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Nervous System of the Frog

By:Group 6 36 Marjorie Polintan 37 Miguel Quiambao 38 Inna Karla Ramos 39 James Redulla 40 Patricia Anne Reyes 41 Zyril Mae Reyes 42 Claudine Roxas

Nervous System
• Serves as reception of stimuli • Conduction of impulses • Coordination and integration of the various functions of the organs

Three Divisions of the Frog’s Nervous System (according to morphology):
1. Central Nervous System
– also known as the Cerebro-spinal Nervous System – includes the brain and the spinal cord – serves as the great center of communication between the principal sense organs and the rest of the body – divided into five major parts, namely:
• • • • • Telencephalon Diencephalon Mesencephalon Metencephalon Myelencephalon

Peripheral Nervous System – includes the ten pairs of cranial nerves (from the brain) and ten pairs of spinal nerves (from the spinal cord) – connects the central nervous organs to the receptors and effectors of the body 3. Symphathetic Nervous System – consists of two slender nerve trunks or cord. each with a chain of ganglia on either side of the spinal column – helps deliver information to the body about impending danger – responsible for the fight-or-flight response .2.

Central Nervous System (CNS) .I.

located between the optic lobes behind and posterior to the cerebral hemispheres • Optic chiasma • Infundibulum •Ventricle III •Posterior pituitary gland •Pineal body . Vision •Hearing •Respiration •Salivation.Diencephalon (or Thalamencephalon) . Taste 2.located in the anterior portion of the brain and rostral to the midbrain •Paired olfactory lobes . Swallowing •Smell.for the sense of smell •Cerebral hemispheres -seats of associative memory where the lateral (first and second)ventricles or cavities are located •Determines Personality •Interpretation of Sensory Impulses •Motor function (movement) •Planning and Organization •Memory •Sense of Smell •Touch Sensation •Emotion •Directs Sense Impulses Throughout the Body •Equilibrium (balance) •Eye Movement.Telencephalon •Determines Intelligence .Five Major Divisions of the Frog Brain DIVISION BODY PARTS FUNCTIONS A 1.

Myelencephalon . located between other and with the third the forebrain and hindbrain and fourth ventricles by a small aqueduct of Sylvius 4.Mesencephalon ventricles.BODY PARTS  Optic lobes .narrows posteriorly to become the spinal cord     FUNCTIONS Controlling Responses to Sight Eye Movement Pupil Dilation Body Movement Reflex Activities of the Spinal Cord Balance Cardiac Reflexes Circulation Fine Muscle Movement Muscle Tone maintenance Sleep Respiratory and Circulatory Functions Breathing Conduction Pathway for Nerve Tracts Digestion Heart Rate .also known as the communicate with each “midbrain”.inferior portion of the brainstem  Medulla oblongata .small dorsal transverse fold FUNCTIONS             5. which .located below the posterior portion of the cerebrum and above the medulla oblongata  Cerebellum .Metencephalon .contain the optic 3.

secretes the cerebro-spinal fluid • Foramen of Monro. extends from the medulla oblongata to the filum terminale .joins the 3rd ventricle with the 4th ventricle • Cerebro-spinal Fluid.serves as a protective liquid cushion and helps nourish the central nervous organs • Spinal Cord. surrounded by meninges. posterior prolongation of the brain.short and somewhat flattened.a narrow passage that joins the lateral ventricles with the 3rd ventricles • Aqueduct of Sylvius.Other parts of the CNS: • Choroid Plexuses.

• Filum Terminale. forms the middle layer of the meninges (for higher vertebrates) .two connective tissue membranes which surrounds the spinal chord • (Outer) Dura Mater.associated with the nerve supply to the hindlimbs • Meninges.located beneath the dura mater.associated with the nerve supply to the forelimbs • Lumbar Enlargement or Sciatic Enlargement. namely: • Brachial Enlargement. presents two enlargements.adhering to the bone • (Inner Vascular) Pia Mater.adhering to the nervous tissue • Vascular Arachnoid.posterior tapering portion located in the urostyle.

