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Taxonomy

• Science of Classification, Nomenclature, Identification
• Organisms are named and arranged into taxa

• Provides:
• universal names • reference

• facilitates research, scholarship and communication
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

publishing as Benjamin Cummings .Taxonomy • Systematics or phylogeny • Provides tools for clarifying evolution of organisms as well as their interrelationships • All Species Inventory (2001-2025) Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.. Inc.

Inc..Scientific Nomenclature Scientific binomial Kbebsiella pneumoniae Pfiesteria piscicida Source of Genus name Honors Edwin Klebs Honors Lois Pfiester Source of Specific epithet The disease Disease in fish Salmonella typhimurium Streptococcus pyogenes Penicillium notatum Trypanosoma cruzi Honors Daniel Salmon Chains of cells (strepto-) Tuftlike (penicill-) Stupor (typh-) in mice (muri-) Forms pus (pyo-) Spores spread in wind (nota) Corkscrew-like (trypano-. soma-body) Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Honors Oswaldo Cruz borer.

. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.History of Taxonomy • 1735 • 1857 • 1866 Carlous Linnaeus: 2 Kingdoms Bacteria & fungi put in the Plant Kingdom Ernst Haeckel: 3 Kingdoms • 1937 • 1959 "Prokaryote" term introduced Kingdom Fungi Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.

Protista. Fungi. Bacteria and Archaea • Based on variation in cellular composition • Primary evidence to support comes from differences in rRNA sequences Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. Animalia. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Monera • 1978 Carl Woese: 3 Domains • Eukarya..History of Taxonomy • 1961 • 1969 Current definition of prokaryote introduced Robert Whittaker: 5 kingdoms • Plantae.

Inc..1 . publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 10.The Three-Domain System Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.

1 .. Inc.Three Domains Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 10.

Inc.Nested Taxonomical Hierarchy Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 10.5 .

Inc.Species Definition • Eukaryotic species: • Prokaryotic species: • Clone • Strain • Viral species: Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .

differential staining.References for Prokaryote Identification •• Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology •Provides identification schemes for identifying bacteria and archaea •Morphology. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .. biochemical tests •• Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology •Provides phylogenetic information on bacteria and archaea •Based on rRNA sequencing •• Approved Lists of Bacterial Names •Lists species of known prokaryotes •Based on published articles Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.

Differential and structural stains 3. publishing as Benjamin Cummings ..Methods of Identifying Microorganisms 1. Phage typing –determines to which phages a bacteria is susceptible 6. Analysis of nucleic acids Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. Morphological characteristics 2. Biochemical tests 4. Inc. Serology – based on antigenic nature of microbes 5.

Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Flagella stain Endospore stain .Acid fast bacilli and non-acid fast cocci Gram ..bacilli and Gram + cocci Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc..Dichotomous key for biochemical tests based on enzyme activity Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.

Rapid Identification Tests Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 10.9 . Inc..

publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 10.10 .• Microbes are antigenic • Combine known antiserum + unknown bacterium • Slide agglutination • ELISA • Western blot Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. Inc..

Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 10..Phage Typing Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.13 .

.Analysis of nucleic acids • DNA base composition • DNA fingerprinting • Electrophoresis of RFLPs • Nucleic acid hybridization • rRNA sequencing • PCR Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.