singohagesseoyo! Buliya! Sobangchareul bulleo!

그냥 혼자 있게 해 주세요

저리 가세요! 경찰에 신고하겠 어요! 불이야! 소방차를 불러!

GETTING AROUND
DRIVING DIRECTIONS
English Please go to ... I'm in a hurry. There's no hurry. Please drive more ... slowly / quickly Go straight ahead. Turn ... Hangul ... 에 가주세요. 급해요. 급하게 가지 않아도 되요. 좀 더 ... 운전해 주세 요. Pronunciation ... ai ga-jusaeyo. ku-p'haiyo. kup'hagae gaji ahnado dwaeyo. Jom deo ... unjeonhae juseyo. ch'eonch'eonhee / bbali Ddokbaro ga-jusaeyo. ... uro dolla ka-juseyo.

천천히 / 빨리
똑바로 가주세요. ... 으로 돌아가 주세 요.

left / right

왼쪽 / 오른쪽

wen-jjok / orun-jjok Gyocharoeseo gwahoijon/ uhoijon hae juseyo geuncheoyo Jwacheug/ucheug chaseoneuro buteuseyo I chaseoneul tago jjuk gaseyo Jgeu, eongddunghan goseuro gago gyeshineundeyo I jjok gillo ga juseyo Yeogiseo naeryeo juseyo. Yogumee alma-yeyo?

Turn left/right at 교차로에서 좌회전/ the intersection. 우회전 해주세요 Near [landmark]. Get in the left/right lane. Stay in this lane. You are going the wrong way. Take this road. 근처요 좌측/우측 차선으로 붙으세요 이 차선을 타고 쭉 가 세요 지금 엉뚱한 곳으로 가고 계시는데요 이쪽 길로 가주세요

Stop here, please. 여기서 내려 주세요. How much is the 요금이 얼마예요? fare?

ON THE STREET
English Where is ...? How do I get to ...? airport bus station train station subway station Hangul ...는 어디 입니까? ...에는 어떻게 갑니 까? 공항 버스 터미날 기차역 지하철역 Pronunciation ...neun odi imnikka? ...aenun ottok'ae kamnikka? gonghang bosu t'eomeenal kich'a yeok chihach'eol yeok

CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS
REPAIRS
English I think … is out of order. Hangul Pronunciation

...ga gojangnan ...가 고장난 것 같습니다. geot gatseumnida. hyudaepon / notbuk / radio Moniteoga jal an boyeoyo.

mobile phone / laptop 휴대폰 / 노트북 / 라디오 / radio I can't see the monitor 모니터가 잘 안 보여요. screen well. The sound is sometimes on and sometimes off. I can't start the computer power. I dropped it and it broke.

Soriga 소리가 들렸다가 안 들렸 deulryeotdaga an 다가 해요. deulryeotdaga haeyo. 전원이 안 켜집니다. Jeonwoni an kyeojimnida. Tteoleotteuryeose o kkaejyeotsseumni da.

떨어트려서 깨졌습니다.

It turns on but it doesn't boot. I'd like to register. What is the reason?

Keompyuteoga 컴퓨터가 켜지긴 하는데, kyeojigin 부팅이 안돼요 haneunde, butingee andwaeyo 접수해 주세요. 원인이 무엇인가요? Jeopsuhae juseyo. Wonini mueotingayo?

How long will it take to get fixed?

수리하는 데 시간이 얼마나 걸리나요?

Surihaneun de sigani eolmana geolrinayo? Suribiyongeun eolmana deumnikka?

How much will it cost 수리비용은 얼마나 듭니 to get fixed? 까? Is it under the free repair period? When should I come back to pick it up? Plaese, fix it as fast as you can.

Musang seobiseu 무상 서비스 기간에 해당 gigane 되나요? haedang doinayo? 언제 찾으러 오면 되나 요? Eonje chajeureo omyeon doinayo?

Choidaehan bbali 최대한 빨리 수리해 주세 surihae 요. juseyo.

AT THE BANK
English I'd like to open an account. I'd like to …20,000 won. deposit / wire transfer / withdraw How much do you charge for a wire transfer? Hangul 구좌를 개설하고 싶 습니다. 2 만원 ... 해주세요. 입금 / 송금 / 인출 송금 수수료는 얼마 입니까? Pronunciation Gujwareul gaeseolhago sipseumnida. Imanwon ... haejuseyo. ipgeum / songgeum / inchul Songgeum susuryoneun eolmaimnikka?

How much is the interest?

이자는 얼마나 되나 요?

Ijaneun eolmana doinayo? Gonggwageumeul napbuhago sipseumnida.

공과금을 납부하고 I'd like to pay my bill. 싶습니다.

AT THE BEAUTY SALON OR BARBER SHOP
English I'd like to get my hair ... , please. cut permed dyed straightened highlighted Please, trim only the forehead Please, don't cut… Don't cut too much. Don't make it too curly. Take this much off the... Hangul 머리를 ... 해 주세요. 잘라 파마 염색 스트레이트 브리지 앞머리만 조금 다듬어 주세요. ...은 깎지 마세요. 너무 많이 자르지 마세 요. 너무 곱슬거리지 않게 해주세요. ……이만큼 잘라주세요 Pronunciation Meorireul ... hae juseyo. jalra pama yeomsaek seuteureit beuriji (bridge-ee) Apmeoriman jogeum dadeumeo juseyo. ...eun kkakji maseyo. Neomu mani jareuji maseyo. Neomu gopseulgeoriji anke haejuseyo. Imankeum jalla juseyo

Top Sides Back Bangs I'd like a soldier haircut.

윗머리 옆머리 뒷머리 앞머리 군인머리처럼 짧게 잘 라주세요

Weot-meori Yeop-meori Dweot-meori Ap-meori Gunin meoricheoreom jjalge jalla juseyo

IN A RESTAURANT
English Please give me a menu. Hangul 메뉴 좀 갖다주세요. Pronunciation Maenu jom kattajuseyo. ... il-inbun put'k hamnida. Maepchi ahngae haechusaeyo. Mul chom chuseyo. Yogi kyesanso chom kacho-oseyo. Yeoungsujeungeul chusaeyo.

I'd like one order of ... 일 인분 부탁 합니 ... 다. Don't make it hot (spicey). Please bring me some water. 맵지 않게 해주세요.

물 좀 주세요.

Please bring me the 여기 계산서 좀 가져 check. 오세요. Please give me a receipt. 영수증을 주세요.

AT THE HOSPITAL
English My _____ hurts. Hangul ... 아파요. Pronunciation ... apayo.

head tooth stomach ear throat I have ... cramps constipation diarrhea indigestion the flu a cold a runny nose a stuffy nose Is it serious?

머리가 이빨이 배가 귀가 목이 ... 예요. 생리통 변비 설사 소화불량 독감에 걸렸어 요 감기에 걸렸어 요 자꾸 콧물이 나 요 코가 막혔어요 ... yeyo.

meoriga ippali baega gwiga moki

sangritong byeonbi seolsa sohwabulryang Dokgame geolryeotsseoyo Gamgie geolryeotsseoyo Jakku konmuri nayo Koga makyeotsseoyo

심각한 건가요? Simgakan geongayo?

What is the name of the Byeongmyeongi 병명이 뭔가요? disease? mwongayo? What is the name of this medicine? How often should I take this medicine? 이 약 이름이 뭔 I yak ireum-ee 가요? mweongayo? 하루에 몇 알을 Haru-e myeot areul 먹어야 하나요? meogeoya hanayo?

I am allergic to some drugs.

몇몇 약에 알레 르기가 있습니 다.

Myeot-myeot yak-e algereugiga isseumnida.

ADDITIONAL TERMS: GENERAL BODY PARTS
English Hangul Pronunciation English Hangul Pronunciation

body head hair face fore head eye eye brow eye-lid
eyelashes

몸 머리 머리카 락 얼굴 이마 눈 눈썹

mom meori meorikarak eolgul ima nun nunsseop

wrist
elbow

팔목

palmok

팔꿈치 palkkumchi 손 손목 son sonmok

hand wrist palm fist
finger

손바닥 sonbadak 주먹 jumeok

손가락 songarak eomji geomji yakji sontop gaseum yubang gyeodeurangi

눈꺼풀 nunkkeopul 속눈썹 songnunsseop 귀 gwi bol ko

thumb 엄지 index finger ring finger finger nail breast breast armpit 검지

ear
cheek

약지

볼 코

손톱 가슴 유방 겨드랑 이

nose
nostril mouth

콧구멍 kogumeong 입 ip

lips

입술

ipsul hyeo mok

side back waist

옆구리 yeopguri 등 허리 deung heori bae baekkop

ton-gue 혀 neck 목

nape of 목덜미 mokdeolmi the neck
throat

ab배 domen navel buttoc ks leg thigh knee foot ankle 배꼽

목구멍 mokgumeong 이 잇몸 턱 어깨 팔 i inmom teok eokkae pal

tooth gum chin
shoulder

엉덩이 eongdeongi 다리 dari

허벅지 heobeokji 무릎 발 발목 mureup bal balmok baltop ppyeo

arm heel skin muscle

뒤꿈치 dwikkumchi 살갗 근육 salgat geunyuk

toenail 발톱 bone 뼈

ADDITIONAL TERMS: INTERNAL ORGANS
English Hangul Pronunciation English pancreas Hangul Pronunciation

heart liver lungs
stomach appendix

심장 간 폐 위 맹장

simjang gan pye wi maengjang

췌장

chwejang damnang jang jagung noe

gall담낭 bladder bowels womb brain 장 자궁 뇌

kidney

콩팥

kongpat

anus

항문

hangmun

AT THE POST OFFICE
English I'd like to send this parcel ... to America by airmail by express delivery How long will it take to be delivered? Where can I get stamps? What's the zip code for this address? Hangul ...로 이 소포를 보내 고 싶어요. 미국으로 항공우편으로 속달로 Pronunciation ...ro i soporeul bonaego sipeoyo. migukeuro hanggongupyeoneuro sokdalro Baesonggiganeun eolmana geolrinayo? Upyoneun eodieseo parayo? I jusoui upyeonbeonhoga mwoyeyo?

