You are on page 1of 55

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

MC LC
LI M U
CHNG I : TNG QUAN........................................................................
I . L THUYT V CHNG CT
1 . Phng php chng ct
2 . Thit b chng ct:
II . GII THIU S B NGUYN LIU
1 . Nc
2 . Acid acetic
3 . Hn hp Nc Acid acetic
III . CNG NGH CHNG CT H NC ACID ACETIC
CHNG II : CN BNG VT CHT
I . CC THNG S BAN U
II . XC NH SUT LNG SN PHM NH V SN PHM Y
III . XC NH T S HON LU THCH HP
1 . T s hon lu ti thiu
2 . T s hon lu thch hp
IV . PHNG TRNH NG LM VIC S MM L THUYT
1 . Phng trnh ng nng lm vic ca on ct
2 . Phng trnh ng nng lm vic ca on chng
3 . S mm l thuyt
CHNG III :TNH TON THIT K THP CHNG CT
I . NG KNH THP
1 . ng knh on ct
2 . ng knh on chng
II.TR LC CA MM
1 . Cu to mm l
2 . gim p ca pha kh qua mt mm
3 . Kim tra ngp lt khi thp hot ng :
III . TNH TON C KH CA THP
1 . B dy thn thp :
2 . y v np thit b :
3 . Bch ghp thn, y v np :
4 . ng knh cc ng dn Bch ghp cc ng dn :
5 . Tai treo v chn :
CHNG IV : TNH TON THIT B TRUYN NHIT- THIT B
PH
1

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

I . CC THIT B TRUYN NHIT


1 . Thit b ngng t sn phm nh
2 . Thit b lm ngui sn phm nh
3 . Ni un gia nhit sn phm y
4 . Thit b trao i nhit gia nhp liu v sn phm y
5 . Thit gia nhit nhp liu
II. TNH BO N CA THIT B
III . TNH TON BM NHP LIU
1 . Tnh chiu cao bn cao v
2 . Chn bm
CHNG V : GI THNH THIT B
I . TNH S B GI THNH CA THIT B
II . KT LUN
TI LIU THAM KHO

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

LI M U
Ngy nay cng vi s pht trin vt bc ca nn cng nghip th gii v nc nh, cc
ngnh cng nghip cn rt nhiu ho cht c tinh khit cao. Cc phng php c s
dng nng cao tinh khit: trch ly, chng ct, c c, hp thu Ty theo c tnh yu
cu ca sn phm m ta c s la chn phng php thch hp.
n mn hc Qu trnh v Thit b l mt mn hc mang tnh tng hp trong qu
trnh hc tp ca cc k s ho- th c phm tng lai. Mn hc gip sinh vin gii quyt
nhim v tnh ton c th v: yu cu cng ngh, kt cu, gi thnh ca mt thit b trong
sn xut ho cht - thc phm. y l bc u tin sinh vin vn dng nhng kin
thc hc ca nhiu mn hc vo gii quyt nhng vn k thut thc t mt cch tng
hp.
Nhim v ca AMH l thit k thp chng ct h nc acid acetic hot ng lin tc
vi nng sut nhp liu: 0,8 m3/h c nng 88% khi lng nc ,thu c sn phm nh
c nng 99,5% khi lng nc, sn phm y 70% khi lng nc. i vi h nc
acid acetic l h 2 cu t tan ln hon ton, c nhit si cch xa nhau, nn ta dng phng
php chng ct thu c nc c tinh khit cao.
Trong qua trnh chng cat ta thu sn phm day vi nng do nh de phc v cho nganh
cng nghiep sn xuat cao su
Em chn thnh cm n cc qu thy c b mn My & Thit B, thy Hoang Minh Nam,
cc bn sinh vin gip em hon thnh n ny. Em rt mong s gp , ch dn ca qu
thy c.

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

CHNG I : TNG QUAN.


I . L THUYT V CHNG CT:
1 . Phng php chng ct :
Chng ct l qua trnh phn tch hn hp lng (hoc kh lng) thnh cc cu t ring
bit da vo s khc nhau v bay hi ca chng (hay nhit si khc nhau cng p
sut), bng cch lp i lp li nhiu ln qu trnh bay hi - ngng t, trong vt cht i
t pha lng vo pha hi hoc ngc li. Khc vi c c, chng ct l qu trnh trong
c dung mi v cht tan u bay hi, cn c c l qu trnh trong ch c dung mi bay
hi.
Khi chng ct ta thu c nhiu cu t v thng th bao nhiu cu t s thu c by
nhiu sn phm. Nu xt h n gin ch c 2 h cu t th ta thu c 2 sn phm: sn
phm nh ch yu gm gm cu t c bay hi ln (nhit si nh ), sn phm y
ch yu gm cu t c bay hi b(nhit si ln) .i vi h nc acid acetic sn
phm nh l nc, sn phm y ch yu gm acid acetic v mt t nc.
Cc phng php chng ct: c phn loi theo:
p sut lm vic : chng ct p sut thp, p sut thng v p sut cao.
Nguyn tc ca phng php ny l da vo nhit si ca cc cu t, nu nhit
si ca cc cu t qu cao th ta gim p sut lm vic gim nhit si ca
cc cu t.
Nguyn l lm vic: lin tc, gin on(chng n gin) v lin tc.
* Chng ct n gin(gin on): phng php ny uc s dng trong cc
trng hp sau:
+ Khi nhit si ca cc cu t khc xa nhau.
+ Khng i hi sn phm c tinh khit cao.
+ Tch hn hp lng ra khi tp cht khng bay hi.
+ Tch s b hn hp nhiu cu t.
* Chng ct hn hp hai cu t (dng thit b hot ng lin tc) l qu trnh c
thc hin lin tc, nghch dng, nhu on.
Phng php ct nhit y thp: cp nhit trc tip bng hi nc: thng
c p dng trng hp cht c tch khng tan trong nc .
Vy: i vi h nc acid acetic, ta chn phng php chng ct lin tc cp nhit
gin tip bng ni un p sut thng.

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

2 . Thit b chng ct:


Trong sn xut thng s dng rt nhiu loi thp nhng chng u c mt yu cu
c bn l din tch b mt tip xc pha phi ln ,iu ny ph thuc vo phn tn ca
lu cht ny va lu cht kia .
Thp chng ct rt phong ph v kch c v ng dng ,cc thp ln nht thng c
ng dng trong cng nghip lc ho du. Kch thc ca thp : ng knh thp v chiu
cao thp tu thuc sut lng pha lng, pha kh ca thp v tinh khit ca sn phm.
Ta kho st 2 loi thp chng ct thng dng l thp mm v thp chm.
Thp mm: thn thp hnh tr, thng ng pha trong c gn cc mm c cu
to khc nhau chia thn thp thnh nhng on bng nhau, trn mm pha lng v
pha hi c cho tip xc vi nhau. Ty theo cu to ca a, ta c:
* Thp mm chp : trn mm b tr c chp dng:trn ,x bp ,ch s
* Thp mm xuyn l: trn mm b tr cc l c ng knh (3-12) mm.
Thp chm(thp m): thp hnh tr, gm nhiu on ni vi nhau bng mt
bch hay hn. Vt chm c cho vo thp theo mt trong hai phng php: xp
ngu nhin hay xp th t.
* So snh u v nhc im ca cc loi thp :
Thp chm.

Thp mm xuyn lo.

Thp mm chp.

u im:

- n gin.
- Tr lc thp.

- Hiu sut tng i cao.


- Hot ng kh n nh.
- Lm vic vi cht lng
bn.

- Hiu sut cao.


- Hot ng n nh.

Nhc im:

- Hiu sut thp.

- Tr lc kh cao.
- Yu cu lp t kht khe
-> lp a tht phng.

- Cu to phc tp.

- n nh km.
- Thit b nng.

- Tr lc ln.
- Khng lm vic vi
cht lng bn.

Nhn xt:ta nhan thay thap chem don gin d s dng nhat.
Vy: Chng ct h nc acid acetic ta dng thp mm xuyn l hot ng lin tc
p sut thng, cp nhit gin tip y thp, nhp liu sau khi trao i nhit vi thiet bi
gia nhiet nhap lieu,san pham day dc lm ngui thu sn phm chnh, sn phm nh
c dn vo ni un to hi nc qu nhit cp nhit cho nhp liu v ni un y
thp.

II . GII THIU S B NGUYN LIU :


Nguyn liu l hn hp bezen acid acetic.

1 . NC:
Nc: l cht lng khng mu, khng mi,la dung mi hoa tan tt c hp cht phan
cc,nng hn dung mi hu c, khng hoa tan dung mi hu c,nc si 1000C v
ng c 00C.

2 . Acid acetic:

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Acid acetic: l mt loi acid quan trng nht trong cc loi acid hu c. N r nn
c ng dng rng ri v l ho cht c bn iu ch nhiu hp cht quan trng. Acid
acetic c ng dng trong cc nghnh :
+ Lm dm n.
+ nh ng m cao su
+ Lm cht do t la xeluloza acetat .
+ Lm phim nh khng nhy la.
+ Lm cht kt dnh polyvinyl acetat .
+ Lm phm mu, dc phm, nc hoa tng hp.

3 . Hn hp Nc-Acid acetic:
Ta c bng thnh phn lng (x) hi (y) v nhit si ca hn hp Nc-Acid
acetic 760 mmHg:
x(%phn mol)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

y(%phn mol)

9.2

16.7

30.3

42.5

53

62.6

71.6

79.5

86.4

93

100

t(oC)

118.1

115.4

113.8

110.1

107.5

105.8

104.4

103.3

102.1

101.3

100.6

100

100

o t h x , y c u a h e B e z e n - A c i d a c e t i c

y(% )

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

10

20

30

40

50 x (% ) 60

70

80

90

100

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

III. CNG NGH CHNG CT H NC-ACID ACETIC:


* S qui trnh cng ngh chng ct h nc-acid acetic:
3

Hi khong ngng
Nc

8
15

14
P

Nc
T

Nc

10
5

7
T

Nc

San Pham nh
P

11

Hi Nc

12

13
2

Nguyen Lieu

San Pham ay

Nc Lon g

San Pham ay

Ch thch :
1. Bn cha nguyn liu .
2. Bm.
3. Bn cao v .
4. By hi .
5. Lu lng k .
6. Van .
7. Thp chng ct .
8. Thit b ngng t sn phm nh .
9. B phn chnh dng .
10. Thit b lm ngui sn phm nh .
11. Bn cha sn phm nh .
12. Ni un .
13. un si nhp liu bng sn phm y .
14. Ap k .
15. Nhit k .
* Thuyt minh qui trnh cng ngh:

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Hn hp nc-acid acetic c nng nc 88% ( theo khi lng) , nhit khong 25


C ti bnh cha nguyn liu (1) c bm (2) bm ln bn cao v (3). T c a n
thit b gia nhit (13) ( trao i nhit vi sn phm y). y, hn hp c gia nhit n
nhit 100,17270C . Sau , hn hp c a vo thp chng ct (7) a nhp liu.
Trn a nhp liu, cht lng c trn vi phn lng t on ct ca thp chy xung.
Trong thp hi, i t di ln gp cht lng t trn xung . y, c s tip xc v trao i
gia hai pha vi nhau. Pha lng chuyn ng trong phn chng cng xung di cng gim
nng cc cu t d bay hi v b pha hi to nn t ni un (12) li cun cu t d bay
hi . Nhit cng ln trn cng thp, nn khi hi i qua cc a t di ln th cu t c
nhit si cao l nc s ngng t li, cui cng trn nh thp ta thu c hn hp c cu
t nc chim nhiu nht ( c nng 99,5% theo khi lng ). Hi ny i vo thit b
ngng t (8) v c ngng t mt phn ( ch ngng t hi lu). Mt phn cht lng ngng
c a qua bn cha sn phm nh (11). Phn cn li ca cht lng ngng c hi lu
v thp a trn cng vi t s hon lu ti u . Mt phn cu t c nhit si thp c
bc hi, cn li cu t c nhit si cao trong cht lng ngy cng tng.
Cui cng, y thp ta thu c hn hp lng gm hu ht l cu t kh bay hi (
acid acetic). Hn hp lng y c nng nc l 70% theo khi lng, cn li l acid
acetic. Dung dch lng y i ra khi thp, mt phn c un, bc hi ni un (12) cung
cp li cho thp tip tc lm vic, phn cn li c a qua thit b ngng t sn phm
y(10) trao i nhit vi nc lm mt , nhit ca sn phm y sau khi trao i nhit l
400C .
H thng lm vic lin tc cho ra sn phm nh l nc, sn phm y l acid acetic
sau khi trao i nhit vi nc lm mt c a vo bn cha.
0

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

CHNG II : CN BNG VT CHT .