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Spinal Nerves. • emerge between vertebrae • each spinal nerve is attached to the spinal cord by 2 roots (dorsal sensory root and ventral motor root) .right) -extending from the lateral surfaces of the brain to the parts of the body B.right) • Arise from the spinal cord • Distributes to the limbs and trunk.II. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 2 Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System A.consists of 10 pairs of nerves (left.Cranial Nerves – consists of 10 pairs of nerves (left.

medial rectus. Oculo-Motor Function/Type: Motor nerves Location: 4 muscles of the eye namely (superior rectus.A. Trochlear Function/Type: Motor nerves Location: superior oblique muscle of the eye .inferior rectus. The 10 Paired Cranial Nerves 1. Olfactory Function/Type: Sensory nerves for smell Location: walls of nasal chambers 2.inferior oblique muscles) 4. Optic Function/Type: Sensory nerves for vision Location: retina of the eyes 3.

mouth and the tongue 6.5. Trigeminal Function/Type: sensory and motor nerves Location: muscles of the jaws. skin of the face. Abducens Function/Type: motor nerves Location: lateral or external rectus muscle of the eye 7. Facial Function/Type: motor and sensory (mostly motor) Location: muscles of the face and throat .

stomach and small intestine.esophagus.lungs. Glossopharyngeal Function/Type: Sensory and motor nerves Location: floor of the mouth.tongue and pharynx 10. *There are 2 additional cranial nerves in man namely the accessory spinal and hypoglossal nerves .heart. Vagus or Pneumogastric Function/Type: Sensory and Motor nerves Location: larynx.8. Auditory Function/Type: Sensory nerves for hearing and equilibrium Location: inner ear 9.

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. • Some Say Money Matters. • Some Stars Make Money. • On Old Olympus' Towering Top A Finn And German Viewed • Oliver the optimistic octopus trots triumphantly about facing audiences glossily vaguely • OOO Truly There Are Five Absolutely Gorgeous Vixen Some mnemonics to remember the types of cranial nerves. . But My Brother Says Bugs Bunny Makes More. But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter More. • Sally Sells Mega Monkeys.Some Mnemonics to help remember the names and order of the cranial nerves. But My Brother Sells Bigger Better Mega Monkeys..

B. The 10 Paired Spinal Nerves 1st spinal nerve 2nd spinal nerve 3rd spinal nerve 4th spinal nerve 5th spinal nerve 6th spinal nerve -Unite to form the Brachial Plexus to the shoulder and forelimb region -Supply the skin and muscles of the abdominal wall .

cloaca and oviducts .7th spinal nerve 8th spinal nerve 9th spinal nerve* -forms the Sciatic / lumbo-sacral plexus to the hindlimb *the 9th spinal nerve is the largest and is known as the sciatic nerve 10th spinal nerve -Distributed to the urinary bladder.

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Sympathetic and parasympathetic comprise Autonomic Division. although many lie within the central nervous system(CNS). • frequently considered part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).III Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) • In man. . • It is branch of the autonomic nervous system • It is always active at a basal level ( sympathetic tone) • becomes more active during times of stress (fight-orflight response) • operates through a series of interconnected neurons.

Gray matter – made up of nerve cell bodies. and the unmyelinated fibers.composed of myelinated fibers .White matter.HISTOLOGY OF THE SPINAL CORD (mammalian) • The spinal cords the reflex activities of the animals but which may be checked or modified by impulses from the brain. • In the cross sections. the spinal cord shows 2 distinct areas: 1. portion of the dendrites and axons. 2.

• Canalis Centralis – located near the center of the gray matter -lined with a single layer of the Epithelial ependymal cells • At the sides of the gray matter. • Gray Commisures connects the gray matter on the two sides.• Neuroglia cells and their processes bind together and support the nervous elements in both areas. • Oblique crossings of the medullated fibers form the white commisures. • Ventral fissure separates the right and the left columns of the white matter. . dorsal and ventral horns or cornua are produced.

• Dorsal Septum. extends from the base of this sulcus almost to the gray matter • The deep indentation at the bottom of the cord is the Ventral Fissure . composed of Pial tissues.

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organ of vision Divided in to 2 segments: a. aqueous humor -anterior segment -contains watery fluid b. vitreous humor -posterior segment (adapted to the reception/transmission of images) -more viscuous/jelly like fluid .Histology of the eye • eye .

Choroid 3.Sclera 2. The three coats of the eye.. 1.• Outer coat-opaque.retina .no light can enter -separated from the anterior segment by the crystalline lens and suspensory ligament.

1. Choroid-vascular layer between the sclera and retina -concerned with nutrition of ocular tissues -presence of numerous blood vessels -anterior portion:ciliary body and iris (mechanism for the accomodation of the refraction of the eye.outer.thick fibrous coat -tendons of eye are attached to it -continuous with the transparent cornea that permits light rays to enter 2.projects over the anterior portion of the lens) . Sclera –protective .

-contains receptors (rods.cones) -first link of the nervous pathways conveying impulses through the optic nerve of the brain.colored porion of the eye 3. .innermost photosensitive coat.• Pupil-central opening -Regulates the amt of light entering the eye • Iris. Retina.

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