You are on page 1of 40

Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton

Trang 1 HOANG KIM DINH


Cc bn thn mn trong chng trnh Ton Ph thng Phn Gii
Tch T Hp c trnh by chng trnh lp 11 vi thi lng l
thuyt+bi tp Ban c bn: 8 tit, Ban KHTN: 9 tit; kin thc c trnh
by ht sc c bn, bi tp rt n gin. Vi nhng kin thc trnh by
trong sch gio khoa cha cc em hc sinh tham gia cc k thi Quc
gia. gip cc em c thm t liu n thi tt, bng kinh nghim ca mnh,
tham kho cc thi i hc, thi Olimpic Ton 30-4, tp ch Ton hc
tui tr, v mt s sch tham kho khc, ti bin tp v a ra ti liu
ny.
Mong rng ti liu h tr tt cho cc em hc sinh trong cc k thi
Quc gia.
Do kin thc c hn khng trnh khi sai st, xin cc bn ng
nghip v cc em hc sinh b qua hoc gp theo a ch Email:
thaydinhum@yahoo.com. Xin cm n.
Hong Kim Dnh

MT S DNG TON GII TCH T HP
A. TM TT L THUYT
+ Quy c n, k l cc s t nhin vi n1, kn
A l tp hp gm n phn t.
1. Mi cch sp xp th t n phn t ca A to thnh mt hon v. S hon
v ca n phn t l P
n
= n!
2.k phn t sp th t ca tp A to thnh mt chnh hp chp k ca n phn
t . S chnh hp l:
( )!
!
k n
n
A
k
n

=

3. k phn t khng phn bit th t ca A to thnh mt t hp chp k ca
n phn t . S t hp l:
( )! !
!
k n k
n
C
k
n

=

4. Cng thc khai trin Nh thc Newton:
( )

=

= +
n
k
k k n k
n
n
b a C b a
0

S hng tng qut th k+1: T
k+1
=
k k n k
n
b a C

.

( )

=
= + =
n
k
k k
n
n
x C x x f
2
0
2
2
1
1 ) (



( ) ( )

=
= =
n
k
k
k
k
n
n
x C x x g
2
0
2
2
1
1 1 ) (
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 2 HOANG KIM DINH
( )

+
=
+
+
= + =
1 2
0
1 2
1 2
2
1 ) (
n
k
k k
n
n
x C x x f

( ) ( )

+
=
+
+
= =
1 2
0
1 2
1 2
2
1 1 ) (
n
k
k
k
k
n
n
x C x x g

Suy ra:

=
=
+
=
n
k
k k
n
x C
x g x f
x h
0
2 2
2
1 1
1
2
) ( ) (
) (

=
+
=
+
=
n
k
k k
n
x C
x g x f
x h
0
2 2
1 2
2 2
2
2
) ( ) (
) (

=

=

=
n
k
k k
n
x C
x g x f
x p
0
1 2 1 2
2
1 1
1
2
) ( ) (
) (



5. Cc cng thc thng dng:

k n
n
k
n
C C

=
(1)

k
n
C +
1 + k
n
C =
1
1
+
+
k
n
C (2)

n n
n n n n
C C C C 2 ...
2 1 0
= + + + +
(3)

0 ) 1 ( ...
2 1 0
= + +
n
n
n
n n n
C C C C
(4)

2
2
2 1
. 2
+
+
+ +
= + +
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
C C C C
(5)

3
3
3 2 1
. 3 . 3
+
+
+ + +
= + + +
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
C C C C C
(6)

1
1

=
k
n
k
n
nC kC
(7)
B. MT S DNG TON THNG GP
1. Bi ton tnh tng:
Bi 1 Tnh tng
n
n n n n
C n n C C C S . ) 1 ( ... . 4 . 3 . 3 . 2 . 2 . 1
4 3 2
+ + + + =
vi neN v n>2.
(THTT-12-2008-Tr 14).
Hng dn
p dng cng thc trn hai ln
1
1

=
k
n
k
n
nC kC
2
2
1
1
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (

= =
k
n
k
n
k
n
C n n nC k kC k suy ra
2
2
) 1 ( ) 1 (

=
k
n
k
n
C n n kC k
Nh vy:
| |
2 2
2
2
1
1
1
0
1
4 3 2
2 ) 1 ( .. ) 1 (
. ) 1 ( ... . 4 . 3 . 3 . 2 . 2 . 1


= + + + + =
+ + + + =
n n
n n n n
n
n n n n
n n C C C C n n
C n n C C C S

- S dng o hm:
( )
n n
n n n n n n
n
x C x C x C x C x C C x + + + + + + = + ... 1
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 0

=
+ +
+
=

=
n
k
k k
n
x C
x g x f
x p
0
1 2 1 2
1 2
2 2
2
2
) ( ) (
) (
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 3 HOANG KIM DINH
( )
1 3 4 2 3 1 2 1
1
... 4 3 2 1

+ + + + + = +
n n
n n n n n
n
x nC x C x C x C C x n

( )
2 2 4 3 2
2
) 1 ( ... 4 . 3 3 . 2 2 . 1 1 ) 1 (

+ + + + = +
n n
n n n n
n
x C n n x C x C C x n n

Thay x= 1 ta c kt qu.
Bi 2 Tnh tng
n
n n n n
C n n n C C C S . ) 1 )( 2 ( . 5 . 4 . 3 . 4 . 3 . 2 . 3 . 2 . 1
5 4 3
+ + + = (THTT-9-2009-
Tr14)
Hng dn
T cng thc
1
1

=
k
n
k
n
nC kC
ta c:
1
1
) 1 )( 2 ( ) 1 )( 2 (

=
k
n
k
n
nC k k kC k k

3
3
2
2
2
2
1
1
) 2 )( 1 ( ) 2 )( 1 ( ) 1 )( 2 ( ) 1 )( 2 (

= = = =
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
C n n n C k n n C n k n C k k n
Suy ra
| |
3 3
3
2
3
1
3
0
3
2 ). 2 )( 1 ( ... ) 2 )( 1 (


= + + + + =
n n
n n n n
n n n C C C C n n n S

* Ngoi ra ta c th s dng o hm tnh.
Nhn xt Qua hai bi ton trn, nu cc hng t trong tng c dng : 1.2.3k
k
n
C th
hoc s dng o hm, hoc s dng cng thc (7).
Bi 3 Tnh tng
n
n n n n
C
n
C C C S
1
1
...
3
1
2
1
1
1
2 1 0
+
+ + + + = , neN
*
(THTT-12-2008-Tr 14)

Hng dn
Theo cng thc
1
1

=
k
n
k
n
nC kC
Ta c
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
C
k
C
n
C n C k
1
1
1
1
) 1 ( ) 1 (
1
1
1
1
+
=
+
+ = +
+
+
+
+

Nn ) 1 2 (
1
1
1
1
...
1
1
1
1
1
1
...
3
1
2
1
1
1
1 1
1
2
1
1
1
2 1 0

+
=
+
+ +
+
+
+
=
+
+ + + + =
+ +
+ + +
n k
n n n
n
n n n n
n
C
n
C
n
C
n
C
n
C C C S
- S dng tch phn:
+ Khai trin
( )
n n
n n n n n n
n
x C x C x C x C x C C x + + + + + + = + ... 1
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 0

+ ( )
} }
+ + + + + + = +
t t
n n
n n n n n n
n
dx x C x C x C x C x C C dx x
0 0
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 0
) ... ( 1 (
( ) | |
t
n n
n n n n n
t
n
x C
n
x C x C x C x C x
n
0
4 3 3 2 2 1 0
0
1
1
1
...
4
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
(

+
+ + + + + = +
+
+

( )
n n
n n n n n
n
t C
n
t C t C t C t C t
n 1
1
...
4
1
3
1
2
1
1 .
1
1
4 3 3 2 2 1 0 1
+
+ + + + + = +
+
+

Thay t=1 ta c kt qu.
Bi 4 Tnh
n
n n n n
C
n n
C C C S .
) 2 )( 1 (
1
... .
4 . 3
1
.
3 . 2
1
.
2 . 1
1
2 1 0
+ +
+ + + + =
(THTT-9-
2009-Tr14).
Hng dn
S dng cng thc
1
1
.
) 1 (
1
.
) 1 (
1
+
+
+
=
+
k
n
k
n
C
n
C
k

Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 4 HOANG KIM DINH
1
1
1
1
.
) 2 (
1
.
) 1 (
1
.
) 1 (
1
.
) 2 (
1
.
) 1 )( 2 (
1
.
) 2 )( 1 (
1
+
+
+
+
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ +
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
C
k n
C
n k
C
k k
C
k k
2
2
.
) 2 (
1
.
) 1 (
1
+
+
+ +
=
k
n
C
n n

Nh vy
( )
2
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
...
) 2 )( 1 (
1
+
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ +
=
n
n n n n
C C C C
n n
S

=
( ) ( ) 3 2
) 2 )( 1 (
1
2
) 2 )( 1 (
1
2 1
2
0
2
2

+ +
==
+ +
=
+
+ +
+
n
n n
C C
n n
S
n
n n
n

* Ngoi ra c th s dng tch phn tnh.
Bi 5 Tnh
n
n n n n
C
n n n
C C C S .
) 3 )( 2 )( 1 (
1
... .
5 . 4 . 3
1
.
4 . 3 . 2
1
.
3 . 2 . 1
1
2 1 0
+ + +
+ + + + =

(THTT-9-2009-Tr14).
Hng dn
Ta c :
1
1
.
) 1 )( 3 )( 2 (
1
1
1
) 3 )( 2 (
1
) 3 )( 2 )( 1 (
1
+
+
+ + +
=
(

+ + +
=
+ + +
k
n
k
n
k
n
C
n k k
C
k k k
C
k k k

3
3
2
2
1
1
.
) 3 )( 2 )( 1 (
1
.
2
1
.
) 3 )( 1 (
1
.
2
1
.
) 3 )( 1 (
1
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ + +
=
(

+ + +
=
(

+ + +
=
k
n
k
n
k
n
C
n n n
C
n k n
C
k k n

Suy ra:
| |
3
3
4
3
3
3
... .
) 3 )( 2 )( 1 (
1
+
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
=
n
n n n
C C C
n n n
S

( )
) 3 )( 2 )( 1 ( 2
14 7 2
2
) 3 )( 2 )( 1 (
1
2 4
2
3
1
3
0
3
3
+ + +

=
+ + +
=
+
+ + +
+
n n n
n n
C C C
n n n
n
n n n
n

- Ngoi ra c th s dng tch phn tnh.
Nhn xt: Nu cc hng t ca tng c dng
l
n
C
l k k k k
.
) )...( 2 )( 1 (
1
+ + +
ta ngh
n vic s dng tch phn tnh, hoc s dng cng thc (7).
Bi 6 Cho n l s nguyn dng. Tnh tng
n
n
n
n n n n
C
n
C C C C
1
1 2
...
4
1 2
3
1 2
2
1 2
1
3
4
2
3
1
2
0
+

+ + +

+ +

+
+
(H-B-2003)
Hng dn
+ Xt a thc
( )
n n
n n n n
n
x C x C x C C x + + + + = + ... 1
2 2 1 0

+
( )
} }
+ + + + = +
2
1
2 2 1 0
2
1
) ... ( 1 dx x C x C x C C dx x
n n
n n n n
n

+
1
2 3
1
1 2
...
4
1 2
3
1 2
2
1 2
1 1 1
3
4
2
3
1
2
0
+

=
+

+ +

+ +

+
+ + +
n
C
n
C C C C
n n
n
n
n
n n n n
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 5 HOANG KIM DINH
Nhn xt tnh tng ( )
n
n
n n
n n n
C
n
a b
C
a b
C
a b
C a b S
1
...
3 2
1 1
2
3 3
1
2 2
0
+

+ +

+ =
+ +
;
Hy tnh
}
=
b
a
dx x p S ) ( vi p(x)=(1+x)
n
, sau chn a, b thch hp vi
bi, trong bi ton trn ta chn b=2, a=1. Thng ly cn a=0, b=1;
Trong mt s trng hp xt p(x)=k(1+x)
n
, vi k=1,2,...

