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EXPERIMENT 1: DETERMINATION OF TOTAL SOLIDS (TS) AND TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID OBJECTIVE To determine the total solid and

d total suspended solid in water samples

RELATED TEXT TOPICS Discussion on total solid, total suspended solid and volatile suspended solid in a water samples INTRODUCTION All matter except the water contained in liquid materials is classified as solid matters. The solid content of water is one of the most significant parameters. It is used in the design of water treatment plant. Total solid The most important physical parameter of water is total solids content. The total solids content is composed of floating material, settleable matter, colloidal matter and mater in solution. Total solid content are the residue remaining after a water sample has been evaporated and dried at a specified temperature (103 to 105C) Total suspended solid Solids suspended in water may consist of inorganic and organic particles or of immiscible liquids. A suspended solid are objectionable in water as it is aesthetically displeasing and provides sites chemical and biological agents. Most suspended solids can be removed from water by filtration. Portion of the total solids retained on the filter with a specified pore size (1.58m), measured after being dried at 105C Total Volatile Suspended Solid Total volatile solids are those solids that can be volatilized and burned off when the TSS are ignited at 500 50 C.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE List of glassware/apparatus 1. Evaporating dish 2. Measuring cylinder , 10 ml 3. Oven 4. Dessicator 5. Etc. Sample Handling and Preservation 1. Use resistant glass or plastic bottles provided that the material in suspension does not adhere to container walls 2. Begin analysis as soon as possible. 3. Refrigerate sample at 4C up to the time of analysis to minimize microbiological decomposition of solids. 4. Preferably, do not hold samples without analysis more than 24 h. Procedure: You will make measurements of total solids and total suspended solids from two river water samples. Work in groups. After you are done, compare your results with others. This will give you a check of your precision. Total Solids 1. Put 30 ml of sample into a tared porcelain weighing dish that has been cleaned and dried. 2. Evaporate the majority of the water on the steam table (this usually takes over an hour); 3. Complete evaporation to dryness in the oven at 103oC. 4. Cool in the dessicator and weigh. 5. The difference in weight from the tare weight represents the amount of total solids. Suspended Solids 1. Prewash the filters by filtering about 50 ml of distilled water through the filters, drying them in the 103 oC oven for at least one hour, and cooling them in a dessicator. 2. After cooled, filter as much of a known quantity of the sample as can be easily filtered through a prewashed and dried tared glass microfibre filter. (Too small a sample size

will result in loss of precision - do not predetermine your sample size before you start filtering.) 3. Use a clean filter flask and save water for dissolved solids analysis (described below). 4. Dry filter for 1 hour at 103oC. 5. Cool in desiccator and weigh. 6. Perform procedure in triplicate 7. The difference in weight is the weight of suspended solids. Remember to report your results in units of mg/l.

For total suspended solid, please use the procedure according to the lab experiment that you have done yesterday.

Total Volatile Solids 1. Dry the porcelain dish further at 500oC for 1 hour in the muffle furnace. 2. After drying, cool in the dessicator and weigh. 3. The amount of weight lost corresponds to material lost by volatilization, roughly comprising the organic fraction. Dissolved Solids i) Take 100 ml filtrate from suspended solids procedure. ii) Dry first on evaporating dish, then in 103oC oven. - Cool and weigh. iii) Difference in weight is weight of dissolved solids.

Total volatile solid and dissolved solid mentions above are just for your information. No need to put in your lab report.

EXERCISE EXPERIMENT 1 : DETERMINATION OF TOTAL SOLIDS (TS) AND TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID

1. Name the various forms of TS that can be found in water and wastewater. State their effects on the quality of water. 2. What are the impact of suspended solid to the water quality