K hiu cc i lng:
K hiu
ngha
Cn bng vt cht
Nng sut nhp liu theo khi lng
F
Nng sut nhp liu theo s mol
F
Sut lng sn phm nh theo khi lng
D
Sut lng sn phm nh theo s mol
D
Sut lng sn phm y theo khi lng
W
W
Sut lng sn phm y theo s mol
Nng phn mol nhp liu trong pha lng
xF
Nng phn khi lng nhp liu trong
xF
pha lng
Nng phn mol sn phm nh trong
xD
pha lng
Nng phn khi lng sn phm nh
xD
trong pha lng
Nng phn mol dng sn phm y trong
xW
pha lng
Nng
phn khi lng sn phm y
xW
trong pha lng
Nng phn mol nhp liu trong pha hi
yF
Nng phn khi lng dng nhp liu
yF
trong pha hi
Nng phn mol sn phm nh trong
yD
pha hi
Nng phn khi lng sn phm nh
yD
trong pha hi
Nng phn mol sn phm y trong
yW
pha hi
Nng
phn khi lng sn phm y
yW
trong pha hi
x
Nng phn mol trong pha lng
Nng phn khi lng trong pha lng
x
Nng phn mol trong pha hi cn bng
y*
vi pha lng
Nng phn khi lng trong pha hi cn
y*
bng vi pha lng
Khi
lng mol phn t bezen
Ma

n v
kg/h
kmol/h
kg/h
kmol/h
kg/h
kmol/h
% mol
% khi lng
% mol
% khi lng
% mol
% khi lng
% mol
% khi lng
% mol
% khi lng
% mol
% khi lng
% mol
% khi lng
% mol
% khi lng
kg/kmol

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

Khi lng mol phn t acid acetic


Khi lng mol phn t trung bnh
M tb
G
Sut lng theo s mol
Sut lng theo khi lng
G
Khi lng mol phn t trung bnh nhp liu
MF
Khi lng mol phn t trung bnh sn phm
MD
nh
Khi lng mol phn t trung bnh sn phm
MW
y
Nhit si ca dung dch
tS
Nhit si ca nhp liu
tFS
Nhit si ca sn phm nh
tDS
Nhit si ca sn phm y
tWS
Nhit nhp liu vo
tFv
Nhit sn phm nh ra
tDr
Nhit sn phm y ra
tWr
Nhit nc ra
t Nr
Nhit nc vo
t Nv
Tnh s a thc
Rmin
Ch s hn lu ti thiu
Rth
Ch s hn lu thch hp
f
Ch s nhp liu

bay hi tng i

nht
nht ca hn hp
hh
nht ca aceton
a
nht ca nc
n

Hiu sut a
Hiu sut a nh
D
Hiu sut a y
W
Hiu sut a v tr nhp liu
F
Hiu sut a trung bnh
tb
Ntt
S a thc t
NttC
S a thc t on chng
NttL
S a thc t on luyn
NttT
S a thc t c thp
Nlt
S a l thuyt
Cn bng nng lng
Ma

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

kg/kmol
kg/kmol
kmol/h
kg/h
kg/kmol
kg/kmol
kg/kmol
0

C
C
0
C
0
C
0
C
0
C
0
C
0
C
0
C
0

cP
cP
cP
cP

a
a
a
a
a

10

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

rb
ra
rhh
rh
rD
Chh
Cb
Ca
CFv
CFs
CDs
CD
CWs
CW
CN

Nhit ha hi ca bezen
Nhit ha hi ca nc
Nhit ha hi ca hn hp
Nhit ha hi ca hi nc bo ha dng gia
nhit
Nhit ha hi ca sn phm nh
Nhit dung ring ca hn hp
Nhit dung ring ca benzen
Nhit dung ring ca acid acetic
Nhit dung ring ca nguyn liu vo
Nhit dung ring ca nguyn liu trng thi
si
Nhit dung ring ca sn phm nh trng
thi si
Nhit dung ring trung bnh ca sn phm
nh
Nhit dung ring trung bnh ca sn phm
y trng thi si
Nhit dung ring trung bnh ca sn phm
y
Nhit dung ring trung bnh ca nc

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

J/kg
J/kg
J/kg
J/kg
J/kg
J/kg
J/kg
J/kg
J/kg
J/kg
J/kg
J/kg
J/kg
J/kg
J/kg

I . CC THNG S BAN U :
Nng sut nhp liu: F = 0.8 (m3/h) .
Nng nhp liu: xF = 88%kl nc.
Nng sn phm nh : xD = 99,55%kl nc .
Nng sn phm y: xW = 70 %kl nc.
Khi lng phn t ca nc v acid axetic: MN =18, MA =60 .
Chn:
+ Nhit nhp liu: tF =100,1727oC .
+ Nhit sn phm nh: tD =100,0235oC .
+ Nhit sn phm y sau khi trao i nhit: tW = 40oC .
+Trng thi nhp liu: lng ,si .

II . XC NH SUT LNG SN PHM NH V SN PHM Y


:
Sut lng dng lu cht theo khi lng:
G = G . M tb . ,kg/h
Sut lng dng lu cht theo mol:

11

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

G= G
,kmol/h
M tb
Chuyn t phn khi lng sang phn mol:

xF =

xF
Mb
x F (1 x F )
+
Mb
Ma

xD
Mb
xD =
=
x D (1 x D )
+
Mb
Ma

0.88
18
= 0.9607(phn mol bezen )
0.88 (1 0.88)
+
18
60
0.995
18
= 0.9985 (phn mol benzen
0.995 (1 0.995)
+
18
60

xw
Mb

0.70
18
xW =
=
= 0.8861 ( phn mol benzen)
0.70 (1 0.70)
x w (1 x w )
+
+
18
60
Mb
Ma

Tnh Mtb :
Mtb F = xF . Mb + (1- xF ) .Ma
= 0.9607*18+(1-0.9607)*60
= 19.6506 ( Kg/Kmol)
Mtb D = xD . Mb + (1- xD ) . Ma
= 0.9985*18 + (1 0.9985) * 60
= 18.063 ( Kg/Kmol)
Mtb W = xW * Mb + (1- xW ) * Ma
= 0.8861 * 18 + (1 0.8861 ) * 60
= 22.7838( Kg/Kmol)
Khi lng ring ca hn hp nhp liu:
N = 958.2231(kg / m3 )

A = 957.6891(kg / m3 )
hh = 957.7532(kg / m3 )
Sut lng dng nhp liu :
F=

F
M tbF hh

800
= 33.2695 ( kmol/h )
19.6506 * 957.6891

Phng trnh cn bng vt cht cho ton b thp chng ct :


F
D
W
F = D + W
=
=
=>

x D xW x F xW x D x F
F * x F = D * x D + W * x W

12

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

x F xW
0,9607 0,8861
*F=
*33.2695=22.084 (kmol/kg)
x D xW
0,9985 0,8861
=>W=F-D=11.1854 (kmol/kg)
D =D* Mtb D =18.063*22.084=467.7115 (kg/h)

=>D=

W =W* Mtb W =22.7838*11.1854=298.8157 (kg/h)

III . XC NH T S HON LU THCH HP:


1 . T s hon lu ti thiu:
T s hon lu ti thiu l ch lm vic m ti ng vi s mm l thuyt l v
cc .Do ,chi ph c nh l v cc nhng chi ph iu hnh (nhin liu ,nc v
bm) l ti thiu .
Do th cn bng ca h Etanol-Nc c im un ,nn xc nh t s hon lu ti
thiu bng cch :
+Trn th cn bng y-x ,t im (0,85;0,85) ta k mt ng thng tip tuyn vi
ng cn bng ti im un , ct trc Oy ti im c yo = 0,26 .
+Theo phng trnh ng lm vic on ct , khi xo =0 th
x x
Rmin= D
=2,269
xF x
Vy : t s hon lu ti thiu : Rmin = 2,269

2. T s hon lu thch hp:

Khi R tng, s mm s gim nhng ng knh thp ,thit b ngng t ,ni un v


cng bm cng tng theo.Chi ph c nh s gim dn n cc tiu ri tng n v cc
khi hon lu ton phn ,lng nhit v lng nc s dng cng tng theo t s hon lu .
Tng chi ph bao gm : chi ph c nh v chi ph iu hnh . T s hon lu thch hp
ng vi tng chi ph l cc tiu .
Tuy nhin ,i khi cc chi ph iu hnh rt phc tp ,kh kim sot nn ngi ta c
th tnh t s hon lu thch hp t iu kin thp nh nht . tnh c t s hon lu
thch hp theo iu kin thp nh nht (khng tnh n chi ph iu hnh),ta cn lp mi
quan h gia t s hon lu v th tch thp ,t chn Rth ng vi th tch thp l nh
nht.
Nhn thy ,tit din thp t l vi lng hi i trong thp ,m lng hi li t l vi
lng lng hi lu trong thp ,do trong iu kin lm vic nht nh th GD s khng i
nn lng lng hi lu s t l vi (R+1) ,do , tit din thp s t l vi (R+1). Ngoi ra
,chiu cao thp t l vi s n v chuyn khi mox hay s mm l thuyt Nlt .Cho nn ,th
tch lm vic ca thp t l vi tch s mox*(R+1) .Nh vy, ta c th thit lp quan h
gia R v Vthp theo quan h R v mox*(R+1) .T th ca quan h ny ,ta xc nh c
im cc tiu ca mox*(R+1) ng vi t s hon lu thch hp R .
R
2.496
2.723
2.973
3.023

mox
47.818
37.733
32.801
33.545

mox*(R+1)
167.173
140.480
130.320
134.952

13

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

170

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

R*(m ox+1)

160

150

140

130

R
120
2.00

2.50

3.00

3.50

Vy : T s hon lu thch hp l R= 4.4 .