Bi 7 Tnh tng
n
n n n n
C n C C C S . ... 3 . 2 1
2 3 2 2 2 1 2
+ + + + =
vi neN v n>2.
(THTT-12-2008-Tr 14).
Hng dn
Ta c
1
1
2
2
2
) 1 ( ) 1 (

+ = + =
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
nC C n n kC C k k C k theo cc bi trn, mt khc
0
1
1 2
1

=
n n
nC C
.
Nh vy:
n
n n n n
C n C C C S . ... 3 . 2 1
2 3 2 2 2 1 2
+ + + + =


| |
1
1
1
1
0
1
2
2
1
2
0
2
... ) ` ... )[ 1 (


+ + + + + + + =
n
n n n
n
n n n
C C C n C C C n n

=n(n-1)2
n-2
+n2
n-1


Bi 8 Tnh tng
n
n
n
n n n
C n C C C S ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ... . 3 . 2
2 1 0
+ + + =

Hng dn
Xt a thc : P(x)=x.(1+x)
n
, ta c :
1 3 2 2 1 0
... ) (
+
+ + + + =
n n
n n n n
x C x C x C x C x P

n n
n n n n
x C n x C x C C x P ) 1 ( ... 3 2 ) ( '
2 2 1 0
+ + + + + =
= (1+x)
n
+nx(x+1)
n-1

Vy S=P(-1)=0.
Lu : tnh cc tng:
n
n
n
n n n
C a n C a aC C S ) 1 ( ... 3 2
2 2 1 0
1
+ + + + + =

n
n
n
n n n
C a n C a C a C S
2
2
2 4
2
4 2
2
2 0
2 2
) 1 2 ( ... 5 3 + + + + + =

1 2
2
1 2 5
2
5 3
2
3 1
2 3
2 ... 6 4 2

+ + + + =
n
n
n
n n n
C na C a C a aC S

Ta xt a thc: P(x)=x(1+x)
n
v chng t S
1
=P(a)
Xt a thc q(x)=x(x+1)
2n
v chng t rng 2S
2
=q(a)+q(-a) v 2S
3
=
q(a)-q(-a).
Bi 9 Tnh tng
2012
2012
2010
2012
6
2012
4
2012
2
2012
0
2012 7
... C C C C C C S + + + =

Hng dn: S dng i
2
= -1
Khai trin
( )
k
k
k
i C i

=
= +
2012
0
2012
2012
1 =
( ) ( )i C C C C C C C C C C C C
2011
2012
2009
2012
5
2012
3
2012
1
2012
2012
2012
2010
2012
2008
2012
6
2012
4
2012
2
2012
0
2012
... ... + + + + + + + (1)
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 6 HOANG KIM DINH
Mt khc ( ) ( ) i i i i
2006 1006 1006 2 2012
2 ) 2 ( ] 1 [ 1 = = + = +
T (1) v (2) ta c S
7
=0.
Nhn xt
T bi ton trn ta suy ra
2006 2011
2012
2009
2012
7
2012
5
2012
3
2012
1
2012 8
2 ... = + + = C C C C C C S

2. Bi ton chng minh h thc:
Bi 1 Chng minh rng vi mi s nguyn k v n tha mn iu kin nk2 ta lun
c
2
2
) 1 ( ) 1 (

=
k
n
k
n
C n n C k k
(H-QGHN-1999-D)
Bi 2
a) Vi n l s nguyn, dng, chng minh rng :

1 2
2
3
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
0
2
... ...

+ + + = + + +
n
n n n
n
n n n
C C C C C C
b) Vi n, k l s nguyn sao cho 4kn, chng minh rng :

k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
C C C C C C
4
4 3 2 1
4 6 4
+

= + + + +

(H-QGHN-1997)
Bi 3 Chng minh rng :
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
n
n
n
n n n n
C C C C C
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
0
... = + + + +
Hng dn
Ta c (1+x)
n
(1+x)
n
= (1+x)
2n

V tri ca h thc: ( )( )
n n
n n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
x C x C C C x C x C + + + + + +

... ...
1 0 1 1 0

H s ca x
2n
trong h thc trn l ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
1
2
0
...
n
n n n
C C C + + +
H s ca x
2n
trong khai trin (1+x)
2n
l
2
2n
C
Bi 4 Chng minh rng
1 2
1 2
2
1
...
6
1
4
1
2
1
2
1 2
2
5
2
3
2
1
2
+

= + + + +

n
C
n
C C C
n
n
n n n n
, n l s nguyn dng. (H-
A-2007).
Hng dn
Ta c: ( )
n n
n
n n
n n n n
n
x C x C x C x C C x
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
1
2
0
2
2
... 1 + + + + + + = +
V ( )
n n
n
n n
n n n n
n
x C x C x C x C C x
2 2
2
1 2 1 2
2
2 2
2
1
2
0
2
2
... 1 + + + =


Suy ra : (1+x)
2n
-(1-x)
2n
= ) ... ( 2
1 2 1 2
2
5 5
2
3 3
2
1
2

+ + + +
n n
n n n n
x C x C x C C hay
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
2
5 5
2
3 3
2
1
2
2 2
...
2
1 1

+ + + + =
+
n n
n n n n
n n
x C x C x C x C
x x

( ) ( )
} }

+ + + + =
+
1
0
1 2 1 2
2
5 5
2
3 3
2
1
2
1
0
2 2
) ... (
2
1 1
dx x C x C x C x C dx
x x
n n
n n n n
n n

( ) ( )
| | | | 1 2
) 1 2 (
1
2 2
) 1 2 ( 2
1
1 2 1 2
2 1 2
1
0
1
0
) 1 2 ( 2
1
) 1 2 ( 2
1

+
=
+
=
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
n n
n n
n n
n
x
n
x
v tnh tch phn v phi ta
c iu phi chng minh.
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 7 HOANG KIM DINH
Lu C th gii bng p dng cng thc
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
C
k
C
n
C n C k
1
1
1
1
) 1 ( ) 1 (
1
1
1
1
+
=
+
+ = +
+
+
+
+

vi k=1,2,...,n ta c:
( )
( ) ) 1 2 (
1 2
1
1 ...
1 2
1
...
1 2
1
2
1
...
6
1
3
1
2
1
2 2
1 2
4
1 2
2
1 2
0
1 2
2
1 2
4
1 2
2
1 2
1 2
2
5
2
3
2
1
2

+
= + + + +
+
=
+ + +
+
= + + + +
+ + + +
+ + +

n n
n n n n
n
n n n
n
n n n n
n
C C C C
n
C C C
n
C
n
C C C

Bi 5 Chng minh rng:
k
n
k
n
k
n
C C C n
n 1 1 1
2
1
1
1 1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+
+ +
(n, k l s nguyn dng, kn).
(H-B-2008).
Hng dn
Bin i v tri
k
n
k
n
k
n
C n
k n k
k k n
n
k n k
n
n
k n k k n k
n
n
C C n
n
1
!
)! ( !
)] 1 ( ) 1 [(
!
)! ( !
2
1
)! 1 (
)! ( )! 1 ( )! 1 ( !
2
1 1 1
2
1
1
1 1
=

= + + +

+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + +
+
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+
+ +

Bi 6 Chng minh rng
)! 2 (
1
)! 1 (
1
!
2

=
n n n
n
(PPGT-GTTH-Tr30)
Hng dn
Cch 1 : S dng cc php bin i giai tha
n !=(n-1) !.n ;
n !=(n-2)!.(n-1).n
V tri
! ) 1 )!.( 2 (
) 1 (
)! 1 ( )! 2 (
1
)! 1 (
1
2
n
n
n n n
n n
n n
n
n n
=


+


Cch 2 : Dng php bin i (n-1)!=(n-2)!(n-1)
V tri
! )! 1 ( )!. 2 (
1
) 1 ( )! 2 (
1 `
)! 2 (
1
)! 1 (
1
2
n
n
n
n
n n n n n
=

+

=


Bi 7 Chng minh rng
1001
2001
1000
2001
1
2001 2001
C C C C
k k
+ s +
+
vi 0k2000, k nguyn, trong

k
n
C t hp chp k ca n phn t.(H-QGHN-2000-A).
Hng dn
Trc ht ta chng minh
1000 2001 1
)! 2000 ( )! 1 (
! 2001
)! 2001 ( !
! 2001
1
2001 2001
< < +
+
<

<
+
k k k
k k k k
C C
k k

Nh vy :
1000
2001 2001
C C
k
s
vi mi k =0,1,2,,999 du bng xy ra khi k=1000,
hoc k=1001.

1001
2001
1
2001
C C
k
s
+
Vi mi k=0,1,2,,999 ; du bng xy ra khi k=999
hoc k=1000.
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 8 HOANG KIM DINH
M :
1001
2001
1000
2001
1998
2001
3
2001
1999
2001
2
2001
2000
2001
1
2001
2001
2001
0
2001
... C C
C C C C C C C C
= < <
= < = < = < =

Suy ra iu phi chng minh.
Bi 8 Chng minh rng
2
!
1
...
! 4
1
! 3
1
! 2
1
! 1
1
< + + + + +
n
(PPGT-GTTH-Tr30)
Hng dn
Ta c
1
! 1
1
=


2
1
1
! 2
1
=

3
1
2
1
! 3
1
=

4
1
3
1
4 . 3
1
! 4
1
= <

......
......
n n n n n
1
1
1
). 1 (
1
!
1

<

Suy ra iu phi chng minh.
Bi 9 Chng minh rng n!> 2
n-1
vi neN, n3
Hng dn
Cch 1: 2 2
2< 3
2< 4
.......
.......
2< n
Suy ra 2
n-1
<2.3.4...n=n!
Cch 2: Phng php quy np ton hc
+ Vi n = 3 ng;
+ Gi s ng vi n=k, k3 tc l k!>2
k-1

+ Ta chng minh ng vi n=k+1
(k+1)!=(k+1).k!>2
k-1
(k+1)>2
k-1
.2=2
k

Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 9 HOANG KIM DINH
3. Phng trnh:
gii cc phng trnh, bt phng trnh, h phng trnh ta tin hnh
theo cc bc:
+ t iu kin ;
+ Thc hin vic n gin biu thc chuyn phng trnh,bt phng
trnh v dng i s quen thuc ;
+ nh gi thng qua gi tr cn trn hoc cn di.
Bi 1 Gii phng trnh sau :
6
1
)! 1 (
)! 1 ( !
=
+

n
n n
vi n nguyn dng.
(S : n=2, n=3)
Bi 2 Gii phng trnh sau : 72
)! 1 (
)! 1 (
=

+
n
n
, vi n nguyn dng.
(S : n=8)
Bi 3 Gii bt phng trnh : 5
! 2 )!. 4 )( 3 ( 12
)! 1 (
! 4 )! 1 (
)! 1 (
.
1
5
1
1
s
(

+
+ n n
n n
n
n
n n
, vi n eN
v n4.
(S : n=5, n=6)
Bi 4 Tm keN bit rng :
1
14
2
14 14
. 2
+ +
= +
k k k
C C C
(CSP TPHCM 99)
Hng dn
+ iu kin k12
+ Bin i phng trnh v dng k
2
-12k+32=0 k=4, k=8
Bi 5 Tm cc s x nguyn dng tha mn phng trnh :
x x C C C
x x x
14 9 . 6 . 6
2 3 2 1
= + +
. (HNN HN-99)
Hng dn
+ iu kin : 3xeN
+ Phng trnh bin i thnh x
3
=9x
2
-14x x=7.
Bi 6 Gii bt phng trnh
3
4
1
3
1
14
1
P A
C
n
n
n
<
+

, (HHH 99)
Hng dn
+ iu kin 3neN
+ Bt phng trnh bin i thnh n
2
+n-42>0 n6
Bi 7 Gii bt phng trnh :
10
6
2
1
3 2 2
2
+ s
x x x
C
x
A A
,(HBK 2000)
Hng dn
+ iu kin 3xeN
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 10 HOANG KIM DINH
+ Bt phng trnh vit li
( )
( ) ( )
10
)! 3 ( ! 3
!
.
6
! 2
!
! 1 2
! 2
.
2
1
+

<

x
x
x x
x
x
x

10
! 3
) 2 )( 1 (
.
6
). 1 ( 2 ). 1 2 .(
2
1
+

<
x x x
x
x x x x
x4
+ S : x=3, x=4.
Bi 8 Tm x,y eZ
+
:
2 5 6
1 1
1
+
+
= =
y
x
y
x
y
x
C C C

Hng dn
+ iu kin :

+ >
>

s s
s + s
+ s s
1
1
1 0
1 0
1 0
y x
y
x y
x y
x y

+ Xt phng trnh
) 1 )( ( 6 ) 1 )( 1 ( 5
5 6
1
1
+ = + + =
+
+
y x y x y x
C C
y
x
y
x
(1)
+ Xt phng trnh
) 1 ( 5 ) 1 )( ( 2
2 5
1 1
+ = + =
+
y y y x y x
C C
y
x
y
x
(2)
+ T (1) v (2) ta c : 5(x+1)(y+1)=3.5y(y+1) x=3y-1 (3), Thay (3) vo
(2) ta c : 2(3y-1-y)(3y-1-y+1)=5y(y+1) 3y
2
=9y y=3, x=8.
Bi 9 nh x v y sao cho :
a)
( ) 5 : 5 : 3 2 :
1
2
2
2 2
1
= + +


y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
C C C C

b)
( ) 10 : 60 : 21 : :
1
2 2
1
= +


y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
C C A A

Bi 10 Gii h phng trnh :

=
= +
40 2
80 3
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
C A
C A

4. Tnh h s ca a thc:
Lu Tnh h s ca s hng x
o
trong khai trin nh thc Newton ca P(x)=(f(x))
n
, ta
lm nh sau:
Vit P(x)=

=
n
k
k g
k
x a
0
) (
; s hng cha x
o
tng ng vi g(k)=o; Gii phng trnh ta
tm c k. Nu keN v kn, h s cn tm l a
k
; nu k>n hoc k eN, th trong khai
trin khng c s hng cha x
o
, h s phi tm bng 0.
Bi 1 Tm h s ca s hng cha x
8
trong khai trin nh thc Niuton ca
n
x
x
|
.
|

