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Science & Technology Development, Vol 12, No.

06 - 2009

NGHIN CU BC U NH GA RI RO SINH THI V SC KHE CHO KHU CNG NGHIP THNH PH H CH MINH
L Th Hng Trn, Trn Th Tuyt Giang Trng i hc Bch khoa, HQG -HCM
(Bi nhn ngy 13 thng 11 nm 2008, hon chnh sa cha ngy 27 thng 02 nm 2009)

TM TT: Ngy nay, cng nghip ha pht trin to ra li ch nhng cng l nguyn nhn ca nhiu mi nguy hi v ri ro tim tng. Vai tr ca nh gi ri ro mi trng trong vn bo v mi trng nh l mt cng c h tr cc nh qun l trong vic ra quyt nh v hng ti s pht trin bn vng. Nghin cu tp trung vo vic bc u nh gi ri ro sinh thi cho nc thi cng nghip v ri ro sc khe do nhim khng kh i vi cng nhn gii hn ti KCN Vnh Lc v KCN Tn Thi Hip. Phng php nh gi ri ro bn nh lng RQ (risk quotient) v HQ (hazard quotient) c s dng trong nh gi ri ro sinh thi v sc khe. Ngai ra, ma trn ri ro cng c s dng trong nh gi ri ro sinh thi cho nc thi cng nghip vi mi trng nc mt. Cc kt qu nh gi ri ro cho bit khu vc no gy ri ro cao, trung bnh, thp ca nc thi cng nghip i vi mi trng v so snh cc ri ro ti KCN c h thng x l nc thi tp trung (XLNTTT) v khng c h thng XLNTTT. T kha: KCN, nh gi ri ro mi trng, nh gi ri ro sc khe, RQ, HQ, KCN, XLNTTT, XLNTCB. 1.GII THIU Thnh ph H Ch Minh l trung tm ca hot ng kinh t x hi ca c nc v hin nay, c 14 khu cng nghip - khu ch xut (KCN-KCX) ang hot ng. Vic pht trin nhiu KCN s gip kinh t t nc pht trin, ng thi to vic lm cho nhiu lao ng nhng li gy nhiu tc ng v ri ro bt li n mi trng v sc khe con ngi. Nc thi t KCN bao gm nhiu thnh phn nhim khc nhau nh cht hu c khng bn sinh hc, sn phm du m, cc hp cht gen sinh hc, cc cht c c bit nh kim loi nng, cc hp cht tng hp hu c. Nc thi ra mi trng gy nhiu tc ng v ri ro ti ngun nc mt, nht l khi sng sui l ngun tip nhn v vn chuyn cc cht nhim vo trong mi trng nc mt. Bn cnh , mi trng khng kh lm vic v xung quanh b nhim s gy ra nhng ri ro i vi sc khe con ngi. Bng 1. Cc loa hnh sn xut ti 2 khu cng nghip
Stt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 KCN Tn Thi Hip Ngnh Sn Xut C kh May mc, dt cc loi Bao b cc loi Nha, ho cht, m phm Lng thc thc phm Hi sn Y t, dc phm, thu tinh in in t Sn, mc in G m ngh, trang tr Thuc l SL 16 15 12 10 9 9 8 5 4 2 2 KCN Vnh Lc Ngnh Sn Xut C kh Dt may Bao b cc loi Nha cao su Gia dng Hng da giy Snh s in t Xy dng Trang sc Khc SL 3 5 4 1 1 2 1 2 1 4 1

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TP CH PHT TRIN KH&CN, TP 12, S 06 - 2009 12 Ngnh khc TNG 13 105 26

Ngun: Kt qu quan trc mi trng KCN Tn Thi Hip v KCN Vnh Lc, 2007

Nghin cu ny tp trung vo vic xem xt v nh gi ri ro ca nc thi cng nghip n mi trng nc mt v vn sc khe lao ng ca cng nhn khi b phi nhim vi mi trng khng kh xung quanh b nhim gii hn ti 2 KCN ca TpHCM l KCN Vnh Lc thuc huyn Bnh Chnh v KCN Tn Thi Hip thuc huyn Hc Mn. Bng 1 trnh ny quy m v cc loi hnh sn xut ca 2 KCN. 2. PHNG PHP NGHIN CU Nghin cu tin hnh s dng m hnh cy s kin-cy sai lm lm cng c phn tch v nhn din mi nguy hi ca nc thi cng nghip i vi mi trng. 2.1.nh gi ri ro ca nc thi cng nghip i vi mi trng nc mt 2.1.1. S dng phng php nh gi ri ro bn nh lng da trn cc c tnh ha l qua h s RQ

