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Chng 3: B NGUN, V MY TNH V BN MCH CHNH

Phm Vn Thnh

Ni dung
1. V my tnh v b ngun. 2. Bn mch chnh.

1. V my tnh v b ngun
V my tnh (Case):
L mt thng (hp) nh, c s dng gn cc linh kin thit b phn cng my tnh Thng thng chng ta hay gp hai loi v my l dng nm (desktop) v v my dng ng (Tower).

1. V my tnh
V my tnh (Case):
Desktop:
u im: nh gn, ph hp vi nhng v tr c khng gian hp. Nhc im: do nh v dp nn khi cn m rng lp thm cc thit b th rt kh khn, qun l nhit bn trong cng gp rt nhiu kh khn nht l khi my hot ng vi cng sut cao

1. V my tnh
V my tnh (Case):
Tower:
u im: cao, thng thong, d m rng v qun l nhit tt. Nhc im: cn c khng gian rng

1. B ngun
B ngun (Power Supply Unit hay PSU):
Bin i ngun in xoay AC (110V - 220V ) thnh ngun in mt chiu DC vi nhiu mc khc nhau Thit b cung cp in nng cho bo mch ch, cng v cc thit b khc..., p ng nng lng cho tt c cc thit b phn cng ca my tnh hot ng

http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ngu%E1%BB%93n_m%C3%A1y_t%C3%ADnh

1. B ngun
B ngun (Power Supply Unit hay PSU):
Phn loi. Cng sut ngun Cc yu cu i vi b ngun Cc mc in quy nh B tr cc chn cm u ra

1. B ngun
B ngun (Power Supply Unit hay PSU):
Phn loi. Cng sut ngun Cc yu cu i vi b ngun Cc mc in quy nh B tr cc chn cm u ra

1. B ngun
Phn loi: ngun tu theo nguyn l hot ng v chc nng.
Theo chc nng: B ngun cho my tnh AT (Advanced Technology) v b ngun cho my ATX (Advanced Technology Extended). Theo nguyn l hot ng: B ngun lm vic tuyn tnh v b ngun lm vic gin on

1. B ngun
B ngun cho my tnh AT:
Cu trc n gin, khng c in p 3,3 V (hoc nh hn) cp cho bn mch chnh v cc linh kin thit b khc Qut gii nhit ht gi t trong ra ngoi lm mt gin tip cho cc linh kin v thit b c khi ng bng tip im c kh v khng iu khin c bng phn mm

1. B ngun
B ngun cho my tnh ATX:
Cung cp in p +3,3 V (hoc nh hn) cho bn mch chnh v cc linh kin thit b khc Cho php iu khin bng phn mm nh tn hiu power on Qut tn nhit thi gi t ngoi vo trong lm mt trc tip cho linh kin v thit b Tn hiu 5V-Standby a h thng vo trng thi ngh khi my tnh ngng lm vic nhm tit kim in v lm tng tui th cho cc linh kin v thit b

1. B ngun
B ngun lm vic tuyn tnh:
Bao gm mt bin th, mt mch nn dng (gm 4 it cng sut) v mt hoc nhiu b n nh in p. in p xoay chiu c in th cao c a qua bin p h p. Cc in p mc thp c a qua b n p b in p (+5V, +12V, -5V, -12V, .v.v.) Nhc im: bin p cng knh, nng lng tht thot nhiu v sinh nhit ln

1. B ngun
B ngun lm vic gin on :
in p xoay chiu cao th c nn trc tip khng qua bin p thnh dng mt chiu cao th, dng ny c a qua bin p ferich v mch ng m to thnh chui xung c rng thay i theo s iu khin ca mch khng ch (c tn s 20Khz n 40 Khz). u im: t tht thot nng lng do cng sut ngun c khng ch rng xung do t sinh nhit v rt gn nh.

1. B ngun
B ngun (Power Supply Unit hay PSU):
Phn loi. Cng sut ngun Cc yu cu i vi b ngun Cc mc in quy nh B tr cc chn cm u ra

1. B ngun
Cng sut ngun:
Cng sut ca b ngun l mt thng s rt quan trng: p ng cng sut cho cc linh kin thit b hot ng tt, n nh v m bo kh nng m rng h thng khi cn thit. Cn mt b ngun c cng sut thch hp ta cn tnh tng cng sut tiu th ca bn mch chnh v cc linh kin thit b khc, sau cng thm t 20% n 50%.

Cng sut ngun:

1. B ngun
in p (V) +3,52 Dng in (mA) 3000 4000 25 25 275 300 5000 5000 500 150 750 250 Sai s 2,5% 5% 5% -9% n +10% 5% 5% -4% n + 5% 1,2% 5% 5% 5% 5%

Cng dng in tiu th ca mt s linh kin thit b trong my vi tnh


Chi tit

Bn mch chnh (Mainboard)

+5 +12 -12

Bn phm Chut Khe cm PCI a mm FDD a cng HDD

+5 +5 +5 +3,52 +5 +12 +5 +12

1. B ngun
B ngun (Power Supply Unit hay PSU):
Phn loi. Cng sut ngun Cc yu cu i vi b ngun Cc mc in quy nh B tr cc chn cm u ra

1. B ngun
Yu cu i vi mt b ngun:
Tnh n nh: cung cp cng sut cho cc linh kin thit b hot ng tt v phi m bo n nh trong thi gian di. Lm ngui tt. Hiu sut cao: Trong cc my tnh hin i, b ngun c trang b logic iu khin thng minh a ngun in vo trng thi ngh khi my tnh khng s dng. Kh nng m rng: khi cn m rng lp thm cc linh kin thit b khc nh: RAM, Card m rng, modem, HDD, CD_ROM, ... th b ngun cn phi cng sut cp cho ton h thng