배송기간은 얼마나 걸리나요? 우표는 어디에서 팔 아요? 이 주소의 우편번호 가 뭐예요?

IN A STORE
English I'd like to speak to a manager. Do you have...? shirts Hangul 점장 (메니저) 과 얘 기를 나누고 싶습니 다. ... 있나요? 셔츠 Pronunciation Jeojang (menijeo) gwa aegireul nanugo shipsumnida. ... innayo? syeocheu

pants caps shoes Do you have this in...? red large small size 95 I'm looking for... something particular something large something small something cheaper Where can I find...? apples tomatoes tuna fish beer

바지 모자 신발 이거 ...로 있나요? 빨간색으로 큰걸로 작은걸로 95(구십오) 사이즈 전 ...를 원해요. 뭔가 특별한 것 뭔가 큰 것 뭔가 작은 것 더싼것 ...는 어디 있나요? 사과 토마토 참치 맥주

baji moja sinbal Igeo ...ro innayo? ppalgansaegeuro keungeolro jageungeolro

Jeon ...reul wonhaeyo. mwonga teukbyeolhan geot mwonga keun geot mwonga jagun geot deo ssan geot ...neun eodi innayo? sagwa tomato chamchi maekju Igeo eolmayeyo? Sinyongkadeuro jibulhagetsseumnida.

How much is this? 이거 얼마예요? I will pay with a credit card 신용카드로 지불하 겠습니다.

one-time payment pay over 3 months Could you give a discount? Please give me a receipt. Please, put it in the envelope. Could gift wrap it please? Give me a refund. I'd like to exchange this. Give… 1 geun / 2 geun [Korean measurement1 geun=600 grams] 100 grams / 200 grams five thousand won worth

일시불 3 개월 할부 좀 깎아주세요.

ilsibul samgaewol halbu Jom kkakgajuseyo. Yeoungsujeungeul chusaeyo.

영수증을 주세요.

봉투에 담아 주세요. Bongtue dama juseyo. 선물 포장해 주세요. 환불해 주세요 교환해 주세요. ... 주세요. Seonmul pojanghae juseyo. Hwanbulhae juseyo. Gyohwanhae juseyo. ... juseyo.

1근/2근

hangeun / dugeun

100 그람 / 200 그람 오천원어치

baekgeuram / ibaekgeuram ocheonwoneochi

AT THE HOTEL
English Do you have...? Hangul ... 있나요? Pronunciation ... innayo?

any vacancies a single room a double room a suite I'd like to extend the stay... one more day two more nights a couple more days Put me on the waiting list, please. I'm calling from room 206. It's so ... in here. hot cold messy smelly noisy

빈방 싱글 룸 더블 룸 스위트룸 ... 더 묵고 싶습니다. 하루 더 이틀밤 더 며칠 더

binbang singgeul rum deobeul rum seuwit rum ... deo mukko sipseumnida. haru deo iteulbam deo myeochil deo Daegija myeongdane ollyeo juseyo. Yeogi ibaegyuko indeyo. Yeogin neomu ...haeyo. deowoyo chuwoyo jijeobunhaeyo namsaenayo sikkeureowoyo

대기자 명단에 올려 주세요. 여기 206 호 인데요. 여긴 너무 ...해요. 더워요 추워요 지저분해요 냄새나요 시끄러워요

AT THE REAL ESTATE OFFICE
English I am looking for Hangul 5 천만원에 ...를 구 Pronunciation Ocheonmanwone ...reul

…with 50 million won key money. lease of a house [room] on a deposit basis (key money) monthly rent studio house apartment business section I'd like to take a look. How far from the subway station? I'd like to have (number) … (3) rooms / (2) bathrooms I'd like to have an above the (3rd) floor with a deck/ balcony. How much is the deposit money? I like to check the building registration

하고 싶습니다.

guhago sipseumnida.

전세

jeonse

월세 원룸 단독주택 아파트 상가 한번 둘러보고 싶은 데요. 지하철 역에서는 거 리가 얼마나 걸리나요? …이 ..개 있는 곳을 워합니다. 방 (3)개 / 욕실 (2)개

wolse wonrum dandokjutaek apateu sangga Hanbeon dulreobogo sipeundeyo. Jihacheol yeokeseoneun georiga eolmana geolrinayo? ...i ..gae ineun goseul wonhamnida. bang (se)gae / yoksil (du)gae

(Sam) cheung isang (3)층 이상 베란다가 berandaga ineun 있는 곳을 원합니다. goseul wonhamnida. 보증금은 얼마나 되 나요? Bojeunggeumeun eolmana doinayo? Geonmul deunggibudeungboneul hwakinhago sipseumnida.

건물 등기부등본을 확인하고 싶습니다.

certificate.

ON THE PHONE
CONVERSATIONS
English Hello. Who's calling, please? Hangul 여보세요. 누구세요? Pronunciation Yeoboseyo. Nuguseyo?

Could I speak to ... ... 씨와 통화할 수 있 ... ssiwa tonghwahal su , please? 을까요? isseulkkayo? Can I talk to ... , please? Hold on, please. I'm afraid ... isn't in at the moment. Do you want ... to call you back? Could I take a message? Would you like to leave a message? The line is busy. Could you repeat that, please? ... 씨 좀 부탁드립니 다. 잠시만 기다리세요. 죄송하지만 ... 씨가 잠시 자리를 비웠습 니다. ... 씨에게 다시 전화 하라고 할까요? 메시지를 받을수 있 을까요? 메시지를 남기시겠 어요? 통화중입니다. 다시 말씀해 주시겠 어요? ... ssi jom butakdeurimnida. Jamsiman gidariseyo. Joesonghajiman ... ssiga jamsi jarireul biwotsseumnida. ... ssiege dasi jeonhwaharago halkkayo? Mesigireul badeul su itsseulkkayo? Mesigireul namgisigetsseuyo? Tonghwajungimnida. Dasi malsseumhae jusigetsseuyo?

Could you speak up a little, please? I will call you back. When can I call?

좀 더 크게 말씀해 주시겠어요? 제가 다시 걸겠습니 다. 언제쯤 통화가 가능 할까요?

Jom deo keuge malsseumhae jusigetsseuyo? Jega dasi geolgetsseumnida. Eonjejjeum tonghwaga ganeunghalkkayo?

ORDERING A PIZZA OVER THE PHONE
English I'd like to order pizza (for delivery). I'd like [number] pizzas. One with pepperoni Two combination pizzas One only-cheese pizza What is your address? My address is: How much is the total cost? Hangul 피자를 주문하고 싶은 데요. (배달해 주세요) 피자 …개를 주문하려 고요 하나는 페퍼로니 피자 두 개는 콤비네이션 피 자 하나는 치즈만 넣어주 세요 Pronunciation Pijareul jumunhago shipeundeyo. (baedalhae juseyo) Pija …gaereul jumunharyeogayo Hananeun pepeoroni pija Dugaeneun kombineisyeon pija Hananeun chijeuman neoheo juseyo Jusoga eoddeoge dwaeseyo Jusoneun… Jeonbuda eolmayeyo?

주소가 어떻게 되세요? 주소는…. 전부다 얼마예요?

Can you have the driver call me when he arrives?

배달원이 우리 집에 도 착하면 전화해 줄 수 있 나요?

Baedalweon-ee uri jib-e dochakhamyeon jeonwha hae jul su isseoyo?

EXPRESSING FEELINGS
FEELINGS
English (I) …(you) love like hate detest dearly love Thank you. Thank you. I am sorry. I am very sorry. I feel (am)… angry sad happy merry Hangul (나는) (당신 을) ..해요 사랑해요. 좋아해요. 미워해요. 증오해요. 사모해요. 고맙습니다. 감사합니다. 미안합니다. 죄송합니다. 나는 ..해요 화가나요. 슬퍼요. 기뻐요. 즐거워요. Pronunciation (Naneun) (dangsineul) ..haeyo. Saranghaeyo. Joahaeyo. Miwohaeyo. Jeungohaeyo. Samohaeyo. Gomapseumnida. Gamsahamnida. Mianhamnida. Joesonghamnida. Naneun ..haeyo. Hwaganayo. Seulpeoyo. Gippeoyo. Jeulgeowoyo.

excited depressed afraid nervous thankful sorry puzzled confused pleased disappointed excited surprised happy unhappy lonely lonely refreshed unpleasant comfortable falsely accused shameful ashamed stuffy (or difficulty in breathing)

신나요. 우울해요. 무서워요. 불안해요. 고마워요. 미안해요. 황당해요. 당황스러워요. 만족스러워요. 실망이예요. 흥분되요. 놀라워요. 행복해요. 불행해요. 고독해요. 외로워요. 상쾌해요. 불쾌해요. 편해요. 억울해요. 부끄러워요. 창피해요. 답답해요.

Sinnayo. Uulhaeyo. Museowoyo. Bulanhaeyo. Gomawoyo. Mianhaeyo. Hwangdanghaeyo. Danghwangseureowoyo Manjokseureowoyo. Silmangiyeyo. Heungbundoeyo. Nolrawoyo. Haengbokaeyo. Bulhaenghaeyo. Godokaeyo. Oerowoyo. Sangkoaehaeyo. Bulkoaehaeyo. Pyeonhaeyo. Eogulhaeyo. Bukkeureowoyo. Changpihaeyo. dapdapaeyo.

bored painful It is … inconvenient hard difficult easy interesting mystic charming admirable stylish pretty beautiful cute complicated simple

지루해요. 아파요.