RQ

MEC ( PEC ) PNEC

Trong : RQ: Thng s ri ro PEC: Nng mi trng o c PNEC: Nng ngng

(1*)

Mc ri ro RQ
Ngun: [1], [2], [3] v [4]

Ri ro cao 1

Ri ro trung bnh 0,1-1

Ri ro rt thp 0,01-0,1

p dng cho khu cng nghip vi PNEC l tiu chun nc thi cng nghip TCVN 5945-2005 loi B v PEC l cc nng mi trng o c v cht lng nc thi cng nghip o c ti 2 KCN. 2.1.2. S dng phng php ma trn nh gi ri ro (risk assessment matrix) Nhm khoanh vng ri ro v so snh vi kt qu nh gi ri ro bn nh lng c thc hin. Ngai ra, nghin cu tin hnh xem xt v s dng phng php ma trn ri ro c da theo cng thc: Ri ro = tn sut xy ra (frequency) x mc thit hi (consequence)
Ngun: [1] v [2]

(2*)

Bng 2. Ma trn thang im ri ro


Mc thit hi Kh nng xy ra Cao (5) Trung bnh (4) Khng ng k (1) 5x1(5) 4x1(4) Thp (2) 5x2(10) 4x2(8) Trung bnh (3) 5x3(15) 4x3(12) ng k (4) 5x4(20) 4x4(16) Nghim trng (5) 5x5(25) 4x5(20)

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t khi (3) Him khi (2) Rt thp (1) 3x1(3) 2x1(2) 1x1(1) 3x2(6) 2x2(4) 1x2(2) 3x3(9) 2x3(6) 1x3(3) 3x4(12) 2x4(8) 1x4(4) 3x4(12) 2x5(10) 1x5(5)

Ma trn ri ro ny l nhng h s im c xc nh cho tng mc ca vn v c xem xt theo iu tra v kt qu kho st tham kho kin cng ng. Bng 3, 4, 5 trnh by thang im nh gi c xut trong nghin cu nh gi mc ri ro ca nc thi cng nghip. Bng 2 l kt qu ma trn nh gi ri ro c tnh theo cng thc (2*). Bng 3. xut thang im nh gi i vi kh nng xy ra ri ro ca nc thi cng nghip
Kh nng xy ra Cao Trung bnh t khi Him khi Rt thp im 5 4 3 2 1 i vi h sinh thi v nhng tc ng khc Chc chn xy ra hoc xy ra thng xuyn C th xy ra d dng hoc xy ra nh k hng thng tng xy ra v c th xy ra li hoc xy ra 1 hay 2 ln trong nm cha xy ra nhng c th xy ra hoc xy ra 1 ln trong 3 nm 5 nm mt ln hay khng xy ra

Bng 4.Bng xut thang im nh gi mc thit hi ca nc thi cng nghip gy ra


Mc thit hi Nghim trng im Tiu chun php l t TCVN 5945-2005 loi C hoc vt loi C Vt TCVN 5945-2005 loi B i vi mi trng C c tnh nguy hi, lm suy yu cu trc mi trng di hn nghim trng Tc ng ng ch i vi mi trng c gi tr v lm suy yu trung hn cu trc h sinh thi Tc ng ng ch vi nhng thnh phn mi trng Tc ng n sc kho Nguy hi tnh mng nh bnh mn tnh,ung th hay gy c cp tnh Tip xc gy cc bnh ngn hn i vi cng ng dn c Nhng phn i hay nhng biu hin nghim trng ca cng chng nh kin tng Nhng phn i hay nhng biu hin ca cng chng dn n vic ho gi hai bn Nhng lo lng ca dn a phng gia tng, nhng ph bnh ca bo ch, truyn thng Nhng lo lng cng ng b gii hn trong nhng phn nn dn a phng

ng k

Trung bnh

t TCVN 5945-2005 loi B

C cc triu chng bt n khi tip xc nhng ch gy tc ng nht thi hay thi gian rt ngn B mn cm da liu cao vi cht nhim nhng khng nh hng n sc kho