1. B ngun
B ngun (Power Supply Unit hay PSU):
Phn loi. Cng sut ngun Cc yu cu i vi b ngun Cc mc in quy nh B tr cc chn cm u ra

1. B ngun
Cc mc in quy nh
Mc in +5V: cung cp cho bn mch chnh v cc vi mch khc nh card m rng, cc vi mch in t trn a,.v.v. Dy dn mang in th ny c mu . Mc in +12V: cung cp cho cc ng c quay ca a, ng c quay ca qut v cp ngun ti khe cm ISA trn bn mch chnh. Dy dn mang in th ny c mu vng. Mc in -5V v -12V: l nhng mc in th cung cp cho cc vi mch th h c. (Trong cc my tnh hin i cc in th ny khng c s dng). Dy dn mang cc in th ny thng l mu trng, xanh nc bin, tm hoc mu ghi. Mc in + 3,3V: cung cp trc tip cho Vi x l cc my tnh ATX. Cn cc my tnh AT, in th +3,3V c ly t ngun +5V thng qua vi mch h th cy trn bn mch chnh. Dy dn mang in th ny c mu cam. 5V-Standby (ngun i): cung cp cho mt s vi mch ca bn mch chnh hot ng khi ton b h thng ngt in gip tit kim in nng v nng cao tui th cho cc linh kin v thit b trong my tnh.

1. B ngun
B ngun (Power Supply Unit hay PSU):
Phn loi. Cng sut ngun Cc yu cu i vi b ngun Cc mc in quy nh B tr cc chn cm u ra

B tr cc chn cm u ra
B ngun AT:
Gic cm ngun cho bn mch chnh: B ngun AT s dng 2 gic cm mt hng chn, mi gic c 6 chn v c chn tn hiu Nhc im: hai gic hon ton ging nhau nn d cm nhm. V vy khi cm gic cm ln cm trn bn mch chnh cn ch l 4 dy en phi gia

1. B ngun

Chn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Mu dy Cam Vng Xanh en en en en Trng

Tn hiu +5V power good +5V +12V -12V Ni t Ni t Ni t Ni t -5V +5V +5V +5V

1. B ngun
B tr cc chn cm u ra
B ngun AT:
Gic cm ngun cho a:

Chn Mu dy Tn hiu 1 2 3
FDD CD ROM & HDD

Vng en en

+ 12V Ni t Ni t + 5V

B tr cc chn cm u ra
B ngun ATX:

1. B ngun

Gic cm ngun cho bn mch chnh: ch s dng mt gic duy nht loi 2 hng chn c cht kho, v vy khng th cm ngc.
Chn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mu dy Vng Tm Sa en en en Cam Cam Tn hiu +12V +5V Standby Power Good Ni t +5V Ni t +5V Ni t +3.3V +3.3V Chn 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Mu dy Trng en en en Xanh l cy en Xanh nc bin Cam Tn hiu +5V +5V -5V Ni t Ni t Ni t Power on Ni t -12V +3.3V

1. B ngun
B tr cc chn cm u ra
B ngun ATX:
Gic cm ngun cho a:

Chn Mu dy Tn hiu 1 2 3
FDD CD ROM & HDD

Vng en en

+ 12V Ni t Ni t + 5V

Ni dung
1. V my tnh v b ngun. 2. Bn mch chnh.

26

2. Bn mch chnh (Mainboard)


L mt bn mch ng vai tr l trung gian giao tip gia cc thit b. Mt cch tng qut, n l mch in chnh ca mt h thng hay thit b in t. C rt nhiu cc thit b gn trn bo mch ch theo cch cm trc tip, cc kt ni cm vo hoc dy dn lin kt.

2. Bn mch chnh
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Cng ngh ch to Cc chun thit k Nguyn tc thit k bn mch chnh Khe cm trn bn mch chnh cm trn bn mch chnh Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l ROM & BIOS, linh kin v thit b khc. Cng truy nhp ngoi vi Cu trc my tnh trong tng lai

2. Bn mch chnh
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Cng ngh ch to Cc chun thit k Nguyn tc thit k bn mch chnh Khe cm trn bn mch chnh cm trn bn mch chnh Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l ROM & BIOS, linh kin v thit b khc. Cng truy nhp ngoi vi Cu trc my tnh trong tng lai

a. Cng ngh ch to

2. Bn mch chnh

Bn mch chnh c sn xut bng cng ngh mch in. Do mt IC ngy mt dy ln, s chn ni v s lng dy dn trn bn mch chnh ngy mt nhiu ln dn ti din tch ca n cng tng theo. Khc phc: s dng cng ngh ch to mch in nhiu lp (loi 4 lp v loi 6 lp).

a. Cng ngh ch to

2. Bn mch chnh

Mch in 6 lp

a. Cng ngh ch to

2. Bn mch chnh

Mch in 4 lp

a. Cng ngh ch to

2. Bn mch chnh

Ch : i vi bn mch chnh nhiu lp th hai lp tn hiu gn nhau phi c xen k bng lp ngun hay lp tip t, hoc cc ng dy dn b tr vung gc vi nhau ti tip im trnh nh hng nhiu in t. Thu nh kch thc ca bn mch chnh dng cng ngh dn IC: cho php dn trc tip IC ln bn mch chnh m khng phi khoan v kch thc c thu nh hn.