Jiruhaeyo. Apayo.

(그것은) ..해요 (Geugeoseun) ..haeyo. 불편해요. 힘들어요. 어려워요. 쉬워요. 재미있어요. 신비해요. 매력적이예요. 훌륭해요. 멋있어요. 예뻐요. 아름다워요. 귀여워요. 복잡해요. 단순해요. Bulpyeonhaeyo. Himdeureoyo. Eoryeowoyo. Swiwoyo. Jaemiisseoyo. Sinbihaeyo. Maeryeokjeokiyeyo. Hullyunghaeyo. Meositsseoyo. Yeppeoyo. Areumdawoyo. Gwiyeowoyo. Bokjaphaeyo. Dansunhaeyo.

The Association for Teachers of English in Korea provides the following services to the general public, members and nonmembers alike:
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THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
Living, Working, and Thriving in Korea Sparkling

By Tony Hellmann, M.Ed. Tom Rainey-Smith Jason Thomas, M.App.Ling. Matthew Henderson

ATEK

Press

This book was designed and laid out entirely with open source software. Individual sections copyright © 2009 by the respective authors, all rights reserved, except as licensed below. Used by permission. Published by ATEK Press, a division of the Association for Teachers of English in Korea. Design and composition by Tony Hellmann. Copyedited by Jason Thomas
Cover: Art by Jeffrey Morabito. www.jeffreymorabito.com. Photo by Trey Ratcliff, www.stuckincustoms.com

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This book is published in both print and electronic formats. Printed in the Republic of Korea 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

APPENDIX 2: KOREAN FOODS AND THEIR APPROXIMATE NUTRITIONAL VALUES
The following list provides the names and descriptions of some of the more common Korean foods. Basic nutritional information is also included. Bear in mind that this information is a general guideline: recipes can vary. The nutritional information is a rough estimate intended to give you a reference point as to the general macronutritional makeup of the each food. If you are calorie counting or on a strict diet that calls for very specific amounts of carbs, fat, and protein, consult another source.

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
Name Description Srv. Nutrition Size

RICE DISHES
김밥 Kimbap Rice rolls with vegetables and ham. 300 g 484 kcal 73.81 g carbs 12.1 g protein 15.6 g fat 476 kcal 74.97 g carbs 13.09 g protein 12.69 g fat 536 kcal 80.4 g carbs 22.78 g protein 13.7 g fat 172 kcal 27.09 g carbs 8.17 g protein 3.44 g fat 161 kcal 24.15 g carbs 8.05 g protein 3.58 g fat 428 kcal 78.11 g carbs 21.4 g protein 1.9 g fat

볶음밥 Bokkeumbap

Fried rice.

214 g

비빔밥 Bibimbap

Rice bowl with meat, vegetables, and egg.

420 g

삼각김밥-소고기고 Triangle shaped kimbap 추장 with beef and hot pepper Samgak Kimbap – paste filling. Sogogi Gochujang 삼각김밥-참치김치 매운맛 Triangle shaped kimbap Samgak Kimbap – with spicy tuna-kimchi Chamchi Kimchi filling. Maeun Mat

100 g

100 g

오징어덮밥 Fried squid and vegetables 239 Ojingeo Deopbap in sauce, served over rice. g

6

KOREAN FOODS
콩나물비빔밥 Kongnamul Bibimbap Rice bowl with bean sprouts, vegetables, and meat. 350 g 394 kcal 72.89 g carbs 13.79 g protein 5.25 g fat

RICE CAKES (DDEOK)
가래떡 Garae Ddeok Long, cylindrical rice cakes. 100 g 239 kcal 52.58 g carbs 4.18 g protein 0.8 g fat 271 kcal 48.78 g carbs 8.13 g protein 4.52 g fat

간장떡볶이 Kanjang Ddeokbokki

Rice cakes in soy sauce.

153 g

감자떡 Kamja Ddeok

Glutinous rice cake with potato starch.

193 kcal 43.43 g carbs 90 g 3.86 g protein 0.43 g fat

떡꼬치 Ddeok Ggochi

142 kcal Glutinous rice cakes served 29.11 g carbs 58 g on a stick. 2.13 g protein 1.74 g fat Rice cakes in spicy sauce. 108 g 226 kcal 47.46 g carbs 4.52 g protein 2.01 g fat 234 kcal 53.24 g carbs 3.51 g protein 0.78 g fat

떡볶이 Ddeokbokki

무지개떡 Mujigae Ddeok

Rainbow colored glutinous 100 rice cake. g

7

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
100 g 234 kcal 51.48 g carbs 3.51 g protein 0.78 g fat 205 kcal 42.54 g carbs 5.64 g protein 0.68 g fat 236 kcal 50.15 g carbs 4.72 g protein 1.57 g fat

백설기 Baekseolgi 시루떡 (붉은팥고 물) Siru Ddeok (Red Bean Topping) 찹쌀떡 Chapssal Ddeok

White glutinous rice cake.

White glutinous rice cake with red bean topping.

100 g

Sweet glutinous rice cake.

100 g

KIMCHI
김치볶음 Kimchi Bokkeum Stir-fried kimchi. 110 kcal 94.5 2.2 g carbs g 5.23 g protein 8.92 g fat 16 kcal 3.08 g carbs 50 g 0.6 g protein 0.14 g fat 100 g 11 kcal 2.26 g carbs 0.5 g protein 0 g fat

깍두기 Ggakdugi

Cubed radish kimchi.

동치미 Dongchimi

Chopped radish kimchi in served in water.

배추김치 Baechu Kimchi

Common (napa cabbage) kimchi.

11 kcal 1.51 g carbs 60 g 0.99 g protein 0 g fat

8

KOREAN FOODS
Cabbage kimchi without hot pepper. 10 kcal 1.25 g carbs 50 g 0.88 g protein 0.17 g fat 12 kcal 1.74 g carbs 50 g 1.26 g protein 0 g fat

백김치 Baek Kimchi

열무김치 Yeolmu Kimchi

Baby radish (leaf only) kimchi.

16 kcal 총각김치 Baby radish (leaf and root) 2.6 g carbs 50 g Chonggak Kimchi kimchi. 1.08 g protein 0.14 g fat

SOUPS
갈비탕 Galbi Tang Beef stew with clear noodles (includes water weight). 250 g 167 kcal 12.23 g carbs 12.23 g protein 7.68 g fat 112 kcal 20.27 g carbs 5.68 g protein 0.91 g fat

Potato soup with 감자수제비국 dumpling-noodles Kamja Sujebi Guk (includes water weight). Egg-drop soup with green onions (serving weight is dry weight). Chicken soup (serving weight includes water).

200 g

계란파국 Kyeran Pa Guk

80 kcal 1.6 g carbs 52 g 5.8 g protein 5.51 g fat 250 g 129 kcal 5.48 g carbs 12.26 g protein 6.31 g fat

닭곰탕 Dalk Gom Tang

9

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
120 g 69 kcal 3.45 g carbs 12.08 g protein 0.69 g fat

동태무국 Pollack radish soup. Dongtae Mu Guk

두부된장국 Dubu Doenjang Guk

111 kcal 123.5 8.49 g carbs Bean paste soup with tofu. g 9.63 g protein 4.28 g fat Rice cake soup. 430 g 432 kcal 79.92 g carbs 12.96 g protein 5.76 g fat 420 kcal 32.24 g carbs 20.58 g protein 23.19 g fat

떡국 Ddeok Guk

만두국 Mandu Guk

Dumpling soup (includes water).

400 g

무된장국 Doenjang Guk

Bean paste soup.

54 kcal 93.5 5.72 g carbs g 5.17 g protein 1.16 g fat 250 g 55 kcal 3.99 g carbs 4.95 g protein 2.02 g fat 32 kcal 5.07 g carbs 1.54 g protein 0.58 g fat 65 kcal 3.58 g carbs 8.61 g protein 1.81 g fat

미역국 Miyeok Guk

Seaweed soup (includes water).

미역오이냉국 Seaweed and cucumber Miyeok Oi Naeng soup, served cold. Guk 배추된장국 Baechu Doenjang Guk

109 g

Bean paste soup with napa 119 cabbage. g

10

KOREAN FOODS
북어콩나물국 Bean sprout soup with Bugeo Kongnamul dried pollack (serving Guk weight includes water). 250 g 125 kcal 0.94 g carbs 20.31 g protein 4.31 g fat

새알미역국 Saeal Miyok Guk

Seaweed soup with eggs.

137 kcal 19.52 g carbs 53 g 6.51 g protein 3.5 g fat 77 kcal 80.6 2.5 g carbs g 7.32 g protein 4.19 g fat 127 g 60 kcal 4.65 g carbs 5.4 g protein 2.2 g fat 79 kcal 6.72 g carbs 8.49 g protein 2.02 g fat 85 kcal 11.11 g carbs 7.29 g protein 1.27 g fat 148 kcal 15.28 g carbs 15.28 g protein 2.86 g fat 148 kcal 10.21 g carbs 10.99 g protein 7.02 g fat

쇠고기무국 Soegogi Mu Guk

Beef soup with Korean radish.

시금치된장국 Shigeumchi Doenjang Guk

Bean paste soup with spinach.

시래기국 Shiraegi Guk

Radish leaf soup.

109 g

어묵국 Eomuk Guk

Fish paste soup.

105 g

우거지해장국 Ugeoji Haejang Guk 유부된장국 Yubu Doenjang Guk

Greens in a thick broth.

121 g

Bean paste soup with fried 127 tofu. g

11

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
Beef soup with sprouts and 169 vegetables. g 205 kcal 8.51 g carbs 22.91 g protein 8.82 g fat 64 kcal 2.29 g carbs 7.58 g protein 2.72 g fat

육개장 Yukgae Jang

조개탕 Jogaetang

Fresh clam soup.