IV . PHNG TRNH NG LM VICS MM L THUYT:


1 . Phng trnh ng nng lm vic ca on ct :
x
4,4
0,9985
R.
.x + D =
.x +
R +1
R +1
4,4 + 1
4,4 + 1
=0,8148 .x + 0,1849

y=

2 . Phng trnh ng nng lm vic ca on chng :


4,4 1,5067
1,5067 1
f 1
R+ f
.x +
.0,8861
.xW =
.x +
R +1
R +1
4,4 + 1
4,4 + 1
= 1,0938 .x 0,0831
F
x
0,9985
Vi : f = = D =
= 1,5067 : ch s nhp liu .
D xF . 0,9067.0,69

y=

3 . S mm l thuyt :
th xc nh s mm l thuyt :(Xem hnh trang sau ).
T th ,ta c : 23 mm bao gm : 20 mm ct
1 mm nhp liu
3 mm chng
Tm li ,s mm l thuyt l Nlt = 23 mm .

14

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

CHNG III :TNH TON THIT K THP


CHNG CT .
I . NG KNH THP :(Dt)
Dt =

4Vtb
.3600. tb

(m)

Vtb :lng hi trung bnh i trong thp (m3/h).


tb :tc hi trung bnh i trong thp (m/s).
gtb : lng hi trung bnh i trong thp (Kg/h).
Lng hi trung bnh i trong on chng v on ct khc nhau.Do , ng
knh on chng v on ct cng khc nhau .

1. ng knh on ct :
a . Lng hi trung bnh i trong thp :
g + g1
g tb = d
(Kg/h)
2
gd : lng hi ra khi a trn cng ca thp (Kg/h).
g1 : lng hi i vo a di cng ca on ct (Kg/h).
Xc nh gd : gd = D.(R+1) =467,7115.(4,4+1) = 2525,6421 (Kg/h)
Xc nh g1 : T h phng trnh :
g1 = G1 + D

g1 . y1 = G1 .x1 + D.x D (III.1)


g .r = g .r
d d
1 1
Vi : G1 : lng lng a th nht ca on ct .
r1 : n nhit ho hi ca hn hp hi i vo a th nht ca on ct
rd : n nhit ho hi ca hn hp hi i ra nh thp .
* Tnh r1 : t1 = tF = 100.1727oC , tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)] ta c :
An nhit ho hi ca nc : rN1 =2201,7868 (KJ/kg) .
An nhit ho hi ca acid axetic: rA1 = 390,7385 (KJ/kg) .
Suy ra : r1 = rN1.y1 + (1-y1).rA1 = 390,7385+1811,.0483y1
Tham kho IV (tp 1) ta c :
An nhit ho hi ca nc : rNd = 2256,5573 (KJ/kg) .
An nhit ho hi ca acid axetic : rRd = 38,9795 (KJ/kg) .
Vi xD=0.9985 tra th ta c: yD=0,995
Suy ra : rd = rNd.yD + (1-yD).rAd =2256,5573.0,995 + (1- 0,995).38,9795
= 2245,4694 (KJ/kg)
* x1 = xF = 0,9607
Gii h (III.1) , ta c : G1 = 2341,0525 (Kg/h)
y1 = 0.8991 (phn khi lng nc) =>y1=0,9641
g1 = 2808,7641 (Kg/h)

15

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

2525.6421 + 2808.7641
= 2667.2031 (Kg/h)
2
b . Tc hi trung bnh i trong thp :
Tc ca hi i trong thp m:
Y = 1,2.e 4. X

Vy : gtb =

2
Y = S3 d ytb x
xtb g N
G
X = X
GY

1/ 4

0.16

1/ 8

ytb

xtb

G
= lg1,2.( 4) X
GT

2
S

1/ 4

1/ 8

ytb

xtb

3 g 0.16
xtb
N

d ytb A

s = s2
Vi : rxtb : khi lng ring trung bnh ca pha lng (Kg/m3) .
rytb : khi lng ring trung bnh ca pha hi (Kg/m3) .
tc d sc(m/s)
K :tc d lm vic thch hp(m/s)
d :b mt rieng ca dm(m2/m3)
d :th tch t do ca dm(m3/m3)
A :d nht ca pha long theo nhit d trung bnh(NS/m2)
N :d nht ca nc 200C(NS/m2)
GX :lng long trung bnh qua thp(kg/s)
GY :lng hi trung bnh qua thp(kg/s)
g:gia tc trng trng(m/s)
Giai phng trnh trn ta tm c tc sc:
Tc lm vic thicchs hp:
K = (0,8 0,9)S
Xc nh rytb :

ytb =

[ ytb .18 + (1 ytb ).60].273


22,4.(ttb + 273)

y1 + y D 0,9641 + 0,995
=
=0,9796
2
2
t + t 100,1727 + 100,0235
=100,0614oC
+ Nhit trung bnh on ct : tt= F D =
2
2
Suy ra : rytb =0,6113 (Kg/m3).
Xc nh rxtb :
x + x D 0,9607 + 0,9985
Nng phn mol trung bnh : xtb = F
=
= 0,9796
2
2

Vi: + Nng phn mol trung bnh : ytb =

16

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

18.xtb
=0,9351% .
18.xtb + (1 xtb ).60
ttb = 100,0614oC , tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)-trang 9], ta c :
rxtb =1000,02341 (Kg/m3)
nht trung bnh ca pha lng:
A = 0,2837cp

Suy ra : xtb =

N = 0,4596cp
lg X = xtb1 lg N + (1 xtb )lg A = 0,9796. lg 0,4596 + 0,0204. lg 0.2837 = 1,2498
x = 0.2866cp
Chn m vng s c kch thc:50x50x5 vi:
d = 95(m 2 / m3 )
d = 0.79(m3 )
d d = 0,05(m )

d = 500(Kg / m3 )
N d = 5800(vin )

1/ 4
1/ 8

0,611 0,6113 9,81.1000,0231.0,793

(
)
= . lg 0,125 1,75.
.

0 ,16
Suy ra : S

0,741 1000,0231 95.0,6613(0.2866)


S = 6.8072(m / s )
Tc lm vic thch hp ca thp :
h = 0,8. gh = 0,8.6,8072 = 5,4457 (m/s)

Vy :ng knh on ct :
4.G y
4.0,7409
=
Dct = .
= 0,5325 (m).
3600.0,785. ytb .K
3600.0,785.0,6113.5,4457
2. ng knh on chng :
a . Lng hi trung bnh i trong thp :
g , n + g ,1
(Kg/h)
g , tb =
2
gn : lng hi ra khi on chng (Kg/h).
g1 : lng hi i vo on chng (Kg/h).
Xc nh gn : gn = g1 = 2808,7641 (Kg/h)
Xc nh g1 : T h phng trnh :
G '1 = g '1 + W
'
'
G 1 .x'1 = g 1 . yW + W .xW (III.2)
g ' .r ' = g ' .r ' = g .r
n
n
1 1
1 1

Vi : G1 : lng lng a th nht ca on chng .


r1 : n nhit ho hi ca hn hp hi i vo a th nht ca on chng.
Tnh r1 : xW =0,8861 tra th cn bng ca h ta c : yW =0,9227

17

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

Suy ra :

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

yW =

18. yW
18.0,9227
=
= 0,7817
18. yW + (1 yW ).60 18.0,9227 + (1 0,9227 ).60

y1 = yW = 0,7817
Suy ra :Mtbg =18.yW +(1-yW).60=21,2466 (Kg/kmol)
t1 = tW = 100,6266oC , tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)], ta c :
An nhit ho hi ca nc : rN1 = 2200,5516(KJ/kg) .
An nhit ho hi ca ru : rR1 = 390,7528 (KJ/kg) .
Suy ra : r1 = rR1.yW + (1-yW).rN1 = 1805,4838 (KJ/kg)
* Tnh r1: r1 = 390,7385+1811,0483.y1 =390,7385+1811,0483.0,7817
=2019,1419(KJ/kmol)
* W = 11,1854 (Kmol/h)
Gii h (III.2) , ta c : x1 =0,7746(phn khi lng acid axetic)
G1 = 3439,9645 (Kgl/h) =
g1 = 3141,1488 (Kg/h)
2808,7641 + 3141,1488
Vy : gtb =
= 2974,9565 (Kg/h)
2
b . Tc hi trung bnh i trong thp :
Tc ca hi i trong thp m:
Y = 1,2.e 4. X

S2 d ytb x

Y= 3
xtb g N
G
X = X
GY

1/ 4

0.16

1/ 8

ytb

xtb

G
= lg1,2.( 4) X
GT

2
S

1/ 4

1/ 8

ytb

xtb

3 g 0.16
xtb
N

d ytb A

s = s2
Vi : rxtb : khi lng ring trung bnh ca pha lng (Kg/m3) .
rytb : khi lng ring trung bnh ca pha hi (Kg/m3) .
tc d sc(m/s)
K :tc d lm vic thch hp(m/s)
d :b mt rieng ca dm(m2/m3)
d :th tch t do ca dm(m3/m3)
A :d nht ca pha long theo nhit d trung bnh(NS/m2)
N :d nht ca nc 200C(NS/m2)
GX :lng long trung bnh qua thp(kg/s)
GY :lng hi trung bnh qua thp(kg/s)
g:gia tc trng trng(m/s)
Giai phng trnh trn ta tm c tc sc:

18

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Tc lm vic thicchs hp:


K = (0,8 0,9)S
Xc nh rytb :
[ y' .18 + (1 y'tb ).60].273
' ytb = tb
22,4.(t 'tb +273)
Vi: + Nng phn mol trung bnh :
y + yW 0,9227 + 0,9641
=
=0,9434
ytb = 1
2
2
+ Nhit trung bnh on chng : ttb
t +t
100,1727 + 100,6266
=100,3996oC
= F W =
2
2
Suy ra : rytb =0,6883 (Kg/m3).
Xc nh rxtb :
x + xW
0,7 + 0,88
Nng khi lng trung bnh : xtb = F
=
= 0,79
2
2
Suy ra : x'tb = 0.79 =79% .
ttb = 100,3996oC , tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)-trang 9], ta c :
Khi lng ring ca nc : rN = 957,9608(Kg/m3)
Khi lng ring ca ru : rR = 957,906(Kg/m3)
1
x'tb 1 x'tb
=957,9493 (Kg/m3)
Suy ra :rxtb =
+
' N
'R
nht trung bnh ca pha lng:
A = 0,2829cp
N = 0,4582cp
lg X = xtb1 lg N + (1 xtb )lg A = 0,9234. lg 0,4582 + 0,0766. lg 0,2829 = 1,2228
x = 0,2944cp
Chn m vng s c kch thc:50x50x5 vi:
d = 95(m 2 / m3 )

d = 0.79(m3 )
d d = 0,05(m )

d = 500(Kg / m3 )
N d = 5800(vin )

1/ 4
1/ 8

0,5842 0,6883 9,81.957,9493.0,793

= . lg ( 0,125) 1,75.
.

0 ,16
Suy ra : S
0
,
8264
957
,
9493
(
)
95
.
0
,
883
0
,
2944

S = 6.303(m / s )
Tc lm vic thch hp ca thp :
h = 0,8. gh = 0,8.6,303 = 5,0424 (m/s)
Vy :ng knh on ct :

19

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

Dct = .