Thp

Vt TCVN 5945-2005 loi A

Nhng tc ng mi trng ngn hn

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TP CH PHT TRIN KH&CN, TP 12, S 06 - 2009 t TCVN 5945-2005 loi A hay tt hn Khng c B mn cm da liu thng thng, khng ng k v c th x l bnh thng Nhng lo lng dn a phng nhng khng c phn nn.

Khng ng k

Bng 5.Bng xut thang im nh gi mc ri ro ca nc thi cng nghip


Mc ri ro Thang im Phn vng Thp (T) 1-4 Vng chp nhn ri ro Trung bnh Kh cao (KC) (TB) 5-9 10-14 Vng chp nhn ri ro, cn c cc gii php gim thiu ri ro mi trng Cao (C) 15-19 Rt Cao (RC) 20-25

Vng khng chp nhn ri ro

2.2. nh gi ri ro i vi sc khe con ngi Nghin cu tp trung vo vic nhn din v nh gi ri ro do nhim khng kh xung quanh i vi sc khe cng nhn v tp trung vo mt s kh l SO2, NO2, bi, NH3, H2S. S dng phng php nh gi ri ro sc khe bn nh lng da trn h s nguy hi HQ (hazard quotient) HQ = CDI / RfD (2*) Trong : HQ: Ch s nguy hi CDI: Liu lng i vo c th hng ngy (mg/kg.ngy) i vi cng nhn: CDI i 0.28999 C SO 2 mg / kg .ngay (3*) RfD: Liu lng tham chiu (mg/kg.ngy)

RfDi 0.28969 0.08 0.023175(mg / kg .ngay ) (Gi tr trung bnh ln nht hng nm) RfDi 0.28969 0.34 0.098495(mg / kg .ngay ) (4*) (Gi tr phi nhim trung bnh 24 gi)
HQ Mc ri ro
Ngun: [1], [2], [3], [5] V [6]

1 Cao

<1 Thp

Lu : Liu lng tham chiu c ly theo tiu chun cht lng khng kh ca Mexico (NOM-022-SSA1-1993) vi gi tr trung bnh ln nht hng nm l 80g/m3 v liu lng phi nhim trung bnh 24 gi l 340g/m3. 3. KT QU V THO LUN 3.1. nh gi ri ro ca nc thi cng nghip ti 2 KCN 3.1.1. Kt qu nh gi ri ro bn nh lng Bng 7 v hnh 1 trnh by kt qu nh gi nh gi ri ro i vi nc thi cng nghip ti KCN Vnh Lc v KCN Tn Thi Hip. Ti KCN Vnh Lc, tim nng gy ri ro cao ca nc thi cng nghip i vi mi trng l cc ch tiu Coliform ,Cl ,COD, T-P; ri ro thp i vi l cc ch tiu Cr ,Fe , TSS , T-N , Cd v t ri ro l Zn , Pb ,Ni. Ti KCN Tn Thi Hip, thnh phn nc thi u vo gy ri ro cao i vi h sinh thi nc mt l coliform, COD, BOD5. Nhng sau khi qua h thng x l th tt c cc ch tiuu nm trong vng ri ro trung bnh v t ri ro. Nhng ti h ga cui cng trc khi u ni vo h thng cng thnh ph th ch tiu COD li nm vng ri ro

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Science & Technology Development, Vol 12, No.06 - 2009 cao; c th thy rng c th c hin tng x thi trc tip ra ngoi mi trng m khng qua h thng XLNTTT ti khu vc ny. T kt qu nh gi h s RQ cho thy: ti KCN Vnh Lc, do cha c h thng XLNTTT nn cht lng nc thi cng nghip c nhiu tim nng gy ri ro cho mi trng nc mt. Cn KCN Tn Thi Hip, nh c h thng XLNTTT m tim nng gy ri ro do nc thi cng nghip i vi mi trng l thp hn. Kt qu trnh by trong Bng 7 l kt qu phn loi tim nng ri ro i vi tng ch tiu nc thi cng nghip ti 2 KCN.