Cng ngh dn IC

2. Bn mch chnh
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Cng ngh ch to Cc chun thit k Nguyn tc thit k bn mch chnh Khe cm trn bn mch chnh cm trn bn mch chnh Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l ROM & BIOS, linh kin v thit b khc. Cng truy nhp ngoi vi Cu trc my tnh trong tng lai

b. Cc chun thit k

2. Bn mch chnh

My vi tnh c lp rp t nhiu linh kin, thit b ca nhiu hng sn xut phn cng khc nhau. cc linh kin, thit b ny c lu thng rng ri v mm do i vi ngi s dng th chng phi tun th cc chun thit k nht nh. Bn mch chnh l sn phm c nhiu yu cu kht khe hn khng nhng v chun thit k m cn v cc thng s k thut khc.

b. Cc chun thit k
Chun AT.

2. Bn mch chnh

Chun thit k ra i sm nht trong dng my vi tnh c nhn. C kch thc 30,5 cm x 33 cm, nhiu khe cm ISA. Cha c khe cm PCI, AGP, cc giao din ngoi vi nh cng COM( cng ni tip), LPT (cng song song), PS/2( cng chut, bn phm DIN 6 chn), ... Cha c tch hp trn bn mch chnh nh cc bn mch chnh hin i, ch duy nht c cng DIN 5 chn dnh cho bn phm c gn trn bn mch chnh. cm ngun l loi mt hng c 12 chn, khng c cht kho nn d cm nhm. C b h th h ngun +5V thnh +3,3 V cung cp cho vi x l.

Bn mch chun AT

b. Cc chun thit k
Chun BAT (Baby AT).

2. Bn mch chnh

Chun ci tin ca chun AT, nh gn hn, c b tr cc IC mt cch thch hp hn v c thm khe cm PCI trn bn mch chnh. Kch thc 33cm x 22 cm, c khe cm ISA, PCI. Cha c khe cm AGP, ... v cc giao din ngoi vi nh cng COM, LPT, PS/2, ... cng cha c tch hp, ch duy nht c cng DIN 5 chn dnh cho bn phm c gn trn bn mch chnh. cm ngun l loi mt hng c 12 chn, khng c cht kho nn d cm nhm. C b h th h ngun +5V thnh 3,3 V cung cp cho vi x l.

Bn mch chun BAT

b. Cc chun thit k
Chun ATX.

2. Bn mch chnh

Chun thit k hin i, c pht trin bi h thng Pentium ca hng Intel, dng b ngun ATX. Cung cp nhiu tin ch tuy xut hn: cc giao din ngoi vi nh cng COM, LPT, PS/2, ... c tch hp trn bn mch chnh. B sung thm cc giao din hin i c tc cao v linh hot nh giao din tun t a nng USB, giao din cao tc IEEE 1394,... p ng v tc cao cho cc thit b ngoi vi. Cc khe cm ISA dn dn b loi b thay vo l cc khe cm AGP, khe cm PCIExpressl, m ra nhiu kh nng ng dng mi cho my vi tnh.

Bn mch chun ATX

b. Cc chun thit k
Chun ATX.

2. Bn mch chnh

Kt cu khoa hc v nh gn hn. Khc phc c nhc im ca cc th h bn mch chnh trc : s dng cm ngun hai hng chn c cht kho nn khng th cm ngc chiu gy nn chy bn mch chnh v cc linh kin, thit b, in p +3,3V n trc tip t b ngun cung cp cho vi x l. Kch thc 30,5 cm x 24,4 cm. Ngoi ra cn mt loi bn mch ging ht bn mch ATX, nhng c kt cu nh gn hn l bn mch sn xut theo chun Mini ATX vi kch thc 24,8 cm x 20,8 cm; c sn xut p ng cho nhng lnh vc i hi kch thc my tnh nh gn.

Bn mch chun ATX

b. Cc chun thit k Chun Micro ATX.

2. Bn mch chnh

Chun mi ca Intel, c cu to v v tr cc cm, khe cm tng t nh chun ATX. Ch khc l thay v c 7 khe cm m rng nh ATX th Micro ATX ch c 4 khe cm. Kch thc ca cc bn mch chnh loi ny nh hn l 24,4 cm x 24,4 cm.

Bn mch chun Micro ATX

b. Cc chun thit k Chun NLX.


V hnh dng tng t nh LPX, ngoi cc khe cm m rng cn c cc cm nh cm ngun, cm cc thit b ngoi vi u c tch hp trn th cm Riser cm bn hng ca my. Kch thc 33 cm x 22,4 cm.

2. Bn mch chnh

Bn mch chun NLX

2. Bn mch chnh
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Cng ngh ch to Cc chun thit k Nguyn tc thit k bn mch chnh Khe cm trn bn mch chnh cm trn bn mch chnh Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l ROM & BIOS. Cng truy nhp ngoi vi Cu trc my tnh trong tng lai

c. Nguyn tc thit k 2. Bn mch chnh bn mch chnh Khi tin hnh thit k bn mch chnh phi tun th mt s nguyn tc sau: Cc linh kin hay thay i nng cp nh: RAM, CPU, video card, ROM-BIOS, .v.v., c b tr cm qua khe cm, cm trn bn mch chnh. Cc linh kin khng hay s dng nh Sound card, Tivi card, Net card, ... khng nn cy trn bn mch chnh. Cc linh kin hot ng vi tn s cao b tr cch ly vi cc linh kin hot ng tn s thp trnh nh hng ln nhau. H thng Bus trn bn mch chnh phi c phn cp.

c. Nguyn tc thit k 2. Bn bn mch chnh H thng Bus trn bn mch chnh:

mch chnh

Bus nhanh nht l bus 64 bit: kt ni gia CPU vi b nh m s cp cache L1. Bus ny nm ngay bn trong vi mch ca CPU nn n c gi l bus ni b. Bus nhanh th hai: l bus h thng ca my, ni gia CPU vi b nh m th cp cache L2 v b nh chnh RAM.
Lu : B nh chnh RAM ni trc tip vi chipset bn cu bc ch khng phi ni trc tip ti CPU do cc th h RAM khc nhau c rng bus, tn s xung nhp khc nhau v khc vi rng bus, tn s xung nhp ca CPU, khi chipset bn cu bc chnh l trm trung chuyn gia CPU v b nh chnh. V vy bus nhanh th nh chnh l bus ni gia CPU vi chipset bn cu bc c rng 64 bit nhng hot ng vi tn s ca h thng (FSB).

