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(1857-1901) The 2nd half in the 19th century, Queen Victoria was a very dominant figure all over the world, the British Empire covered a very large area in the world. It reached its golden age. Literary output of Victorian Age diversity: the classical literary forms gave way to diversity new literary outputs were born (travel literature, children’s literature) in fiction we can see diversification a period of transition
The Victorian age is economically the age of industrialization. Towards the end of the Victorian era is the age of industrialization and urbanization. Very important developments were taking place, the urban and industrial Britain was developing. We can see the developing of new social groups: working class and middle class were becoming more and more important. New reading public appeared, it was not so educated, had different taste, needed different literary works, more popular literature - era of the popular literature . High culture / elite culture for intellectuals, for those who were well educated more refined and low or popular culture was born for those who still needed some literature but less elite. Social reforms: working conditions have to be improved. Legislation needed for women’s employment, children’s employment, family issues (women left alone). Victoria tried to solve all these problems with legislations. This is the area of social reforms and education. Education: new law in 1870 - Fosters Education Act = elementary education is compulsory for everyone - enormous change, practically everyone could read and write, increased the number of the reading public, gave rise to simple short literary works. In the Realm of Fiction the 19th century novel was changed as a result of this changes (Thackeray, Dickens) the novel was getting shorter and shorter, the normal length was cut, language was simplified, more colloquial style was introduced, the role of the narrator changed: o o the 19th century narrator knows everything, everybody, has a higher position than the reader, explanatory style, the 20th century modern narrator is uncertain, hesitant, share these hesitancy with the reader.
Genre of the novel underwent some change, literary experimentation took place; new experimenter forms were formed, maybe because the authors were uncertain, they don’t know how to speak with the reader and they began to experiment. This is the period of the rise/birth of the experimental novel.
20th century Victorian era came to an end in 1901 Before her death there were some signs that something new is going to happen, there were some signs of changes in literature In culture it is always very hard to tell when a period starts and when a new one begins, it is different from history. The end of the 19th century can be seen as pre-modern era, which prepared modernism, while the end of 20th century post-modern era. Modern: 1st meaning-is contemporary, something what exists when we are living, 2nd meaning –something new, a contrast/opposed to traditional, something called avantgarde, experimental. (We use this meaning of the term) Period of Pre-modern At the end of the 19th century, prepared the modernism declining role of Britain in the world, Queen Victoria’s huge empire was beginning to fall apart, weakening of the British empire, social changes, growth of the middle, working classes, education, reading public, general increase in society Academic and scientific background birth of new areas of science and research; birth of modern psychology (1890 American William James, the brother of the writer Henry James, a psychologist, published ‘Principles of Psychology’, the first book of modern psychology) 1900 Freud - The Interpretation of Dreams 1901 Freud - Psychopathology of Everyday Life Karl Jung developed a new technique, the technique of free association, and this technique was taken over by writers. 1905 Einstein - Special Theory of Relativity, he questioned everything the science had stated, a new period of doubt; changed physics and had tremendous effort on people’s thinking.
Early 20th century A period of technological development, technological inventions - 1892 – Ford’s Model T (car, mass production of automobiles born, significant for mobility in the modern world. - 1903 the Wright brothers in America, Orwell and Wilburn Wright from Ohio, had their first successful flight (gliders – vitorlázógép), they travelled to Kitty Hawk in North Carolina to perform the 1st flight; mankind learnt to flight - technology can be used for the benefit of mankind at that time, after 10 years in WW I, the airplanes were used for military purpose, people realized that technique can be used for killing people, not only for the best of the mankind (use and misuse) Changes in Art modern way of thinking appeared in art, e.g.: in painting 1890s Art Nouveau (French-German) was the major and most fashionable trend on the continent and Britain. (Britain from 1893) 1906 – the birth of modern Art: Picasso painted his 1st cubic picture, Damoiselles D’ Avignon, we can see the women from various perspectives, made up from geometrical shapes. He uses perspectives in a very new way - birth of cubism. Cubic technique = influence on literature; cubists based their work on reality, Picasso broke up the reality into smaller pieces, we had a reality shattered, from those broken fragments Picasso created a new reality, arranged according to a new order. This is the analytical cubism: from old reality arranged a new reality. (Braque) Writers do the same: break up reality. They broke up time lines, chronology, etc in the novels Fauvism: the Wilds in France (Matise, 1912 – exhibition in England) 1909 – birth of Futurism in Italy: Marinetti –Futurist Manifesto. Artists admired new technology; the speed, dynamism 1923 – the concept of Ready Made Art: Marcell Duchamp had a brand new concept of art: the role of the artist. He was French, lived in New York. Reformed the role of the artist. The traditional view: artists’ task is creation, the artist is the creator (since the Renaissance). According to Duchamp: the artist has a new role, not to create but to find art; the whole world is an art work, anything can be an artwork: a glass. a cup. The artist’s role is not creation but selection. Ready made art works are around us, ready made-piece of branch, glass, stone, cup. The artist has to rearrange them, select them to create an artwork-role is selection (*snow Shovel, The Fountain (a toilet bowl). His followers: Dadaist Movement 1930s - Surrealist movement in Art ( Salvador Dali, Max Ernst, Magritte) Dream-like quality; Dreams inspired many writers, special creation of dreams was in literature.