Hnh 1.Biu biu th RQ ca nc thi ti 2 KCN

3.1.2. Kt qu ma trn ri ro

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Bng 6. Kt qu phn tch ri ro da trn c tnh ho l- h s RQ theo cng thc(1*)


Ch tiu PNEC PEC(* ) RQ So snh u vo u ra H ga cui u vo u ra H ga cui COD mg/l 80 99 1,238 >1 BOD5 mg/l 80 N-NH3 10 TSS mg/l 100 45 0,45 0.1-1 T-N mg/l 30 23 0,329 0.1-1 T-P mg/l 6 6,6 1,1 >1 Fe mg/l 5 2,42 0,484 Zn Pb mg/l mg/l 3 0,5 KCN Vnh Lc 0,184 0,061 0,018 Cd mg/l 0,3 0,001 Ni mg/l 0,5 0,016 0,032 0,010,1 0,08 0,016 KPH 0,16 (0.1-1 0,032 KPH Cr mg/l 1 0,05 0,5 0,1-1 As mg/l 0,1 KPH KPH KPH Hg mg/l 0,001 KPH KPH KPH CN mg/l 0,1 KPH KPH KPH Cl mg/l 2 3 1,5 >1 Colifor m 5000 8500 1,7 >1 9,3. 106 110 -

0,036 0,1 0,010.1-1 0,1-1 0,1-1 0,1 PEC-KCN Tn Thi Hip (**) 0,58 0,018 0,008 KPH KPH

650 50 120 8,125 (>1) 0,625 (0.1-1 1,5 (>1)

387 22 72 4,838 (>1) 0,275 (0.1-1 0,9 (0.1-1

9.02 11.7 19.6 0,902 (0.1-1 0.117 (0,1-1 0,196 (>1)

156 22 17 1,56 (>1) 0,22 (0.1-1 0,17 (0.1-1

20,16 3,86 21 0,672 (0,1-1 0,129 (0.1-1 0,7 (0.1-1

0,89 0,02 2,76 0,148 (0.1-1 0,003 0,46 (0.1-1

0,02 0,01 -

0,0055

KPH

KPH

RQ-KCN Tn Thi Hip 0,116 (0.1-1 0,006 0,003 KPH KPH 0,02 0,01 0,055 0,0005 5 KPH KPH 186 0,022 -

* Ngun: Ngun phng th nghim khoa Mi Trng- H Bch Khoa, 2007) **Ngun: Kt qu quan trc mi trng Khu cng nghip Tn Thi Hip 2008

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Bng 7.Bng kt qu phn loi ri ro cho 2 KCN


Ri ro cao KCN Vnh Lc KCN Tn Thi HIp u vo u ra H ga cui Coliform ,Cl ,COD, T-P Coliform , COD , BOD5 --Ri ro trung bnh Cr ,Fe , TSS , T-N , Cd T-N ,Ni , T-P COD ,BOD5, ,TSS ,TN COD BOD5 ,T-N, T-P , TSS ,Fe t ri ro Zn , Pb ,Ni As ,Cr ,Zn Ni , Coliform , T-P ,Zn As

Bng 8.Bng ma trn ri ro cho nc thi ca 2 KCN


Thnh phn b tc ng Mi trng Nc mt Nc ngm 3x1 5x2 4x2 3x2 1x1 4x4 3x4 3x1 4x3 4x4 Php l Cng ng Sc kho -Cc bnh v Da liu ng tiu ho 3x1 5x1 4x1 3x3 1x1 4x3 2x3 3x1 4x3 4x4 H hp 4x2 4x3