107 g

조갯살된장국 Jogaessal Doenjang Guk

64 kcal Bean paste soup with clams 6.51 g carbs 56 g (shelled). 6.51 g protein 1.32 g fat 250 g 42 kcal 5.15 g carbs 4.1 g protein 0.09 g fat

콩나물국 Bean sprout soup (serving Kong Namul Guk weight includes water).

STEWS
감자찌개 Kamja Chigae Potato stew. 157 g 123 kcal 14.36 g carbs 6.33 g protein 4.47 g fat 57 kcal 5.66 g carbs 4.37 g protein 1.87 g fat 171 kcal 19.67 g carbs 10.26 g protein 5.7 g fat

김치찌개 Kimchi Chigae

Kimchi stew.

116 g

돈육감자탕 Donyuk Kamja Tang

Potato stew with pork.

166 g

12

KOREAN FOODS
돈육김치찌개 Donyuk Kimchi Chigae 동태매운탕 Dongtae Maeuntang 137 g 114 kcal 3.02 g carbs 10.46 g protein 6.68 g fat 100 kcal 8.83 g carbs 13.6 g protein 1.14 g fat 139 kcal 11.22 g carbs 12.65 g protein 4.83 g fat 110 kcal 11.11 g carbs 8.61 g protein 3.46 g fat 272 kcal 20.2 g carbs 18.09 g protein 13.21 g fat

Kimchi stew with pork.

Spicy seafood stew with pollack.

173 g

된장찌개 Doenjang Chigae

Bean paste stew.

150 g

두부된장찌개 Dubu Doenjang Chigae

Bean paste stew with tofu.

131 g

부대찌개 Budae Chigae

Army Base Stew – stew made of miscellaneous odds and ends; usually 188 includes some kind of g canned meat. Originally made from US Army MREs. Firm tofu stew with beef.

쇠고기두부찌개 Soegogi Dubu Chigae

95 kcal 93.5 6.65 g carbs g 7.36 g protein 4.33 g fat 300 g 204 kcal 4.59 g carbs 17.34 g protein 12.92 g fat

순두부찌개 Sundubu Chigae

Soft tofu stew.

13

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
우럭매운탕 A type of spicy seafood Ureok Maeuntang stew. 109 kcal 162.5 8.99 g carbs g 14.99 g protein 1.33 g fat 199 kcal 121.7 7.46 g carbs g 12.94 g protein 13.05 g fat 117 kcal 8.19 g carbs 11.41 g protein 4.29 g fat 136 kcal 11.9 g carbs 8.84 g protein 5.29 g fat 128 kcal 11.33 g carbs 10.34 g protein 4.59 g fat

참치김치찌개 Chamchi Kimchi Chigae 청국장찌개 Cheonggukjang Chigae

Kimchi stew with tuna.

140 Fermented bean paste stew. g

콩비지찌개 Konbiji Chigae

Okara (soy pulp) stew.

220 g

표고버섯전골 Pyogo Beosot Jeongol

Shiitake mushrooms stew with glass noodles.

140 g

VEGETABLE DISHES
감자조림 Kamja Jorim 133 kcal Steamed or stewed potatoes 126.2 14.96 g carbs with gravy. g 2 g protein 7.24 g fat Stir fry of julienned potatoes and ham. 161 kcal 118.1 10.06 g carbs g 4.83 g protein 11.27 g fat

감자햄볶음 Kamja Ham Bokkeum

14

KOREAN FOODS
미역줄거리볶음 Miyeok Julgeori Bokkeum 오이도라지생채 Oi Doraji Saengchae Stir fried stalks of sea vegetables. 69 kcal 96.3 3.97 g carbs g 1.21 g protein 5.37 g fat 44 kcal 81.5 8.66 g carbs g 1.17 g protein 0.52 g fat 44 kcal 88.7 7.74 g carbs g 2.01 g protein 0.55 g fat

Cucumber and bellflower salad with spicy dressing.

호박조림 Hobak Jorim

Braised or steamed pumpkin with onions.

GREENS (NAMUL)
가지나물 Gaji Namul Cooked eggplant with dressing. 36 kcal 82.1 3.72 g carbs g 1.02 g protein 1.9 g fat 50 kcal 81.5 4 g carbs g 3 g protein 2.44 g fat 20 kcal 78.8 2.59 g carbs g 1.34 g protein 0.48 g fat

고사리나물 Gosari Namul

Fernbrake with mild dressing.

미역나물 Miyeok Namul

Seaweed salad.

시금치나물 Shigeumchi Namul

54 kcal Wilted spinach with mild 3.82 g carbs 86 g dressing and sesame seeds. 2.34 g protein 3.26 g fat

15

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
Wilted aster leaves with dressing. 37 kcal 4.63 g carbs 78 g 2.59 g protein 0.9 g fat 123 kcal 83.8 3.69 g carbs g 2.15 g protein 11.07 g fat

취나물 Chui Namul

취나물볶음 Chui Namul Bokkeum

Stir fried aster leaves with dressing.

TOFU (DUBU) DISHES
두부양념조림 Dubu Angnyeom Jorim Fried tofu with soy sauce dressing. 125 kcal 102.4 1.25 g carbs g 9.69 g protein 9.03 g fat

마파두부 Mapadubu

113 kcal Fried tofu with a sweet and 119.1 7.25 g carbs spicy sauce. g 9.23 g protein 5.23 g fat

NOODLES
국수 Guksu Somen-type noodles, served in broth. Serving weight includes liquid. Homestyle (hand-torn) dumpling-noodles in shellfish soup. 350 g 409 kcal 72.6 g carbs 18.41 g protein 4.54 g fat 425 kcal 78.63 g carbs 15.94 g protein 5.19 g fat

수제비 Sujebi

400 g

16

KOREAN FOODS
Glass noodles with julienned meats and vegetables. Also spelled “chapchae.” Noodles in a spicy sauce, with leafy vegetables. 109 g 178 kcal 31.15 g carbs 4.01 g protein 4.15 g fat 458 kcal 76.72 g carbs 19.47 g protein 8.14 g fat 476 kcal 79.73 g carbs 19.04 g protein 8.46 g fat

잡채 Japchae

쫄면 Jjolmyeon

256 g

칼국수 Kalguksu

Knife-cut noodles in seafood broth.

520 g

MEAT DISHES
닭강정 Dalk Gangjeong Chicken in a sweet sticky red sauce. Stewed chicken, usually dark meat, with an aromatic sauce. 248 kcal 107.9 19.22 g carbs g 13.02 g protein 11.57 g fat 151 kcal 6.8 g carbs 92 g 12.08 g protein 8.05 g fat

닭다리조림 Dalkdari Jorim

닭불고기 Dalk Bulgogi

171 kcal Chopped marinated 115.1 8.12 g carbs chicken, with vegetables in g 12.4 g protein spicy sauce. 9.5 g fat Stir fried chicken and vegetables. 184 g 166 kcal 12.04 g carbs 16.19 g protein 5.9 g fat

닭야채볶음 Dalk Yache Bokkeum

17

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
돼지고기섭산적 Dwaeji Gogi Seobsanjeok Slices of sausage-like pork, 145 possibly on skewers. g 297 kcal 6.68 g carbs 20.79 g protein 20.79 g fat 161 kcal 9.9 g carbs 13.56 g protein 7.46 g fat

불고기 Bulgogi

Sliced marinated beef.

100 g

소세지야채볶음 Sausage Yache Bokkeum 양념치킨 Angnyeom Chicken

Sliced sausage stir-fried with vegetables.

166 kcal 7.76 g carbs 89 g 6.47 g protein 12.12 g fat

358 kcal Fried battered chicken with 123.6 10.74 g carbs a sticky red sauce, either g 20.59 g protein mild or spicy. 25.86 g fat Stir-fried pork in a spicy sauce. 106 g 193 kcal 11.58 g carbs 13.99 g protein 10.08 g fat 220 kcal 17.6 g carbs 14.3 g protein 10.27 g fat

제육볶음 Jeyuk Bokkeum

햄버그스테이크 Ground pork patty with Hamburger Steak gravy.

140 g

KOREAN BARBECUE
갈비구이 Galbi Gui Grilled marinated beef. 254 g 566 kcal 9.91 g carbs 39.62 g protein 38.99 g fat

18

KOREAN FOODS
돼지갈비찜 Grilled pork marinated in Dwaeji Galbi Jjim galbi sauce. 187 kcal 133.5 11.69 g carbs g 13.09 g protein 9.56 g fat 671 kcal 201.5 0 g carbs g 35.23 g protein 57.41 g fat

삼겹살구이 Grilled pork (fresh bacon). Samgyeopsal Gu-i

FISH AND SEAFOOD DISHES
갈치구이 Galchi Gui Pan-fried cuttlefish. 102 kcal 0 g carbs 72 g 12.5 g protein 5.33 g fat 147 g 215 kcal 4.3 g carbs 14.51 g protein 14.57 g fat 156 kcal 3.12 g carbs 14.82 g protein 8.67 g fat

고등어조림 Braised mackerel, often Godeungeo Jorim with Korean radishes.

삼치조림 Samchi Jorim

123 Braised or stewed mackerel. g

삼치튀김 Samchi Twigim

Fried battered mackerel.

185 kcal 3.7 g carbs 83 g 13.88 g protein 12.54 g fat 170 g 297 kcal 21.01 g carbs 16.56 g protein 16.3 g fat

생선까스 Fried breaded fish cutlet. Saengseon-kkaseu

19

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
111 g 126 kcal 13.86 g carbs 6.93 g protein 4.76 g fat

어묵볶음 Eomuk Bokkeum

Stir-fried fish paste.