c. Nguyn tc thit k 2. Bn bn mch chnh H thng Bus trn bn mch chnh:

mch chnh

kt ni thng tin vi cc thit b ngoi vi bn ngoi th trn bn mch chnh c bus m rng (hay cn gi l bus vo/ra hay bus ngoi vi). Bus m rng l loi bus c tc nhanh th ba trong h thng bus, cho php my tnh kt ni vi cc thit b ngoi vi bn ngoi v m rng cc ng dng trong tng lai. My vi tnh tn ti mt s loi bus sau: Bus ISA (Industry standard architecture), bus vi knh MCA (Micro channel Architecture), bus EISA (extended ISA), bus cc b VESA (do hip hi chun video in t thit k), bus PCI (peripheral component interconnect), bus AGP (accelerated graphics port). 3 loi bus c coi l chun, c t nhc im nht v c s dng trong hu ht cc my vi tnh c nhn: ISA, PCI, AGP.

c. Nguyn tc thit k 2. Bn bn mch chnh H thng Bus trn bn mch chnh:


Bus ISA:

mch chnh

o Chun 16 bit, o Tn s lm vic 8,33 MHz. o Truyn ti 16,66 Mbytes/s. y l bus c tc chm nht trong cc bus ca my vi tnh, ch yu kt ni ti cc thit b c tc thp. o Theo chun PC 99 th bus ny b loi b ra khi cu hnh phn cng my tnh.

Bus PCI:
o bus chun 32 bit v c th hot ng ch 64 bit. o Hot ng ch 32 bit th tn s lm vic l 33 MHz , truyn ti c 132MBytes/s. o Hot ng ch 64 bit th tn s lm vic l 66 MHz, tng kh nng truyn ti ln n 258 MBytes/s. o c bit bus PCI ng h nguyn tc Plug and Play (cm l chy), cc linh kin, thit b khi cm vo khe cm bus PCI khng phi ci t phn cng cho php my tnh t ng nhn dng ci t thit b.

c. Nguyn tc thit k 2. Bn bn mch chnh H thng Bus trn bn mch chnh: Bus AGP:

mch chnh

o Bus tng tc ho, ch c s dng cm card iu hp hin th tng tc ho (th mch iu khin mn hnh tc cao). o L khe cm 32 bit c tn s lm vic bng tn s lm vic ca bus b nh v c ni trc tip vi b nh chnh. o H tr tt cho cc c tnh video v cc hnh nh 3D khi phn mm thit k h tr.

2. Bn mch chnh
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Cng ngh ch to Cc chun thit k Nguyn tc thit k bn mch chnh Khe cm trn bn mch chnh cm trn bn mch chnh Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l ROM & BIOS, linh kin v thit b khc. Cng truy nhp ngoi vi Cu trc my tnh trong tng lai

d. Khe cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Bn mch chnh l ni cha ng tt c cc linh kin v thit b quan trng nht ca my vi tnh. Hn th na trn n cn cha ng tt c cc khe cm v cm kt ni ti cc thnh phn khc.
Khe cm b nh Khe cm th m rng

d. Khe cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm b nh
Khe cm b nh chnh:
Trn bn mch chnh c, tn ti hai loi khe cm b nh l: khe cm SIMM (Single Inline Memory Module) v khe cm DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module). Trn nhng bn mch chnh hin i: ch c mt loi duy nht l khe cm DIMM. Khe cm DDR (Double Data Rate) Khe cm RIMM (Rambus in-line memory module)

d. Khe cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm b nh
Khe cm b nh chnh: khe cm SIMM (Single Inline
Memory Module).
L khe cm mt hng chn c rng bus d liu 32 bit, gm c hai loi: khe cm SIMM 30 chn v khe cm SIMM 72 chn. SIMM 30 chn: khe cm b nh xut hin u tin trn my vi tnh c nhn, h tr th nh c dung lng t 256 KBytes n 4 MBytes. SIMM 72 chn: c kh nng h tr th nh ln ti 64 MBytes.

d. Khe cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm b nh
Khe cm b nh chnh: khe cm SIMM (Single Inline
Memory Module)

256 KB capacity

Khe cm SIMM 30 chn, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SIMM

d. Khe cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm b nh
Khe cm b nh chnh: khe cm SIMM (Single Inline
Memory Module)

Khe cm SIMM 72 chn

32MB EDO RAM module (72-pin SIMM)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SIMM

d. Khe cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm b nh
Khe cm b nh chnh: khe
cm DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module)
Khe cm hai hng chn rng bus d liu 64 bit, gm c 168 chn. N c kh nng h tr th nh t 8 MBytes n 256 MBytes. Loi khe cm ny c s dng cm th SDRAM (synchronous DRAM- RAM ng b), tc l loi RAM ny hot ng ng b vi ng h h thng.