KCN Tn Thi Hip ( c h thng XLNTTT) Nc ma Cht lng nc thi Cht hu c Kim loi nng Coliform Mi Bn thi X thi trc tip Nc ma Nc thi c XLNTCB Nc thi cha XLNTCB 3x1 5x2 4x2 3x2 1x1 4x4 3x4 3x1 4x3 4x4 3x1 5x1 4x1 3x1 3x5 3x1 4x4 4x5 3x1 5x1 4x1 3x2 1x1 4x1 3x4 3x1 4x3 4x4 3x1 5x1 4x1 3x2 1x1 4x3 2x3 3x1 4x3 4x4

KCN Vnh Lc (cha c h thng XLNTTT)

Bng 9.Kt qu ma trn ri ro cho nc thi ca 2 KCN


Thnh phn b tc ng Mi trng Nc mt Nc ngm T KC KC TB T KC KC Php l Cng ng Sc kho -Cc bnh v Da liu T TB TB TB T TB TB ng tiu ho T TB TB TB T TB TB H hp

KCN Tn Thi Hip ( c h thng XLNTTT) Nc ma Cht lng nc thi Cht hu c Kim loi nng Coliform Mi Bn thi X thi trc tip T KC KC TB T KC KC T TB TB TB T TB KC T TB TB TB T TB KC -

KCN Vnh Lc (cha c h thng XLNTTT)

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Nc ma Nc thi c XLNTCB Nc thi cha XLNTCB

T KC C

T KC C

T KC C

T KC C

T KC C

T KC C

KC C

T bng xut thang im trn (Bng 3, 4, 5, 6) nghin cu tin hnh nh gi v cho kt qu nh trong Bng 8, 9, 10. T kt qu nhn nh cho thy ri ro do nc thi cng nghip i vi mi trng nuc mt l vn lun cn phi xem xt. Ti KCN cha c h thng XLNT TT th ri ro vi mi trng l cao hn, c th thuc vng ri ro khng chp nhn c v lun cn phi c cc k hach gim st v cn cc bin php c th gim thiu ri ro. Kt qu ny so vi kt qu nh gi bn nh lng cho ri ro ca nc thi cng nghip l ging nhau. Bng 10. Kt qu phn vng ri ro cho nc thi cng nghip ti 2 KCN
Mi trng Tn Thi Hip Chp nhn Chp nhn km theo bin php gim thiu Mi, Nc ma Cht hu c, kim loi nng, bn thi, x thi trc tip Nc ma Nc thi nh my c x l cc b (HTXLNTCB) Cha c HTXLNTCB Php l Mi, Nc ma Cht hu c, kim loi nng, bn thi, x thi trc tip X thi trc tip Nc ma Nc thi nh my c HTXLNTCB Cha c HTXLNTCB Cng ng Mi, Nc ma Cht hu c, kim loi nng, bn thi, x thi trc tip Nc ma Nc thi nh my c HTXLNTCB Cha c HTXLNTCB Sc kho Mi, Nc ma Cht hu c, kim loi nng, bn thi, x thi trc tip Nc ma Nc thi nh my c HTXLNTCB Cha c HTXLNTCB

Khng chp nhn Vnh Lc Chp nhn Chp nhn km theo bin php gim thiu Khng chp nhn

3.2.nh gi ri ro sc khe ca cng nhn i vi mi trng khng kh ti Khu Cng Nghip Bng 11.Nhn din thnh phn nhim mi trng lao ng ti KCN Vnh Lc&Tn Thi Hip
KCN Vnh Lc Ch bin thc phm C kh Dt may Bao b Nha,ha cht, m phm Gia dng Y t, dc phm, thy tinh Thit b in, in t Sn, mc in Giy da G m ngh, trang tr Thuc l C kh Dt may Bi Ht,si Kim loi +++ +++ +++ +++ + + +++ ++ +++ ++ TN THI HIP +++ +++ Nhit + +++ ++ + + + + +++ + ++ ++ + +++ ++ n + +++ ++ + + + + ++ + ++ ++ + +++ ++ Mi +++ + + + +++ + + + +++ +++ ++ + + ++ Ho cht ++ ++ + +++ + +++ ++ ++ + ++ + +

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Bao b cc loi Nha cao su Gia dng Hng da giy Snh s in t Xy dng ++ +++ ++ +++ + + ++ + + +++ + ++ + + ++ + + + ++ +++ + +++ + + + ++ +++ ++ +++ + +++ -