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

4.G y
3600.0,785. ytb .K

4.0,8264
= 0,5507 (m).
3600.0,785.0,6883.5,0424

Kt lun : hai ng knh on ct v on chng khng chnh lch nhau qu ln


nn ta chn ng knh ca ton thp l : Dt = 0,5416 (m).
Khi tc lm vic thc :
4.G y
4.0,741
=
= 5,2634(m / s )
k = 2
2
Dt . ytb..3600.0,785 0,5416 .0,6113.3600.0,785
+ Phn ct :
h k 5,4457 5,2634

=
= 0,034 = 3,4 0 0 < 5 0 0
5,2634

h
+ Phn chng :
4.G y
4.0,8264
=
= 5,2141(m / s )
k = 2
2
Dt . ytb. .3600.0,785 0,5416 .0,6883.3600.0,785
h k

5,4457 5,2141
=
= 0,033 = 3,3 0 0 < 5 0 0
5
,
2141

II . TR LC CA VA CHIEU CAO THAP M CA:


1 . Chieu cao phan cat:
H1 = N .htd + (0,8 1) .
1/ 2

1/ 2


1
1
0.79
htd = 200. d . 0, 4 = 200.
= 0.3239(m )
.
0, 4
95 5,4457
d Y
htd : chieu cao tng ng ca mt bc thay i nng (m)
y = K : toc do ca pha kh i trong thp
N : so da l thuyt

=> H1 = N .htd + (0,8 1) = 20.0,3239 + 0,8 = 7,2792(m )

2 . . Chieu cao phan chng:

H 2 = N .htd + (0,8 1) .
1/ 2

1/ 2


1
1
0.79
htd = 200. d . 0, 4 = 200.
= 0,3341(m )
.
0, 4
95 5,0424
d Y
htd : chieu cao tng ng ca mt bc thay i nng (m)
y = K : toc do ca pha kh i trong thp

=> H 2 = N .htd + (0,8 1) = 3.0,3341 + 0,8 = 1,8023(m )

Chieu cao ca thp m:

H = H1 + H 2 = 7,2792 + 1,8023 9,1(m )


TR LC CA THP M:
i vi on ct:
Chun s Reynolds ca pha kh trong thp:
20

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Y .Y .h 5,4457.0,6613.1
=
= 11659
0,2855.10 3
y
H s tr lc ca m:
Re =

16
16
=
= 2,4591
0, 2
ReY
116590, 2
Tr lc ca m kh:
7,2729.95.5,4457.0,6113
H . 2 .
PK = T . 1 d 3 Y Y = 2,4591.
= 7816,2952(N / m 2 )
3
4. d .2
4.0,79 .2
Tr lc ca m t:

G
Pu = PK .1 + A X

GY

0.342

. Y
X

0 ,19

. X
Y

0 , 038

0 , 342
0 ,19
0 , 038

= 7816,3.1 + 3,2. 0,611 0,6113 0,2866

0
,
7409
1000
,
0234
0
,
2855

= 13556,9728 N / m 2
Vi A: s i vi im o pha A=3,2
i vi on ct:
Chun s Reynolds ca pha kh trong thp:
. .h 5,0424.0,6883.1
Re = Y Y =
= 11935
0,2908.10 3
y

H s tr lc ca m:
16
16
= 0, 2 =
= 2,4477
ReY
119350, 2
Tr lc ca m kh:
1,8023.95.5,0424.0,6883
H . 2 .
PK = T . 21 d 3 Y Y = 2,4477.
= 1859,3838(N / m 2 )
3
4. d .2
4.0,79 .2
Tr lc ca m t:
0.342
0 ,19
0 , 038
0 , 342
0 ,19
0 , 038

GX
Y X
0,5842 0,6883 0,2944

.
.

Pu = PK . 1 + A
= 1859,4. 1 + 3,2.

0
,
8264
957
,
9493
0
,
2908
G

Y
X Y

2
= 3190,8036 N / m
Vi A: s i vi im o pha A=3,2
Tng tr lc trn tn thp:
P = PU 1 + PU 2 = 13556,9728 + 3190,8036 = 16752,7764 N / m 2
CH N A PH N PH I CH T L NG VA L I M

III . TNH TON C KH CA THP :


1 . B dy thn thp :

21

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

V thp chng ct hot ng p sut thng nn ta thit k thn hnh tr bng


phng php hn gip mi (phng php h quang ). Thn thp c ghp vi nhau bng
cc mi ghp bch.
m bo cht lng ca sn phm v kh nng n mn ca acid axetic i vi thit
b, ta chn vt liu ch to thn thp l thp khng g m X18H10T.
Ap sut tnh ton :
Thp lm vic p sut kh quyn, nn ta chn p sut tnh ton :
, (N/mm2)
Ptt =Pcl + htl
Vi : Pcl : p sut thy tnh do cht lng y (N/mm2).
Chn p sut tnh ton sao cho thp hot ng iu kin nguy him nht m vn
an ton nn :
Pcl = x .g.H
+ ' xtb
1000,0234 + 957,9493
= xtb
.g.H=
.9,81.9,1 = 87217,025(N / m 2 )
2
2
Suy ra : Ptt = 16752,7764+ 87217,025 = 103969,8(N/m2) ~0,1039698(N/mm2).
Nhit tnh ton :
Chn nhit tnh ton : ttt = ty = 100,6266oC .
Tra ti liu tham kho [5], ng sut tiu chun i vi thp X18H10T :
[]* = 142 (N/mm2).
i vi ru h s hiu chnh : = 0,95
Vy : ng sut cho php : [] = .[]* =134,9 (N/mm2).
Xc nh b dy thn chu p sut trong :
Ta chn phng php ch to thn l phng php hn h quang in bng tay nn
h s bn mi hn : h = 0,9
[ ]. = 134.9 .0,9 =1168,5274 > 25,do , b dy tnh ton ca thn
Xt t s :
h
0,1039
Ptt
c tnh theo cng thc sau :
Dt .Ptt
550.0,1039
S 't =
=
= 0,2356 (mm).
2.[ ]. h 2.134,9.0,9
Suy ra : b dy thc ca thn : St = St + C
,(mm).
Trong : C :h s b sung b dy, C = Ca + Cb + Cc + Co
Vi : + Ca : h s b sung do n mn ho hc, ph thuc vo tc n mn ca
cht lng. Chn tc n mn ca ru l 0,1 (mm/nm),thit b hot ng
trong 20 nm, do Ca = 2 mm.
+Cb : h s b sung do bo mn c hc, chn Cb = 0.
+Cc : h s b sung do sai lch khi ch to, chn Cc = 0.
+Co : h s b sung qui trn, chn Co =0,7683 (mm).
Suy ra : C = 2 + 0 + 0 + 0,7682 = 2,7683 (mm).
Vy : St = 0,2356 + 2,7683= 3,004 (mm).
* Kim tra cng thc tnh ton vi St = 3 (mm) :
S t Ca 3 2
=
= 0,0018 < 0,1 : ng.
Dt
541
* Kim tra p sut tnh ton cho php :
22

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

[Ptt ] = 2.[ ].h .(St Ca ) = 2.134,9.0,9.(3 2) =0,4424 > Ptt : ng.


Dt + (St Ca )
550 + (3 2)
Vy : B dy thc ca thn l St = 3 (mm).

2 . y v np thit b :

Chn y v np c dng l ellipise tiu chun, c g bng thp X18H10T.

Nhn thy: cng thc tnh ton b dy thn, y v np chu p sut trong l nh nhau. Nn
chn b dy ca y v np l S = Sn = 3 (mm).
Cc kch thc ca y v np ellipise tiu chun, c g(ti liu tham kho [4(tp 2)]:
+ ng knh trong: Dt = 550 (mm).
+ ht =137 (mm).
+ Chiu cao g: hg = h = 25 (mm).
+Din tch b mt trong: Sy = 0,37 (m2).
chiu day day va np elip ca thit b chui ap sut trong:
Dt P
Dt
C = S' + C
S=
3,8.[ K ].k . h P 2.hb
d
H s th nguyen: k = 1
Dt

Do day va np thit b co khoet l vi dng knh khc nhau nn ta co cc b mt ring


khc nhau:
ng knh l np:d=0,25=>k=0,675
550.0,1039
550
S'=
.
= 0,3459(mm)
3,8.211,5.0,675.0,6113 0,1039 2.137
ng knh l y: d=0,08=>k=0,8375
550.0,1039
550
S'=
.
= 0,2476(mm)
3,8.211,5.0,8375.0,6883 0,1039 2.137
C=Ca+Cb+Cc+Co(tnh tng t nh thn thit b ta c)
Do S y v np khc nhau khng ng k nn ta chn b dy y v np bng nhau:
S=3(mm)
kim tra p sut d tnh ton:
B dy y cn tho mn iu kin sau:
S C0
0,125
Dt
32
= 1,8.10 3 0,125
550
Ap sut cho php tnh theo cng thc:
23

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

.(3 2 )
[P ] = 2.R[ ]+.(S.(S CC) ) = 2.133550.0,+6498
= 0,3136 > 0,1039 (tho)
(3 2)
h

vy chn b day thit b:S=3(mm)

3 . Bch ghp thn, y v np :


Mt bch l b phn quan trng dng ni cc phn ca thit b cng nh ni cc b
phn khc vi thit b. Cc loi mt bch thng s dng:
+ Bch lin: l b phn ni lin vi thit b (hn, c v rn). Loi bch ny ch yu
dng thit b lm vic vi p sut thp v p sut trung bnh.
+ Bch t do: ch yu dng ni ng dn lm vic nhit cao, ni cc b bng
kim loi mu v hp kim ca chng, c bit l khi cn lm mt bch bng vt liu bn
hn thit b.
+ Bch ren: ch yu dng cho thit b lm vic p sut cao.
Chn bch c ghp thn, y v np lm bng thp X18H10T, cu to ca bch l
bch lin khng c.

Theo ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 2)- trang 417], ng vi Dt =550(mm) v p sut tnh
ton Ptt = 0,1039(N/mm2) ta chn bch c cc thng s sau :
Dt

Db

D1

Bu lng
db

(mm)
550

680

630

600

Z
(ci)

20

20

16

Theo ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 2)- trang 170], chn s mm gia hai mt bch l 4 mm.Vy,
s bch ghp thn-y-np l (15.2) bch
Tnh kim tra bch:
Xac dnh lc nen chiu trc do xic bulong.
Q1 = Qa + Qk

Qa lc do ap sut trong thit b gay ra:

Qa = Dt2 P = 550 2 0,1039 = 24672,3537(N )


4
4
Qk lc cn thit d gi kn dm:
Qa = Dt2b0 mP = 550.20.1.0,1039 = 3588,706(N )
Q1=Qa+Qk=14130,5298(N)

24

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Vi m:h s ap sut rieng.Theo bng 7.2/192 tai liu(6) ng vi dm cao su cng co


vi,day 2mm th m=1,0
b0: brng dm,b0=20mm
Xac dnh kc cn thit d ep chc dm ban du:
Q2 = Dtb b0 q0 = 550.20.5,3 = 183062(N )

Vi q0: ap sut cn thit d lam bin dng do dm, tra bng 7.2/192 tai lieu(6),q0=5,3
Xac dnh lc tac dng len 1 bulong:
q ma.x(Q Q2 )
qb = =
= 11441,375(N )
z
Z
ng sut cho phep ca vt liu lam b bulong:
tra bng 7.5/194 tai liu(6) [ '] = 86 N / m 2 => [ ] = k0 [ '] = 0,8.86 = 68,8(N / m 2 )
dng knh chan ren ca bulong:
q
11441,375
d1 = 1,13. b = 1,13.
= 14,5721 < 160mm
[ ]
68,8
vy bulong va dm la hp ly
kn ca mi ghp bch ch yu do vt m quyt nh. m lm bng cc vt liu mm
hn so vi vt liu bch. Khi xit bu lng, m b bin dng v in y ln cc ch g gh trn
b mt ca bch. Vy, m bo kn cho thit b ta chn m l dy aming, c b dy l
3(mm).