Khe cm DIMM 168 chn

d. Khe cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm b nh
Khe cm b nh chnh: Khe cm
DDR(Double Data Rate)
Xut hin trong cc bn mch ATX dnh cho vi x l Pentium IV th h mi, Ra i nhm h tr cho cng ngh siu phn lung ca Pentium IV. C 184 chn, ng dn d liu l 64 bit nh khe cm DIMM nhng n c tc cao hn nhiu. c s dng cm th nh DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate SDRAM RAM tc d liu kp) hay chnh l SDRAM II. D kin trong tng lai, khe cm ny s tng dung lng ln 128 bit.
Khe cm DDR 184 chn

d. Khe cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm b nh
Khe cm b nh chnh:
Khe cm RIMM (Rambus inline memory module)
C ng dn d liu 16 bit c s dng h tr cho vi x l Pentium IV Itanium[1]. Tuy s ng dn d liu t hn nhiu so vi cc khe cm trn nhng c tn s hot ng t 400 MHz n 800 MHz. c s dng cm th nh RDRAM (Rambus DRAM)[2].
[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Itanium [2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RDRAM Khe cm RIMM 184 chn

d. Khe cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm b nh
Khe cm b nh th cp L2:
Trn mt s bn mch chnh c c mt khe cm mu nu, di trng nh khe cm riser nm bn cnh cm ca CPU c tn l COAST, c s dng cm b nh m th cp cache L2. T th h vi x l Pentium Pro, b nh m th cp cache L2 c tch hp trn CPU (bn ngoi chip), trn cc bn mch chnh th h mi khng cn tn ti khe cm ny.

Khe cm COAST cho cache L2

d. Khe cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm th m rng: 3 loi khe cm m rng ch yu l ISA, PCI v AGP

d. Khe cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm th m rng: khe cm m rng ISA (Industry standard architecture)


Khe cm mu en, di nht trong tt c cc khe cm c mt trn bn mch chnh. Ban u l khe cm 8 bit vi 62 chn hot ng tn s 4,77 MHz. Sau n c b sung thm 36 chn na thnh khe cm 16 bit hot ng tn s 8,33 MHz. Khe cm ISA ch yu c s dng kt ni ti nhng thit b khng i hi tc cao, nh th cm th m thanh (sound card), th mng (NET card),.v.v.

Khe cm ISA 98 chn

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industry_Standard _Architecture

ISA 16-bit, Ethernet 10Base-5/2 NIC.

d. Khe cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm th m rng: khe cm m rng PCI (Peripheral component interconnect)


L khe cm mu trng gm c 124 chn, ngn hn khe cm ISA. 32 bit hot ng tn s 33 Mhz, c th gi t lm khe cm 64 bit hot ng tn s 66 Mhz. Khe cm PCI l khe cm c mt trong hu ht cc my tnh hin i, l mt bus cao tc kt ni ti nhng thit b c tc cao: th iu hp hin th (VGA card), th iu khin a (SCSI), th mng, .v.v. Nguyn tc cm l chy (Plug and Play): cc thit b cm vo khe cm t ng ci t phn cng v trnh iu khin.

http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Peripheral_compo nent_interconnect Khe cm PCI 124 chn PCI-X Gigabit Ethernet

d. Khe cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm th m rng: khe cm m rng AGP (accelerated graphics port)


L khe cm mu nu, gm c 132 chn. Khe cm 32 bit nh khe cm PCI nhng tn s hot ng ca n bng tn s hot ng ca bus b nh v vy tc truyn d liu ca n nhanh hn rt nhiu ln. Khe cm AGP dng cho th iu hp hin th cc nhanh (card ho 3D).

Khe cm AGP 132 chn http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accelerated _graphics_port

d. Khe cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm th m rng:khe cm c bit c kch thc rt nh, l cc khe cm: CNR, AMR
Khe cm CNR (communcations network riser) l khe cm dnh cho mng truyn thng, Khe cm AMR (audio modem riser) l khe cm dnh cho card m thanh nh hoc card modem trong loi nh
Slot CNR Slot AMR

Khe cm CNR v khe cm AMR

2. Bn mch chnh
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Cng ngh ch to Cc chun thit k Nguyn tc thit k bn mch chnh Khe cm trn bn mch chnh cm trn bn mch chnh Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l ROM & BIOS, linh kin v thit b khc. Cng truy nhp ngoi vi Cu trc my tnh trong tng lai

e. cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

cm ngun cm bn phm, chut Cc cm v gic cm khc

e. cm trn bn mch chnh cm ngun

2. Bn mch chnh

cm ngun tip nhn tn hiu in cung cp cho cc linh kin hot ng t b ngun. Tu theo th h bn mch chnh m cm ny cng khc nhau. Bn mch chnh AT hoc BAT: cm mt hng 12 chn tip nhn tn hiu in p t b ngun AT. c im ca loi cm ny: l khng c cht kho nn hai gic cm t b ngun. Bn mch chnh mi nh ATX: s dng loi cm hai hng c 20 chn v c cht kho. Loi cm ny i km vi b ngun ATX v c cu to nh hnh v: Mt s bn mch chnh BAT c trang b c hai loi cm trn, v vy c th la chn b ngun AT hoc ATX s dng.

cm ngun AT 12 chn

m cm ngun ATX 20 chn

Kt hp c hai loi AT 12 chn v ATX 20 chn

e. cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

cm bn phm, chut
Bn mch chnh c (AT, BAT): cm bn phm l loi DIN 5 chn, khng c cm cho chut, chut c ni vi my tnh thng qua cng tun t (cng COM). Nhng bn mch chnh hin i l cm cho chut v bn phm l cng PS/2 DIN 6 chn. C th cm vo cng tun t a nng USB, cng hng ngoi IR, ...

cm bn phm DIN 5 chn

e. cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

cm bn phm, chut

cm bn phm DIN 5 chn

e. cm trn bn mch chnh


Hai cm IDE:

2. Bn mch chnh

Cc cm v gic cm khc
c s dng kt ni ti cc cng (HDD) v quang (CD_ROM). cm th nht k hiu l Primary (s cp), cn th hai k hiu l secondary (th cp). Vic k hiu ny xc nh quyn u tin khc nhau i vi tng cm khi m c nhiu a cm vo. Mi mt cm c 40 chn C kh nng ni c ti a 2 thit b thng qua cp chun IDE. Khi gn hai thit b a vo cp IDE ta ch thit lp jumper cho cc l Master v slave.

e. cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Cc cm v gic cm khc
Mt cm cho a mm: c hnh dng ging ht cm IDE, c s dng kt ni ti a mm tuy nhin n ch c 34 chn.

cm a mm FDD

e. cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Cc cm v gic cm khc
Hai cm giao din tun t (COM 1 v COM2):
Hai cm ny ging ht nhau v cu to, c 9 hoc 10 chn (c 9 chn c s dng). Ch yu s dng cm chut hoc bn phm. Mt s my tnh c cng COM 2 l 25 chn, c s dng cm modem

Hai cng COM 9 chn

Cng COM 25 chn

e. cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Cc cm v gic cm khc
cm giao din song song (LPT): l cm c 25 chn (hoc 26 chn), ch yu c s dng cm my in.

cm LPT 25 chn

e. cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Cc cm v gic cm khc
cm giao din tun t a nng (USB):
y l mt loi cm mi, ra i thay th cho cm COM1,2 v giao din song song c bn (LPT). Mi cm c 5 chn, c tn s lm vic cao hn rt nhiu so vi COM1,2 c bit l n cu to di dng chui xch, c kh nng kt ni c ti a 127 thit b ngoi vi thng qua mt cng.

cm USB

e. cm trn bn mch chnh

2. Bn mch chnh

Cc cm v gic cm khc
Cc chn ni tn hiu:
Trn bn mch chnh, ngoi cc cm v khe cm ra th chng ta cn thy mt s chn ni tn hiu: Chn tn hiu ni ti cng tc ngun: POWER R/W Chn tn hiu khi ng li h thng: RESET Chn tn hiu ti n LED bo in v kho: POWER LED Chn tn hiu ti loa: SPEAKER Chn tn hiu ti cng: HDD LED

2. Bn mch chnh
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Cng ngh ch to Cc chun thit k Nguyn tc thit k bn mch chnh Khe cm trn bn mch chnh cm trn bn mch chnh Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l ROM & BIOS, linh kin v thit b khc. Cng truy nhp ngoi vi Cu trc my tnh trong tng lai

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l

2. Bn mch chnh

Vi x l Intel Pentium Khe cm v cm Vi x l

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l

2. Bn mch chnh

Vi x l pentium
Pentium I ( Vi x l intel 80586)-1993
3,3 triu Transistor, c sn xut theo cng ngh 0,35 m. Bus bn trong 64 bit, bus bn ngoi 32 bit 16 KBytes b nh m s cp L1, Hot ng ti in p 3,3 V. Tc ca vi x l: 60, 66, 75, 90, 100, 120, 133, 150, 166 v 200 Mhz.

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l

2. Bn mch chnh

Vi x l pentium
Pentium MMX (Multimedia Extension)
22 October 1996 Ra i nhm vo th trng my vi tnh gia nh. Tng tc cho cc ng dng ho Thc hin tt cc chng trnh games cng nh cc phn mm a phng din khc nh nghe nhc, xem phim.

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l Vi x l pentium

2. Bn mch chnh

Pentium MMX (Multimedia Extension)


4.5 triu Transistor, c sn xut theo cng ngh 0,28 m CMOS Dung lng cache L1 tng ln 32 Kbytes, B sung thm 57 lnh mi dnh ring cho vi x l video, m thanh v ho. B sung qu trnh SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) cho php mt lnh duy nht x l nhiu d liu cng mt lc. Tc : 133, 150, 166, 200, 233 v 266 Mhz

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l Vi x l pentium

2. Bn mch chnh

Pentium Pro - November 1, 1995


Ra i nhm vo th trng my ch Thch hp cho cc ng dng 32 bit da trn vic truy xut nhanh vo mt khi lng ln b nh cache L th h Pentium u tin h tr b m th cp cache L2 dung lng t 256 KBytes n 1 MBytes bn trong CPU nn tc x l ca n tng ng k. C 5,5 triu Transistor trong vi x l Cc tc l 150, 166, 180 v 200 Mhz Nhc im ca n l khng hot ng tt trong ch real mode v cc ng dng 16 bit.

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l Vi x l pentium
Pentium II

2. Bn mch chnh

- May 7, 1997

Th h my tnh c thit k dnh cho cc my trm workstasion v servers khi s dng ho Hot ng tt vi cc chng trnh ho 3-D, CAD v multimedia C 7.5 triu transistor trong vi x l L th h vi x l u tin s dng khe cm Slot 1 thay v cm socket truyn thng: Vi x l, cache L2 v b tn nhit c cy trn mt bn mch (th cm SEC) cm vo bn mch chnh thng qua khe cm Slot 1

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l Vi x l pentium
Pentium II

2. Bn mch chnh

- May 7, 1997

Lm vic vi in th 2,8 V cho php chy tn s cao m khng lm tng ng k nhit lng v cng sut ngun. C cu trc thch hp cho h thng a x l dng 2 hay nhiu vi x l cho mt my c ti u ho cho h iu hnh 32 bit nh Windows NT, Windows 2000, Unix C cc tc l 233, 266, 300, 333, 350, 366, 400 v 450 Mhz Tuy nhin x l km hn khi chy vi h iu hnh 16 bit hoc cc ng dng 16 bit.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentium_II

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l

2. Bn mch chnh

Vi x l pentium
Pentium II

- May 7, 1997

Pentium II Celeron: vi x l cp thp p ng nhu cu th trng my vi tnh c nhn r tin v cnh tranh vi cc hng khc (AMD, Cyrix,) Pentium II Xeon: c thit k cho cc Server v Workstation. N h tr 8 vi x l trong mt my.