Trong : - : khng c; +: t; ++: trung bnh; +++: nhiu c c nhng nhn nh v nh gi r hn v nh hng ca nhim mi trng lao ng i vi sc khe con ngi v bnh ngh nghip, nghin cu thc hin cc phng vn i vi cng nhn v sc khe lao ng v iu kin mi trng lao ng ti 2 KCN. Kt qu cho thy nhng mi nguy hi v ri ro sc khe tim tng trong mi trng lao ng c th phn loi theo nhng phm tr nguy hi sau: nguy hi vt l (ting n, thiu nh sng, thng kh km), nguy hi ha hc (bi-silica, bi bng, si v c-asbestos, kh c..), nguy hi sinh hc (vi khun, virus..), nguy hi sinh l lao ng (khun vc, cc t th lao ng khng ph hp), nguy hi tm l lao ng (cng thng, khi lng cng vic), nguy hi n s an ton (chy, n, ni hi). Bng 12 l kt qu nhn din v thnh phn nhim mi trng m nghin cu nh gi. Theo cng thc (2*), (3*), (4*) ta c kt qu nh gi ri ro sc khe cng nhn do nhim khng kh nh sau: Ti KCN Tn Thi Hip: i vi liu lng tham chiu RfD= 0.023175 th ti 2 v tr, ch s nguy hi cho sc kho i vi kh NO2 v SO2 u nh hn 1v nm trong gii hn ri ro thp i vi sc kho cng nhn, cn ch s nguy hi cho ch tiu bi th li ln hn 1 (v tr 1 l 3,128 v v tr 2 l 3,379) gy ri ro cao i vi sc kho cng nhn. Nhng ti v tr 1, ch s nguy hi cho SO2 li rt gn vi 1 vi t l 96,2% nn cn theo di trnh tnh trng vt ngng (Bng 12). i vi liu lng tham chiu RfD = 0,098495 th c 2 v tr u c ch s nguy hi HQ <1, iu ny c ngha l tt c u nm trong mc khng nguy hi i vi sc kho cng nhn. Tuy nhin i vi ch tiu bi th ch s s nguy hi ti 2 v tr tuy nm trong mc ngng khng nguy hi nhng ch s ny cng gn tin ti ngng 1 nn cn xem xt v theo di, trnh tnh trng vt ngng cho php Bng 12.Kt qu HQ ti KCN Tn Thi Hip
Ch tiu o c V tr 1 V tr 2 V tr 1 V tr 2 V tr 1 V tr 2 NO2 (mg/m3) 0,061 0,057 HQ RfD =0,023175 RfD =0,098495 0,764 0,712 0,179 0,1675 0,962 0,699 0,226 0,1645 3,128 3,379 0,736 0,795 SO2 (mg/m3) 0,077 0,056 Bi (mg/m3 0,25 0,27

Ngun: Kt qu quan trc KCN Tn Thi Hip 2007, 2008 V tr 1: Trc nh my sa Si Gn, trn ng s 6, V tr 2: Trc trm x l nc thi tp trung, trn ng s 5

Ti KCN Vnh Lc: Ngoi tr ch s nguy hi ca NO2 ti v tr VL-K1 vi RfD =0,023175 l 1,152 >1 nn gy nguy hi, ri ro i vi sc kho cng nhn, cn nhng ch tiu cn li ti cc v tr th u nh hn 1 khng gy nguy hi, ri ro i vi sc kho cng nhn. Tuy nhin ch