if you see something more shocking.another shock for writers. but they think about universal issues of mankind. They wanted to enjoy life (it is so short The other group of writers mainly in America then in Britain. possibility for survival. S.Stock exchange crash in New York City and a new era began in history in the early 1930s. wanted to enjoy life as much as possible because they have learned that life is short . led to the birth of the existential novel and dystopic novel (opposite of utopia) which questions the possibility of a good world and a good society. possibilities that little wars could escalate into a nuclear or new world war. Cold war. Writers responded to the shock of the WWI. the possibility that the world. airplanes used for bombing the civil towns. very first which was very devastating. It was a shock for many people. children. chemical gas/warfare was used. depression. strikes. Example: T. political and social consciousness in literature WWII . called the Jazz Age (1920s) in American literature . nuclear bomb developed and used. many civilian casualties in the war (the number of civilian casualties outnumbered that of the professional soldiers). They did not think too much about social everyday problems like poverty.period of Great Depression . poverty. rationing of food. 1929 . Vietnam. Summary: 1920s writers wanted to escape reality IN A DREAM WORLD THEY CREATED FOR THEMSELVES. strikes.endless parties. In this period writers are forced to face reality. BUT COMMON IS THAT THEY DON’T FACE REALITY. Eliot: ‘The waste Land ‘ (A puszta ország). After WWI – period of emptiness.all theses shaped writers’ thinking. because there are so many social and economical problems. The survival of mankind become major problems for writers. Writers developed a kind of sensibility toward social problems. drinking. Korea. The whole period is called “the Waste Land period”. 1930s . elderly women. OR ALCOHOLISM.led to WWII. they write about poverty. the whole mankind could easily be destroyed After WWII – 1960s-1970s: period of small local wars. all the horrors could be watched. war was brought into ordinary people’s life. It was filmed . alcoholism.Historical Events that shaped the 20th century WWI .WWI experience. constant nuclear stress . There are tremendous problems all over the world.first war fought world-wide. a literary expression of the WWI emptiness). Writers escaped from reality into a dream world. mass unemployment. 4 . it was the first war in which modern technology was used. they felt general aimlessness.era of the film. Shocked how cheap human life was.
Depression.1910 . but we can see that it became easier. there was a shift toward the left.Edward VIII. New problems in literature: divorce. Woolf + (suicide) 1952 . no major problems abroad. children. home politics was more important at that time.George VI (1940 – German aeroplanes bombed London. The Labour Party was becoming stronger. long period on the throne Major problems: WWI. 1936 . broken family. he concentrated more on home problems. abdicated from the throne (very short period) 1936-52 . the rigidity. Wallis Simpson. 1941 – James Joyce + V.emphasized foreign politics. strictness of Victorian morality was breaking up.Edwardian England (1901-1914). Georgian Era. They began to write about smaller issues.Edward VII . He followed the politics of Victoria. 1910 – 1936 . WWI caused disillusionment. they could not save the world. not very much.George V. like family problems. 1901 .Queen Elisabeth II 5 .After that the writers realized that they cannot solve the problems of the mankind. This is fiction literature of the late 60s and 70s. Monarchs 1901 – Queen Victoria .
Not an England-born. his native language is Polish. he does not face the problem. He does not deal with the traditional strong man. devices will be the major change in modern literature. how this past will ruin him and destroy him. The consequences of his escape. drive him into madness. spoke French in his childhood. travelled a lot all over the world.The birth of the modern NOVEL Joseph Conrad: first modern novelist in the 20th century English literature. who has problem. and adventures: Defoe. His words are very carefully chosen. But Conrad wrote about sea experience from a different point of view. he escapes. he learnt English as a second language as an adult. psychology has become the major issue. he does not face the trouble. went to India. Stevenson. Africa. - His language and style praised by the critics perhaps the best language and the best literary styles say the critics. the use of psychological characters. tells about Captain Lord Jim. The sea experiences were the major experiences for him. a Polish man. became a sailor. but he escapes.Heart of Darkness 6 . how he is going to suffer from what he has done. he doesn’t stay on the ship to supervise everything while the ship is going down. 1902 . Latin America. his escape. the focus is very new. The writer has a new psychological focus: the consequences of his weakness. The focus of the writer is different. - Settled down in England and begun to write. sea novel – this is the English literary tradition the writers chose to write about sea experiences. He will see what happens to Lord Jim afterwards. Lord Jim is a weak man. He was already 32 years old when he wrote his first novel. 1889 – ‘Almayers Folly’ 1897 – ‘The Nigger of the Narcissus’ 1900 – ‘Lord Jim’ used his own sea experiences. discoveries. sentences put carefully together. He tells us a story of a shipwreck. of his weakness are the focus of the novel. His birth name was Korzeniowski. born in the Ukraine. West Indies.
historians. and painters. cannibals. homosexuality.an example of modern multiplicity in literature. poets.adventure novel. maybe for themselves.philosophical novel. and cruelty. the knowledge and the language to describe what is happening. but characters’ psychology. This is an allegorical journey we take in this novel. They did not care about the outside word. adventure novel. it is the elegant part of London. - This novel can be interpreted on various levels: . young black boy. He wants to describe the ultimate evil. intellectual way of writing. 1904 Nostromo 1906 The Secret Agent 1910 Under Western Eyes Lord Jim and ‘Heart of Darkness’ changed literature Early 20th century literature Bloomsbury group a group of intellectuals lived and worked together in London. no word exists to elicit the complexity of the world. exotic wild life. Conrad’s novels are very long but this one is short -this is a new form – this is his masterpiece. Old values are not valuable. . They established and used a very elite. The journey into the heart of Africa will be an allegorical journey into the human soul. They wrote about elite culture. critics. The world is so terrible (wars. An uncertain narrator who does not have the understanding. tells a story of a voyage into the heart of Africa. he has language problems.psychological level . In this group were writers. 7 .- The novel is short now and very focused. terrors) that there is nothing valuable except friendship and culture in this world. clever. they got criticism and suffered from accusation and negative criticism. Bloomsbury is a district around the British Museum. wildest parts of the human mind and soul. ultimate evil. they were accused of being insensitive. suffered from negative criticism. There are all the ingredients of an adventure novel but he is not interested in adventure novel. He does not understand. . the darkest side of the humans. Congo River. He focuses on the characters’ psychology. cruelty. Because of this isolations/carelessness. - a new type of narrator: immature. African tribes.