\
|
+
5
3
1
,
bit rng
) 3 ( 7
3
1
4
+ =
+
+
+
n C C
n
n
n
n
(x>0, n nguyn dng). (H-A-2003).
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 11 HOANG KIM DINH
Hng d
+
) 3 ( 7
3
1
4
+ =
+
+
+
n C C
n
n
n
n
) 3 ( 7
3 3
1
3
+ = +
+ +
+
+
n C C C
n
n
n
n
n
n n=12.
+ S hng tng qut
( )
2
11 60
12
12
2
5
3
12
k
k
k
k
k
x C x x C

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ Ta c :
4 8
2
11 60
8
2
11 60
= =

k
k
x x
k

+ Do h s ca x
8
l 495
)! 4 12 ( ! 4
! 12
4
12
=

= C
Bi 2 Tm h s ca x
8
trong khai trin a thc ca
( ) | |
8
2
1 1 x x +
(H-A-2004).
Hng dn
( ) | |
8 16 8
8
7 14 7
8
6 12 6
8
5 10 5
8
4 8 4
8
3 6 3
8
2 4 2
8
2 1
8
0
8
8
2
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( 1 1
x x C x x C x x C x x C x x C
x x C x x C x x C C x x
+ + + +
+ + + + = +
Bc ca x trong ba s hng u nh hn 8,bc ca x trong bn s hng cui ln hn 8.
Vy x
8
ch c trong cc s hng th t, th nm vi h s tng ng l
0
4
4
8
2
3
3
8
. , . C C C C
,a
8
=168+70=238.
Bi 3 Tm s hng khng cha x trong khai trin
7
4
3
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
x
x
vi x>0. (H-D-2004).
Hng dn
( )

=

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
7
0
12
7 28
7
7
0
4
7
3
7
7
4
3
1 1
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
x C
x
x C
x
x

S hng khng cha x l s hng tng ng vi k tha mn
28-7k
12
=0 k=4.
Vy s hng khng cha x cn tm l : C
7
4
=35
Bi 4 Tm h s ca s hng cha x
26
trong khai trin nh thc Niu tn ca
n
x
x
|
.
|

\
|
+
7
4
1
bit rng
1 2 ...
10
1 2
2
1 2
1
1 2
= + + +
+ + +
n
n n n
C C C
(H-A-2006)
Hng dn
T gi thit ta c:
10
1 2
2
1 2
1
1 2
0
1 2
2 ... = + + + +
+ + + +
n
n n n n
C C C C

Trong khai trin :
( )
1 2 1 2
1 2
2 2
1 2
1
1 2
0
1 2
1 2
... 1
+ +
+ + + +
+
+ + + + = +
n n
n n n n
n
x C x C x C C x
vi x= 1
ta c
( )
1 2
1 2
2
1 2
1
1 2
0
1 2
1 2
... 2
+
+ + + +
+
+ + + + =
n
n n n n
n
C C C C
, m
k n
n
k
n
C C
+
+ +
=
1 2
1 2 1 2
tc l :

1 2
1 2
0
1 2
+
+ +
=
n
n n
C C

Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 12 HOANG KIM DINH

n
n n
C C
2
1 2
1
1 2 + +
=


1 2
1 2
2
1 2

+ +
=
n
n n
C C

.
.

1
1 2 1 2
+
+ +
=
n
n
n
n
C C

Nn
( )
1 2
1 2
1
1 2
0
1 2 1 2
2
1 2
1
1 2
0
1 2
...
2
1
...
+
+ + + + + + +
+ + + = + + + +
n
n n n
n
n n n n
C C C C C C C

Hay 2
2n
= 2
20
n=10.
Ta c
( )

=

=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
10
0
40 11
10
10
0
7
10
4
10
7
4
1 1
k
k k
k
k
k
k
n
x C x
x
C x
x
; h s ca x
26
l
k
C
10

trong k tha mn 11k-40=26 k= 6.
Vy :
k
C
10
= 210.
Bi 5 Tm h s ca s hng cha x
10
trong khai trin nh thc Niuton ca (2+x)
n
bit:
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
C C C C C ) 1 ( ... 3 3 3 3
3 3 2 2 1 1 0
+ + +

=2048
(H-B-2007).
Hng dn
Ta c:
( ) 2048 2 1 3 ) 1 ( ... 3 3 3 3
3 3 2 2 1 1 0
= = = + + +
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
C C C C C
n=11. H s ca s hng cha x
10
trong khai trin nh thc Niuton ca (2+x)
n

l :
22 2 .
1 10
11
= C

Bi 6 Tm h s ca x
5
trong khai trin thnh a thc ca : x(1-
2x)
5
+x
2
(1+3x)
10.
Hng dn
( ) 3320 3 2
3
10
3 4
5
4
= + C C
Bi 7 Tm s hng khng cha x trong khai trin ca biu thc sau :
17
4 3
3 2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ x
x
, x0. (H-QGHN-200-B)
Hng dn
S hng tng qut ca khai trin l :
3
34
12
17
4
3
17
4
3
17
3
2
17

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
k
k
k k
k
x C x x C

(keN, 0k17)
s hng khng cha x th
8 0
3
34
12
17
= = k k

Vy s hng cn tm l s hng th 9.
Bi 7 t (1-x+x
2
-x
3
)
4
= a
0
+a
1
x+a
2
x
2
+...+a
12
x
12
. Tnh h s a
7
. (THTT-11-2010-Tr7).
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 13 HOANG KIM DINH
Hng dn
: (1-x+x
2
-x
3
)
4
=(1-x)
4
(1+x
2
)
4
=
( ) |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
=
=
=
i i
i
i
k k
k
k
k
x C x C
2
4
4
0
4
4
0
1
.T gi thit k+2i=7
suy ra (k;i)={(1;3), (3;2)}Vy a
7
=
40 .
2
4
3
4
3
4
1
4
= C C C C

Bi 8 Hy tm h s c gi tr ln nht ca a thc:
P(x) = (2x+1)
13
= a
0
x
13
+a
1
x
12
++a
13

Hng dn
Ta c : P(x) = (2x+1)
13
=
( )
n
n
n
x C

=

13
13
0
13
2
, nh vy a
n
=
n n
C
13
13
2
,
) 13 ,..., 2 , 1 ( 2
14 1
13 1
= =

n C a
n n
n

Xt bt ng thc a
n-1
a
n
N n
n n
e s s

3
14 1
14
2

Do a
n-1
a
n
n={0,1,2,3,4},v du ng thc khng xy ra. Ta c:
a
0
<a
1
<a
2
<a
3
<a
4
, a
4
>a
5
>...>a
13
.
Vy: max(a
n
)=a
4= 366080 2
4 13 4
13
=

C

Bi 9 Cho khai trin (1+2x)
n
=a
0
+a
1
x+...+a
n
x
n
, trong n l s t nhin khc khng,
v cc h s a
1
, a
2
, , a
n
tha mn h thc 4096
2
...
2 2
2
2 1
0
= + + + +
n
n
a a a
a . Tm s ln nht
trong cc s a
0
, a
1
, , a
n
.
(H-A -2008)
Hng dn
t f(x)= (1+2x)
n
=a
0
+a
1
x+...+a
n
x
n
f(1/2)= 4096
2
...
2 2
2
2 1
0
= + + + +
n
n
a a a
a =2
n

n=12
Vi mi k e{0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11} ta c
k k
k
C a
12
2 =
,
1
12
1
1
2
+ +
+
=
k k
k
C a
Ta c
3
23
1
1
< <
+
k
a
a
k
k
m k eZ nn a
0
<a
1
<...<a
8

7
3
23
1
1
> > >
+
k
a
a
k
k
m keZ nn a
8
>a
9
>....>a
12

Vy s ln nht trong cc s trn l
126720 2
8
12
8
8
= = C a

Bi 10 Cho tp hp A gm n phn t (n 4). Bit rng, s tp con gm 4 phn t ca
A bng 20 ln s tp con gm 2 phn t ca A. Tm ke{1, 2,..., n} sao cho s tp con
gm k phn t ca A l ln nht. (H-B-2006).
Hng dn
+S tp hp con k phn t ca A l
k
n
C
theo bi ra ta c
4
n
C
=
2
20
n
C
n=18;
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 14 HOANG KIM DINH
+ Do 9 1
1
18
18
1
18
< >
+

=
+
k
k
k
C
C
k
k
, nn
9
18
3
18
2
18
1
18
... C C C C < < < <

9
18
15
18
17
18
18
18
... C C C C < < < <

Vy s tp con ca A l ln nht khi v ch khi k = 9.
Lu Qua ba bi gii trn ta rt ra kinh nghim mun tm h s c gi tr ln nht
khi khai trin (ax+b)
n
thnh a thc, ta lm nh sau:
Tnh h s ca s hng tng qut a
n
; gii bt phng trnh a
n-1
a
n
vi n l n s,h s
ln nht phi tm tng ng vi s t nhin ln nht tha mn bt phng trnh trn.
5. Mt s bi ton ng dng:
Bi 1 Vi n l s nguyn dng, gi a
3n-3
l h s ca x
3n-3
trong khai trin a thc ca
(x
2
+1)
n
(x+2)
n
. Tm n a
3n-3
= 26n (H-D-2003)
Hng dn
+
( )
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
C x C x C x C x + + + + = +

... 1
4 2 2 2 2 1 2 0 2

+
( )
n
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
C x C x C x C x C x 2 ... 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 0
+ + + + + = +


+ Vi n= 1, n=2 khng tha mn
+ Vi n3 th x
3n-3
= x
2n
x
n-3
=x
2n-2
x
n-1
+
Do

h s ca x
3n-3
trong khai trin thnh a thc ca (x
2
+1)
n
(x+2)
n
l

1 1 3 0 3
3 3
. . 2 . . 2
n n n n n
C C C C a + =


+ a
3n-3
= 26n
5
2
7
, 5 26
3
) 4 3 2 ( 2
2
= = = =
+
n n n n
n n n

Bi 2: Cho khai trin nh thc:
n
x
n
n
n
x x
n
n
x
n
x
n
n
x
n
n
x x
C C C C
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+


3
1
3 2
1
1
3
1
2
1
1
2
1
0
3 2
1
2 2 2 ... 2 2 2 2 2
n l s nguyn dng. Bit rng trong khai trin
1 3
5
n n
C C = v s hng th t bng
20n. Tm n v x. (H-2002-A).
Hng dn
T
1 3
5
n n
C C = n3 ta c n
2
-3n 28 = 0 n=-4 (loi), n= 7
Vi n= 7 theo gi thit s hng th t
140 2 2
3
3
4
2
1
3
7
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
x x
C

35.2
2x-2
.2
-x
=140 x=4.
Bi 3 Tm s nguyn dng n sao cho : 243 2 ... 4 2
2 2 2 0
= + + + +
n
n n n n
C C C C (H-D-
2002).
Hng dn
+ Ta c
( )

=
= +
n
k
k k
n
n
x C x
0
1

Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 15 HOANG KIM DINH
+ Cho x = 2 ta c
( )

=
=
n
k
k k
n
n
C
0
2 3
3
n
= 243 n= 5.
Bi 4 Tm s nguyn dng n tha mn h thc:
2048 ...
1 2
2
5
2
3
2
1
2
= + + + +
n
n n n n
C C C C
(H-D-2008)
Hng dn
Ta c:
( )
n
n
n
n n n n n
n
C C C C C C
2
2
1 2
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
0
2
2
... 0 1 1 + + + = =


v
( )
n
n
n
n n n n n
n
n
C C C C C C
2
2
1 2
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
0
2
2
2
... 2 1 1 + + + + + + = = +


Suy ra
6 2 2048 ...
1 2 1 2
2
5
2
3
2
1
2
= = = + + + +

n C C C C
n n
n n n n

Bi 5 Tm s nguyn dng n bit rng:
32
1
2
.
) 1 ( ...
2
. 4
2
. 3
2
. 2
2
21
1
3
4
3
3
2
2 1
= + + +

n
n n n n n n
C n C C C C
(THTT-6-2010-Tr8)
Hng dn
Tng t bi 5.
Bi 6 Tm s nguyn dng n sao cho :
2011 . 2 ). 1 2 ( ... . 2 . 4 . 2 . 3 . 2 . 2
1 2
1 2
2 4
1 2
3 3
1 2
2 2
1 2
1
1 2
= + + + +
+
+ + + + +
n
n
n
n n n n
C n C C C C