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s nguy hi ca SO2 vi RfD = 0,023175 ti cc v tr u kh cao gn ti ngng 1 nn cn trnh tnh trng vt ngng (bng 13). Bng 13.Kt qu HQ ti KCN Vnh Lc Kt qu o c (*)
V TR SO2 mg/m3 VL - K1 VL - K2 VL - K3 VL - K4 VL K5 VL K6 HQ 0,023175 VL - K1 VL - K2 VL - K3 VL - K4 VL K5 VL K6 1,152 0,811 0,777 0,876 0,949 0,85 0,092 0,065 0,062 0,070 0,076 0,068 RfD 0,098495 0,2710 0,1908 0,1827 0,2061 0,2234 0,2 0,023175 0,462 0,401 0,3366 0,3236 0,3495 0,1165 NO2 mg/m3 0,037 0,032 0,027 0,026 0,028 0,027 RfD 0,098495 0,1086 0,0944 0,0792 0,0761 0,0822 0,0274 0,023175 0,2114 0,1380 0,1769 0,2114 0,0992 0,1251 NH3 mg/m3 0,017 0,011 0,014 0,017 0,008 0,010 RfD 0,098495 0,0497 0,0325 0,0416 0,0497 0,0234 0,0294 0,023175 0,0164 0,0037 0,1395 0,035 0,0037 0,0075 H2S mg/m3 0,0013 0,0003 0,0008 0,0028 0,0003 0,0006 RfD 0,098495 0,0038 0,0009 0,0024 0,0082 0,0088 0,0018

(*)Ngun: Kt qu quan trc mi trng KCN Vnh Lc 2007, 2008 VL - K1: pha trc cng Cty may Cholimex;VL - K2: pha trc Cty Nghip Pht;VL - K3: ng ba ng s 6 v ng 2F (gn khu dn c),VL - K4: pha trc Cty Vising Pack; VL K5: pha trc Cty Hng Vit) VL K6: cng Cty TP Cholimex

3.3. xut gii php 3.3.1. i vi ri ro do nc thi cng nghip KCN Vnh Lc cn tm hiu nguyn nhn v theo di cc ch tiu nc thi c HQ>1 ng thi xc tin vic hon thnh v i vo hot ng h thng x l nc thi tp trung Ban Qun L 2 KCN cn kim tra v gim st tnh hnh x thi ca cc nh my ti 2 KCN, trnh tnh trng x thi trc tip vo mi trng v c bin php x l kp thi. Yu cu cc nh my phi xy dng HTXL nc thi cc b trc khi i vo HTXLNT chung. Ban qun l cc KCN KCX phi hp cng cc ban ngnh nh S ti nguyn mi trng, Chi cc Mi trng... gim st v qun l cht ch hn tnh hnh hot ng mi trng ca 2 KCN, p dng cc cng c qun l mi trng nh cc cng c php l, cng c kinh t, tun th cc lut nh p dng i vi ti nguyn nc mt cch cht ch hn ng thi khuyn khch cc doanh nghip p dng nhiu bin php t nguyn khc hn ch nhim, gim thiu ri ro cho mi trng. Thc hin v tip tc duy tr nh gi v theo di, gim st cc kt qu gy ri ro thp i vi mi trng ng thi ra cc ch tiu cao hn hn ch, gim thiu ri ro. Khuyn khch cc doanh nghip p dng cc bin php sn xut sch hn gim thiu nhim v ri ro i vi mi trng, ng k t chng nhn ISO 14000 hay thc hin sn xut sch hn. M cc kho o to ngn hn cho cc cng nhn v mi trng cc cng nhn c thc v vn mi trng v nhim hoat ng c hiu qu hn. Cc nh my cn c cc k hoch thc hin nh gi ri ro v k hoch, gii php gim thiu, phng nga v khc phc s c.