오징어볶음 Spicy squid fried rice. Ojingeo Bokkeum

177 kcal 167.2 14.75 g carbs g 14.75 g protein 6.55 g fat 97 kcal 0 g carbs 72 g 13.58 g protein 4.31 g fat 225 kcal 12.38 g carbs 80 g 15.75 g protein 12.5 g fat

조기구이 Jogi Gui 해물동그랑땡 Haemul Donggeurang Ddeng

Baked yellow corvina seasoned with hot pepper.

Seafood pancake with vegetables.

SIDE DISHES
계란찜 Gyeran Jjim Steamed egg dish, similar to omelet or cheese-less quiche. Toasted laver (nori) with sesame oil. Cooked marinated shiso (occasionally translated “sesame”) leaves. 92 kcal 1.15 g carbs 65 g 6.44 g protein 6.44 g fat 14 kcal 0.67 g carbs 3.5 g 0.67 g protein 0.96 g fat 40 kcal 92.3 3 g carbs g 2 g protein 2 g fat

김구이 Kim Gui

깻잎조림 Ggaesip Jorim

20

KOREAN FOODS
Marinated shiso (occasionally translated “sesame”) leaves. 17 kcal 15.5 1.57 g carbs g 0.85 g protein 0.81 g fat 56 kcal 5.74 g carbs 12 g 0.28 g protein 3.55 g fat 2 kcal 0.25 g carbs 20 g 0.25 g protein 0 g fat 300 g 120 kcal 27.3 g carbs 2.4 g protein 0 g fat

깻잎찜 Ggesipjjim

다시마부각 Dashima Bugak

Fried kelp (dry weight).

단무지 Danmuji

Sweet pickled radish.

도토리묵 Dotori Mok

Acorn jelly (info from Pumuone brand dotori mok).

땅콩조림 Braised peanuts. Ddangkong Jorim

147 kcal 10.29 g carbs 35 g 4.78 g protein 9.64 g fat

무생채 Museongche

31 kcal Julienned radish with spicy 78.9 5.58 g carbs dressing. g 0.85 g protein 0.59 g fat 61 kcal 13.27 g carbs Dried radish in spicy sauce. 70 g 1.53 g protein 0.2 g fat Stir-fried mushrooms. 128 g 98 kcal 3.92 g carbs 6.86 g protein 6.1 g fat

무장아찌 Mujeong Ajji

버섯볶음 Beosot Bokkeum

21

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
189 g 90 kcal 11.93 g carbs 5.18 g protein 2.4 g fat

탕평채 Tangpyeongchae

Bean jelly with sprouts.

VINEGARED SIDES (MUCHIM)
김무침 Kim Muchim 15 kcal Chopped kim (laver) tossed 0.84 g carbs 4.5 g with dressing. 0.84 g protein 0.92 g fat Chopped octupus salad with spicy dressing. 56 kcal 139.5 5.92 g carbs g 6.92 g protein 0.52 g fat

낙지무침 Nakji Muchim

24 kcal 단무지무침 Sweet pickled radishes with 3.48 g carbs 60 g Danmuji Muchim red pepper dressing. 2.52 g protein 0 g fat 66 kcal 단배추된장무침 Bok-choy-like cabbage with 5.23 g carbs Danbaechu 96 g bean paste dressing/ 3.56 g protein Doenjang Muchim 3.42 g fat 도라지무침 Doraji Muchim Bellflower with mild dressing. 87 kcal 92.9 17.92 g carbs g 1.81 g protein 0.9 g fat

도토리묵무침 Dotori Mok Muchim

86 kcal Acorn jelly and leaf lettuce 198.9 18.36 g carbs salad. g 1.78 g protein 0.6 g fat

22

KOREAN FOODS
Cucumbers in spicy dressing. Thin strips of dried squid and vegetables in spicy dressing. Jelly noodle salad with chopped vegetables. 39 kcal 4 g carbs 80 g 0.98 g protein 2.12 g fat 100 kcal 3.5 g carbs 31 g 13.5 g protein 3.22 g fat 47 kcal 2 g carbs 70 g 4.23 g protein 0.47 g fat

오이무침 Oi Muchim

오징어채무침 Ojingeo Chae Muchim 우뭇가사리무침 Umutgasari Muchim 참나물무침 Chamnamul Muchim 청포묵무침 Cheongpomuk Muchim 콩나물무침 Kong Namul Muchim

26 kcal An anise-like herb in spicy 3.77 g carbs 72 g dressing. 1.76 g protein 0.43 g fat Bean jelly side dish. 168 g 98 kcal 10.29 g carbs 5.39 g protein 3.92 g fat

38 kcal Stir-fried bean sprouts with 2.47 g carbs 77 g dressing. 3.99 g protein 1.35 g fat

DUMPLINGS (MANDU)
군만두 Gun Mandu 111 kcal Fried dumplings, usually in 61.6 12.21 g carbs a half-moon shape (noodleg 5.55 g protein type shell). 3.82 g fat

23

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
Dumplings stuffed with kimchi. 67 kcal 12.96 g carbs 42 g 1.89 g protein 0.84 g fat

김치만두 Kimchi Mandu

비빔만두 Bibim Mandu

85 kcal Fried dumplings with spicy 42.25 11.35 g carbs sauce. g 3.25 g protein 2.96 g fat 98 kcal Large steamed dumplings, 10.29 g carbs usually in a round shape 50 g 4.9 g protein (noodle-type shell). 4.03 g fat

왕만두 Wang Mandu

SNACKS
고구마튀김 Goguma Twigim Fried battered or breaded sweet potatoes. 114 g 234 kcal 34.52 g carbs 2.93 g protein 9.1 g fat

마른오징어 Mareun Ojingeo

Thin strips of dried squid.

217 kcal 3.26 g carbs 60 g 42.86 g protein 3.62 g fat 151 kcal 17.25 g carbs 5.89 g protein 6.49 g fat 367 kcal 83.49 g carbs 8.26 g protein 0 g fat

부침개 Buchimgae

Savory pancake with mixed 106 vegetables. g

뻥튀기 Bbeongtwigi

A type of sweet dry rice cake.

100 g

24

KOREAN FOODS
Bean curd and sprout sausage in pork casing. 168 g 253 kcal 25.3 g carbs 11.39 g protein 11.81 g fat

순대 Sundae

오뎅 Odeng

70 kcal Boiled fish paste, often on a 8.93 g carbs 50 g stick. 5.95 g protein 1.09 g fat Savory pancake with green 131 onions. g 207 kcal 25.88 g carbs 9.32 g protein 7.36 g fat 176 kcal 10.56 g carbs 15.84 g protein 7.82 g fat

파전 Pajeon

해물파전 Haemul Pajeon

Savory seafood pancake with green onions.

146 g

SWEETS
계란빵 Gyeran Bbang Sweet bread topped with egg. 126 kcal 7.88 g carbs 80 g 7.88 g protein 6.86 g fat 160 kcal 23.6 g carbs 60 g 3.6 g protein 5.51 g fat 164 kcal 21.32 g carbs 42 g 2.05 g protein 7.84 g fat

깨찰빵 Ggaechal Bbang

Sweet, chewy sesame roll.

꽈배기도너츠 Conical/spiral shaped Ggwabaegi Donut traditional donut.

25

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
Crunchy donut twists, served with honey. 355 kcal 15.09 g carbs 75 g 7.1 g protein 29.58 g fat 110 kcal 25.3 g carbs 50 g 2.2 g protein 0 g fat 231 kcal 25.99 g carbs 58 g 3.47 g protein 8.98 g fat 361 kcal 71.3 g carbs 4.51 g protein 6.42 g fat 245 kcal 45.94 g carbs 4.29 g protein 4.9 g fat

꿀꽈배기 Ggul Ggwabaegi

붕어빵 Bungeo Bbang

Fish-shaped pastry filled with red bean paste.

찹쌀단팥도너츠 Chapssal Danpat Donut

Ball-shaped donuts filled with sweet red bean paste.

팥빙수 Patbingsu

Sweet azuki bean paste over shaved ice. Typical toppings include fruits, 200 gummy candies, sweet rice g cakes, chocolate sauce, fruit sauce, or sweetened condensed milk. Pancake doughnut with sweet nut filling. 150 g

호떡 Hoddeok

SAUCES AND CONDIMENTS
고추장 Gochujang Hot pepper paste. 33 kcal 6.52 g carbs 15 g 0.99 g protein 0.33 g fat

26

KOREAN FOODS
40 kcal 3.73 g carbs Spicy seasoned bean paste. 22 g 2.13 g protein 1.84 g fat Hot pepper sauce with vinegar. 46 kcal 21.5 9.2 g carbs g 1.38 g protein 0.41 g fat

쌈장 Ssamjang

초고추장 Cho Gochujang

BEVERAGES
막걸리 Makgeolli Fermented rice liquor. 150 g 69 kcal 42 kcal 5.78 g carbs 0.53 g protein 1.87 g fat 190 kcal Instant coffee with milk and sugar. This is typically what 115 you get when offered g “coffee” in Korea, outside of bars and coffee shops. Draft beer, domestic (serving size is one 500cc glass). Clear rice spirits (serving size is one shotglass). Sweet rice drink. 500 g

밀크커피 Milk Coffee

생맥주 Saeng Maekju 소주 Soju 식혜 Sikhye

45 g 64 kcal 200 g 208 kcal 45.76 g carbs 4.68 g protein 0.23 g fat

야쿠르트 Yakult

Yogurt-derived probiotic drink (serving size is one small bottle).