(Gii T H-C-Trn Vn Huyn)
Hng dn
Khai trin
( )
1 2 1 2
1 2
2 2
1 2
1
1 2
0
1 2
1 2
... 1
+ +
+ + + +
+
+ + + + = +
n n
n n n n
n
x C x C x C C x
, o hm
hai v sau thay x=-2. Ta c 2n+1=2011 suy ra n=1005.
Bi 7 Tm s nguyn dng n sao cho:
2005 2 ) 1 2 ( ... 2 . 4 2 . 3 2 . 2
1 2
1 2
2 4
1 2
3 3
1 2
2 2
1 2
1
1 2
= + + + +
+
+ + + + +
n
n
n
n n n n
C n C C C C

(H-A-2005).
Hng dn
( )
1 2 1 2
1 2
2 2
1 2
1
1 2
0
1 2
1 2
... 1
+ +
+ + + +
+
+ + + + = +
n n
n n n n
n
x C x C x C C x

o hm hai v:
( )
n n
n n n
n
x C n x C C x n
2 1 2
1 2
2
1 2
1
1 2
2
) 1 2 ( ... 2 1 ) 1 2 (
+
+ + +
+ + + + = + +

Thay x=-2 ta c:
2005 1 2 2 ) 1 2 ( ... 2 . 4 2 . 3 2 . 2
1 2
1 2
2 4
1 2
3 3
1 2
2 2
1 2
1
1 2
= + = + + + +
+
+ + + + +
n C n C C C C
n
n
n
n n n n

Vy: n= 1002.
Bi 8 Tm cc gi tr ca x trong khai trin nh thc
Newton :
( ) ( )
n
x
x
|
.
|

\
|
+
5 3 lg 2 3 10 lg
2 2
, bit rng s hng th su ca khai trin
bng 21 v
2 3 1
. 2
n n n
C C C = +
. (THTT-2-2009-Tr8)
Hng dn
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 16 HOANG KIM DINH

Bi 9 Tnh gi tr ca biu thc
( )! 1
3
3 4
1
+
+
=
+
n
A A
M
n n
, bit rng
149 2 2
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
= + + +
+ + + + n n n n
C C C C . (H-D-2005).
Hng dn
+ T 149 2 2
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
= + + +
+ + + + n n n n
C C C C ta c n= -9(loi), n=5
+ Vy M=
3
4
.
Bi 10 Cho a gic u A
1
, A
2
, ...A
2n
(n2, n s nguyn) ni tip ng trn tm (O).
Bit rng s tam gic c cc nh l 3 trong 2n im A
1
, A
2
, ...A
2n
, nhiu gp 20 ln s
hnh ch nht c cc nh l 4 trong 2n im A
1
, A
2
, ...A
2n
. Tm n. (H-B-2002).
Hng dn
+ S tam gic c cc nh l 3 trong 2n im A
1
, A
2
, ...A
2n
l
3
2n
C

+ Hnh ch nht ni tip ng trn (O) c hai ng cho qua O v ngc li c hai
ng cho qua tm c mt hnh ch nht, m a gic u c n ng cho qua tm
nn s hnh ch nht l
2
n
C
.
+ Theo bi ra ta c
3
2n
C
=20
2
n
C
n=8
6. Mt s bi ton khc:
Bi 1 Trong mt mn hc, thy gio c 30 cu hi khc nhau
gm 5 cu hi kh, 10 cu hi trung bnh, 15 cu hi d.
T 30 cu hi c th lp c bao nhiu kim tra,
mi gm 5 cu hi khc nhau, sao cho trong mi nht
thit phi c 3 loi cu hi (kh, trung bnh, d) v
s cu hi d khng t hn 2 ? (H-B-2004)
Hng dn
Mi kim tra phi c s cu d l 2 hoc 3.
+ c 2 cu d, 02 cu trung bnh, 01 cu kh, th c s cch chn l:

23625 . .
1
5
2
10
2
15
= C C C

+ c 2 cu d, 01 cu trung bnh, 02 cu kh, th c s cch chn l:

10500 . .
2
5
1
10
2
15
= C C C

+ c 3 cu d, 01 cu trung bnh, 01 cu kh, th c s cch chn l:

22750 . .
1
5
1
10
3
15
= C C C

Vy : S kim tra c th lp c l: 23625+10500+22750=56875
Bi 2 Mt i thanh nin tnh nguyn c 15 ngi, gm 12 nam v 3 n. Hi c bao
nhiu cch phn cng i thanh nin tnh nguyn v gip 3 tnh min ni, sao
cho mi tnh c 4 nam 1 n. (H-B-2005)
Hng dn
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 17 HOANG KIM DINH
C
4
12
1
3
C C
cch phn cng cc thanh nin tnh nguyn v tnh th nht. Vi mi cch
phn cng cc thanh nin tnh nguyn v tnh th nht c
4
8
1
2
C C

Cch phn cng cc thanh nin tnh nguyn v tnh th hai. Vi mi cch phn cng
cc thanh nin tnh nguyn v tnh th nht v th hai c
4
4
1
1
C C
cch phn cng cc
thanh nin tnh nguyn v tnh th ba. Vy c:
4
12
1
3
C C
.
4
8
1
2
C C
.
4
4
1
1
C C
=207900 cch
phn cng i thanh nin tnh nguyn v 3 tnh tha mn yu cu bi ton.
Bi 3 i thanh nin xung kch ca mt trng ph thng c 12 hc sinh, gm 5 hc
sinh lp A, 4 hc sinh lp B v 3 hc sinh lp C. Cn chn 4 hc sinh i lm nhim
v, sao cho 4 hc sinh ny thuc khng qu 2 trong 3 lp trn. Hi c bao nhiu cch
chn nh vy? (H-D-2006)
Hng dn
- S cch chn 4 hc sinh trong 12 hc sinh l
495
4
12
= C

- S cch chn 4 em hc sinh m mi lp t nht 01 em l:
+ Lp A c 2 hc sinh, lp B v C c 01 hc sinh:
120 . .
1
3
1
4
2
5
= C C C

+ Lp B c 2 hc sinh, lp A v C c 01 hc sinh:
90 . .
1
3
2
4
1
5
= C C C

+ Lp C c 2 hc sinh, lp B v A c 01 hc sinh:
60 . .
2
3
1
4
1
5
= C C C

- S cch chn 4 em m mi lp t nht mt em l: 120+90+60=270
Vy s cch chn phi tm l: 495-270=225.
Bi 4 i d tuyn bng bn c 10 n, 7 nam, trong c danh th nam l V Mnh
Cng v danh th n l Ng Thu Thy. Ngi ta cn lp mt i tuyn bng bn
Quc gia t i d tuyn ni trn. i tuyn Quc gai bao gm 3 n v 4 nam. Hi c
bao nhiu cch lp i tuyn Quc gia sao cho trong i tuyn c mt ch mt trong
hai danh th ni trn. (THTT-5-2010-Tr 9)
Hng dn
- i tuyn c V Mnh Cng, khng c Ng Thu Thy :
S cch chn 3 nam cn li :
3
6
C
Chn 3 n khng c Ng Thu Thy :
3
9
C
S cch chn trong trng hp ny l :
3
6
C .
3
9
C = 1680
- i tuyn c Ng Thu Thy, khng c V Mnh Cng :
S cch chn 2 n cn li :
2
9
C
S cch chn 4 nam khng c V Mnh Cng :
4
6
C
S cch chn trong trng hp ny l :
2
9
C .
4
6
C =540
Vy : S cch chn cn tm l :1680+540=2220 (cch)
Bi 5 T 5 ch s 0,1,3,5,7 c th lp c bao nhiu s, mi s gm 4 ch s khc
nhau v khng chia ht cho 5 ? (H-QGHN-2000-B).
Hng dn
+ S c bn ch s khc nhau thnh lp t 5 ch s 0,1,3,5,7 : 4.4.3.2.1=96
+ S c bn ch s khc nhau c s tn cng bng 0: 4.3.2.1=24
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 18 HOANG KIM DINH
+ S c bn ch s khc nhau c s tn cng bng 5: 3.3.2=18
Vy : c 96-24-18=54 s gm 4 ch s khc nhau v khng chia ht cho 5 c
thnh lp t cc s 0,1,3,5,7.
Bi 6 Cho 8 ch s 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7. T 8 ch s trn c th lp c bao
nhiu s, mi s gm 4 ch s, i mt khc nhau v khng chia ht cho
10. (HSP Vinh-A-1999).
Hng dn
Gi s cn tm l
4 3 2 1
a a a a x =

V a
1
0 nn c 7 cch chn a
1
;
V x khng chia ht cho 10 nn a
4
0 v a
4
a
1
, nn c 6 cch chn a
4
;
ng vi mi cch chn a
1
, a
4
c 6 cch chn a
2
;
ng vi mi cch chn a
1
,a
2
, a
4
c 5 cch chn a
3
;
Vy c th lp c : 7.6.6.5=1260 s tha mn cc iu kin bi ton.
Bi 7
1) C bao nhiu s t nhin (c vit trong h m thp phn) gm 5
ch s m cc ch s u ln hn 4 v i mt khc nhau ;
2) Hy tnh tng ca tt c cc s t nhin ni trn.
(H Hu-D-1997)
Hng dn
1) P
5
=5 !=120
2) 840(10
4
+10
3
+10
2
+10+10
0
)=840.11111=9333240.
Bi 8 C 5 ming ba, trn mi ming ghi mt trong 5 ch s 0,1,2,3,4. Ly
3 ming ba t 5 ming ny t ln lt cnh nhau t tri sng phi
c cc s gm 3 ch s.
Hi c th lp c bao nhiu s c ngha gm 3 ch s v trong c bao
nhiu s chn ? (CSP H Ni-A-1999)
Hng dn
+ K hiu
3 2 1
a a a x =
l mt s tha mn iu kin bi ton.
V a
1
0 nn c 4 cch chn ming ba cho a
1
;
Sau khi chn mt ming ba cho a
1
th cn 4 cch chn ming ba a
2
;
Cui cng cn 3 cch chn ming ba a
3
.
Vy theo quy tc nhn, s cc s lp c l : 4.4.3=48
+ Nu s c lp l s l th c 2 cch chn cho hng n v a
3
Tip theo c 3 cch chn cho hng trm a
1
;
Cui cng c 3 cch chn cho hng chc a
2

Vy s cc s l l : 3.3.2=18 s v s cc s chn l : 48-18=30 s.
BI TP T GII
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 19 HOANG KIM DINH
Bi 1 Tnh cc tng sau :
1.
n
n
n
n n n n
C n C C C C S . ) 1 ( ... . 4 . 3 . 2 . 1
4 3 2 1
1
+ + + =
; vi neN
*
, n>1
2.
n
n n n n n
C n C C C C S ). 1 ( ... . 4 . 3 . 2 . 1
5 4 3 2
2
+ + + + + =
; Vi neN
*
, n>2
3.
n
n
n
n n n n
C n C C C C S ). 1 ( ) 1 ( ... . 4 . 3 . 2 . 1
5 4 3 2
3
+ + + =
; Vi neN
*
, n>2
4.
n
n
n
n n n n
C
n
C C C C S .
1
) 1 (
... .
5
1
.
4
1
.
3
1
.
2
1
1
4 3 2 1
4
+

+ + + =

; Vi neN
*
5.
n
n n n n n
C
n
C C C C S .
2
1
... .
5
1
.
4
1
.
3
1
.
2
1
3 2 1 0
5
+
+ + + + + =
; Vi neN
*
6.
n
n
n
n n n n
C
n
C C C C S .
1
2
... .
5
2
.
4
2
.
3
3
.
2
2
1
4
5
3
4
2
2
1
2
6
+
+ + + + =
+
; Vi neN
*

7.
n
n n n n
C
n
C C C S
2
2
4
2
2
2
0
2 7
.
1 2
1
... .
5
1
.
3
1
+
+ + + + =

(HD :
1 2
1 2
2
2
1 2
1
1 2
1
+
+
+
=
+
k
n
k
n
C
n
C
k
)
8.
n
n n n n
C
n
C C C S
2
2
4
2
2
2
0
2 8
.
) 2 2 (
1
... .
6
1
.
4
1
.
2
1
+
+ + + + =

(HD :
2 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
2 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
) 2 2 )( 1 2 (
1
1 2
1
) 2 2 )( 1 2 (
1
2 2
1
.
1 2
2 2
) 2 2 )( 1 2 (
1
) 2 2 )( 1 2 (
2 2
) 2 2 )( 1 2 (
) 1 2 (
) 2 2 )( 1 2 )( 1 2 (
) 2 2 )( 1 2 )( 1 2 (
.
2 2
1
2 2
1
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +

+
=
+ +

+ +
+
=
(

+ +

+ +
+
=
+ +
+
=
+ + +
+ + +
+
=
+
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
C
n n
C
n
C
n n
C
k n
k
C
n n n n
k
C
n n
k
C
n n k
n n k
k
C
k

Suy ra :
) 2 2 )( 1 2 (
1 2 . 2
) 2 2 )( 1 2 (
1 2
1 2
2
) 2 2 )( 1 2 (
1
1 2
1
1 2 1 2 2
0
2 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
+ +
+
=
+ +

+
=
(

+ +

+
=
+ +
=
+
+
+
+
n n n n n
C
n n
C
n
S
n n n
n
k
k
n
k
n
)
9.
1 2
2
5
2
6
3
2
4
1
2
2
9
.
2
1
... .
6
2
.
4
2
.
2
2

+ + + + =
n
n n n n
C
n
C C C S

(HD :
k
n
k k
n
k k
n
k
C
n
C
k
C
2
2
2 1 2
2
2 1 2
2
2
.
1 2
1
. 2 .
2
1
. 2
2
2
+
= =


Suy ra S
9
=
) 1 2 ( 2
) 1 3 ( 3
) ) 2 ( (
1 2
1
2 .
1 2
1
2
0
1 2 2
1
2 2
1 2 9
+

=
+
= |
.
|

\
|
+
=
+ +
n
C h
n
C
n
S
n
n
n
k k
n

10.
2012
2012
2
2012
1
2012
0
2012 10
2013 ... . 3 . 2 C C C C S + + + + =
Hng dn
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 20 HOANG KIM DINH

Bi 2: Chng minh cc h thc
1.
1 2 2
2
6
2
4
2
2
2
2 . . 2 ... . 6 . 4 . 2

= + + + + =
n n
n n n n
n C n C C C S

Hng dn
p dng cng thc
1 2
1 2
2
2
. 2 . 2

=
k
n
k
n
C n C k

Ta c
( )
1 2 2 2 1 2
1 2
5
1 2
3
1 2
1
1 2
2 . 2 . 2 ... 2


= = + + + + =
n n n
n n n n
n n C C C C n S

2.
) 1 3 .( . 2 . ... . 2 . 3 . 2 . 2 2 . 1
1 2 2
2
2 6
2
6 4
2
4 2
2
2
+ = + + + + =
n n
n
n
n n n
n C n C C C S

Hng dn
1 2
1 2
1 2 2
2
1 2 2
2
2
. 2 . 2 . 2 . 2 2 .