they were friends and he invited him to India.- The leaders of the group: Virgina and Leonard Woolf (Virginia: critic. egoistic nations. very negative thoughts about living peacefully together. symbolic use of the house to criticise the Victorian Age. Whitman showed up very positive values. Foster has personal experiences in India. 8 . Isolated life. The Passage to India (1924) his major work is Walt Whitman. novelist. criticized the Victorian Age and its authors in his work: Eminent Victorians . Foster had negative thoughts of other cultures .Douglas Grant (painter) . his husband: critic) Members of the group: .Edward Morgan Forster Edward Morgan Forster . He took the title from Whitman but the view is very different. had darker. appreciations of other cultures. First visit took place in 1912 and 10 years later in 1922. in his early novels he criticized the Victorian age. he was a professor at Cambridge University where he had a young Indian student. a 19th century American writer. short story writer. His attitude was different from Forster’s attitude. Whitman wrote about the wonderfulness of multicultural existence. has a long poem with the same title. he was a European. Whitman’s attitude to other countries was very different from Foster’s attitude.Vanessa Bell. slow agony. extremely well educated. went there 2 times. symbolizes Victorianism.Lytton Strachey was a critic. and weakness of Victorian values. criticism of the Victorian age. Earlier works: Where Angels Fear to Tread (1905) The Longest Journey (1907) A Room with a View (1908) A critical approach to the Victorian Age. there is a house and a lady who lives there. Howard’s End (1910) a symbolical novel. he was very sceptical about the coexistence of different cultures.professor at Cambridge University. . writer.
relationship. Hindis. goes away. He looks at the possibility of intercultural friendship. in his own home experience the fight between the parents. the cold. His father was a miner. general cultural issues. So Foster’s answer to this possibility is negative at the end. This kind of fighting. each part is equivalent with one season. from the so called BLACK COUNTRY. multicultural issues that are a major issue today. He could see. But it is not about adventures. He was interested in how different cultures could coexist . After this novel for a long time he did not publish any novel.Hindu Cave – British Each concentrated on one man from different culture. In his works there are biographical elements. the possibility for a friendship is left open but at the end of the novel that possibility disappears. Also the time is treating interestingly by Foster because each section. a place where different people have to live together Christians. spiritual content. Lawrence influence of Freudian thoughts. here the writer concentrates on the issue of culture. philosophical. it was impossible to publish in Britain. D . 9 . There are 3 seasons in India. Deals with religion. hot. This element will always be with him. the physically strong man or the intellectually strong woman. - major symbols and allegories: The novel structurally consists of three parts: Mosque – Muslim population Temple . she was a teacher. published in the 1980s. Muslims.H. strict censorship. who belong to different religions and different cultures. MIDDLE ENGLAND. Man – woman relationship: NO Man – man friendship: failure The novel has very deep philosophical. He was from a mining village. not his personal experiences. his mother was more educated.- His personal experiences inspired him. he wants to find out who is more powerful in a relationship. representing one ethnic group and religion. of conflict will appear in almost all his writings. - Maurice explicit homosexual content. India as a colony. rainy weather. - Foster says no to an intercultural relationship between a man and a woman at the beginning .what remains is the possibility for friendship between two men in the novel.
The tradition of English regional novel pops up. The power of the instinct is a very important motto of his literary work. Mother is sick. overdose of painkiller. wrote literary criticism. emotional growth. his love relationship is focused on. After the mother’s death he has new challenges to face in life. with the death of his brother. has cancer. The girl is a reminder of the mother and because of this it is not a satisfactory relationship. they go together to school. his love poetry written to his wife is very important. loves nature. in a small mining village. He wrote short fiction. the power of instinct. the family resembles his own family. First part: follows the childhood and the adolescence of Paul Morel.a married women . He could read Freud before he was well known and translated in England. The end of the novel is about this 10 . it is about pure sexualism. son helps her die. Second part: young man. his well known work is The history of American Literature. here he followed the tradition of the English realistic novel (Dickens). suffers a lot. The novel takes place in the region where he lived as a boy and man. Novels 1913 . he also wrote poetry. He was a very diverse author. what kind of houses they lived in.no intellectual depth. But he also writes about the life of the minors. They eloped. The first part continues the English literary tradition. He also concentrates on the region. Paul is very close to his own mother because of the constant fight between mother and father. One of them is a girl from a neighbouring farm. partly autobiographical novel. Miriam is similar to Paul’s mother. The traditional English Bildungsroman follows the physical. more intellectual mother. it follows the process of growing up of a young boy from childhood to adolescence. including the sexual instinct had a very important influence on his work. The wife of his university professor Frieda von Richthofen translated Freud for him. The other relationship . He is said to be a talented painter. she is an intellectual girl. he wrote a lot. The novel consists of two parts. There are two love relationships. - Freud’s teaching. life in a mining village – also a topic in the first part. neither of the two is satisfactory for the young man. it is under the Freudian influence. it is fail as a sexual relationship. in the black country.Sons and Lovers one of the famous. stories and novels. intellectual. what problems they had. what kind of food they ate. he always took the mother’s side. growing up as a man from adolescence into a man is the topic of the second part. Not long ago they collected his paintings and there was an exhibition at the Barbican Centre in London.- He was also under the impressions of Freud’s teaching. because it lacks the sexual aspect. he had grown up. mining father. concentrating on miners life. spiritual. According to Lawrence he fails in his relationship because the mother’s influence was too strong. life in the Black Country. had a heavy autobiographical influence. after they got married. library.