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l Vi x l pentium
Pentium III

2. Bn mch chnh

- February 26, 1999

L mt bc pht trin mi ca Intel, Dng cng ngh MMX v SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) ca Pentium MMX. Pentium III c ci t thm 70 lnh mi nhng cu trc khng c g thay i so vi Pentium II: 50 lnh c b sung cho cc php ton s thc du phy ng 15 lnh c s dng cho h a mi trng c bit l cc ng dng khng gian 3 chiu Cc lnh cn li c s dng iu khin b nh m cache.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentium_III

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l

2. Bn mch chnh

Vi x l pentium
Pentium III

- February 26, 1999

B sung thm 8 thanh ghi du phy ng 128 bit: tnh 4 s thc trong mt chu k ng h. 32 Kbytes b nh m s cp L1, c t 256 Kbytes n 2 MBytes b nh m th cp L2 nn tc v hiu nng x l tng ln: ng dng v x l du phy ng, a phng din, ho 3-D v cc ng dng truyn thng khc. S dng cm dng Socket thng thng v khe cm Slot 1 nh Pentium II C cc tc l 400, 450, 500, 533, 550, 600, 650, 667, 700, 733, 750, 800, 850, 866, 933 Mhz, 1Ghz v 1,2 Ghz
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentium_III

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l

2. Bn mch chnh

Vi x l pentium
Pentium III

- February 26, 1999

Intel pentium III Celeron Intel Pentium III Xeon Pentium III mobile

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentium_III

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l

2. Bn mch chnh

Vi x l pentium
Pentium IV

- November 20, 2000

Tng cng kh nng m thanh, hnh nh v c bit l trong lnh vc truyn thng, kt ni mng cho ngi dng. Cu to bi 42 triu Transistor C b nh m cao cp Tn s bus h thng rt cao t 400Mhz cho n 800 Mhz. Tn s hot ng rt cao, t 1,4Ghz cho n 4,4 Ghz Cng ngh ch to 90 nm ~ 180 nm Pentium 4 celeron, Pentium 4 Xeon
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentium_IV

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l

2. Bn mch chnh

Vi x l pentium
Pentium Duo, Core 2 Duo, Core i3,5,7

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm v cm Vi x l
Trn cc bn mch chnh, thng thng ta thy mt cm hnh vung to nht: cm dnh cho Vi x l c tn l socket, l cm thng dng cho cc th h vi x l ca Intel v cc hng tng thch.

Intel

AMD

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm v cm Vi x l
Cc loi khe cm v cm vi x l:
cm Socket 2: l loi cm c 238 chn, in p tiu th l +5V, c s dng cho cc th h my tnh 80486 cm Socket 4: l loi cm c 273 chn, tiu th in p +5V. c s dng cho dng vi x l 80486, 80586 (Pentium) c tc 60 Mhz hoc 66 Mhz.

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm v cm Vi x l
Cc loi khe cm v cm vi x l:
cm Socket 5: l loi cm c 320 chn, tiu th in p +3,3 V. c s dng cho Pentium I c tc 75 Mhz n 200 Mhz. cm Socket 7: l cm c 321 chn, tiu th in p t +2,5V n +3,3 V. c s dng cho Pentium I, Pentium MMX, AMD K5, K6, Cyrix M

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm v cm Vi x l
Cc loi khe cm v cm vi x l:
cm Socket 8: l cm c 387 chn, tiu th in p +3,3V. c s dng cho Pentium Pro. cm Socket 370: l cm c 370 chn, tiu th in p t +1,5V n +3,3 V. c s dng cho Pentium III, Celeron, Cyrix III.

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm v cm Vi x l
Cc loi khe cm v cm vi x l:
cm Socket 478: l cm c 478 chn, tiu th in p t +1,5V n +3,3 V . c s dng cho Pentium IV cm Socket 603: l cm c 603 chn, tiu th in p t +1,5V n +3,3V. c s dng cho cc my vi tnh Pentium IV Xeon.

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm v cm Vi x l
Cc loi khe cm v cm vi x l:
cm Socket 775: l cm c 775 chn, tiu th in p t +1,5V n +3,3V. c s dng cho th h Pentium 4E Prescott

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm v cm Vi x l
Mt s bn mch chnh khc cn c mt khe cm di mu nu ghi ch Slot m khng c cm socket cho vi x l, n chnh l khe cm dnh cho Vi x l Khe cm Slot 1: hai hng c 242 chn, tiu th in p t +2,8V n +3,3 V. c s dng cm th cm Pentium II v Pentium III Khe cm Slot 2: hai hng c 330 chn, tiu th in p t +1,5V n +3,3 V. c s dng cm cc th cm Pentium II Xeon v Pentium III Xeon.

Slot 1

Slot 2

f. Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l

2. Bn mch chnh

Khe cm v cm Vi x l
Khe cm Slot A, l khe cm hai hng c 242 chn, n tiu th in p t +1,3V n + 2,05 V. c s dng cho th cm AMD Athlor.

2. Bn mch chnh
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Cng ngh ch to Cc chun thit k Nguyn tc thit k bn mch chnh Khe cm trn bn mch chnh cm trn bn mch chnh Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l ROM & BIOS, linh kin v thit b khc. Cng truy nhp ngoi vi Cu trc my tnh trong tng lai

g. ROM & BIOS

2. Bn mch chnh

Bn mch chnh cha mt vi mch ROM nh cha cc chng trnh vo ra c s BIOS (Basic Input / Output System), T khi ng khi my tnh bt in kim tra phn cng v phn chia cc ti nguyn nh IRQ (Interrupt Request), DMA (Direct Memory Access) v cc a ch cng vo/ra cho cc thit b phn cng my tnh.