= =
k
n
k k
n
k k
n
k
C n C k C k
do
( )
( ) ( )
( ) 1 3
2
2 1 2 1
2 2 . ... 2 . 2 . 2
1 2
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
1 2
3 3
1 2
1
1 2
+ =
+ +
= + + + =




n
n n
n n
n n n
n n C C C n S
3.
1 3 3 2 1 1 1
3 . ... 2 . 3 2 2

= + + + +
n n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n nC C C C

Hng dn
Khai trin (1+x)
n

Ly o hm hai v
Thay x =
2
1
ta c iu phi chng minh.
4.
1 3 2 1
2 . ... . 3 2

= + + + +
n n
n n n n
n nC C C C
(HTCKT-2000)
(Tng t bi trn, thay x=1)
5. Tnh tch phn
}
=
1
0
2
) 1 ( dx x x I
n
; T suy ra :
) 1 ( 2
1
) 1 ( 2
1
) 1 ( ...
8
1
6
1
4
1
2
1
3 2 1 0
+
=
+
+ + +
n
C
n
C C C C
n
n
n
n n n n
(H CSND-A-2000)
Hng dn
+ I =
) 1 ( 2
1
+ n
(tnh tch phn bng phng php i bin t=1-x
2
)
+ Khai trin nh thc ( ) ( )
n n
n
n
n n n n
n
x C x C x C x C C x x x
2 6 3 4 2 2 1 0 2
) 1 ( ... 1 + + + =

n
n
n
n n n n
n
n
n
n
n n n n
C C C C C
n
x
C
x
C
x
C
x
C
x
C I
4
1
) 1 ( ...
8
1
6
1
4
1
2
1
2 2
) 1 ( ...
8 6 4 2
3 2 1 0
1
0
2 2 8
3
6
2
4
1
2
0
+ + + =
(

+
+ + + =
+

6.
n n
n
n
n k
n
k
k
n n n
n
c c c c c 2
3
1
) 1 ( ...
3
1
) 1 ( ...
3
1
3
1
3
2
2
1 0
=
(

+ + + +
(H M-1997)
Hng dn
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 21 HOANG KIM DINH
Vi mi xeR, vi mi neN
*

f(x)= (1-x)
n
=
n n
n
n k k
n
k
n n n n
x C x C x C x C x C C ) 1 ( ... ) 1 ( ...
3 3 2 2 1 0
+ + + +

Suy ra
n
n
n
k
n
k
k
n n n
n
C C C C C f
3
1
...
3
1
) 1 ( ...
3
1
3
1
3
2
)
2
1
(
2
2
1 0
+ + + + =
|
.
|

\
|
=

Suy ra iu PCM.
7.
2
2
) 1 ( ) 1 (

=
k
n
k
n
C n n C k k vi nk2, (HQG HN-1999-D)
8. Vi m, n nguyn dng v 1kn. Chng minh rng:
a)
m k
m n
m
n
k
n
m
k
C C C C

= . .

b)
0 2
2
2 1
1
1 0
) 1 ( ...
k n
k
n
k k
n n
k
n n
k
n n
C C C C C C C C

+ + +

(S: a)
m k
m n
m
n
k
n
m
k
C C
k n m k
m n
m n m
n
k n k
n
m k m
k
C C

=

= .
)! ( )! (
)! (
.
)! ( !
!
)! ( !
!
.
)! ( !
!
.

b)Khai trin (1+x)
k
=
k k
k k k k k
x C x C x C x C C + + + + + ...
3 3 2 2 1 0


k
n
C (1+x)
k
= ) ... (
3 3 2 2 1 0 k k
k k k k k
k
n
x C x C x C x C C C + + + + +
=
k
k n
k
n
n
n n
k
n n k
k
n
x C C x C C x C C C C
0 2 2
2
2 1
1
1 0
...

+ + + +
Thay x=-1 ta c iu phi chng minh.(PP-GT-GTTH-L Hng c)
9.
1
1 2 1
...
+
+ + + + +
= + + + +
n
k n
n
k n
n
n
n
n
n
n
C C C C C
(PP-GT-GTTH-L Hng c)
(S bng phng php quy np:
+Vi k =1 ta c:
1
2 1
+
+ +
= +
n
n
n
n
n
n
C C C
2 1 1
)! 1 (
)! 2 (
!
)! 1 (
1 + = + +
+
+
=
+
+ n n
n
n
n
n
, lun
ng.
+ Gi s ng vi k=m, tc l c:
1
1 2 1
...
+
+ + + + +
= + + + +
n
m n
n
m n
n
n
n
n
n
n
C C C C C

+ Ta chng minh ng vi k = m+1
V tri =
1
2 2
1
1
+
+ + + +
+
+ +
= +
n
m n
n
m n
n
m n
C C C
, ng.
10.
1
4 5
1
3 4
...
3
3 4
2
3 4
1
1 1 1 1
3
3 3
1
2 2
+

=
+

+ +

+
+ + + +
n
C
n
C C
n n
n
n
n n
n n

(HD: ( )dx x C x C C
n
x
n
dx x
n n
n n n
n n n
n
} }
+ + + =
(

+
+
=
+

= +
+ + + 4
3
1 0
4
3
1 1 1 4
3
...
1
) 1 (
1
4 5
) 1 ( =pcm)
Bi 3: Gii cc phng trnh, bt phng trnh
1.
x A A
x x
21 . 5
2 3
s +
, trong
y
x
A
l chnh hp chp y ca x phn t.
(S: x=3, x=4) (HQG HCM-B-1998)
2.
1024 ...
10 9 8 2 1
= + + + + + +
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
C C C C C C

Hng dn
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 22 HOANG KIM DINH
S dng cng thc
y x
x
y
x
C C

=
; x=10
3.

=
= +
80 2 5
90 2
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
C A
C A
(HBK-HN-A/2001)
4.
0
4
5
2
2
3
1
4
1
<
x x x
A C C

5.
100
1
1
2
1
s

+

+
n
n
n
n
C C

6.
0
4
143
1 2
4
2
<
+
+
n n
n
P P
A

7.
72
.
1
1
1
=

+
+
x
y x
y
x
P
P A

8.
240 2 ... . 2 . 2
2 2 1 0
= + + + +
x
x
x
x x x
C C C C

9.
720 . . ) ! (
3 2
s
n
n
n
n
n
n
C C C n
(1)
Hng dn
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
720
! !.
! 3
720
! 2 !
! 3
.
! !.
! 2
! ) 1 ( s = s
n n
n
U
n n
n
n n
n
n
n

Ta c u
n+1
-u
n
>0 vi mi n0 m u
3
=10080 suy ra n2
Vi n = 2 ta c u
2
=180<720
Vi n= 1 ta c u
1
=6 < 720
Vi n=0 t c u
0
<720
Vy n tha bi ton l n= 0,1,2.
Bi 4: Tnh h s ca a thc
1.Tm s hng khng cha x trong khai trin Niuton ca
12
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
+ x

(S:
6
12
C
)
2.Tm s hng khng cha x trong khai trin ca biu thc sau:
17
4 2
3
1
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ x
x
vi x0
(S:
8
17
C
)
3. Tm h s ca x
10
trong khai trin
10
3
1
1 |
.
|

\
|
+ + x
x
(vi x0)
(S: 3402)
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 23 HOANG KIM DINH
4. Trong khai trin nh thc
10
2
3
2
2
|
.
|

\
|
+
x
x
, x0. Hy tm s hng khng cha
x. (CSPKT 2000).
(S:
6
10
10
2 C
)
5. Cho bit h s ca s hng th 3 ca khai trin nh thc
n
x
x
x x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
3
2
bng 36. Tm s hng th 7.
(S: s hng th 7 c cho bi
2
7
6
3
2
3
2
5
6
9
84x x x C =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

6. Trong khai trin sau y c bao nhiu s hng hu t
( )
124
4
5 3

(S: c 32 s hng hu t)
7. Tnh h s ca x
-25
y
10
trong khai trin (x
3
+xy)
15
(H Lt-1999)
8. Trong khai trin nh thc
n
x x x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

15
28
3
. Hy tm s hng khng ph
thuc x, bit rng
79
2 1
= + +
n
n
n
n
n
n
C C C
. (Gii nhanh-Phm Trng Th)
Hng dn
T
79
2 1
= + +
n
n
n
n
n
n
C C C
ta c n=12
Vi n tm c, s hng khng ph thuc x 7 0
5
112
15
48
= = k k
Vy s hng khng ph thuc x l
792
7
12
= C
.
9. Tm h s ca x
2
trong khai trin ca
10
3
1
1 ) (
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = x
x
x P
(Gii T H-
Trn c Huyn-Tr196)
Hng dn

= =

=

|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
10
0
3
10
10
0
10
10
0
3
10
10
10
3
.
1 1
1
1
1 ) (
k
k
h
k
h
h
k
k
k
k
k
x
x
C C x
x
C x
x
x P

=

=
10
0
3
10
10
0
10
. ) (
k
h k k
h
h
k
x C C x P
, nn s hng cha x
2
trong khai trin ca P(x)
phi tha mn:

=
=

=
=

=
=

e
s s
s s
=
1
1
4
2
7
3
,
10 0
10 0
0 3
h
k
V
h
k
V
h
k
Z h k
k h
k
h k

Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 24 HOANG KIM DINH
Vy h s ca x
2
trong khai trin ca P(x) l
3360
7
7
3
10
4
8
2
10
1
9
1
10
= + + C C C C C C

Bi 5: Mt s bi ton vn dng
1. Tm cc gi tr ca x trong khai trin nh thc
Newton :
( ) ( )
n
x
x
|
.
|

\
|
+
5 3 lg 2 3 10 lg
2 2
, bit rng s hng th su ca khai trin
bng 21 v
2 3 1
. 2
n n n
C C C = +
. (THTT-2-2009-Tr8)
2. Khai trin (3x-1)
16
. Chng minh rng:

16 16
16
0 2
16
14 1
16
15 0
16
16
2 3 ... 3 3 3 = + + + C C C C
(HBK-1998)
3. a) Tnh tch phn
( )
}
+
1
0
1 dx x
n

b) Tnh
n
n n n n
C
n
C C C S
1
1
...
3
1
2
1
2 1 0
+
+ + + + =

(H Nng Nghip -1999)
4. Tnh cc gi tr ca biu thc sau:
a)
8
8
0 0 1
8
7 7 0
8
8 8
. 3 . 2 ... . 3 . 2 . 3 . 2 C C C A + + + =

b)
9
9
9 2
9
2 7 7 1
9
8 8 0
9
9 9
. 3 ... . 3 . 5 . 2 . 3 . 5 . 2 5 . 2 C C C C B + + + =

(S: a) Cch 1: Biu thc c th vit li
8
8
0 1
8
7 0
8
8
6 ... . 6 6 C C C A + + + =
; khai
trin ( )
8
8
0 2
8
6 1
8
7 0
8
8
8
... 1 C x C x C x C x x + + + + = + , thay x=6 ta c kt qu
A=5764801
Cch II: Khai trin (2x+1)
8
, sau thay x = 3.
b) Cch I:
9
9
9 2
9
2 7 1
9
8 0
9
9
. 3 ... . 3 . 10 . 3 . 10 10 C C C C B + + + =