4 . ng knh cc ng dn Bch ghp cc ng dn :


Bch c lm bng thp CT3 , cu to ca bch l bch lin khng c.

a . V tr nhp liu :
Sut lng nhp liu: GF =766,5272 (Kg/h).
Khi lng ring ca cht lng nhp liu, tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)]
tF = 100,1727oC v xF = 88% : F = 958,1589 (Kg/m3).
G
Lu lng cht lng nhp liu i vo thp: QF = F = 0,8(m3/h).
F
Chn vn tc cht lng nhp liu (t chy t bn cao v vo mm nhp liu): vF =
0,2 (m/s).
4.QF
4.0,8
ng knh ng nhp liu: dF =
=
= 0,0376 (m).
3600. .vF
3600. .0,2
25

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Suy ra: chn ng knh ng nhp liu: dF = 0,040 (m).


Ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 2)], chn chiu di on ng ni ghp mt bch: lF = 40
(mm).
Cc thng s ca bch ghp ng dn nhp liu:
Dt

Db

Dn

D1

Bu lng
db

(ci)

(mm)
40

100

45

130

80

12

12

b . Ong hi nh thp:
Sut lng hi nh thp: gd = 2525,6421 (Kg/h).
Khi lng ring ca hi nh thp c tnh theo cng thc (xc nh
tD = 100,0235oC v yD = 0,9813):
[18. yD + (1 yD ).60].273 = 0,6113(Kg/m3).
h =
22,4.(t D + 273)
g
Lu lng hi ra khi thp: Qh = d = 4131,4748 (m3/h).
h
Chn vn tc hi nh thp: vh = 25 (m/s).
4.Qh
4.4131,4748
ng knh ng dn hi: dh =
=
= 0,242 (m).
3600. .vh
3600. .25
Suy ra: chn ng knh ng dn hi: dh = 0,250 (m).
Ti liu tham kho [4(tp 2)], chn chiu di on ng ni ghp mt bch: lh =
250 (mm).
Cc thng s ca bch ghp ng dn hi nh thp:
Dt

Db

Dn

D1

Bu lng
db

(ci)

(mm)
100

335

273

370

312

16

16

12

c . Ong hon lu:


Sut lng hon lu: Ghl = GD.R=2057,9306 (Kg/h).
Khi lng ring ca cht lng hon lu, tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)]
tD = 100.0235oC v xD = 88% : hl = 957,9824 (Kg/m3).
G
Lu lng cht lng hon lu: Qhl = hl = 2,1482 (m3/h).
hl
Chn vn tc cht lng hon lu (t chy t b phn tch lng ngng t vo thp):
vhl = 0,2(m/s).
4.Qhl
4.2,1482
ng knh ng hon lu: dhl =
=
= 0,061 (m).
3600. .vhl
3600. .0,2
Suy ra: chn ng knh ng hon lu: dhl = 0,060 (m).
Ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 2)], chn chiu di on ng ni ghp mt bch: lhl = 60
(mm).
Cc thng s ca bch ghp ng dn hon lu:
26

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

Dt

Db

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Dn

D1

Bu lng
db

(ci)

(mm)
70

130

76

160

110

12

12

d . Ong dn hi vo y thp:
Sut lng hi vo y thp: g1 = 3141,1488 (Kg/h).
Khi lng ring ca hi vo y thp c tnh theo cng thc (xc nh
tW = 100,6266oC v yW = 0,9227):
[18. yW + (1 yW ).60].273 = 0,6883 (Kg/m3).
hd =
22,4.(tW + 273)
g'
Lu lng hi ra khi thp: Qhd = 1 = 4563,676 (m3/h).
hd
Chn vn tc hi vo y thp: vhd =30 (m/s).
4.Qhl
4.4563,676
ng knh ng dn hi: dhd =
=
= 0,2320 (m).
3600. .vhl
3600. .30
Suy ra: chn ng knh ng dn hi: dhd = 0,25 (m).
Ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 2)], chn chiu di on ng ni ghp mt bch: lhd =
250 (mm).
Cc thng s ca bch ghp ng dn hi vo y thp:
Dt

Db

Dn

D1

Bu lng
db

(ci)

(mm)
250

335

273

370

312

16

16

12

e . Ong dn cht lng y thp:


Sut lng cht lng vo ni un:
G1 =3439,9645 (Kg/h).
Khi lng ring ca cht lng cht lng vo ni un, tra ti liu tham kho [4(tp
1)] tW = 100,6266oC v x1=0,7745: L = 957,9493 (Kg/m3).
G'
Lu lng cht lng vo ni un: QL = 1 = 3,5909 (m3/h).
L
Chn vn tc cht lng vo ni un (cht lng t chy vo ni un):
vL = 0,2 (m/s).
4.QL
4.3,5909
ng knh ng dn cht lng: dL=
=
=0,0797(m).
3600. .vL
3600. .0,2
Suy ra: chn ng knh ng dn: dL = 0,080 (m).
Ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 2)], chn chiu di on ng ni ghp mt bch: lL = 80
(mm).
Cc thng s ca bch ghp ng dn cht lng y thp:
Dt

Db

Dn

D1

Bu lng
db

27

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam


(ci)

(mm)
50

150

89

185

128

16

16

f . Ong dn cht lng t ni un (sn phm y):


Sut lng sn phm y: GW = 298,8157(Kg/h).
Khi lng ring ca sn phm y, tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)]
tW= 100,6266oC v xW=0,8861: W = 957,4551 (Kg/m3).
G
Lu lng sn phm y: QW = W = 0.3121(m3/h).
W
Chn vn tc sn phm y (cht lng t chy): vW = 0, 2 (m/s).
4.QW
4.0,3121
=0,0235(m).
ng knh ng dn sn phm y: dW=
=
3600. .vW
3600. .0,2
Suy ra: chn ng knh ng dn: dW = 0,030 (m).
Ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 2)], chn chiu di on ng ni ghp mt bch: lW =
30 (mm).
Cc thng s ca bch ghp ng dn sn phm y:
Dt

Db

Dn

D1

Bu lng
db

(ci)

(mm)
32

90

38

120

18

12

12

5 . Tai treo v chn :


Tnh trng lng ca ton thp:
Khi lng ca mt bch ghp thn: (thp X18H10T: X18H10T = 7900 (Kg/m3)).

2
m1 = . D 2 Dt .h. X 18 H 10T = .(0,632 0,552 )0,02.7900 = 18,144(Kg).
4
4
Khi lng ca mt mm: (thp X18H10T: X18H10T = 7900 (Kg/m3)).
2

m2 = .Dt . mm .0,7. X 18 H 10T = .0,552.0,0018.0,7.7900 =1,955(Kg).


4
4
Khi lng ca thn thp:

m3 = .(D2ng D2t).Hthn . X18H10T = .(0,5562 0,552 ).14,2.7900


4
4
= 531,808 (Kg).
Khi lng ca y (np) thp:
m4 = Sy .y . X18H10T = 0,31 . 0,003 . 7900 = 7,347 (Kg).
Khi lng ca ton thp: m = 30.m1+53.m2+m3+2.m4=1193,537(Kg).
Suy ra trng lng ca ton thp: P = m.g = 11708,598 (N).
Chn thp:
Chn chn : thp c trn bn chn. Ti trng cho php trn mt chn: Gc
P 11708,598
= =
= 0,293.104 (N).
4
4
m bo an ton cho thit b, ta chn: Gc = 0,5.104 (N).

28

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Truc thiet b

Theo ay
thiet b

Cc
kch thc ca chn : (tnh bng mm)
L

B1

B2

160

110

135

195

240

145

10

55

23

Tai treo:
Chn tai treo: tai treo c gn trn thn thp gi cho thp khi b dao ng
trong iu kin ngoi cnh. Ta chn bn tai treo, ti trng cho php trn mt tai treo l
Gt = 0,293.104 (N).
m bo an ton cho thit b, ta chn: Gt = 0,5.104 (N).
Chn tm lt tai treo khi ghp vo thn c kch thc sau:
+ Chiu di tm lt: H = 260 (mm).
+ Chiu rng tm lt: B = 140 (mm).
+B dy tm lt l 6 (mm).

Cc kch thc ca tai treo: (tnh bng mm)


L

B1

100

75

85

155

40

15

18

29

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

CHNG IV: TNH TON THIT B TRUYN


NHIT- THIT B PH.
I . CC THIT B TRUYN NHIT:
Cn bng nhit lng cho ton thp chng ct:
(IV.1)
QF + Q = QW + QD + Qnt + Qm
Trong :
Qnt : nhit lng ngng t do hi sn phm day ngng t thnh lng.
Chn hi sn phm day ngng t hon ton thnh lng.
, (KJ/h).
Qnt =G W.(R+1). . rW
Xc nh rD (n nhit ho hi ca sn phm nh):
Tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)], tW= 100,6266 ta c:
An nhit ho hi ca nc: rN = 2436,7176 (KJ/kg).
An nhit ho hi ca ru: rA = 361,3208 (KJ/kg).
Suy ra: rW = rN . x +(1- x ).rA = 2436,7176.0,7+(1-0,7).361,3208
= 2426,34 (KJ/kg).
Vy: Qnt =298,8156.(4,4+1) 2426,34=1702,2411 (KJ/ s).
QF : nhit lng do hn hp ru nhp liu mang vo thp.
QF = GF .HF =GF .cF .(tF to )
,(KJ/h).
o
Chn nhit chun: to = 30 C.
t + t 100,1727 + 30
F o =
= 65,0864 oC , tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)], ta
2
2
c nhit dung ring ca ru: cR =3925,1974 (J/kg.).
Suy ra: cF = x F .cR +(1- x F ).4186
=(1-88%).3976,0725+(88%).4186 = 3973,0725(J/kg.).
Vy: QF = 766,5272..3973,0725.(100,1727-30) = 269699,063 (KJ/h).
QW : nhit lng do sn phm y mang ra t ni un.
,(KJ/h).
QW = GW .HW =GW.cW .(tW to )
Chn nhit chun: to = 20oC.
Do sn phm y cha nhiu nc nn nhit dung ring ca sn phm y c
th tnh gn ng theo cng thc sau:
cW = (1- xW ).4186=(1- 0,0029).4186= 4173,861 (J/kg.).
Vy: QW = 42,477. 18,032 .4173,861 .(100-20)=255753,898(KJ/h).
QD : nhit lng do sn phm nh mang ra t b phn tch hon lu.
,(KJ/h).
QD = GD .HD =D.MD .cD .(tD to )
o
Chn nhit chun: to = 20 C.
t +t
78,5 + 20
= 49,25 oC , tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)], ta c nhit
D o =
2
2
dung ring ca ru: cR =2830,25 (J/kg.).
Suy ra: cD = x D .cR +(1- x D ).4186
=0,935.2882,25+(1-0,935).4186 = 3033,613(J/kg.).
Vy: T (IV.1), ta c:
QF = 5,600 .41,8 .3033,613 .(78,5-20) =41537,988 (KJ/h).
30

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Qm : nhit lng tn tht ra mi trng xung quanh.