It was published posthumously in the 1960s. WWI broke out and his tuberculosis).: sentimentalism: used the emotions of characters. The possibility of a new life is there for him. The novel has some symbolical power. emotions of the characters. The Kangaroo The Plumed Serpent .(tollas kígyó) South America. he meant the flow of inner experiences. we can see him on the road. Australia. it was used in psychology first. South France . This is a new type of the novel.in a sanatorium.epistolary novel. south-Africa. Very clearly the Freudian influence is here. Lawrence leaves the end of the novel open. Stern – Tristan Shandy (an early example). ideas of Freud.: Richardson . He had personal reasons (moral. He was influenced by mysticism in the second period of his life. 1915 The Rainbow 1921 Women in Love 1927 Lady Chatterley’s Lovers . Mediterranean Italy. - Earlier literary trends already had some elements of this techniques. they travelled to hot places.not published because its very explicit sexual scenes. Sentimentalism. Greece. James Joyce used it first in literature. uneven. 11 . Stream of consciousness novel grew out of modern psychology its subject matter is the uninterrupted. belonged to early modernism. Mexico. Lawrence travelled a lot in his life in the Mediterranean. they concentrated on the inner personality. and endless flow of the stream of consciousness of its one or several characters not a literary term. Died in France. symbolical meaning. search for warm places. an American psychologist used it for the first time.g. emotions. inner thoughts. inner thoughts are concentrated on. The idea of John Locke was used.liberation in which he leaves the village and goes towards the town. and the lights of the town invite him.g. the power of instinct is present on every page of the book. Travelling influenced his life. thoughts. at the end of his life. E. the prototype of the Freudian Oedipus complex. for the inner experience. William James. Australia. Lawrence has tuberculosis. the theory of association was applied to the human mind. E. South America. Locke freed the human mind from strict logic. He wrote very spontaneously.
wanted to be a free writer. He lived in three different places in Europe afterwards. Stern. it was born in the early 20 th century by Joyce. He wanted to write universal books for the whole world. above national culture. all his work take place in Ireland. of religion. intellectual milieu was not possible to achieve there. from Dublin. . He went back to Ireland only once in his life for three days when his mother was dying.Pointed Roof (1915) – – – – novel. settled in Europe.- In 19th century English literature are some novels by Charles Dickens that concentrate on the inner conception of the human being (David Copperfield. received only some attention in 1935 when it was made to a part of a ‘Pilgrimage’. after that he left Ireland. it is a very religious country. That is a paradox of James Joyce’s life that although he wanted to be free of his Irishness and to be a universal writer. all the characters. Great Expectations) as a conscious literary technique. she is in the centre of the novel. she has a female character in this novel.very rigid. Richardson. and there is no plot. James Joyce made the technique famous and available. Irishness had major influence on him because he has looked at his own country as a major obstacle for him. but there were some beginnings in the literature of sentimentalism. the freedom of the mind. James Joyce Irish. This novel remain unnoticed. not suitable for artists. Dickens. He is Irish. Dorothy Richardson . a lot of restrictions. the famous Trinity College. Negative experience 12 . creativity. The whole world is seen through the eyes of the woman. He attended the university in Dublin. in which she used the stream of consciousness for the first time. from the first to the last word. All his characters are Irish. very strict orders. another literary work. above nation. he remains Irish whatever you read from him. events of the outside world are seen through the consciousness of a woman. He attended a Jesuit boarding school . the freedom of the intellectuals is not possible to achieve in such a rigid country as Ireland. He wanted to forget about Ireland.
various culture. Daedalus wants to escape. personal to objective. busy life. Why is he called so: relating to religion.Ireland. also: (Goethe uses for the first time) . Idea of imprisonment . Young hero in the Jesuit boarding school. - starts out subjectively. motive of the escape. varied from the lyrical through the dramatic to the epic style. Jane Eyre. with a lot of international characteristic features. Freud lived there. international were of great influence on him. Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) autobiographical novel. Jung practiced there.His first book is a book of Poetry . an artist but was kept as a prisoner. lots of people. He does escape. He is distant from Dublin at the end. 13 . Stephen was the first saint of Christianity =1st Irish tradition.cosmopolitan features of life was also significant. major seaport. he wants too much. - Paris . The stories can be enjoyed individually At the beginning first person narrative but it will shift to third person narration. Bildungsroman. relates to Joyce himself. aspiration.a park in Dublin Joyce loved very much. Language becomes more and more mature. at the end objectivity. Great expectations Covers the period of 1885-1902. mostly failures of self-realization.Mediterranean. Switzerland. Joyce’s Works Chamber Music (1907) . thus became very directly influenced by modern psychology. - Also lived in Zurich.David Copperfield. intercultural. flying high. childlike language. and he had daily contact with them. centre of the avant-garde literature and it was an ideal place for him to work. the milieu. and the impossibility for self-realization. Dubliners (1914) collection of short stories 15 short stories represent different types of failure. various nation. Style is changing. - Daedalus: refers to mythology. limited vocabulary. was a creator.After that he turned to short stories. Stephen’s Green . Ambitions.- He lived in Trieste . The centre character is Dublin. a prisoner. built a labyrinth. Joyce was descending himself from Dublin. - Main character: Stephen Daedalus. subjectively written childhood memory pop up. It was another important place for him. a place where modern psychology and psychiatry was practiced. he sees the world more objectively.
Story related to the modern world. one day.Bloom goes to a pub. she is ready to sleep with her impresario Deedalus: Leopold Bloom sees his son in him. Molly – a parody of Penelope. meets Stephen Daedalus. he went to Europe to study there. for many years Leopold Bloom Molly A parody of Wants a singer carrier easily. Rewrites Homer’s great epic. he is not at home even in his country. He is looked upon by his country man One day to be followed: June 16 th 1904 . He is not even an Irishman but a Jew (Hungarian) whose ancestors lived in Szombathely. Daedalus is in search of a father never talk about it. the universe is shrink into 1 town. they have no baby (it died) but they don’t talk about this painful topic. they used to have a baby who died. He is a middle aged. lives in Dublin. but son-father relationship fails. they suffer from it. with his wife. Modern equivalent of the classical heroes. he invited him into his house. Daedalus is in search of a father figure. This day is called in literature Bloom’s day. Daedalus is a student there who goes back to Ireland to visit Plot and characters are built on ancient epic novel Ulysses written by Homer. Penelope: faithful to her husband for many years.tragedy. a weak man. finds his wife inelegantly. Modern version of Homer’s epic.the whole universe we get acquainted with is squeezed into one town. too. loyal. Molly want a singer career easily. major achievement in epic tradition continuation of the story of Stephen Daedalus.building the wigs . There is no place in the world were he could feel home. fat. it is too painful. bold. He is a stranger. little. they it. S. here Leopold Bloom’s adventure during one day. It is too painful. L. Modern example of great deeds and heroism. ready Son: loyal to sleep with her impresario not existent in this novel. not exists. Ulysses Penelope Faithful. Can be related to Ireland and his personality. greatest novel. Stephen Daedalus appears in Ullysses. they suffer from This day is called Wife: 14 . He works. Blooms day We can find the modern equivalent of the classical heroes in the book Homer = adventures. Ulysses (1922) his major. Main character: Leopold Bloom.