Khai trin (x-3)
9

Thay x=10 ta c B=7
9

Cch II: Khai trin (2x-3)
9

Thay x= 5.
5.Chng minh rng nu a+b=1 th vi mi s t nhin n ta c
1
2
1

> +
n
n n
b a

(S: ta c a+b=1 nn t

=
+ =
x b
x a
2
1
2
1

6. Cho a thc P(x)=(1+x)
9
+(1+x)
10
+...+(1+x)
14
c dng khai trin l
P(x)=a
0
+a
1
x+a
2
x
2
+...+a
14
x
14
. Tnh h s a
9
. (Gii nhanh-Phm Trng Th)
Hng dn
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 25 HOANG KIM DINH
H s ca (1+x)
9
l
9
9
C

H s ca (1+x)
10
l
9
10
C

H s ca (1+x)
11
l
9
11
C

.......
H s ca (1+x)
14
l
9
14
C

Vy a
9
=
9
9
C
+
9
10
C
+...+
9
14
C
=3003.
7. Tm s t nhin n sao cho
2011 3 2 1
2 . . ... . 3 . 2 . 1 n C n C C C
n
n n n n
= + + + +

Hng dn
Khai trin (1+x)
n

o hm hai v
Cho x=1
..........
8. Trong mt phng c n im, trong c k im thng hng, s cn li
khng c 3 im no thng hng. Bit rng t n im to c 36 ng
thng phn bit v to c 110 tam gic khc nhau. Hy tm n, k. (Bi gii
T H- Trn c Huyn - Tr209).
Hng dn
+ S ng thng phn bit c c
1
2 2
+
k n
C C

+ S tam gic phn bit c c
3 3
k n
C C

Theo bi ra ta c:

=
= +

=
=

=
= +
) 2 ( 110
) 1 ( 70 ) 1 )( (
110
70 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
110
36 1
3 3 3 3 3 3
2 2
k n k n k n
k n
C C
k n k n
C C
k k n n
C C
C C

T (2) ta c 10 110
3
> > n C
n
m k3 suy ra n+k-112
Do (1) tng ng vi cc trng hp sau
1)

=
=

=
= +
5
10
5
14 1
k
n
k n
k n
tha mn (2)
2)

=
=

=
= +
17
19
2
35 1
k
n
k n
k n
khng tha mn (2)
3)

=
=

=
= +
35
36
1
70 1
k
n
k n
k n
khng tha mn (2)
Vy n=10, k=5.

Bi 6: Bi ton khc
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 26 HOANG KIM DINH
1.C bao nhiu cch sp xp nm hc sinh A, B, C, D, E vo mt chic
gh di sao cho:
a) Bn C ngi chnh gia;
b) Hai bn A v E ngi hai u gh
(H HH TPHCM-1999)
Hng dn
a) P
4
=4!
b) 2.P
3
=2.3!
2. C bao nhiu s chn c nm ch s khc nhau ly t cc s 0,2,3,6,9.
(H Y HN-1999)
Hng dn
3. Mt i xy dng c 10 cng nhn v 3 k s. lp mt t cng tc
cn chn mt k s lm t trng, 1 cng nhn lm t ph v 5 cng nhn
lm t vin. Hi c bao nhiu cch thnh lp t cng tc. (H KT HN-
1998)
Hng dn
+ C 3 cch chn mt k s lm t trng;
+ C 10 cch chn 1 cng nhn lm t ph;
+ C
5
9
C
cch chn 5 cng nhn trong 9 cng nhn vo t cng tc;
Vy c 3.10.
5
9
C
=3780 cch thnh lp t cng tc khc nhau.
4. C 12 chic bnh ngt khc nhau. Hi c bao nhiu cch xp chng vo
6 chic hp ging nhau, mi hp c hai chic bnh. (H Thi Nguyn-
1998)
Hng dn
Gi s 6 hp khc nhau, lc :
+ S cch sp xp 2 chic bnh vo hp th nht l:
2
12
C

+ Sau khi sp xp 2 chic bnh vo hp th nht, s cch sp xp 2 chic
bnh trong 10 chic bnh cn li vo hp th hai l:
2
10
C

+ ...
+ S cch sp xp 2 chic bnh cn li vo hp th su:
2
2
C

Nh vy c
2
12
C
.
.
2
10
C
2
8
C
...
2
2
C
=
! 2 !. 2 !. 2 !. 2 !. 2 !. 2
! 12

Tuy nhin v 6 chic hp ging nhau, nn vi 6! Cch sp xp khc nhau
trn , cui cng ch ng vi mt cch sp xp 6 hp ging nhau.
Vy s cch xp vo 6 hp ging nhau l:
10395 ! 6 :
! 2 !. 2 !. 2 !. 2 !. 2 !. 2
! 12
=

Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 27 HOANG KIM DINH
5. Trn mt k sch c 4 loi sch 12: Vn, S, L, Ha, mi loi c t nht
8 cun. Hi c bao nhiu cch khc nhau chn 8 cun sch t k ?
(C LTH GT,STH-Trn Vn Ho-tr 259)
Hng dn
Vic chn ny hon ton xc nh bi s mi loi sch c chn.
V d: chn 1 Vn, 2 S, 2 L, 3 Ha th ta c th biu din nh sau:
x /xx/xx/xxx
c th cch chn khc: 3 S, 1 L, 4 Ha:
/xxx/x/xxxx
Nu coi mt cch chn l mt dy gm 8 du x v 3 du / , th bi ton
chng ta l m s dy khc nhau gm 8 du x v 3 du /. Cc dy ny
khc nhau v tr du / trong dy gm 11 du x v /.
Do s cc dy khc nhau chnh l s t hp chp 3 ca 11 phn t,
tc l
3
11
C
. Vy c
165
2 . 3
9 . 10 . 11
3
11
= = C
cch chn khc nhau.
6.Mt n cnh st khu vc c 9 ngi. Trong ngy, cn 3 ngi lm
nhim v im A, 2 ngi a im B, cn 4 ngi thng trc ti n.
Hi c bao nhiu cch phn cng? (HVQH QT-2000)
(S: 1260 .
2
6
3
9
= C C )
7. Mt t hc sinh gm 10 ngi trong c 2 n, 8 nam ngi vo 10 chic
gh t quanh mt bn trn.
a) C bao nhiu cch sp xp ch ngi khc nhau.
b) C bao nhiu cch sp xp ch ngi khc nhau hai bn n ngi cnh
nhau. (H M HN-1998)
Hng dn
S: a) Vi mt bn trn, ngi ta khng phn bit v tr ch ngi, c
ngha l cc kt qu ch do i ch vng trn, s khng coi l khc nhau.
Vy s cch xp bng
103680 ! 9
10
10
= =
P
9!
b)Ta coi hai bn n l 1, vi 1 ch ngi khi :
+ Bn c 9 ch ngi, do c
! 8
9
9
=
P

+ S cch xp 2 bn n l 2!
Vy c 8!.2! cch.
8. Mt hc sinh c 12 cun sch i mt khc nhau, trong c 2 cun
sch Ton, 4 cun sch Vn, v 6 cun sch Anh vn. Hi c bao nhiu
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 28 HOANG KIM DINH
cch sp xp tt c cc cun sch ln mt k sch di, nu mi cun sch
cng mn c xp k nhau. (HQG HCM -1998- A- 2)
S: 3!.2!.4!.6!=207360.
9. Mt hp ng 4 vin bi , 5 vin bi trng v 6 vin bi vng. Ngi ta
chn ra 4 vin bi t hp . Hi c bao nhieu cch chn trong s bi ly
ra khng c c ba mu. (H Hu-Khi Kin Trc-1999)
Hng dn
+ C tt c
4
15
C
cch chn 4 vin bi t hp c 15 vin bi;
+ Xt trng hp m 4 vin bi c chn ba mu:
- 2 , 1 trng, 1 vng:
1
6
1
5
2
4
. . C C C

- 1 , 2 trng, 1 vng:
1
6
2
5
1
4
. . C C C

- 1 , 1 trng, 2 vng:
2
6
1
5
1
4
. . C C C

Vy s cch chn khng c c ba mu l:
4
15
C
-(
1
6
1
5
2
4
. . C C C
+
1
6
2
5
1
4
. . C C C
+
2
6
1
5
1
4
. . C C C
)=645
10. Trong mt phng c 2 bn di, mi bn c 5 gh. Ngi ta mun xp
ch ngi cho 10 hc sinh gm 5 nam v 2 n. Hi c bao nhiu cch sp
xp ch ngi nu:
a) Cc hc sinh ngi ty ;
b) Cc hc sinh nam ngi mt bn v cc hc sinh n ngi 1 bn.
((H Cn Th-1999)
S:
a. C 10! Cch sp xp hc sinh ngi ty ;
b. C 2.(5!) cch sp xp nam ngi 1 bn, n ngi 1 bn.
11. Mt t sinh vin c 20 em, trong c 8 em ch bit ting Anh, 7 em
ch bit ting Php v 5 em ch bit ting c. Cn lp mt nhm i thc t
gm 3 em bit ting Anh, 4 em bit ting Php v 2 em bit ting c. Hi
c bao nhiu cch lp nhm t t sinh vin . (HSP Vinh-1999)
S: 19600 . .
2
5
4
7
3
8
= C C C
12. C 10 ch ci khc nhau.
a. C th lp c bao nhiu ch c 5 ch ci?
b. C th lp c bao nhiu ch c 5 ch ci khc nhau?
S:
a. 10
5

b.
5
10
A

13. Cho tp A ={1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8}
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 29 HOANG KIM DINH
a. C bao nhiu tp con X ca tp A tha mn iu kin X cha 1 v khng
cha 2;
b. C bao nhiu s t nhin chn gm 5 ch s i mt khc nhau ly t
tp A v khng bt u t 123?
Hng dn
a.Cc tp con khng cha 1 v 2 l tp con ca tp B={3,4,5,6,7,8}. S tp
con ny l 2
6
. Thm s 1 vo mi tp con ny ta c cc tp con ca X
cha 1 m khng cha 2. Vy c 2
6

b. C 4.
4
7
A
s chn c 5 ch s; Cc s bt u t 123 c tt c 12 s (tn
cng bi 4,6,8). Vy cn li 4.
4
7
A
-12=828 s.
14. C n hc sinh nam v n hc sinh n ngi quanh mt bn trn. Hi c
bao nhiu cch sp xp khng c 2 hc sinh cng gii ngi cnh nhau.
(HV K thut Qun s-1998)
2.(n!)
2
15. Xp 3 vin bi c bn knh khc nhau v 3 vin bi mu xanh ging
nhau vo mt dy 7 trng.
a. Hi c bao nhiu cch sp xp khc nhau?
b. Hi c bao nhiu cch sp xp khc nhau sao cho 3 vin bi xp cnh
nhau v 3 vin bi xanh xp cnh nhau. (HV Qun Y- 2000)
Hng dn
a.Do 3 vin bi c bn knh khc nhau nn c
3
7
A
cch sp xp 3 vin bi
vo 7 trng; Cn 4 trng, do 3 vin bi xanh ging nhau nn s cch
sp xp 3 vin bi xanh vo 4 trng chnh l
3
4
C

Vy c
3
7
A
.
3
4
C
= 840 cch sp xp.
b. xanh ng cnh nhau ch c 6 cch sp xp; Trong mi cch sp
xp ta hon v cc bi vi nhau, cc vin bi xanh vi nhau. Do cc
vin bi xanh ging nhau, cn cc vin bi khc nhau nn ta c s hon
v l 3!.
Vy c 6.3!=36 cch sp xp.
16. Mt hp ng 6 qu cu xanh nh s t 1 n 6, 5 qu cu nh s
t 1 n 5, 4 qu cu vng nh s t 1 n 4.
a. C bao nhiu cch ly ra 3 qu cu cng mu? 3 qu cu cng s?
b. C bao nhiu cch ly ra 3 qu cu khc mu? 3 qu cu khc mu v
khc s? (H Thng Long-1999).
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 30 HOANG KIM DINH
17. Mt on tu c 3 toa I, II, III. Sn ga c 4 hnh khch chun b i tu,
c t nht 4 ch trng.
a. C my cch xp 4 khch ln 3 toa?
b. C my cch xp 4 khch ln tu c 1 toa c 3 trong bn v khch ni
trn? (H Lut HN-1999)
(S: a. 6.3!; b. C
3
4
C
cch chn 3 trong 4 v khch; ng vi mi nhm 3
v khch cng vi 1 ngi cn li c 3! Cch sp xp vo 3toa tu. Vy
c 3!.
3
4
C
cch)
18. C 5 nh ton hc nam, 3 nh ton hc n v 4 nh vt l nam. Lp mt
on cng tc c 3 ngi cn c c nam v n, cn c c nh ton hc v
nh vt l. Hi c bao nhiu cch? (HY 2000)
(S: + C 1 nh ton hc nam, 1 nh ton hc n, 1 nh vt l:
1
4
1
3
1
5
. . C C C