Chn: Qm = 0,05.Q
Vy: nhit lng cn cung cp cho ni un y thp:
1
.(QW + QD + Qnt QF )
Q =
0,95
1
=
(255753,898+41537,988+879211,642-269699,063)
0,95
= 954531,016 (KJ/h) = 265,148 (KW).
Chn: + Nhit nguyn liu ban u: tF = 28oC.
+ Nhit sn phm nh sau khi lm ngui: tD = 35oC.
+ Nhit sn phm y sau khi trao i nhit vi nguyn liu ban u: tW =
60oC.

1 . Thit b ngng t sn phm nh:


Chn thit b ngng t v ng loi TH t nm ngang.
Ong truyn nhit c lm bng thp X18H10T, kch thc ng: 25x2, chiu di ng
l L = 3 (m).
Chn nc lm lnh i trong ng vi nhit u: t1 = 27oC, nhit cui: t2 = 45oC.
Cc tnh cht l hc ca nc lm lnh c tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)] ng
t +t
vi nhit trung bnh ttbN = 1 2 =36oC:
2
+ Nhit dung ring: cN = 4,187(KJ/kg.).
+ Khi lng ring: N = 996,9 (Kg/m3).
+ nht ng lc: N = 0,737.10-3 (N.s/m2).
+ H s dn nhit: N = 0,6242 (W/moK).
a . Sut lng nc cn dng ngng t sn phm nh:
Qnt
81427,8446
=
GN =
= 22,6188 (Kg/s).
3600.cN .(t2 t1 ) 3600.4.187.(45 27)
b . Xc nh b mt truyn nhit :
B mt truyn nhit c xc nh theo phng trnh truyn nhit:
Qnt
Ftb =
,(m2)
(IV.2).
K .t log
Vi: + K : h s truyn nhit.
+ tlog : nhit trung bnh logarit.
Xc nh tlog :
Chn kiu truyn nhit ngc chiu, nn:
(100,0235 27) (100,0235 45)
tlog =
= 63,5999 (oK).
100,0235 27
Ln
100,0235 45
Xc nh h s truyn nhit K:
H s truyn nhit K c tnh theo cng thc:

31

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

K=

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

1
1

+ rt +

,(W/m2.oK)

(IV.3).

N
R
Vi: + N : h s cp nhit ca nc trong ng (W/m2.oK).
+ R : h s cp nhit ca hi ngng t (W/m2.oK).
+ rt : nhit tr ca thnh ng v lp cu.
* Xc nh h s cp nhit ca nc trong ng:
Chn vn tc nc i trong ng: vN =2,9, (m/s).
S ng trong mt ng nc:
n=

GN

4
22,6188
~ 16 (ng).
.
996,9 .0,0212.2,9

N .d tr .vN
Chun s Reynolds :
v d .
2,9.0,021.996,9
= 82101,7829 > 104 : ch chy ri,
Re N = N . tr N =
3
N
0,737.10
cng thc xc nh chun s Nusselt c dng:
2

Nu N = 0,021. l . Re N

0 ,8

PrN

0 , 43

.(

PrN 0, 25
)
Prw

Trong :
+ l : h s hiu chnh ph thuc vo ReN v t l chiu di ng vi ng
L
3
knh ng:ReN=82101,7829 v
=
> 50 ,nn l =1.
dtr 0,021
+ PrN : chun s Prandlt ca nc 36oC, nn PrN =4,31.
+ Prw : chun s Prandlt ca nc nhit trung bnh ca vch.
484,335
Suy ra: Nu N =
0 , 25
Prw
H s cp nhit ca nc trong ng:
Nu N .N 484,335.0,6242 14396,2831
N =
=
=
0 , 25
0 , 25
d tr
PrN .0,021
PrN
Nhit ti pha nc lm lnh:
14396,2831
(IV.4).
q N = N .(t w 2 ttbN ) =
(t w 2 36) (W/m2)
0 , 25
PrN
Vi tw2 : nhit ca vch tip xc vi nc (trong ng).
* Nhit ti qua thnh ng v lp cu:
t t
qt = w1 w 2 , (W/m2).
rt
Trong :
+ tw1 : nhit ca vch tip xc vi ru (ngoi ng).

+ rt = t + rc
t
B dy thnh ng: t = 2 (mm).

32

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

H s dn nhit ca thp khng g: t = 17,5 (W/moK).


Nhit tr trung bnh ca lp bn trong ng vi nc sch:
rc = 1/5000 (m2.oK/W).
Suy ra: rt = 1/3181,818 (m2.oK/W).
Vy: qt = 3181,818.(tw1-tw2)
(IV.5)
* H s cp nhit ca hi ngng t:

R = 0,725.4

rR . R . R
A
=
R .(t D t w1 ).d ng (78,5 t w1 ) 0, 25
3

rR . R . R
R .d ng
3

t: A= 0,725.4

vi [rR]=[J/kg].

An nhit ngng t: rR = rD = 945,465 (KJ/


;kg).
Nhit ti ngoi thnh ng:
(IV.6).
qR = R.(100,0235-tw1) = A.(100,0235-tw1)0,75
T (IV.4), (IV.5), (IV.6) ta dng phng php lp xc nh tw1, tw2 :
Chn: tw1 = 52oC :
Cc tnh cht l hc ca ru ngng t c tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)] ng
t +t
100,0235 + 52
vi nhit trung bnh ttbD = D w1 =
= 66 oC:
2
2
+ Khi lng ring: R = 974,89 (Kg/m3).
+ nht ng lc: R = 0,4061.10-3 (N.s/m2).
+ H s dn nhit: R = 0,6645 (W/moK).
Khi : A = 2124,9007
T (IV.6): qR = 2124,9007.(100,0235-52,05)0,75 = 38733,764 (W/m2).
Xem nhit ti mt mt l khng ng k: qt = qR =38733,764 (W/m2).
qt
=39,8765oC
T (IV.5), ta c: tw2 = tw13181,818
t +t
52 + 39,8765
Suy ra: ttbw = w1 w 2 =
= 45,9 oC
2
2
Tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)], Prw = 3,54
14396,2831
T (IV.4): qN =
.(45,9 34) = 40061,163 (W/m2).
3,540, 25
Kim tra sai s:
qN q R
4001,163 38764,037
=
=
=3,3% < 5% : tho.
qR
38764,037
Vy: tw1 = 52oC v tw2 = 45,9oC.
14396,2831
= 10495,414 (W/m2.oC).
Khi : N =
3,540, 25
2124,9007
R =
= 807,1889 (W/m2.oC).
0 , 25
(100,0235 52)

33

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

1
= 606,6368 (W/m2.oC).
1
1
1
+
+
10495,414 3181,818 807,1889
T (IV.2), b mt truyn nhit trung bnh:
1702,2411.1000
Ftb =
= 44,1203 (m2).
.606,6368.63,6
Suy ra chiu di ng truyn nhit :
44,1203
L= =
= 38,1822 (m).
0,025 + 0,021
.19.
2
L' 38,1822
So vi L = 1,5(m) th s ng nc l
=
26 (ng nc).
L
1,5
Khi s ng tng ln 4 ln: n=26.4 =104 (ng) ~ chn n=127(ng).
* Kim tra h s cp nhit ca ru khi c k n s nh hng ca s sp sp, b
tr ng. Chn cch xp ng thng hng, b tr theo dng lc gic u,vy vi 91 ng
th ta sp c 9 hng.
127
S ng trung bnh trong 1 hng:
= 9,79 10 , tra ti liu tham kho II, ta c
9
tb = 15.
Khi : R = 15.1384,712 = 12110,98 (W/m2.oC).
Tnh li h s truyn nhit K t CT(IV.3), ta c: K = 2012,3139 (W/m2.oC).
1702,2411.1000
Suy ra: b mt trung bnh: Ftb =
= 13,3006 (m2).
2012,3139.63,6
Khi : chiu di ng truyn nhit:
13,3006
= 1,45(m). < 1,5(m) : tho.
L=
0,025 + 0,021
.127.
2
Vy : Thit b ngng t sn phm nh l thit b truyn nhit v ng gm
n=127(ng), di L=1,5(m).
Ong c b tr theo hnh lc gic u. Nn ta c s ng trn ng cho hnh
lc gic: b = 13(ng). Chn bc ngang gia hai ng: t = 1,4.dng = 1,4.0,025 = 0,035 (m).
ng knh v thit b: Dv = t.(b-1)+4.dng = 0,035(9-1)+4.0,025
= 0,380(m).

T (IV.3): K =

2 . Thit b lm ngui sn phm nh:


Chn thit b lm ngui sn phm nh l thit b truyn nhit ng lng ng. Ong
truyn nhit c lm bng thp X18H10T, kch thc ng trong: 16x1,6 ; kch thc
ng ngoi: 25x2,5.
Chn: + Nc lm lnh i trong ng 16x1,6 (ng trong) vi nhit u: t1 = 27oC,
nhit cui: t2 = 45oC.
+ Sn phm nh i trong ng 25x2,5 (ng ngoi) vi nhit u:tW =
100,6266oC, nhit cui: tW = 40oC.

34

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Cc tnh cht l hc ca nc lm lnh c tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)] ng


t +t
vi nhit trung bnh ttbN = 1 2 =36oC:
2
+ Nhit dung ring: cN = 4,187 (KJ/kg.).
+ Khi lng ring: N = 996,9(Kg/m3).
+ nht ng lc: N = 0,737.10-3 (N.s/m2).
+ H s dn nhit: N = 0,6242 (W/moK).
Cc tnh cht l hc ca sn phm nh c tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)] ng
t +t '
100,6266 + 40
vi nhit trung bnh ttbW = D D =
= 70,3 oC:
2
2
+ Nhit dung ring: cW= 3,614 (J/kg.).
+ Khi lng ring: W = 979,2085 (Kg/m3).
+ nht ng lc: W = 0,4377.10-3 (N.s/m2).
+ H s dn nhit: W = 0,607 (W/moK).
a . Sut lng nc cn dng lm mt sn phm nh:
Sut lng sn phm nh:
GW =298,8157 (Kg/h) = 0,0830 (Kg/s).
Lng nhit cn ti:
Qt = GW.cW.(tW-tW) = 0,0830.361,4.(100,6266-40) = (J/s) =0,0001(KJ/s).
Sut lng nc cn dng:
QD
0,1
=
GN =
= 0,0001049 (Kg/s).
cN .(t2 t1 ) 4.187.(45 27)
b . Xc nh b mt truyn nhit :
B mt truyn nhit c xc nh theo phng trnh truyn nhit:
Qt
,(m2)
(IV.7).
Ftb =
K .t log
Vi: + K : h s truyn nhit.
+ tlog : nhit trung bnh logarit.
Xc nh tlog :
Chn kiu truyn nhit ngc chiu, nn:
(100,6266 45) (40 27)
tlog =
= 29,3226 (oK).
100,6266 45
Ln
40 27
Xc nh h s truyn nhit K:
H s truyn nhit K c tnh theo cng thc:
1
,(W/m2.oK)
(IV.8).
K=
1
1
+ rt +
N
D
Vi: + N : h s cp nhit ca nc trong ng (W/m2.oK).
+ D : h s cp nhit ca sn phm nh (W/m2.oK).
+ rt : nhit tr ca thnh ng v lp cu.
* Xc nh h s cp nhit ca sn phm nh ng ngoi:
35