she is occupied with organizing a birthday party. we are placed in her mind. editor of the Literary Biography series) Another representative of stream of Consciousness technique. Not yet stream of consciousness but the fragmentation Mrs Dalloway (1925) stream of consciousness - two main characters : a man and a woman Mrs Dalloway is an English lady. Modern allegory of human life. she worked for the Times’ Sunday edition. - Style: stream of consciousness. soldiers and the death of a soldier The young character: lyrical. the Times literary supplement. but it fails. - Septimus Smith is a I WW veteran. lonely. 15 .they are very unhappy events. a very ordinary man. Virginia started her career as a literary critic. he is abandoned from everyone. Very different and very same. who is invited for the birthday party but he is late because of the suicide The 2 characters shares a lot of things: . Leopold Bloom’s journey from life to death.their life is the same.although married. lives in London. commits suicide at the end. belongs to each other with many links. Virginia Woolf representative of the Bloomsbury group decent of a literary family. son. and he is lonely. Poor. 2 sides of 1 person. wife. impressionistic. a failure. she is lonely .figure and Bloom of a son.Mrs Dalloway also committed suicide . and this is her main problem: list of guests. they never met only linked by a 3 rd person. they had unhappy affairs. Jacob’s Room (1920) first novel deals with WWI. she is rich. . mosaic like. They don’t know each other. one character but the 2 sides of it. abandoned by everyone. a doctor. and everybody is seen through her mind. father: Leslie Steven (Victorian critic. Does the shopping.homosexual affairs . - The work can be compared to Everyman.
Anger is not Enough Young Man! emerged in the 1950s He could develop further – found the solution – anger is not enough young man. drinks.features a working class hero. he realizes that it is not a happy life. unhappy. rebellious.uneducated. Orlando. self-educated man Experience in the WW2. comes from Nottingham region. Allan Sillitoe . angry. end of the great period of the English novel. sleeps with different women. Sunday he goes out.Consists of 2 parts: growing wild and sobering. This was the prototype for writers. it was important for him. violent. he is unable to offer solution to his problems. he fought in it in Royal Air Force After was he spent some time in a sanatorium. Arthur Seaton. They wrote about similar characters. not a nice experience.- she is a prolific writer. She wrote many novels: To The waves. working class hero. uneducated. On Sunday morning sobering. John Wayne: Hurry on Down. . lonely. discontent but tries to suppress the problems as he did not see the way out from his problems. he could read literature 1950s he started to write. John Brain: Room at the Top.On Saturday. where there is no solution from the situation. Working class background. . To the light house Political novels: Lawrence died 1930. Woolf (committed suicide) Major period of English literature was over. disillusioned. a working class background.1941 died Joyce and V. . 1950s the angry decade in England Kingsley Amiss: Lucky Jim = cultural disillusionment. started out as a regional writer. . after that: vacuum. Sunday Morning 16 . Saturday Night. angry with his life.it’s a typical example for angry young man novel. gets drunken. not knowing what to do with his own life. The writers of the new generation turned to new topic. only diagnosed the problem but did not see the way out Angry young men period the Angry Young Man movement comes from a play by John Osborne: Look Back in Anger this play features young working class hero.
If he loses. Inner life: young criminals. family issue 17 . Feminist Writers Women as novelists. abandoned children Men. female characters They considered female problems. The normal world is abnormal.short novel: The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner features a young working class boy sentenced to a juvenile prison.1959 . Women. outside: normal/honest world is represented by the management of the prison. several autobiographical similarities provide the key to the door.kind of autobiography Seaton family invents a younger brother. problems of the broken family. Life outside the prison is even worse than the young people inside. he found a solution – anger is not enough 1961 . marriage. what he doesn’t like. The whole novel takes place in it. The young criminals are normal. Finally decides on losing. will gain symbolical significance (running) He uses photographic techniques.Key to the Door . Children: collection of stories. Brighton learns – education is the key being educated one can help oneself Later writings: short stories about family issues. divorce. Smith has the dilemma if he wins the race he will confirm to the world outside. Running is freedom for him. enjoyable. love. he will confirm to the “normal” world. Prototype of everyday young man Flashback: looking back on his life Places much emphasis on everyday objects (tv). When he runs his mind is free. writers it is not a new issue 19th century women authors female writers. single mother. Brighton Seaton like himself.
from the colonies talented. and returned to England again and came over to stay. after that she returned to New Zealand only briefly. she comes from the Australian elite . in relationship it is not the end in their writing but the beginning. and also travelled on the continent died young.to find self-realisation. starting point is women’s social roles the role of women in marriage. in 1923 from tuberculosis get married and travelled through Europe remarkable her trips to Germany. and they carry it further this is were they continue th 19 century story ends with a marriage as the happy solution.- they tried to find solution for female problems. it was always marriage. after having completed her studies 1905 continuously lived in England. famous for it her short stories are perhaps the closest to the Russian author Chekhov she is the author of small details seemingly uneventful. 20th century author takes up the issue as a beginning point They can be classified into two major groups.Kathryn Mansfield Ivy Compton -Burnett Radical group: . They can achieve social advancement marriage and love are solution.Doris Lessing Margaret Drabble We think about the feminist literature from the 1920’s Kathryn Mansfield originally a New Zealander her literary career is a very typical. details are repeated so often than they gave importance lack of the conversional plot 18 . happiness 20th century women writers are different they take up the issue of women and women writers where the 19 th century women writers dropped it. young people went over to England to study 1903 Prince College. no plot but some minor elements. she came to England to study comes to London to study . its a path for women through which they can achieve social position. according to how radical issues they deal with and how radical answers they come up with Moderate group: . marriage comes as a solution offered by 19th century authors. during her stay she began to write her specialty is short fiction story. motives.