Chip ROM-BIOS

g. ROM & BIOS

2. Bn mch chnh

BIOS gm nhiu chng trnh v hm, khi bt my s xy ra qu trnh POST (Power on self test) kim tra. Nu cc linh kin thit b c tnh nng Plug and Play th y chnh l qu trnh truy nhp cc thng s ca thit b. Nu c s c thit b: cm sai, xung khc, cm lng hoc b hng th qu trnh POST s b dng v loa s pht ra ting ku hoc mn hnh hin th li. Nu khng c s c th BIOS s thc hin khi ng my vi tnh v np h iu hnh t cng, a mm hoc CD_ROM vo khi ng h thng.

Chip ROM-BIOS

g. Linh kin khc

2. Bn mch chnh

Cc vi mch tng hp (chipset):


Bn mch chnh ca cc my tnh th h trc (my XT, AT) th cc vi mch l rt nhiu, mi vi mch m nhn mt chc nng ring c gi l chip. Ngy nay, cng ngh pht trin, mt chip c kh nng x l nhiu cng vic hn, mi mt bn mch chnh ch c mt hoc hai chipset thc hin x l nhiu cng vic khc nhau, hay gi n l bn cu bc v bn cu nam.

Chipset Bn cu bc v bn cu nam

g. Linh kin khc

2. Bn mch chnh

Pin: c chc nng gi thng tin trong CMOS-RAM v gi ng h h thng hot ng. C nhiu loi khc nhau tu theo th h my tnh T in: l nhng linh kin c dng kt hp vi cun cm to nn cc mch lc gim nhiu tn hiu. N l mt linh kin rt quan trng

g. Linh kin khc

2. Bn mch chnh

mt s bn mch chnh cn c b n p c chc nng bin i in p +5V thnh cc mc in p thp hn cung cp cho Vi x l.

2. Bn mch chnh
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Cng ngh ch to Cc chun thit k Nguyn tc thit k bn mch chnh Khe cm trn bn mch chnh cm trn bn mch chnh Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l ROM & BIOS, linh kin v thit b khc. Cng truy nhp ngoi vi Cu trc my tnh trong tng lai

h. Cng truy nhp ngoi vi

2. Bn mch chnh

B vi x l qun l cc thit b ngoi vi c cy trn bn mch chnh thng qua cc a ch cng cng Cng cng l cng truy nhp vo cc thanh ghi bn trong linh kin v thit b ngoi vi. C hai phng php truy nhp l:
Truy nhp trc tip: s dng ch yu trong cc my tnh XT v AT c cu trc n gin, s lng thanh ghi gii han, mi thanh ghi c gn mt a ch cng cng ring v c truy nhp trc tip thng qua cc lnh hp ng IN, OUT (hoc cc lnh vo/ra khc cc ngn ng bc cao) Truy nhp gin tip: s lng thanh ghi bn trong cng tng ln nhiu trong cc my tnh hin i, v v th khng th gn cho mi thanh ghi mt a ch cng cng v truy nhp trc tip c.

vic ci t v truy cp cc thit b ngoi vi c linh hot: ch cn s dng hai a ch cng cng duy nht.
Cng mt: c dng trao a ch lch ca thanh ghi trong thit b ngoi vi (Khng gian a ch lnh ny c lp vi khng gian a ch ca my tnh). Cng hai l cng d liu: c s dng truy nhp v thay i ni dung ca cc thanh ghi.

2. Bn mch chnh
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Cng ngh ch to Cc chun thit k Nguyn tc thit k bn mch chnh Khe cm trn bn mch chnh cm trn bn mch chnh Vi x l, khe cm v cm Vi x l ROM & BIOS, linh kin v thit b khc. Cng truy nhp ngoi vi Cu trc my tnh trong tng lai

i. Cu trc my tnh trong 2. B n m ch chnh tng lai My vi tnh hin i ngy nay ra i da trn nn tng ca cc my XT, AT trc . Tuy nhin ngy cng hon thin hn, lm c nhiu vic hn v gi thnh r hn. Cu hnh my vi tnh hin i c hai hng ln l Intel v Microsolt khng ch
Intel a ra chun thit k vi x l, cc chipset, h thng bus PCI, AGP,.v.v. v thm ch c bn mch chnh. Microsolt li quy nh cc chun v h iu hnh, cc quy nh v giao din gia phn mn v phn cng Hai hng hp tc v a ra cc ngh nh hng thit k cu hnh my tnh c nhn nh PC97, PC98, PC99, PC2001. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PC_System_Design_Guide

i. Cu trc my tnh trong tng lai

2. Bn mch chnh

Chun PC 99: July 14, 1999


Loi b cu trc bus ISA ra khi cu hnh phn cng my vi tnh c nhn Mc tiu:
Ti u ha cht lng hoat ng ca phn cng, c kh nng pht trin phn mm. m bo phn cng tng thch vi cc h iu hnh. Cho php cc nh sn xut phn cng sng to cc sn phm mi v tin tin.

i. Cu trc my tnh trong tng lai


Mc tiu:

2. Bn mch chnh

Chun PC 2001: November 2, 2000


Cc giao din song song( LPT), giao din tun t (COM) c in s c loi b v thay vo l cc giao din c tc nhanh, mm do v thng minh hn nh giao din tun t a nng USB, giao din cao tc IEEE 1394. Cc giao din IDE ( hay ATA) s phi nhng ch cho giao din SCSI, IEEE1394. Th iu hp hin th phi c cm trn giao din bus PCI, AGP hay giao din PCI-E