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Vn tc ca sn phm nh i trong ng ngoi:


G
4
4
0.0001
=
= 1,1737 (m/s).
vD = D .
.
2
2
2
D .( D tr d ng ). 979,2085 .(0,02 0,0162 )
ng knh tng ng: dtd = Dtr dng = 0,02- 0,016 = 0,004 (m).
Chun s Reynolds :
v d .
1,1737.0,004.1,1737
= 10502 > 2320 : ch qu ,
Re D = D. td D =
D
0,4377.10 3
cng thc xc nh chun s Nusselt c dng:
Pr
0 , 43
Nu D = C. l . PrD .( D ) 0, 25
Prw1
Trong :
+ l : h s hiu chnh ph thuc t l chiu di ng vi ng knh ng1,
chn l =1.
+ C : h s ph thuc vo chun s Reynolds, ReD = 10502 nn
C = 7,252.
+ PrD : chun s Prandlt ca sn phm nh 56,75oC, nn
D .cD 0,4377.103.3614,2648
=
= 2,6053.
PrD =
D
0,6070
+ Prw1 : chun s Prandlt ca sn phm nh nhit trung bnh ca vch.
66,3818
Suy ra: Nu D =
0 , 25
Prw1
H s cp nhit ca sn phm nh trong ng ngoi:
Nu D .D 66,3818.0,6070 395,5057
D =
=
=
0 , 25
0 , 25
d td
Prw1 .0,004
Prw1
Nhit ti pha sn phm nh:
395,5057
qD = D .(ttbD t w1 ) =
(70,3 t w1 ) (W/m2) (IV.9).
0 , 25
Prw1
Vi tw1 : nhit ca vch tip xc vi sn phm nh (ngoi ng nh).
* Nhit ti qua thnh ng v lp cu:
t t
qt = w1 w 2 , (W/m2).
rt
Trong :
+ tw2 : nhit ca vch tip xc vi nc (trong ng nh).

+ rt = t + r1 + r2
t
B dy thnh ng: t = 1,6 (mm).
H s dn nhit ca thp khng g: t = 17,5 (W/moK).
Nhit tr trung bnh ca lp bn trong ng vi nc sch:
r1 = 1/5000 (m2.oK/W).
Nhit tr lp cu pha sn phm nh: r2 = 1/5000 (m2.oK/W).
Suy ra: rt = 1/2034,884 (m2.oK/W).
36

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Vy: qt = 2034,884.(tw1-tw2)
(IV.10).
* Xc nh h s cp nhit ca nc trong ng nh:
Vn tc nc i trong ng:
G
4
4
0,0001
=
= 0,0005 (m/s).
vN = N .
.
2
N .d tr
996,9 .0,01282
Chun s Reynolds :
v d .
0,0005.0,0128.996,9
= 9,0684 > 104 : ch chy ri,
Re N = N . tr N =
3
N
0,737.10
cng thc xc nh chun s Nusselt c dng:
Pr
0 ,8
0 , 43
Nu N = 0,021. l . Re N PrN .( N ) 0, 25
Prw 2
Trong :
+ l : h s hiu chnh ph thuc vo ReN v t l chiu di ng vi ng
knh ng:ReN=9,0684 ,chn l =1.
+ PrN : chun s Prandlt ca nc 36oC, nn PrN = 4,31
+ Prw2 : chun s Prandlt ca nc nhit trung bnh ca vch.
0,3310
Suy ra: Nu N =
0 , 25
Prw 2
H s cp nhit ca nc trong ng:
Nu N .N 0,3310.0,6242 16,1357
N =
=
=
0 , 25
0 , 25
d tr
Prw 2 .0,0128 Prw 2
Nhit ti pha nc lm lnh:
16,1357
q N = N .(t w 2 ttbN ) =
(t w 2 36) (W/m2) (IV.11).
0 , 25
Prw 2
o
Chn: tw1 = 69,15 C :
Cc tnh cht l hc ca sn phm nh c tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)]
ng vi nhit tw1=69,15:
+ Nhit dung ring: cR= 3614,2750 (J/kg.).
+ nht ng lc: R = 0,4387.10-3 (N.s/m2).
+ H s dn nhit: R = 0,6070 (W/moK).
.c
0,4387.103.3614,2750
= 2,6122
Khi xem:Prw1 ~ R R =
R
0,6070
395,5058
T (IV.9): qD =
.(70,3 69,15) = 408,5701(W/m2).
0 , 25
2,622
Xem nhit ti mt mt l khng ng k: qt = qD =408,5701(W/m2).
qt
=68,7992
T (IV.10), ta c: tw2 = tw12034,884
t +t
69,15 + 68,7992
Suy ra: ttbw = w1 w 2 =
= 68.8996 oC
2
2
Tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)], Prw2 = 2,.55

37

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

T (IV.11): qN =

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

16.,1357
.(68,9 36) = 418,8094 (W/m2).
2,550, 25

Kim tra sai s:


qN q D
418,8094 408,5701
=
=2,5% < 5% : tho.
=
qD
408,5701
Vy: tw1 = 69,15oC v tw2 = 68,7992oC.
16,1357
= 12,7689 (W/m2.oC).
Khi : N =
0 , 25
2,55
395,5057
D =
= 311,1627 (W/m2.oC).
0 , 25
2,6053
1
T (IV.8): K =
= 12,1921 (W/m2.oC).
1
1
1
+
+
12,7689 2034,884 311,1627
T (IV.7), b mt truyn nhit trung bnh:
0,1.1000
Ftb =
= 0,0102 (m2).
12,1921.63,5996
Suy ra chiu di ng truyn nhit :
0,0102
L=
= 0,2255 (m)
0,016 + 0,0128
.
2
Chn: L = 1(m),
L
1
Kim tra:
=
= 78,125 > 50 th l = 1: tho.
d tr 0,0128
Vy: thit b lm mt sn phm nh l thit b truyn nhit ng lng ng vi chiu
di ng truyn nhit L = 1(m), chia thnh 5 dy, mi dy di 0.2 (m).

3 . Ni un gia nhit sn phm y:


Chn ni un gia nhit sn phm y l ni un Kettle, ng truyn nhit c lm
bng thp X18H10T, kch thc ng 25x2.
Chn hi t l hi nc 2 at, i trong ng 25x2. Tra ti liu tham kho [4(tp1)], ta
c:
+ Nhit si: tsN = 119,6oC.
+ An nhit ngng t: rN = 2208 (KJ/kg).
Sn phm y trc khi vo ni un c nhit l t1 = 100,1727oC (do x1=0,8861 ),
nhit ra l tW = 100,6266oC.
a . Sut lng hi nc cn dng :
Lng nhit cn ti cung cp cho y thp: Q = 265,148 (KW).
Sut lng hi nc cn dng:
Q
265,148
= 0,120 (Kg/s).
GhN = d =
rN
2208
b . Xc nh b mt truyn nhit :
B mt truyn nhit c xc nh theo phng trnh truyn nhit:

38

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

Ftb =

Qd
K .t log

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

,(m2)

(IV.12).

Vi: + K : h s truyn nhit.


+ tlog : nhit trung bnh logarit.
Xc nh tlog :
Chn kiu truyn nhit ngc chiu, nn:
(119,6 99) (119,6 100)
= 20,096 (oK).
t log =
119,6 99
Ln
119,6 100
Xc nh h s truyn nhit K:
H s truyn nhit K c tnh theo cng thc:
1
,(W/m2.oK)
(IV.13).
K=
1
1
+ rt +
N
D
Vi: + N : h s cp nhit ca hi nc (W/m2.oK).
+ D : h s cp nhit ca sn phm y (W/m2.oK).
+ rt : nhit tr ca thnh ng v lp cu.
* Xc nh h s cp nhit ca hi nc:
H s cp nhit ca hi nc c xc nh theo cng thc:
0 , 25
0 , 25

rN
2208.1000

N = 0,725. A.
= 0,725. A.

(119,6 t w1 ).0,021
(t sN t w1 ).d tr
73,415. A
=
(119,6 t w1 ) 0, 25
Vi: + tw1 : nhit ca vch tip xc vi hi nc(trong ng).
+ A : h s ph thuc vo tnh cht vt l nc theo nhit , c tra
ti liu tham kho [2].
Nhit ti pha hi:
q N = N .(t sN t w1 ) = 73,415. A.(119,6 t w1 ) 0, 75 (W/m2) (IV.14).
* Nhit ti qua thnh ng v lp cu:
t t
qt = w1 w 2 , (W/m2).
rt
Trong :
+ tw2 : nhit ca vch tip xc vi sn phm y (ngoi ng).

+ rt = t + r1 + r2
t
B dy thnh ng: t = 2 (mm).
H s dn nhit ca thp khng g: t = 17,5 (W/moK).
Nhit tr trung bnh ca lp bn trong ng vi nc sch: r1 = 1/5000
2o
(m . K/W).
Nhit tr lp cu pha sn phm y: r2 =1/500(m2.oK/W).

39

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Suy ra: rt = 1/1944,444 (m2.oK/W).


Vy: qt = 1944,444.(tw1-tw2)
(IV.15).
* Xc nh h s cp nhit ca sn phm y:
H s cp nhit ca sn phm y c xc nh theo cng thc (ch si si
bt v xem sn phm y nh l nc):
4186,8
.39.p0,5.(tw2 100)2,33
D =
3600
Vi: + p: p sut t nhit si ca sn phm y, khi
p = 1 at = 105 (N/m2).
Suy ra: D = 14343,143(tw2 100)2,33
Nhit ti pha sn phm y:
q D = D .(t w 2 100) = 14343,143(t w 2 100) 3,33 (W/m2) (IV.16).
Chn: tw1 = 116,655oC :
119,6 + 116,655
= 118,128oC ta tra c
Khi , nhit trung bnh
2
A = 187,1574
T (IV.14): qN =73,415.187,1574.(119,6-116,655)0,75
= 30889,133(W/m2).
Xem nhit ti mt mt l khng ng k: qt = qN =30889,133 (W/m2).
qt
=100,769oC
T (IV.15), ta c: tw2 = tw11944,444
T (IV.16): qD =14343,143.(100,769-100)3,33=31708,196(W/m2).
Kim tra sai s:
qN q D
30889,133 31708,196
=2,65% < 5% : tho.
=
=
qD
30889,133
Vy: tw1 = 116,655oC v tw2 = 100,769oC.
73,415.187,1574
= 10488,670 (W/m2.oC).
Khi : N =
(119,6 116,655) 0, 25
D = 14343,143.(100,769 100) 3,33 = 24986,758 (W/m2.oC).
1
T (IV.13): K =
= 1539,295 (W/m2.oC).
1
1
1
+
+
10488,670 1944,444 24986,758
T (IV.12), b mt truyn nhit trung bnh:
265,148.1000
Ftb =
= 8,572 (m2).
1539,295.20,096
Chn s ng truyn nhit: n = 91 (ng).
Chiu di ng truyn nhit:
8,572
L=
= 1,304 (m).
0,025 + 0,021
.91.
2
Chn: L = 1,5(m),(d tr khong 10%).