+ C 2 nh ton hc n, 1 nh vt l:
1
4
2
3
.C C

+ C 1 nh ton hc n, 2 nh vt l:
2
4
1
3
.C C

Vy c:
1
4
2
3
.C C
+
1
4
1
3
1
5
. . C C C
+
2
4
1
3
.C C
=90)
19. Mt hp ng 12 vin bi, trong c 3 vin trng, 4 vin , 5 vin
xanh. Gi A l tng s cch ly 6 trong 12 vin bi , B l cch ly 6 vin
sao cho s bi bng s bi xanh. Tnh t s B:A.
(S:
2
5
2
4
2
3
3
5
3
4
6
12
. . . ; C C C C C B C A + = =
(GT Nhanh-Phm Trng Th)
-------------------

Mt s bi ton trong cc k thi OLYMPIC 30-4
Bi 1 (Olympic 30/4-2007-Chu Vn An-Ninh Thun-Tr15)
Hi Ton hc ca mt thnh ph c mt nm c nhm hp 40 ln. Mi
ln hp c ng 10 thnh vin n d, trong khng c 2 thnh vin no
cng n d hp vi nhau qu mt ln.
Chng minh rng Hi Ton hc thnh ph khng th t hn 60 ngi.
Gii
S cp 2 thnh vin d hp mt ln l: 45
2
10 * 9
! 8 !* 2
! 10
2
10
= = = C
S cp 2 thnh vin d hp 40 ln l: 45*40=1800
Do khng c cp thnh vin no cng n d hp vi nhau qu 1 ln, gi
s thnh vin ca Hi Ton hc l n th ta c
60 1840
2
> > n C
n
.
Bi 2 (Olympic 30/4-2007-Nguyn Bnh Khim-Qung Nam-Tr30)
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 31 HOANG KIM DINH
Tnh tng h s ca s hng khng cha x trong khai trin ca
n
x
x x P
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
5
2 ) (
, vi neN v x0. Bit rng
1 2 ...
32 2
1 4
3
1 4
2
1 4
1
1 4
= + + + +
+ + + +
n
n n n n
C C C C
.
Gii
Ta c
1 4 1 4
1 4
3
1 4
2
1 4 1 4 1 4
2 ...
1 0 + +
+ + + + +
= + + + + +
n n
n n n n n
C C C C C

Do
y x
x
y
x
C C

=
nn
1 4
1 4
2 2
1 4
1 2
1 4
2
1 4
3
1 4
2
1 4
1
1 4
0
1 4
... ...
+
+
+
+
+
+ + + + + +
+ + + = + + + + +
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n n n n
C C C C C C C C

Suy ra
1 4 1 4
1 4
3
1 4
2
1 4 1 4 1 4
2 ) ...
1 0
( 2
+ +
+ + + + +
= + + + + +
n n
n n n n n
C C C C C

1 2 ...
4 2
1 4
3
1 4
2
1 4
1
1 4
= + + + +
+ + + +
n n
n n n n
C C C C

Theo gi thit ta c 2
4n
-1=2
32
-1. Vy n =8.
Khi
( )

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
8
0
8
8
8 8
5
2
5
) 2 (
5
2 ) (
k
k
k
k
x
x C
x
x
x
x x P



=

=
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
k
m
k m k m k m
k
k
k
k
m
m m k m
k
k
k
k
x C C x C
x
C
8
0
8
8
8
0
8
8
0
8
8
8
0
8
. 5 . 2 . . 2 .
5

Suy ra k=m=0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
Vy Tng h s ca s hng khng cha x trong khai trin P(x) l:..
Bi 3 (Olympic 30/4-2007-Phan Chu Trinh-Tr64)
Tm h s ca x
7
trong khai trin thnh a thc ca (2-3x)
2n
, trong n
tha mn
1024 ...
5 3 1 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
= + + + +
+
+ + + +
n
n n n n
C C C C
.
Hng dn
+ n= 5
+ H s cn tm:
7 3 7
10
3 . 2 . C
Bi 4 (Olympic 30/4-2007-Chuyn Bn Tre-Tr139) Trn mt phng cho
20 im trong khng c 3 im no thng hng.
Gi s trong cc ng thng i qua hai trong 20 im cho khng
c hai ng thng no song song v cng khng c ba ng thng no
ng qui ti mt im khc vi 20 im cho.
Hy tnh s tam gic to bi cc ng thng m mi tam gic u
khng c nh l mt trong 20 im cho.
Hng dn
+ S ng thng i qua hai trong 20 im cho l:
190
2
20
= C

Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 32 HOANG KIM DINH
+ S tam gic to bi cc ng thng , m mi tam gic u khng c
nh l mt trong 20 im cho l:
3
19
3
190
. 20 C C

+ S tam gic to bi cc ng thng , m mi tam gic u c ng ba
nh l ba trong 20 im cho l:
3
20
C

+ S tam gic to bi cc ng thng , m mi tam gic u c ng
hai nh l hai trong 20 im cho l:
17 . 18 .
2
20
C

+ S tam gic to bi cc ng thng , m mi tam gic u c ng
mt nh l mt trong 20 im cho l:
2
17
2
19
. . 20 C C

Vy: S tam gic to bi cc ng thng , m mi tam gic u khng
c nh l mt trong 20 im cho l:
3
19
3
190
. 20 C C
-
3
20
C
-
17 . 18 .
2
20
C
-
2
17
2
19
. . 20 C C
=581400.
Bi 5 (Olympic 30/4-2007-Hunh Mn t-Kin Giang-Tr221) Trong th
vin c 12 b sch gm 3 b sch Ton ging nhau, 3 b sch Vt l ging
nhau, 3 b sch ha hc ging nhau v 3 b sch Sinh hc ging nhau c
xp thnh mt dy sao cho khng c ba b no cng mt mn ng k
nhau. Hi c bao nhiu cch sp xp nh vy.
Hng dn
+ S cch sp xp 12 b sch thnh mt dy ty :
( )
4
! 3
! 12

+ S cch sp xp 12 b sch thnh mt dy m 3 b sch Ton ng k
nhau l:
( )
3
1
4
! 3
! 10
. C
+ S cch sp xp 12 b sch thnh mt dy m 3 b sch L ng k
nhau l:
( )
2
2
4
! 3
! 8
. C
+ S cch sp xp 12 b sch thnh mt dy m 3 b sch Ha ng k
nhau l:
( )
1
3
4
! 3
! 6
. C
+ S cch sp xp 12 b sch thnh mt dy m 3 b sch Sinh ng k
nhau l:
( )
0
4
4
! 3
! 4
. C
Vy c:
( )
4
! 3
! 12
-(
( )
3
1
4
! 3
! 10
. C +
( )
2
2
4
! 3
! 8
. C +
( )
1
3
4
! 3
! 6
. C +
( )
0
4
4
! 3
! 4
. C )=369600-60936=308664 cch
sp xp tha yu cu bi.
Bi 6 (Olympic 30/4-2008-Lu Vn Vit-Vnh Long-Tr86) Cho hai s
nguyn dng k v n, vi 1k n. Xt tt c cc tp hp con c
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 33 HOANG KIM DINH
M={1,2,3,..,n}, mi tp con c k phn t. Trong mi tp con ta chn s b
nht.
Chng minh rng trung bnh cng ca cc phn t c chn l:
1
1
+
+
k
n
.
Hng dn
+ Cc tp hp con ca M c phn t c chn l 1,2,3,...,n-k+1 v cch
cu to cc tp hp ny nh sau: nu ly AcM\{1} c k-1 phn t nh vy
th tp B=A{1} c k phn t, trong s 1 l s b nht.
Do c:
1
1

k
n
C
tp hp con c s b nht l 1;
1
2

k
n
C
tp hp con (c k phn t) c s b nht l 2;
................................................................................
1
) 1 (

+
k
k n n
C
tp hp con (c 2 phn t) c s b nht l n-k+1;
Ta cn chng minh:
| |
1
1
) 1 ...( . 2 . 1
1
1
) 1 (
1
2
1
1
=
+
= + + +

+

k
n
C k n C C
C
k
k n n
k
n
k
n
k
n

1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
) 1 ( ... . 2 . 1
+
+

= + + + +
k
n
k
k
k
n
k
n
C C k n C C
Ta c:
1
1
1
1

+

+
= + =
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
C C C C C C
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
C k n C C k n C C C C VT ) 1 ( ) )( ( ... ) .( 2 ) .( 1
1 1 2 1 1
+ + + + + =
+ +

1
1 1 1
...
+
+ +
= + + + + =
k
n
k
k
k
k
k
n
k
n
C C C C C
.
Bi 7 (Olympic 30/4-2008-Lu Vn Vit-Vnh Long-Tr98) Cho n l s t
nhin 1<n. Ta c h thc :
( ) ( ) x x C x x C x x C . 2008 . 2008 ... 1 . 2 1
2008 2008
2008
2006
2 2
2008
2007
1
2008
= + + +

Hng dn
Ta c:
1
1
) 1 (

+
+ =
k
n
k
n
C n kC

Lc
( ) ( )
2008 2008
2008
2006
2 2
2008
2007
1
2008
. 2008 ... 1 . 2 1 x C x x C x x C + + +

=
( ) ( ) | |
2008 2007
2007
2006
2 1
2007
2007
0
2007
... 1 1 2008 x C x x C x x C + + +

( ) ( ) | |
2007 2007
2007
2006
1
2007
2007
0
2007
... 1 1 . . 2008 x C x x C x C x + + + =

( ) | | x x x x . 2008 ) 1 . . 2008
2007
+ =

Bi 8 (Olympic 30/4-2008-Phan Ngc Hin-C Mau-Tr108) Mt thiu n
mun xu 50 vin ngc c mu sc khc nhau thnh mt si dy chuyn
eo c. Hi c bao nhiu cch xu?.
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 34 HOANG KIM DINH
Hng dn
+ S hon v trn ca 50 vin ngc l:
50
! 50

+ Mi hon v trn trn c th lt ngc li c mt hon v khc,
nhng hai hon v nh nhau.
+ Vy c
50 . 2
! 50
cch xu.
Bi 9 (Olympic 30/4-2008-Chuyn Bn Tre-Bn Tre-Tr108) Cho 2008
im trn mt phng sao cho 3 im bt k trong chng khng thng hng.
Gi s cc ng thng ni cc im tng i mt ct nhau v 3 trong cc
ng thng ch c th ng quy ti mt trong 2008 im cho. Tnh
s m cc ng thng v s tam gic to bi m ng thng .
Hng dn
+ S ng thng
2
2008
C m =

+ Ti mt im c 2007 ng thng i qua; s cch chn 3 ng trong
chng l:
3
2007
C
;
+ Tng ng vi mt cch chn trn l mt tam gic b loi;
+ Vy s tam gic to bi m ng thng l:
3
2007
3
. 2008 C C
m


Bi 10 (Olympic 30/4-2008-L Hng Phong-H Ch Minh-Tr256) C bao
nhiu s t nhin c 10 ch s khc nhau i mt, trong cc ch s
1,2,3,4,5 c xp theo th t tng dn t tri sang phi nhng cc ch s
1,2,3,4,5,6 th khng c xp nh vy.
Hng dn
+ Gi s s t nhin c 10 ch s l a
1
a
2
...a
10
(a
1
0)
+ Theo bi th cc ch s 1,2,3,4,6 phi ng trc ch s 5 nn ch s
5 ch c th t v tr th 6 tr i. Tc l v tr a
6
, a
7
, a
8
, a
9
, a
10
.
Ta xt ln lt tng v tr ca ch s a
5
, ri n v tr a
6
, ri v tr b
(1,2,3,4) v cui cng l v tr cc ch s cn li.
+ Trng hp a
10
= 5, ch s 6 c 9 v tr, b (1,2,3,4) c
4
8
C
v tr v bn
ch s 0,7,8,9 c 4! V tr, nh vy c tt c 9.
4
8
C
.4! cch sp xp k c
khi a
1
=0. Ta b i cc trng hp a
1
=0: 8.
4
7
C
.3!.
Nh vy, trong trng hp ny c 9.
4
8
C
.4!-8.
4
7
C
.3! s;
+ Trng hp a
9
=5 ta c:
! 3 . . 7 ! 4 . . 8
3
6
4
7
C C
.s;
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 35 HOANG KIM DINH
+ Trng hp a
8
=5 ta c:
! 3 . . 6 ! 4 . . 7
3
5
4
6
C C

+ Trng hp a
7
=5 ta c:
! 3 . . 5 ! 4 . . 6
3
4
4
5
C C

+ Trng hp a
6
=5 ta c
! 4 . . 5
4
4
C

Vy c: 9.
4
8
C
.4!-8.
4
7
C
.3!+
! 3 . . 7 ! 4 . . 8
3
6
4
7
C C
.+
! 3 . . 6 ! 4 . . 7
3
5
4
6
C C
+
! 3 . . 5 ! 4 . . 6
3
4
4
5
C C
+
! 4 . . 5
4
4
C
=22680 s.
Bi 11 (Olympic 30/4-2009-Phan Chu Trinh- Nng-Tr7) T mt i
thanh nin xung kch gm 8 nam v 6 n c tt c bao nhiu cch chn ra 2
cp tham gia ma tp th(trong mi cp gm 1 nam v 1 n)?
Hng dn
+ S cch chn 2 nam trong 8 nam l
2
8
C , s cch chn 2 n trong 6 n
2
6
C ;
+ Mi cch chn ra 2 nam v 2 n trn, c 2! cch chn ra 2 cp.
+ Vy s cch chn cn tm l:
840 ! 2 . .
2
6
2
8
= C C