49 kcal 11.52 g carbs 65 g 0.74 g protein 0 g fat

27

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA

KOREAN-CHINESE DISHES
양장피 Yangjangpi 266 kcal Mixed vegetables, meat, 208.5 19.02 g carbs and seafood tossed in a hot g 21.08 g protein mustard sauce. 11.73 g fat Chopped seafood and 473 kcal vegetables in black bean 317.5 67.4 g carbs sauce (not including rice or g 7.1 g protein noodles). 19.45 g fat Chopped meat and veg in black bean sauce, over noodles. 450 g 674 kcal 114.58 g carbs 18.54 g protein 15.73 g fat 494 kcal 86.45 g carbs 12.35 g protein 1.1 g fat 127 kcal 7.49 g carbs 13.87 g protein 4.61 g fat

쟁반자장 Jaengban Jjajang

자장면 Jajang Myeon

자장밥 Jajang Bap

Chopped meat and veg in 370 black bean sauce, over rice. g

짬뽕국 Jjambbong Guk

152 Seafood hot-pot style soup. g

탕수육 Tangsuyuk

308 kcal Deep-fried pork strips with 151.4 26.18 g carbs a sweet and sour sauce. g 14.63 g protein 15.74 g fat Mixed seafood and 145 vegetables in a spicy sweet g and sour sauce. 162 kcal 4.86 g carbs 17.42 g protein 7.56 g fat

팔보채 Palbochae

28

The Association for Teachers of English in Korea provides the following services to the general public, members and nonmembers alike:
• • • •
Monitoring of proposed legislation and regulations which may affect noncitizen English teachers in Korea. Translation of proposed and existing legislation and regulations (domestic and international) and analysis of their possible effects on non-citizen English teachers in Korea. Advocacy for English teacher concerns at the national and local levels. The English Teacher's Guide to Korea, which will be made available in PDF for free download from our website (http://atek.or.kr).

ATEK provides the following benefits and services to members:
• • • • Full access to ATEK's Employer Rating System, to make and review ratings. Access to the member forums. Access to professional development and lesson planning materials. Information on how to check to see if your employer is correctly reporting your income, paying your taxes and making proper deductions from your pay. Copies of labor, tax, pension, and health insurance complaint forms, translated into Korean, and instructions about how to go about filing a complaint. Local social networks (the Provincial and Metropolitan Associations that send reps to our national council). Access to data from the ATEK Member Survey, which enables ATEK to track average salaries and weekly hours by region and type of teaching job, average level of satisfaction with various job types, average length of stay of foreigners working in Korea, average pay and benefit increases when resigning for a second year, and much more. Want to know if your contract offer is above or below the average salary for someone in your city and education level? Get access. Advisories to the government based on ATEK Member Survey information on non-citizen English teacher's problems and needs (does one particular city have a higher rate of teachers reporting pay withholding fraud? That city's government might want to know that.) An online application that translates letters home to parents into Korean, so that you can communicate with parents and let them know how their child is doing. Representation of member concerns to relevant government agencies and other groups. Responses to media items of interest to non-citizen English teachers.

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All these resources are available on our website at http://atek.or.kr

THE ENGLISH TEACHER'S GUIDE TO KOREA
Living, Working, and Thriving in Korea Sparkling

By Tony Hellmann, M.Ed. Tom Rainey-Smith Jason Thomas, M.App.Ling. Matthew Henderson

ATEK

Press

This book was designed and laid out entirely with open source software. Individual sections copyright © 2009 by the respective authors, all rights reserved, except as licensed below. Used by permission. Published by ATEK Press, a division of the Association for Teachers of English in Korea. Design and composition by Tony Hellmann. Copyedited by Jason Thomas
Cover: Art by Jeffrey Morabito. www.jeffreymorabito.com. Photo by Trey Ratcliff, www.stuckincustoms.com

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This book is published in both print and electronic formats. Printed in the Republic of Korea 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

APPENDIX 3: SAMPLE LESSON PLAN, WITH ALL REQUIRED MATERIALS
INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION
1. TITLE
Womyn in Korea

2. SOURCE
Produced with public domain content from the Internet. Contact ajasonthomas@yahoo.ca for sources of specific information or images.

3. LEARNER PROFILE
Number of Students: 8 Age/Grade: 24-54/University graduates Proficiency:  speaking: intermediate-mid to advanced-low  listening: intermediate-mid to advanced-low  reading:intermediate-high to advanced-mid  writing: intermediate-mid to advanced-low Type/Length of Class: an eight-week teacher training course; the class meets for 90 minutes, twice a week Motivation: to be better EFL teachers Language Experience: primary school through university

4. LESSON CONTENT
Tasks/Functions: composing group and individual opinions Grammar: noun clause/certainty frames: be sure that, think that, assume that, wonder if, doubt that Lexis: womyn, matriarchy

5. LESSON OBJECTIVES
By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

  

examine questions and statements about the status of womyn in Korea; evaluate, judge and report on the opinions of others about the status of womyn in Korea; and negotiate and compose opinions about the status of womyn in Korea

In pairs and individually with little to no teacher assistance.

6. MATERIALS
PowerPoint® file, handouts, computer, projector, large screen, small whiteboards, markers, pencil, bell

LESSON
It is not customary for a teacher to script an entire lesson, so do not consider the following lesson as part of a traditional written lesson plan. This is solely to demonstrate how a lesson is conducted.

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response

WARM UP
“Hi everyone, it’s good to see you.” “Today we’ll have some fun with a serious topic. How is everyone?”

Greet Ss

Greet T

“Hi.”

Lower affective barriers

Respond

“Fine/Good/Ti red” etc.

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response
will vary, e.g. “It wasn’t bad, I prepared my students well.”

Personalize introduction

e.g. “S, how was your open class?”

Answer the question

Give feedback Ask Ss referential/ope n question Rephrase topic

“Great! Today I want to look at the status of womyn in Korea. What do you think about the power womyn have? S?” “You think that [e.g. womyn have almost no power]. What do you think about the situation for womyn in Korea? What about the older womyn you know? Your aunts? S?” “Do you think the situation is improving, S?”

Give an opinion

will vary, e.g. “Womyn have almost no power in Korea.”

Recast response with target content language Rephrase question

Give an opinion

will vary, e.g. “Womyn get a raw deal, my aunt is unhappy …” etc.

Ask question to activate content schema

Answer a question

[If “yes” or “no” then:]

Teacher Instruction
[Ask S to respond with a complete sentence]

Teacher Talk
[“Please use a complete sentence—start with ‘I think that’”] “S, can you ask S the same question?”

Tasks

Target Response

[Answer a question]

“I think that …”

Ask S to ask S the same question

S asks S the same question Give an opinion

“S, do you think the situation is improving?” “I think that …”

Observe Ss “[e.g. Good.] Let’s hear more opinions. Number ones, think of three ways that the situation for womyn has improved. Number twos, you will think of three problems or challenges womyn still have. One two one [etc.]”

Offer feedback Give instructions for a numbered heads activity Number Ss

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response
“We will think of three ways the situation for womyn has improved.” “We will think of three challenges womyn still face.”

Check task comprehension (1)

“What will you think of, S?”

Answer a question

Give feedback Check task comprehension (2) Give feedback and time for task completion

“Yes. What will you think of, S?”

Answer a question

“Good. You have two minutes.” Do the numbere d heads activity “Number twos, what kinds of challenges did you think of?

Observe Ss

Ask for and give feedback Nominate if necessary

Give an opinion

will vary

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“That’s interesting. Number ones, what kinds of victories did you come up with?”

Tasks

Target Response

Ask for and give feedback Nominate if necessary

Give an opinion

will vary

Show visual and ask display questions to activate content schema

“Look at this picture. Who are the womyn? What are they doing?”

Answer the question

e.g. “They are nationalists.” “They are womyn.” “They are marching for a free Korea.”

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“Today we’re going to talk about the status of womyn in Korea. Everyone, please you repeat the topic: ‘Today / we’re going to talk about / the status of womyn / in Korea.’”

Tasks

Target Response

Give feedback State the topic of the lesson Ask Ss to repeat in chunks

Choral repetition

“Today / we’re going to talk about / the status of womyn / in Korea.”

Give feedback

“Good.”

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response

PRESENTATION
“Now I’m going to give you a short quiz about womyn in Korea. We will use the ‘Golden Bell’ system. So, you will see some questions. With your partner, write the answer. When you hear the bell, you will raise your board like this.” “Please summarize what you will do, S.” “Yes. And when will you show your answer, S?” “We will take a quiz. We will write the answers on the board.” “We will show our answer when we hear the bell.”

Give instructions for reading and responding to the text Give an example of the activity type Use gestures and realia to facilitate comprehension

Check comprehension

Summarize

Give feedback Check comprehension

Answer a question

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response

Womyn in Korea
Final Lesson Plan Methodology 2 SMU-TESOL Fall 2005

Give feedback. Introduce target content language to activate bottom-up processing and linguistic schema Ask S to ask S the same question

“Good. Now S, why is ‘womyn’ spelled with a ‘y?’”

S answers the question (TSST)

“I don’t know why it’s spelled with a ‘y.’”

“S, can you ask S why ‘womyn’ is spelled with a ‘y.’”

S asks S the question (TSST) S answers the question (TSST)

“Why is it spelled with a ‘y?’” “I have no idea why it’s spelled with a ‘y.’”

Observe Ss

Teacher Instruction
Ask S to ask you the same question Model the answer Use board to facilitate comprehension Use target content language

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response
“Why is ‘womyn’ spelled with a ‘y?’”

“S, can you ask me the same question?”

S asks the question (TSST)

“I assume that it takes ‘men’ out of ‘womyn.’”

Use visual to activate linguistic schema and aid comprehension Ask a display question

“What do you think her job is?”

Answer a question

“She is a pilot.”

Teacher Instruction
Give [presumed] feedback Drill preferred pronunciation

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response

“A pi′lot? No, she’s a ′pi-lot. Everyone repeat: ′pi-lot.”

Choral repetition

“′Pi-lot.”