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Science & Technology Development, Vol 12, No.06 - 2009 3.3.2. i vi ri ro sc khe ngi lao ng Cn theo di, gim st cht lng mi trng khng kh xung quanh khc phc nhng tnh trng gy ri ro cao i vi sc kho cng nhn. Cn p dng v qun l cht ch tnh hnh an ton v sinh sc kho lao ng, p dng cc bin php bo v an ton v sinh lao ng. Hun luyn, o to nhn thc ca cng nhn trong vn an ton v sinh lao ng v mi trng. Tip tc theo di cc ch tiu v cht lng khng kh nht l cc ch tiu c RQ gn ngng 1 trnh tnh trng vt ngng. Phi hp cng cc ban ngnh lin quan, qun l cht ch tnh hnh hot ng trong cc nh my sn xut, tun th cc lut nh v an ton sc kho lao ng. Thc hin v tip tc theo di, gim st v nh gi tnh hnh ri ro i vi sc kho cho cng nhn. 4. KT LUN nh gi ri ro mi trng l mt cng c h tr cc nh qun l mi trng trong cng tc qun l mi trng. nh gi ri ro l mt tin trnh phn tch c p dng cho cc vn mi trng v l cng c php l gip ngi qun l trong vic ra quyt nh loi b, gim thiu cc tc ng v ri ro v cng tc qun l ri ro c xem xt v t nhng kt qu ca cng tc nh gi, cc mc ri ro c th chp nhn phi c xut v hng ti gii quyt cc vn v ri ro mi trng v sc kho cng ng. Nh kt qu nghin cu cho thy, vic xy dng v vn hnh h thng x l nc thi tp trung s lm gim ri ro ca nc thi cng nghip i vi mi trng nc mt. Nhng hin nay, trn a bn thnh ph c 14 KCN-KCX nhng li khng phi tt c cc KCN-KCX u c HTXLNTTT. nh gi ri ro khng nhng gip gim thiu ngn nga c nhng vn ri ro v mi trng m cn t c s ti u v ch ph gim thiu thay v chi ph x l v n b thit hi gy ra. Hin nay, vic nh gi v qun l ri ro mi trng ti cc KCN vn cn cha c quan tm. V vy, cn tin hnh nh gi ri ro nh l mt cng c h tr rt tt v nn c quan tm v p dng ngn nga, gim thiu ri ro i vi mi trng, hng ti s pht trin bn vng. Ngoi ra, nh gi ri ro sc khe v vic thc hin khm bnh v chn on bnh ngh nghip cho cng nhn ti cc nh my cn c trin khai nhiu v thc hin ng b i vi cc KCN.

RESEARCH ON INITIAL ECOLOGICAL AND HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ESTATES AT HCMC
Le Thi Hong Tran, Tran Thi Tuyet Giang University of Technology, VNU-HCM ABSTRACT: Nowadays, industrilization development has many benefits and also causes many hazards and potential risks. Environmental risk assessments role in environmental protection is as a tool that supports managers to make decisions and tend sustainable developement. The research focused on initial ecological risk assessment for industrial wastewater and risk form air pollutant to health worker in Vinh Loc and Tan Thoi Hiep industrial estates. Semi-quantitaive assessment risk quotient (RQ) and HQ (hazard quotient) were used in ecological and health risk assessment. Besides, risk assessment matrix was also appllied in this study for industrial wastewater to surface water. The results showed that areas were with high, medium, low risk levels of industrial wastewater to the environment and compared risks between industrial estates with equipment of wastewater treatment system and without one. Key words: KCN, environmental risk assessment, health risk assessment, RQ, HQ, KCN, XLNTTT, XLNTCB

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TP CH PHT TRIN KH&CN, TP 12, S 06 - 2009

TI LIU THAM KHO [1]. L Th Hng Trn, nh ga ri ro mi trng, Nh xut bn Khoa Hc K Thut, (2008a). [2]. GEF/UNDP/IMO/ Chng trnh hp tc khu vc trong qun l mi trng cc bin ng . D n nh Gi Ri Ro Mi Trng Nng. y Ban Nhn Dn Thnh ph Nng, (2004). [3]. L Th Hng Trn, nh gi ri ro sc khe v ri ro sinh thi, Nh xut bn Khoa Hc K Thut, (2008b). [4]. E. Emmanuela,b,., Y. Perrodina, G. Keckc, J.-M. Blanchardb, P. Vermandeb, Ecotoxicological risk assessment of hospital wastewater: a proposed framework for raw effluents discharging into urban sewer network, J. of Hazardous Materials A117 111, (2005). [5]. Eva M, Ma. Esther S.and Hugo W. Valera D, Health risk from exposure to industrial air pollution for a point [6]. Source, Geo Int V 42, 2, 261-273, (2003) [7]. USEPA. Exposure Factor Handbook, Washington D.C.: Office of Research and development, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment. EPA/600/Z-92/001. (1989) [8]. Kt qu quan trc mi trng KCN Tn Thi Hip, (2007, 2008) [9]. Kt qu quan trc mi trng KCN Vnh Lc, (2007, 2008).

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