Bi 12 (Olympic 30/4-2009-Nguyn nh Chiu-ng Thp-Tr17) Xt
dy s gm 9 ch s khc nhau c ly t cc s t nhin t 1 ti 9. Hi
to c bao nhiu dy s m cc s 1, 2, 3 i mt khng ng cnh nhau
(k c ba s 1, 2, 3 khng ng cnh nhau).
Hng dn
+ Khng xt n iu kin bi ta c 9! dy s c to nn;
+ Ta xt cc dy s khng tha mn bi:
- Nu dy s c hai ch s 1, 2 ng cnh nhau th c
1
8
!. 7 !. 2 C dy s.
Tng t nh vy cho cc dy s c hai ch s 1, 3 v 2, 3 ng cnh
nhau.
- Nu dy s c 3 s 1, 2, 3 ng cnh nhau th to c
1
7
!. 6 !. 3 C dy
s.
Vy c 9!-3.
1
8
!. 7 !. 2 C -
1
7
!. 6 !. 3 C =151200
Bi 13 (Olympic 30/4-2009-Thoi Ngc Hu-An Giang-Tr20) C th lp
c bao nhiu s t nhin 7 ch s i mt khc nhau v tha 2 iu kin
sau y:
i. Phi c 3 ch s: 3, 4, 5 ng lin nhau;
ii. Phi c hai ch s: 7, 9 ng lin nhau.
Hng dn
+ Ta xem 3, 4, 5 gp thnh mt s; 7, 9 gp thnh mt s; trong s c 7
ch s i mt khc nhau th c 2 s ly trong 4 s 1,2,6,8 nn c
2
4
C
cch
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 36 HOANG KIM DINH
chn; ng vi mt cch chn trn c 2!.3!.4! cch cn cc ch s cn li.
Nh vy c 2!.3!.4!.
2
4
C
s cn tm khng cha ch s 0.
+ C
1
4
C
cch chn mt s trong cc s 1, 2, 6, 8 cng vi s 0 v 2 s
gp trn.
v tr u tin bn tri c: 3 cch chn do n khc 0;
Vi mt cch chn trn c: 3! cch chn cc ch s 0 v hai ch s
gp trn;
Vi mt cch chn trn c:2!.3! cch chn cho cc ch s 3, 4, 5 v
7, 9. Do c
1
4
C
.3.2!.3!.3!
Vy c: 2!.3!.4!.
2
4
C
+
1
4
C
.3.2!.3!.3! = 2592 s cn tm.
Bi 14 (Olympic 30/4-2009-Chuyn Bc Liu-Tr21) Mt lp hc c 45
hc sinh thnh lp ba i tuyn hc sinh gii ba mn: Ton, L, Ha. C
17 em i Ton; 15 em i L; 11 em i Ha.
7 em chung c 2 i Ton, L
7 em chung c 2 i L, Ha
5 em chung c 2 i Ha, Ton
2 em chung c 3 i Ton, L, Ha.
Tm s hc sinh khng d thi mn no.
Hng dn

Dng biu Ven











S hc sinh d thi c ba i Ton, L, Ha l: 7+5+6+2+2+3+4=29
Vy s hc sinh khng d thi l: 45-29=16.
Bi 15 (Olympic 30/4-2009-Chuyn Tin Giang-Tr35) Hi t cc ch s
0; 1; 2; 3; 4, ta c th lp c bao nhiu s c 15 ch s m trong mi
7
4
6
2
5
2
3
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 37 HOANG KIM DINH
ch s u c mt ng 3 ln v khng c ch s no chim 3 v tr lin
tip.
Hng dn
+ Gi s cn tm l x=
a14a15 0a11a12a13 a6a7a8a9a1 a1a2a3a4a5
C 12 cch chn a
1
(v a
1
khc 0)
ng vi mt cch chn a
1
c 14 cch chn a
2
ng vi mt cch chn a
1
c v 1 cch chn a
2

c 13 cch chn a
3

........
ng vi mt cch chn a
1,
a
2
, ..., a
14
c 1 cch chn a
15
Nh vy c 12.14! s c lp. Nhng do mi s trong cc s 0, 1, 2,
3, 4 u lp li 3 ln. Vy c (12.14!)/(3!)
5
s c 15 ch s c lp nn
bi cc ch s 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 m mi ch s c mt ng 3 ln trong s .
+
Bi 16 (Olympic 30/4-2009-Chuyn Phan Ngc Hin- C Mau-Tr44) B
phn cp bin s xe ca cnh st giao thng thc hin theo mu nh
nh hnh v sau:


Trong X, Y l cc ch ci c ly ty trong 26 ch ci A,B,..,Z
v a,b,c,d l cc s c ly ty trong 10 ch s: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9.
Hi khi cp ht bin s xe th c bao nhiu xe c cp. Bit rng
a,b,c,d khng ng thi bng 0.
Hng dn
+ Cp XY c 26
2
cch chn;
+ B abcd c 10
4
cch chn;
+ Do b 0000 khng dng.
Vy s xe l: 26
2
(10
4
-1)=6 759 324 (xe)
Bi 17 (Olympic 30/4-2010-L Qu n-Ninh Thun-Tr09) Gii phng
trnh vi n neN, n2.
4038089
1 2
2
1
...
6
1
4
1
2
1
2
1 2
1 2
2
5
2
3
2
1
2
+

= + + + +

n n
C
n
C C C
n
n
n n n n

Hng dn
+ ta c
k
C
n
C
C n kC
k
n
k
n k
n
k
n
2 1 2
) 1 2 ( 2
1 2
2
2
1 2 1 2
2
2
1 2

+
+
=
+
+ =
nn:
1 2
...
2
1
...
6
1
4
1
2
1
2
1 2
4
1 2
2
1 2 1 2
2
5
2
3
2
1
2
+
+ + +
= + + + +
+ + +
n
C C C
C
n
C C C
n
n n n n
n n n n

M
0 ... , 2 ...
1 2
1 2
3
1 2
2
1 2
1
1 2
0
1 2
1 2 1 2
1 2
1
1 2
0
1 2
= + + = + + +
+
+ + + + +
+ +
+ + +
n
n n n n n
n n
n n n
C C C C C C C C

XY
abcd
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 38 HOANG KIM DINH
Suy ra 1 2 ...
2 2
1 2
4
1 2
2
1 2
= + + +
+ + +
n n
n n n
C C C
0 4038090
4038089
1 2
1 2
1 2
2
1
...
6
1
4
1
2
1
2
2
1 2 2
1 2
2
5
2
3
2
1
2
=
+

=
+

= + + + +

n n
n n n
C
n
C C C
n n
n
n n n n

n=2010
Bi 18 (Olympic 30/4-2010-L Qu n-Qung Tr-Tr26). Hi c bao
nhiu tam gic c di cc cnh l cc s nguyn dng nh hn hoc
bng 2010.
Hng dn
S tam gic c di cc cnh l cc s nguyn dng nh hn hoc bng
2n bng s cc b ba s nguyn dng x, y, ztha mn xyz2n v
x+y>z.
Trng hp xn+1
+ S tam gic u l n
+ S tam gic cn l n(n-1)
+ S tam gic khng cn l:
6
) 2 )( 1 (
3

=
n n n
C
n

Trong trng hp ny s tam gic l: n+n(n-1)+
6
) 2 )( 1 (
6
) 2 )( 1 ( + +
=
n n n n n n

Trng hp x=pn khi y c th nhn cc gi tr t p n 2n.
+ Vi mi gi tr y t p n 2n-p+1 th c p cch chn gi tr z tha mn
yz<y+p v z2n
+Vi mi gi tr ca y t 2n-p+2 n 2n c ng 2n-y+1 cch chn gi tr
ca z p, y, n l s o ba cnh ca tam gic.
Trng hp ny s tam gic l:
p p pn y n p p n p
n
p n y
2
3
2
3
2 ) 1 2 ( )) 1 ( 1 2 (
2
2
1 2
+ = + + +

+ =

Vy: trng hp xn s tam gic l

+ = |
.
|

\
|
+
2 2
) 1 (
2 2
3
2
3
2 n
n
p p pn .Kt hp cc
trng hp ta c s tam gic l: ( )
6
) 5 4 )( 1 (
6
) 2 )( 1 (
1
2
2
+ +
=
+ +
+ +
n n n n n n
n
n

Vi n =1005 th s tam gic l 678232625
6
4025 . 1006 . 1005
= .

Bi 19 (Olympic 30/4-2011-Nguyn Bnh Khim-Qung Nam-Tr15) Cho
n (n3) im trong mt phng, trong khng c ba im no thng hng.
Ni tt c cc ng thng qua hai im trong cc im . Bit rng cc
ng thng i mt ct nhau v khng c im no ngoi cc im
cho c trn hai trong cc ng thng i qua. Hy tnh s giao im ca
hai v ch hai trong cc ng thng .
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 39 HOANG KIM DINH
Hng dn
+Nu n=3 th s giao im l 3 ;
+Nu n4 th mi im cho u c trn 2 ng thng i qua v khng
phi l im cn tnh ;
+ S ng thng i qua n im cho l : p=
2
) 1 (
2

=
n n
C
n

+ S giao im do p ng thng ct nhau l:
) 2 )( 1 (
8
2
2
) 1 (
2 2
=

= n n n n
p p
C
p

+ Mi im cho c n-1 ng thng i qua nn s lt c tnh l
2
) 2 )( 1 (
2
1

=

n n
C
n
, nh vy s lt im n im l
2
1
.
n
C n

+ Do cc im cho khng c im no c qu hai ng thng i qua
nn mi im cn li ch c mt lt.
Vy : s giao im cn tm l
8
) 3 )( 2 )( 1 (
2
1
2

=

n n n n
nC C
n p

Bi 20 (Olympic 30/4-2011-Phan Chu Trinh- Nng-Tr44) T cc s 0,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 c th lp c bao nhiu s t nhin c 5 ch s khc nhau
v chia ht cho 15.
Hng dn
+ Gi s cn tm l
5 4 3 2 1
x x x x x x =
+ x chia ht cho 3 khi tng cc s hng chia ht cho 3 nn cc x
i
thuc mt
trong cc tp hp sau :
A
1
={0,1,2,3,6}, A
2
={0,1,2,4,5}, A
3
={0,1,2,5,6}
A
4
={0,2,3,4,6}, A
5
={0,3,4,5,6}, A
6
={1,2,3,4,5}, A
7
={1,2,4,5,6}
+ X chia ht cho 5 th
- x
5
thuc A
1
, A
4,
A
6
, A
7
(ch c 0 hoc 5) : c 96 s
- Hoc x
5
thuc A
2
, A
3,
A
5
,

(c 0 v 5) : c 126 s
+ Vy c 96+126=222 s.
Bi 21 (Olympic 30/4-2011-Hong L Kha-Ty Ninh-Tr50) Mt hon v
{x
1
,x
2
,x
3
,...,x
2n
} ca tp hp M={1,2,3,4,...,2n-1,2n}, n nguyn dng,
c gi l c tnh cht P nu /x
i
-x
i+1
/=n vi t nht mt gi tr
ie{1,2,...2n-1}.
Chng minh rng vi mi s n, s hon v c tnh cht P ln hn s hon v
khng c tnh cht P (hon v cp trong cu l hon v khng lp)
Hng dn
+ Ta c /1-(n+1/=2,..., /k-(n+k/=n...
Trng THPT U Minh-T Ton
Trang 40 HOANG KIM DINH
+ Gi A
k
l tp tt c cc hon v ca M sao cho trong cc hon v hai s
hng k v n+k gn nhau.
+ Gi A l tp hp tt c cc hon v c tnh cht P th ta c
k
k
A A =

+ Khi ...

< < <
+ + + = =
m h k
m h k
h k
h k k
k
k
A A A A A A A A

biu thc ny l tng


cc s hng ca dy n iu gim (v s phn t) v an du nhau nn ta
c:

<
> =
h k
h k k
k
k
A A A A A


+ Ta c /A
k
/=2(2n-1)! v /A
k
A
h
/=4.(2n-2) !
+ Do
2
)! 2 (
)! 2 (
1 2
2 )! 2 2 ( )! 2 2 ( 2 4 .
2
) 1 (
) 1 2 ( 2 )! 2 2 (
2
n
n
n
n
n n n n n
n n
n n n A >

= = = |
.
|

\
|
>
+ Nh vy s hon v c tnh cht P ln hn mt na s hon v ca tp M
suy ra pcm.

Chc thnh cng!