The first woman pilot was:

Give feedback Present text

“Good. Here is the first question.”

The first woman pilot was:
Kim Hae-In in 1898 Park Gyeong-Weon in 1928 Yun Sim-Deok in 1948 Han Bi-Ya in 1978

Present text Instruct Ss to choose response

“Here are your choices. Write your answer. You have 10 seconds.”

Select and write a response

Teacher Instruction
Ring bell Ask for feedback

Teacher Talk

Tasks
Raise whiteboard

Target Response

“What is your answer?”

The first woman pilot was:

Park Gyeong-Weon in 1928

Present text Provide feedback Rephrase

“Congratulatio ns [S, etc.]. Park Gyeong-Weon was the first female pilot in Korea.”

My friend says …

“I wonder if her family and friends supported her.”

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“I asked a friend to talk about the quiz. This is what she said.”

Tasks

Target Response

Present text Describe text

Draw visual on whiteboard (see Line of Certainty visual on p. 57)

“I wonder if”

Ask comprehension question

“Does she know that Park Gyeong-Weon’s family supported her? S?” “Exactly. She wonders. Maybe she wants to know, but she doesn’t know.”

Answer a question

“No, she doesn’t.”

Provide feedback Explain use of target language

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response

Use visual to activate linguistic schema and aid comprehension Ask a display question [Ask S to query S]

“Now, what is this place, S?”

Answer a question

[If: “I don’t know the word in English” then:]

[“Could you ask S?”]

[Ask S a question] [Answer a question]

[“What is this place?”] “It’s the National Assembly.”

[Observe Ss]

Give feedback Drill lexical item

“Yes. Everyone repeat: ‘National Assembly.’”

Choral repetition

“National Assembly.”

Teacher Instruction
Give feedback Ask S to predict the next question Give feedback

Teacher Talk
“Good. S, can you guess what the next question will be?” “Let’s see.”

Tasks

Target Response
e.g. “The next question will be about womyn in politics.”

Predict

The National Assembly has 299 members. How many are womyn?

Present text Rephrase to make input more understandable

“In other words, 299 politicians meet in the National Assembly. How many of the politicians are womyn?”

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response

The National Assembly has 299 members. How many are womyn?
9 39 150 260

Present text Instruct Ss to choose response Ring bell Ask for feedback

“Here are your choices. Write your answer.”

Select and write a response Raise whiteboard

“What is your answer?”

The National Assembly has 299 members. How many are womyn?

39

Teacher Instruction
Present text Provide feedback Rephrase

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response

“Nicely done [S, etc.]. There are 39 womyn in the Assembly.”

My friend says …

“I assume that males never vote for womyn.”

Present text on whiteboard (see Line of Certainty handout on p. 57)

“I assume that”

Rephrase text Ask comprehension question

“My friend assumes that men don’t vote for womyn. Does she know this, S?”

Answer a question

“No, she doesn’t know.”

Teacher Instruction
Provide feedback Explain use of target language

Teacher Talk
“Right. But she says that probably men don’t vote for womyn.”

Tasks

Target Response

Use visual to activate linguistic schema and aid comprehension Ask a question

“Yes. Now, what’s going on here? It’s a special event. Can you tell me what’s happening, S?”

Answer a question

“Is it a wedding?”

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“Yes! This is a photo of a wedding party in Indonesia. The bride is going to collect her man, the groom. Where are they going, S?” “Right. In Korea, who collects whom? Does the woman come to the man’s house, like in this photo? S?”

Tasks

Target Response

Provide feedback Preview text Check comprehension

Answer a question

“They’re going to collect the groom.”

Give feedback Ask a question

Answer a question

“No, the groom collects the bride in Korea.”

What is matriarchy?

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“Ah, ok. The next question is about matriarchy. Please repeat: ‘matriarchy.’ Well, what is matriarchy? Let’s look at some examples.”

Tasks

Target Response

Provide feedback Present text

Repeat

“Matriarchy.”

What is matriarchy?

A man moves to his new wife’s house or town.

Present text Ask S to read example

“Please read the first example, S.”

Read text aloud

“A man moves to his new wife’s house or town.”

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“Good. This is what is happening in the photograph. So, these womyn live in a matriarchy.”

Tasks

Target Response

Give feedback Refer to visual to assist comprehension

What is matriarchy?

A man moves to his new wife’s house or town. When parents die, daughters get the house and money.

Present text Ask S to read example

“Please read the second example, S.”

Read text aloud

“When parents die, daughters get the house and money.”

Offer feedback Elaborate Ask a question to check comprehension of elaboration

“Yes. If there is no daughter, then maybe a female relative will get the property. What are examples of female relatives, S?”

Answer a question

“Sisters, nieces and maybe cousins are examples of female relatives.”

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response

What is matriarchy?

A man moves to his new wife’s house or town. When parents die, daughters get the house and money. Children use their mother’s family name.

Give feedback Present text Ask S to read example Provide feedback Personalize to facilitate comprehension

“Good. Please read the last example, S.”

Read text aloud

“Children use their mother’s family name.”

“Yes. What is your mother’s family name, S?” “So, if Korea were a matriarchy, what would your family name be?”

Answer a question

will vary, e.g. “My mother’s family name is Han.”

Check comprehension of personalization

Answer a question

e.g. “My family name would be Han.”

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response

Matriarchies exist in every area except:

Provide feedback Present text Rephrase

“Correct. Now here is the next question. There are matriarchies everywhere except one of these places.”

Matriarchies exist in every area except:
Asia Africa Europe North America

Present text Instruct Ss to choose response

“Here are your choices. Write your answer.”

Select and write a response

Teacher Instruction
Ring bell Ask for feedback

Teacher Talk

Tasks
Raise whiteboard

Target Response

“What is your answer?”

Matriarchies exist in every area except:

Europe

Present text Provide feedback Rephrase

“Congratulatio ns [S, etc.]. Yes, there are no matriarchies in Europe right now.”

My friend says …

“I doubt that men want their children to have their mother’s name.”

Teacher Instruction
Present text on whiteboard (see Line of Certainty handout on p. 57)

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response

“I doubt that”

Define and explain use of target language Elaborate Rephrase text Ask S to summarize

“To doubt is the opposite of to know. If I doubt, I question what is true. My friend doubts that men want children to have their wife’s name. She thinks that men don’t want to use a womyn’s name. S, please summarize how my friend uses ‘doubt.’”

Summarize

“Your friend says ‘doubt’ because she doesn’t think men want their children to have their mother’s name.”

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response

Provide feedback Present visual to preview text Define Ask S to repeat the definition

“An excellent summary. Now. A ‘forum’ is a public meeting. What is a ‘forum,’ S?” “Yes. The World Economic Forum is a meeting. The richest and most powerful people in the world meet every year in Switzerland to talk and drink. What do they do when they meet, S?”

Repeat

“A forum is a public meeting.”

Give feedback Define Describe Ask S to repeat the description

Repeat the description

“They talk and drink.”

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“Ok. S, please as S to give two examples of people who might attend the World Economic Forum.”

Tasks

Target Response

Ask S to ask S for names of typical attendees

Ask a question

“Who might attend the World Economic Forum?’

Observe Ss

Give examples

will vary, e.g. “Two people might attend are the king of Jordan and the president of GE.”

Give feedback Preview text

“Those are good examples. This year, the Forum apparently talked about inequality between womyn and men.”

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response

World Economic Forum Launches New “Gender Gap Index” Measuring Inequality between Women and Men in 58 Countries 16 May 2005 - Geneva, Switzerland

REPORT FINDS SWEDEN AND OTHER NORTHERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES DO BEST – THE UNITED STATES (17), SWITZERLAND (34), JAPAN (38), BRAZIL (51), INDIA (53) AND TURKEY (57) DO LESS WELL

Present text Elaborate Use visual (board) and morphemes to make input comprehensible Ask for a definition of ‘equal’

“Let’s look at this word, ‘inequality.’ What’s this word, the base or main word, S?”

Answer a question

“The word is equal.”

“What’s a definition for ‘equal,’ S?”

Give a definition

“Equal means two or more values are the same.”

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“Great. –ity makes it a noun, something to measure. And in- means not or without. Here is another example: visible. If I say the moon is visible, can I see it, S?” “Yes. But if the moon is invisible, I can’t see it. It’s not visible. Can you tell me the meaning of inequality, S?”

Tasks

Target Response

Elaborate with visual (board) and morphemes Use an example Ask a question

Answer a question

“Yes, you can see it.”

Give feedback Conclude example Ask for definition of ‘inequality’

Define

“Inequality means ‘without equality.’”

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“Great. Not equal. Different. The World Economic Forum measured inequality between womyn and men. Can you paraphrase what they did, S?” “Yes. In how many countries was it measured, S?” “Including South Korea. How well did South Korea do?”

Tasks

Target Response

Provide feedback Rephrase definition Rephrase text Ask S to paraphrase

Paraphra se the purpose of the WEF study

“They measured the difference between womyn and men.”

Give feedback Ask a question

Answer a question

“It was measured in 58 countries.”

Preview text

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response

What is South Korea’s rank, out of 58 countries, in the fight against gender inequality?

Define ‘rank’ within context

“First rank means that the country is the most equal for womyn and men.”

What is South Korea’s rank, out of 58 countries, in the fight against gender inequality?
34 th 38 th 54 th 58 th

Present text Instruct Ss to choose response

“Here are your choices. Write your answer.”

Select and write a response

Teacher Instruction
Ring bell Ask for feedback

Teacher Talk

Tasks
Raise whiteboard

Target Response

“What is your answer?”

What is South Korea’s rank, out of 58 countries, in the fight against gender inequality?

54 th

Give feedback

“Congratulations [etc.]”

INFORMATION
South Korea is behind China and India in its efforts to make the country more equal for men and womyn. Sweden is 1s t and Egypt is 58th, according to the report.