what things might happen in the county house characters are members of family. looks back in time .characters focuses on women of the upper-middle class she did not consider the description of setting. does not keep to chronology. also experimented with time. she travelled back and forth in time.time 2 nd The period she focuses on is the period of Edwardian England. steps back. she did not provide longer prose text. she focuses on women representing upper-middle class) 1st .- there are minor objects. description of places. they are moving these dialogues are not very naturalistic dialogues. the same story is told from different point of view Her first successful short story volume published posthumously is: “In a German Pension” “Bliss and other stories” perhaps the most famous one. given in the dialogue the dialogue gives a special dramatic feature to her novels. published in: 1922 “ The Garden Party and Other Stories” 1923 The Dove’s Nest 1924 Something Childish and other stories (posthumous too) Ivy Compton-Burnett she was a remarkable novelist she had a very narrow focus in her novels steps back a little in time. all these features are developed through the dialogues in the novel. seemingly insignificant characters special style: uses everyday language. the reign of king Edward (Edwardian England. but consistent novel usually take place in the countryside. considers the dialogue the most important part of the novel. focus on the family life 19 . the use of multiple point of view. women. all other information is revealed through dialogues - anything else which is important like characterization or description of places. the characterization. not the everyday language of the period but she adopted a stylised language. she creates a fictional world which is far from the world of naturalism but it is very consistent and very powerful a natural fictional world is created. writes about the period of post Victorian time. but her novels are entirely built on dialogues. in country homes she looks in this country home as a kind of laboratory.
cruelty will always win. as Doris Taylor they were typical colonial people. short stories. men more but sometimes women too family is described as very cruel. was interested in politic issues. which made her very active in political movements. moved. travelled a lot in her childhood. was an activist. there is often a crime within the family. and the innocents will lose. divorced several times. the family itself is violent - many of her novels are about tyrannical people within a family.- very special view of the family. revolted against oppression was a kind of revolutionary character. not a protective environment. various kind of rape. she was a restless character as a woman and as a writer. Family in negative term In the Victorian era family appeared as something positive. she published by her married name. also lived in South Africa for a wile all these experiences were important for her. Victorian morality is the morality of the past. revolted against oppressions. and although her marriage failed and she got divorced she kept her name published under this name She wrote novels. non-fiction (criticism and essays) 1st novel : The Grass is Singing 20 . but that was the time when her works became widely known. married several times. she became known as an author by his name. the world inside the family home is something violent. there is no force inside or outside which can help. and the post Victorian world is dark and very cruel - She is also a member of the moderate group Published: A House and its Head Parents and Children Daughters and Sons Elders and Betters Doris Lessing belongs to the more radical group of the feminist authors born in Persia (Iran). incest her novels are dark. the family has a protective function but in her novels it is disruptive. parents served the British crown. she experienced a lot. too Lessing the name of her second husband. murder. encountered with different kinds of oppression. but the Victorian family is falling apart.
Short stories: Room 19 Margaret Drabble Narrowed down her focus Deals with the problem of intelligent women. each has her point of view She is known as a very good short story writer. she explores the life of single women in England experiments with the technique: several different notebooks appear. who have degrees. the baby will teach her how to love and adopt The Waterfall 21 . different version of the same story several different notebooks appear. good jobs Often characters are university professors who have a dilemma of starting a family or carrier Most famous novel: The Millstone explores a single mother and her problems inability to cope with life and love. and several version of the same story will pop up in the novel 4 characters argue.o o o o o o o autobiographical novel set in South Africa concentrates on a marriage to explore the mind of a poor woman the novel follows those events that cause her distraction (in a marriage which are called the distraction of a women) story similar to Room 19 concentrates on the role of women in modern society Children of Violence here she explored the role of women in the modern society Her most unique and experimental work was the: Golden Notebook the most rebellious novel.
new analyses. William Hazzlitt Thomas de Quincy: On the Knocking at the Gate in Macbeth It offers new analysis of Shakespeare’s work. in restorations time Shakespeare’s works were not really appreciated. R. Women’s Press. they sell well. Emerson: The American Scholar. non-fiction prose is as much part of literature as novels. literary reviews belong here . essays) writing can be divided into fiction and non fiction Non-fiction prose is as important as the fiction part. they are very popular.divided into subgroups: formal essay informal (familiar) essay Formal essay: the most traditional one. too .W.g. Not only the criticism of literary work written by women Offers new view as far as traditional literary works are. essay: one of the most important forms. etc The kinds of non-fiction prose 1. stories. he was considered too messy.the 19th century essay rediscovered Shakespeare as a major author 22 . Virago Feminist criticism Today we can speak about feminist criticism. there are publishers who specified in publishing feminist literature .g. can be analyses from the feminist point of view Famous essays in feminist criticism Juliet Mitchell: Psychoanalysis and Feminism Patricia Spacks: The Female Imagination Mary Jacobs: Women Writing and Writing about Women Linda Kaufmann: Gender and Theory – offers very important pieces of feminist literary critics Place of literary criticism within the literary world Literary criticism is part of non-fiction prose (reviews.Pandora.There are many more feminist writers.: . Charles Lamb. new approach to Shakespeare’s plays. 19 century essayists: e. The Nature + classics - Informal is new and more modern in action born in the Victorian period e.