Personalize

“Did you hear people talk about this, in May, S?”

Answer a question

will vary, e.g. “No, I didn’t hear this discussed at all.”

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“Well, it’s not about export markets. So, what does my friend think?”

Tasks

Target Response

Provide feedback Preview text

My friend says …

“I think that Korean men don’t care about gender inequality.”

Present text (see Line of Certainty handout on p. 57)

“I think that”

Ask comprehension question

“Does my friend know that men don’t care, S?” “Right, but she thinks it’s true. She is saying that this is her opinion.”

Answer a question

“No, she doesn’t.”

Provide feedback Elaborate on use of clause

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response

Preview text Use target content in context Ring bell Ask for feedback Provide feedback Present text (see Line of Certainty handout on p. 57)

“How do these womyn feel? I assume they’re angry. What do you think, S?” “What is your answer?” “You were right [S etc.]”

Answer a question

will vary, e.g. “I think they feel wronged.”

Raise whiteboard

“I’m sure that”

Teacher Instruction
Rephrase target language Ask comprehension question

Teacher Talk
“She is sure. So, she strongly believes this. Does she want to punish the people responsible, S?” “Yes, I’m sure she does.” “Here are some words we’ve seen. Please repeat: “Womyn / are still fighting for / ” etc.

Tasks

Target Response

Answer a question

“Yes, she does.”

Give feedback

Present text Drill some new words Chunk lexical sets

Choral repetition

“Womyn / are still fighting for / ” etc.

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“So now you are familiar with my friend’s views. I will show you more of her views. Try to match these ideas with the certainty or ‘knowing’ she feels for each of the ideas. Use this chart. What will you do, S?” “Yes. Work alone for one minute, then work with your partner for one minute. Ready? Here are more of her views.”

Tasks

Target Response

Distribute handout Chunk instructions for think pair share matching activity Ask S to paraphrase instructions

Paraphrase

“We will try to match the ideas with how certain she feels about each idea.”

Give feedback Elaborate on instructions Instruct Ss to begin activity

My friend also says …
___________ almost all school principals are men ___________ everyone wants to have a male son ___________ most womyn do not expect to have the ‘best’ jobs ___________ most Korean womyn want only male leaders ___________ Korea will be a matriarchy some day, but not soon

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks
Do think pair share matching activity

Target Response

Observe Ss

Ask for feedback

“What is my friend sure about, S?”

Give an opinion/ infer

“Your friend is sure that almost all school principals are men.” “Your friend thinks that Korea will have a woman president some day.” [“What does Jay’s friend assume is … please help me.”] “What does Jay’s friend assume is true?”

Ask for feedback

“And what does my friend think is true, S?”

Give an opinion/i nfer

Ask S to ask S for feedback

“S, please ask S what my friend assumes is true?” [“Listen to how I ask: ‘What does Jay’s friend assume is true?’”]

Ask a question

[Model the language, if necessary]

[Ask a question]

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response
“His friend assumes that most womyn do not expect to have the best jobs.” “What does Jay’s friend wonder about?” “She wonders if everyone wants to have a son.” “What does Jay’s friend doubt?” “Jay’s friend doubts that most Korean womyn want only male leaders.”

Observe Ss

Give an opinion/ infer

Give feedback Ask S to ask S for feedback

“Ok S, ask S what my friend wonders about.”

Ask a question

Observe Ss

Give an opinion/ infer “Ok, S, ask S what my friend doubts.”

Give feedback Ask S to ask S for feedback

Ask a question

Observe Ss

Give an opinion/ infer

Teacher Instruction
Give feedback on response Ask for feedback on presentation

Teacher Talk
“Good. Are there any questions about the quiz, or about what my friend said?”

Tasks
[Ask a question]

Target Response
[will vary]

GUIDED PRACTICE

Now, share your ideas about womyn in Korea …

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“Now it’s your turn to share ideas about womyn in Korea. In pairs, you will answer three questions. For each question, you can be as certain, or as uncertain, as you want, but you must say how certain you feel. S, what must you say?” “Right. After you answer, I will ask the class to raise a hand to show if they agree with you. Please paraphrase the activity, S.”

Tasks

Target Response

Give instructions for the “vicious voting” activity Use gestures and chunking to make input comprehensibl e Check comprehension

Answer a question

“We must say how certain we feel when we answer the questions.”

Give feedback Elaborate Ask S to paraphrase directions

Paraphrase directions

“In pairs, we will answer three questions and we must say how certain we feel about the answers.”

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“Great. Use different language for each question. The team with the most votes has no homework.” “The questions are about womyn and work, politics, and society. You will have five minutes to prepare your ideas.” “How much time will you have, S?” “You got it. S, please work with S [etc.]. Here are the questions.”

Tasks

Target Response

Give feedback on summary Elaborate

Preview questions

Check comprehension

Answer a question

“We will have five minutes.”

Provide feedback Assign Ss to teams

Teacher Instruction
What do you think?

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response

1. Are there any jobs womyn should not have? 2. When will Korea have a woman president? 3. Why is Korea not a matriarchy?

Present the questions Repeat Instruct Ss to begin the activity Observe Ss and assist where appropriate

“Remember to use three of these certainty frames on the handout. Please start.” Do the vicious voting activity “Time’s up. S and S, what’s your response to the first question?” will vary, e.g. “We wonder if womyn should work in a men’s bathhouse.”

Ask for feedback

Give an opinion

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response
will vary, but must use appropriate certainty expression accurately, e.g. “We assume that the first woman president will be a post-op tranny, because men only listen to other dicks,” or “We wonder if Korea is not a matriarchy because it carries Joseon like a rigid, mummified corpse on its back.”

Ask for and give appropriate feedback on responses of every team for each question (possible only with a small group of learners!)

“Well said. Who agrees? Raise your hand if you feel the same way. Ok, S and S, what do you say?” etc.

Give an opinion

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“Good work everyone. It looks like S and S received the most votes, but I think they will enjoy the homework anyway, ha ha. Are there any questions about the activity?”

Tasks

Target Response

Ask for and provide feedback for vicious voting activity

[Provide feedback]

[will vary]

INDEPENDENT ACTIVITY

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“Well we’ve heard some great ideas, but now I want you to be more critical. That means, ask difficult questions and give thoughtful answers. It’s more interesting. What do you think, S?”

Tasks

Target Response

Introduce independent activity Encourage Ss to embrace conflict for the independent activity Ask S for opinion

Give an opinion

will vary

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“Write a difficult question about womyn and Korea on the handout here, then do a survey. Ask different people the question. How certain are people about their answers? Encourage each other. Don’t hide behind English. What’s my idea, S? Please paraphrase.”

Tasks

Target Response

Give directions for survey activity (form, topic, language focus)

Paraphra se the instructio ns for the independ ent activity

“You want us to write a difficult question about womyn in Korea, then ask people the question.”

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“Great. Please, don’t write every word you hear. Take point-form notes, like this. You’re writing just for yourself. Listen for differences in the language others use. Please summarize, S.” “You have [ten] minutes to complete your survey. Please begin.”

Tasks

Target Response

Give feedback Give directions (purpose, audience, language focus) Use board to illustrate form, audience, topic, purpose and language focus

Summarize

“We should take notes for ourselves, and listen for differences in language.”

Set time limit to activity Invite Ss to begin the survey activity

Observe Ss

Do the survey activity

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response

FEEDBACK
“Wonderful. You really made an effort to use the certainty language, and it really helps people understand you. S, you [e.g. did a good job questioning people’s answers].”

Praise Ss efforts if target content language was used accurately and appropriately Comment on individual efforts

Ask for feedback on independent activity

“Did you enjoy the activity? S?”

Provide feedback

will vary

Give feedback on feedback Ask for feedback

“[Response.] What was the most interesting part of the activity, S?”

Provide feedback

will vary

Teacher Instruction
Give feedback on feedback Ask for feedback

Teacher Talk
“[Response.] What was the most difficult part of the activity?” “[Response.] If you did the activity again, what would you change?” [Response.]

Tasks

Target Response

Provide feedback

will vary

Give feedback on feedback Ask for feedback Give feedback on feedback

Provide feedback

will vary

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response

CLOSURE
“I assume that you will remember to frame your ideas with language like this, any time you are having a meaningful discussion. I’m sure that it’s more polite than simply stating an idea like a fact. And we’ve practiced using different language, so try to use this variety when you speak and write.”

Inform Ss of ways to use the target content language beyond the classroom

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk

Tasks

Target Response
e.g. “You think that we should frame our opinions with the language we’ve practiced today, because it’s polite.”

Ask S to paraphrase extension

“S, can you paraphrase my advice?”

Paraphrase

Give feedback

e.g. “It’s wonderful to have you with us, advancedlow proficiency level S!”

Teacher Instruction

Teacher Talk
“Your homework will be to write a one-paragraph summary of your survey. Also, write a paragraph about the future of womyn in Korea. Give reasons and examples to support your opinion. What is the homework, S?”

Tasks

Target Response

Assign homework Ask S to paraphrase

Paraphrase

“We should write a paragraph about the survey, and a paragraph about the future of womyn with reasons and examples.”

Teacher Instruction
Give feedback Inform Ss that the class will return to the topic of the lesson Thank Ss and end the lesson

Teacher Talk
“Great. We will return to the status of womyn in Korea in a future class.” “Thank you. Good bye.”

Tasks

Target Response

1. Place my friend’s statements on this “line of certainty”:

She is sure that …
KNOWING

She thinks that …

She assumes that …

She wonders if …
NOT KNOWING

She doubts that …

2. Interview three people about womyn in Korea. Example: Why has Korea never had a woman president? Seun-hi thinks that modern Korea still shares many of the Joseon period's values and beliefs.

Name

Question: ________________________________________

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