Milton was involved about the execution of the king If the people have the right to execute the king and whether or not the king’s power is a divine power or not 7. Coopers Literary Offences because he was very unhappy about his Indian stories Literary Criticism = the evaluation of the literary works Is devoted to the comparison. Declarations / Manifesto Jefferson: Declaration of Independence 6. the interpretation and the evaluation of literary works 23 . Preface it is a prose text which introduces other literary works Wordsworth + Coleridge = Preface to Lyrical Ballads-it is the program for the English Romanticism Johnson’s Preface to the English Dictionary 8.2. Pamphlet: short essays concentrates on one topic. Review Essay / critical essay in literature Mark Twain: James F. purpose very powerful piece of writing often political Thomas Paine: Common Sense Swift: A Modern Proposal War of Pamphlets. Speeches / orations: Milton: Aeropagitica 4. biography autobiography is also important Samuel Johnson 18th century major figure in the English literature and editor of the 1 st English dictionary-said: “who is tired of London is tired of life” Macauley: (Victorian biographer) The Life of Samuel Johnson 3. analysis. Reports: shorter thesis of non-fiction prose Churchill: Dunkirk 5. Biography or Autobiography: new literary forms were born in the Victorian period.
discussion of 16th century literary works In the 17th century: Restoration Period . use of nature in literature (1819) Alexander Pope: Essay on Criticism (1711) Major change. philosopher. no absolute rules in literature 4. defined tragedy. 1. He changed completely literary criticism. going closer to Nature .witnessed a new approach (18th century). very little survived Aristotle’s Poetics: dealing with literary theory. critic.major dilemma after Cromwell’s empty time for dramatic arts Dryden’s essay deals with this. he revolted against neo-classicism 1798: Preface to Lyrical Ballades = Vico’s effect on English literary criticism 24 . essayist. comedy Plato: does not form coherent work. Giambattista Vico. Developed the historical approach Historicism in criticism revealed to people that there is no internal rules in literary works.Dryden: Of Dramatic Poesie 1668 (playwright) which model the new English theatre would follow/ should use --.the classical period’s rules used by classical writers are not god for the new age 2. only fragments Ancient Rome . very important work.Horace: Ars Poetica (deals with poetry) Cicero In English literature it was born in the Renaissance period.18th century = interested in new approach. critical methods. which direction to follow Written in a form of dialogue 4 people are engaged in the discussion each person represents one specific point of view Dryden wrote several other works French or ancient English? = dialogue from this essay Classical period . each historical period has its own rules 3.Development of literary criticism: begins with ancient Greeks. they followed classical rules 16th century the first work Sir Philip Sidney: Apology for Poetry (1595) a detailed analysis of the art of poetry. turning point in literary criticism occurred in Italy.
Decadeism ) 20th century literary criticism became more diverse.point of view of the readers (not deals with writers) 2. new concepts rise in literature confusion of standards: new concepts e. Bestsellers enormous influence of mass media on people’s taste great amount of reviewing but very few good critics D. Her husband was a critic too Started her criticism as a reviewer for the Times and the Sunday Times. Appreciations He had a profound interest in literary thinking His idea influenced the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.Shelley: Defence of Poetry 1820 the essay changed the informal essay was born in the period toward the end of Victorian Period: major critic general in art Victorian age: rediscovery of Shakespeare Walter Pater. Lawrence was a critic and literary historian Criticism is not a science. H. emotions The most important writers are the most important critics Wrote the first concise history of literature history Virginia Wolf as a critic Most important character in 20th century literary criticism Hereditary in her family. Literary Supplement works as a critic there Later her works were published .Coleridge: Biographia Literaria 1820 . Her father Leslie Steven was one of the most important critic in Victorian era. chaotic. How to read a book .collected in a volume: The Common Reader = several critical essays In it two important essays 1. Modern Fiction – (more traditional) she criticizes Victorian novelists.Romantic Period: early 19th century 1817 . critic in art: The Renaissance. English symbolist poets and Oscar Wilde Contributed to the Philosophy of Aestheticism (L’art pour L’art.g. 25 .
opposed the start-system. each member is a contributor to the success. to have Irish plays written. to be honest Kinds of non-fiction prose: Irish Theatre Cannot be separated from the Irish Renaissance which occurred at the very end of the 19th century Irish people wanted to save Irish language + Irish culture Poetry + Drama can save the language Drama is a kind of community art = art of the spoken world To save the Irish culture and the Irish language the drama played a very significant role Within the movement of the Irish Renaissances The Irish Theatrical Revival played a central role The language played a role. small theatre building very important. simplicity of the theatre (theatrical purity and simplicity) Irish playwrights wrote for the Abbey Theatre Two generations of Abbey playwrights: 1st generation: Yeats: Lady Gregory Synge 26 . they were against the well-made drama. The Gaelic League was founded in 1901. design. encourages writers to experiment. the community theatre was the major concept of the company. try out new things There is only one value to be true. an organization which wanted to revive the languages. acting style. to promote the use of Gaelic language Irish National Theatre Society 1901 was found-aim to establish a community. each member of the company had a role wanted to perform unique plays wanted to perform plays by Irish authors. played to Irish audience. realistic in scenery. audience. folklore built into the play and perform them to Irish audiences Yeats was the president 1904 Theatrical Company: The Abbey Theatre Company opened in Dublin in Abbey street.- What are the values in literature? She says: No set values in literature. performers. believed in the purity. designers believed in theatrical realism wanted to get rid of fashionable 19th century over-emotional (melo)drama. they introduced a new theatrical system a theatrical product as a product of a community . community of writers. the performances were simple.
he was disappointed. Shaw . very enthusiastic 2nd period from 1910. no text. concept changed. Cathleen in Houlihan Countess Cathleen This beautiful young woman appears in his plays .B. passionate Irish plays. Abandoned Irish topic Language + masque + song + dance are combined in this period Wrote 4 plays in the 2d period. Irish Civil War) he worked for the free Irish State as an MP. uses Irish folklore.abstract From 1910 his theatrical view. combination of songs music and dance. time when Ireland wanted to fight his independence (Easter Uprising. it become more abstract Influenced by the Japanese oriental theatre.although he is Irish. who was a rich woman and during this period he wrote his lyrical poetry 1899-1909 this period is called his theatrical period first period: wrote plays based on Irish folklore at this time his theatrical activity was more dominant than his poetry worked for the National Theatre Society and as a playwright at Abbey theatre wrote plays based on Irish folklore . the historical events were important for him. lived an isolated life as an older man on the estate of his friend Lady Gregory. no words. represented Irish culture and folklore for him (modernism – rural Irish folklore) his Irishness. after few years in politics. symbolizes Ireland Land of Heart’s Desire: another early play On Bailey’s Strand .the Abby theatre in 1904 was opened with this play Early plays. by the Japanese Noh play Japanese Noh Play influenced him. no traditional plot. met simple Irish people. performers wear big masques and costumes. left the political scene. very patriotic . very patriotic. stands for. they are collected into a group with the title “ Four Plays for Dancers” 27 . he rather belongs to the English Theatrical Tradition William Butler Yeats: 1st period: Poetry period Lived in London. quiet simple Irish people. spent a lot of time in rural Ireland.2nd generation: O’ Casey G. Irish topic. in small villages. modern literary trend influenced him – symbolism Other influence: childhood.
the old man is jealous. they live in a very distant isolated place. ridicules the Irish characteristic features (Irish nationalism was at its peak. there was a riot in the theatre) when the audience saw these negative characteristic qualities of Irish people. takes place in a very remote fishing village the fishermen’s wives’ lives are depicted wives are waiting for their husbands to come home and the play ends with a tragedy because there is a storm. played for a very narrow group of audience lost popularity J.isolation. intellectual author Wide range of interests Adopted a special style. a tragedy a remote island at the Irish coast tragedy. their inability to act. travellers come.- played not for the general Irish audience.Synge Contemporary of Yeats Very scholarly. very elevated Elizabethan English language combined with Irish dialect simple people used = mixture Dramatic style Combined tragedy + comedy Motif: an old man takes a young wife. traveller speaks elegant language known for theatrical scandal Play In The Shadow of the Glen 1903 The Playboy of the Western World ironical play. wants to test fidelity. loneliness this people suffer from Comic situation in order to explore the tragedy Combination of the language couple speak Irish dialect. to test wife’s fidelity he fakes death-comic situation Makes an ironic tragic-comedy from it to depict the tragedy of these people’s lives Ironic tragic comedy backwardness of thinking. Fishermen die 28 . the police had to make peace Riders to the Sea a short tragic story. dreaming characteristics they recognized themselves.W. he tests his wife’s fidelity. they were upset so here was a riot in the theatre the audience revolted against they saw in the play. very often the topic of comedy. broke the furniture.
his father was English suffered a lot from double identity he chose to be Irish as an adult. the worst scenario. but he read books from the public library at night. they are usually coward. the rest of the women hardly like her. lack of education. his name was John Casey. she is an outcast. backwardness Sean O’Casey 2nd generation Abbey Theatre playwright.- tragic. Eastern Uprising. he changed his name . the time is wartime.topic. absent women are more important. self educated man his background is important especially in his early/1st period wrote plays for the Abbey theatre 1st group = Irish period. definitely not he men. an outsider 2 groups: 29 . a Dubliner. isolation.wanted much bigger audience but failed Abbey period: Irish topic Eastern uprising + issue of independence The Shadow of a Gunman Juno and the Peacock The Plough and the Stars (1916) Written on the issue of Irish independence. set in slum of Dublin. hard to see who is the main character. hunger. weak. fighting the British He concentrates on women and children instead of men. period of Uprising and Civil War motifs (on the flag)-best play. in Ireland (Eastern Uprising) + internal war in people War is a universal experience Features many characters. Nora is a young. intelligent woman. was born into a protestant family. Irish plays 2nd group = English period. Gaelised his name he was born in a very poor family. English plays his Irish plays are much better. He went to London at his second period of life . brought up in the slum of Dublin he educated himself he had to work as a boy to support his family. there is war going on in Europe (WWI). symbols Year 1916. There are 2 women (Nora and Bessie) concentrated on. are more appreciated by critics. many children in the family. later he almost went blind probably because of it. loneliness. they are all the inhabitants of the slum.
British soldiers marching singing songs. lives in a mess. very organic part of the play .Red Roses for Me .characters are not very individualized .The Abby theatre rejected one of his plays. she doesn’t understand that the British shoot people. issues like war. radio speeches. religion are addressed (pacifism).Cock-a-Doodle-Dandy – comedy . The others does not like her Bessie.Inclusion of songs.Large cast .more universal. she doesn’t want to live in a dirty place. her baby will die. Nora falls. will jump in front of her and is accidentally shoot by the British Betsy will become a real hero. ruins her. doesn’t give up fight. her husband was English but has died. Bessie: dirty old women at the beginning = will rise. she cleans. poverty. she is very poor. and he was hurt.He rejected his earlier naturalism.Autobiography: I Knock at the Door 30 .Includes documentary materials in the play. used most complicated allegories . she becomes mad --. and decided to leave Dublin. from his childhood . the only one who will take care for her and is with her . 1 rises Experimental characteristic of the play: . she is pregnant. others look at her suspiciously. Whole play is written in slang.Language is not easy. a period of depression . Nora in her madness will go near the window because she will hear the song from the street.the author was familiar with . her counterpart is an old woman. too. peak of the play is a dark scene: when the Easter Uprising put down by British.Expressionism in the novel . people hide in their homes.Within the Gates . speaks a dirty language she is a protestant.The Drums of Father Ned . because she is more educated. doesn’t have a job. she saves Nora’s life and sacrifices herself 1 falls. exact words of Irish patriots.snipers who are hiding behind the windows in their houses and they want to shoot Nora and Betsy the old women who is with her. others look suspiciously at her. her husband leaves her. she wants to have a nice life.many characters in the play . they don’t like her too 2 women in the community fall and rise in the play.these are the early plays .tragic heroine falls.from the community. leave everything behind and he moved to London 2nd period. fight against poverty. she is suspicious.worked for London theatre . revolutionists of the time . tape recorded announcements about war events.after 1927 . spoken by the Irish in the slums of Dublin . more intelligent.
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