40

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Vy: ni un gia nhit sn phm y l thit b truyn nhit v - ng vi s ng n =


91, chiu di ng truyn nhit L = 1,5(m).
Ong c b tr theo hnh lc gic u. Nn ta c s ng trn ng cho hnh
lc gic: b = 9(ng). Chn bc ngang gia hai ng: t = 1,4.dng = 1,4.0,025 = 0,035
(m).
ng knh v thit b: Dv = t.(b-1)+4.dng = 0,035(9-1)+4.0,025
= 0,380(m).

5 . Thit gia nhit nhp liu :


Chn thit b gia nhit nhp liu l thit b truyn nhit ng lng ng. Ong truyn
nhit c lm bng thp X18H10T, kch thc ng trong:25x2; kch thc ng ngoi:
38x2.
Dng nhp liu i trong ng 25x2 (ng trong) vi nhit u: tF =30oC ,nhit
cui: tF =101oC.
Chn hi t l hi nc 2 at, i trong ng 38x2(ng ngoi). Tra ti liu tham kho [4
(tp 1)], ta c:
+ Nhit si: tsN = 119,6oC.
+ An nhit ngng t: rN = 2208 (KJ/kg).
Cc tnh cht l hc ca dng nhp liu c tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)] ng
t " +t
vi nhit trung bnh ttbF = F F =65,5oC:
2
+ Nhit dung ring: cF = 3955,637 (KJ/kg.).
+ Khi lng ring: F = 982,099 (Kg/m3).
+ nht ng lc: F = 0,465.10-3 (N.s/m2).
+ H s dn nhit: F = 0,6013 (W/moK).
a . Sut lng hi nc cn dng :
Lng nhit cn ti cung cp cho dng nhp liu:
GF
766,5272
Qc =
.cF.(tF tF) =
.3,9556.(101 -65,5)=15,1176 (KW).
3600
3600
Sut lng hi nc cn dng:
Q 15,1176
= 0,0068 (Kg/s).
GhN = c =
rN
2208
b . Xc nh b mt truyn nhit :
B mt truyn nhit c xc nh theo phng trnh truyn nhit:
Qt
,(m2)
(IV.22).
Ftb =
K .t log
Vi: + K : h s truyn nhit.
+ tlog : nhit trung bnh logarit.
Xc nh tlog :
Chn kiu truyn nhit ngc chiu, nn:
(119,6 30) (119,6 101)
tlog =
= 45,1598 (oK).
119,6 30
Ln
119,6 101

41

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Xc nh h s truyn nhit K:
H s truyn nhit K c tnh theo cng thc:
1
,(W/m2.oK)
(IV.23).
K=
1
1
+ rt +
F
N
Vi: + F : h s cp nhit ca dng nhp liu (W/m2.oK).
+ N : h s cp nhit ca hi nc (W/m2.oK).
+ rt : nhit tr ca thnh ng v lp cu.
* Xc nh h s cp nhit ca dng nhp liu trong ng nh:
Vn tc dng nhp liu i trong ng ngoi:
GF
4
4
766,5272
=
= 0,6263 (m/s).
vF =
.
.
2
3600. F .d ng 3600.982,099 .0,0212
Chun s Reynolds :
v d .
0,6263.0,009.982,099
= 11904 > 104 : ch chy ri,
Re F = F td F =
3
F
0,465.10
cng thc xc nh chun s Nusselt c dng:
Pr
0 ,8
0 , 43
Nu F = 0,021. l . Re F PrF .( F ) 0, 25
Prw 2
Trong :
+ l : h s hiu chnh ph thuc vo ReW v t l chiu di ng vi ng
knh ng:ReW=11904,chn l =1.
+ PrF : chun s Prandlt ca dng nhp liu 74,033oC, nn
cF . F 3955.0,465.10 3
=
= 3,0589
PrF =
F
0,6013
81,8428
Suy ra: Nu F =
0 , 25
Prw 2
H s cp nhit ca dng nhp liu trong ng nh:
Nu F .F 81,8428.0,6013 5467,961
F =
=
=
0 , 25
0 , 25
d td
Prw 2 .0,009
Prw 2
Nhit ti pha dng nhp liu:
5467,961
q F = F .(t w 2 ttbF ) =
(t w 2 65,5) (W/m2) (IV.24).
0 , 25
Prw 2
Vi tw2 : nhit ca vch tip xc vi dng nhp liu (trong ng nh).
* Nhit ti qua thnh ng v lp cu:
t t
qt = w1 w 2 , (W/m2).
rt
Trong :
+ tw1 : nhit ca vch tip xc vi hi nc (ngoi ng nh).

+ rt = t + r1 + r2
t

42

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

B dy thnh ng: t = 2(mm).


H s dn nhit ca thp khng g: t = 17,5 (W/moK).
Nhit tr trung bnh ca lp bn trong ng vi nc sch:
r1 = 1/5000 (m2.oK/W).
Nhit tr lp cu pha sn phm nh: r2 = 1/5000 (m2.oK/W).
Suy ra: rt = 1/1944,444 (m2.oK/W).
Vy: qt = 1944,444.(tw1-tw2)
(IV.25).
* Xc nh h s cp nhit ca hi nc trong ng nh:
ng knh tng ng: dtd = Dtr dng = 0,034- 0,025 = 0,009 (m)
H s cp nhit ca hi nc c xc nh theo cng thc:
0 , 25

0 , 25

rN
2260.1000
= 0,725. A.

N= 0,725. A.

(t sN t w1 ).d td
(119,6 t w1 ).0,009
91,265. A
=
(119,6 t w1 ) 0, 25
Vi: + A : h s ph thuc vo tnh cht vt l nc theo nhit , c tra
ti liu tham kho [2].
Nhit ti pha hi nc:
q N = N .(t sN t w1 ) = 91,265. A.(100 t w1 ) 0,75 (W/m2) (IV.26).
Chn: tw1 = 110,311oC :
119,6 + 110,311
= 114,9555oC ta tra c A = 185
Khi , nhit trung bnh
2
T (IV.26): qN =91,261.185.(119,6 114,9555)0,75
= 89836,48(W/m2).
Xem nhit ti mt mt l khng ng k: qt = qW =89836,48 (W/m2).
qt
=64,1094oC
T (IV.25), ta c: tw2 = tw11944,444
t +t
110,311 + 64,1094
Suy ra: ttbw = w1 w 2 =
= 87,2102 oC
2
2
Cc tnh cht l hc ca dng nhp liu c tra ti liu tham kho
[4 (tp 1)] ng vi nhit trung bnh ttbw = 87,2102 oC:
+ Nhit dung ring: cR = 3,95304 (KJ/kg.).
+ nht ng lc: R = 0,469-3 (N.s/m2).
+ H s dn nhit: R = 0,6003 (W/moK).
c .
3,9531.0,469.10 3
= 3,0884
Khi : Prw2 = R R =
R
0,6003
5467,961
.(87,21027 65,5) = 89547,64 (W/m2).
T (IV.24): qF =
3,0884 0, 25
Kim tra sai s:
qN q F
89836,48 89547,64
=
=0,32% < 5%: tho.
=
qN
89836,48
Vy: tw1 = 110,311oC v tw2 = 64,1094oC.
43

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

91,265.185
= 1817,636 (W/m2.oC).
(119,6 110,311) 0, 25
5467,961
F =
= 4124,683 (W/m2.oC).
0 , 25
3,0884
1
T (IV.23): K =
= 765,1732 (W/m2.oC).
1
1
1
+
+
1817,636 1944,444 4124,683
T (IV.22), b mt truyn nhit trung bnh:
15,1176.1000
Ftb =
= 0,4375 (m2).
765,1732.45,1598
Suy ra chiu di ng truyn nhit :
0,4375
L=
= 6,0578 (m).
0,025 + 0,021
.
2
Chn: L = 7(m),(d tr khong 20%).
L
7
=
= 333,333 > 50 th l = 1: tho.
Kim tra:
d tr 0,021
Vy: thit b gia nhit dng nhp liu l thit b truyn nhit ng lng ng vi chiu
di ng truyn nhit L = 7(m), chia thnh 10 dy, mi dy di 0,7 (m).

Khi : N =

II. TNH BO N CA THIT B:


Trong qu trnh hot ng ca thp, do thp tip xc vi khng kh nn nhit lng
tn tht ra mi trng xung quanh ngy cng ln. thp hot ng n nh, ng vi
cc thng s thit k, ta phi tng dn lng hi t gia nhit cho ni un thp
khng b ngui (nht l sn phm nh, nh hng n hiu sut ca thp). Khi , chi ph
cho hi t s tng.
thp khng b ngui m khng tng chi ph hi t, ta thit k lp cch nhit bao
quanh thn thp.
Chn vt liu cch nhit cho thn thp l aming c b dy l a .Tra ti liu tham
kho [2], h s dn nhit ca aming l a = 0,151 (W/m.oK).
Nhit lng tn tht ra mi trng xung quanh:
Qm = 0,05.Qd = 0,05.75020,4093 = 3751,0204 (KW).
Nhit ti mt mt ring:

Q
(IV.27)
qm = m = a .(t v1 t v 2 ) = a .t v (W/m2).
f tb a
a
Vi: + tv1 : nhit ca lp cch nhit tip xc vi b mt ngoi ca thp.
+ tv1 : nhit ca lp cch nhit tip xc vi khng kh.
+ tv : hiu s nhit gia hai b mt ca lp cch nhit.
Nhn thy: qm = const, nn chn tv = tmax = ty -tkk ,tkk = 28oC.
Suy ra tv = 100 28 = 72oC.
+ ftb : din tch b mt trung bnh ca thp (k c lp cch nhit).
ftb = .H.Dtb = .H.(Dt + Sthn + a)
T (IV.27), ta c phng trnh:
44

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

3751,0204.1000
0,151
=
.72
.14,5.(0,500 + 0,003 + a )
a
Suy ra: a = 0,0025(m).
Vy: chn a = 10 (mm).

45

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

III . TNH TON BM NHP LIU:


1 . Tnh chiu cao bn cao v:
Chn ng knh ng dn nguyn liu (nhp liu): d = 50 (mm), nhm ca ng
=0,1(mm).
Cc tnh cht l hc ca dng nhp liu c tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)] ng
t + t'F
= 65,5oC:
vi nhit trung bnh ttbF = F
2
+ Khi lng ring: F = 982,099 (Kg/m3).
+ nht ng lc: F = 0,465.10-3 (N.s/m2).
Vn tc ca dng nhp liu trong ng dn:
4
QF
4
15,1176
vF =
=
= 0,1105 (m/s).
.
.
2
3600.982,099 .0,052
3600. F .d
a . Tn tht ng ng dn:
l
v 2
(m).
h1 = 1 . 1 + 1 . F
d
2
.
g
1

Vi: + 1 : h s ma st trong ng ng.


+ l1 : chiu di ng ng dn, chn l1 = 20(m).
+ d1 : ng knh ng dn, d1 = d = 0,05(m).
+ 1 : tng h s tn tht cc b.
+ vF : vn tc dng nhp liu trong ng dn, vF = 0,1105(m/s).
* Xc nh 1 :
Chun s Reynolds ca dng nhp liu trong ng:
v .d .
0,1105.0,05.982,099
Re1 = F 1 F =
= 11666
F
0,465.10 3
Theo ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)], ta c:
8

50 7
d 7
+ Chun s Reynolds ti hn: Regh1= 6. 1 = 6. =7289,343

0,1
+ Chun s Reynolds khi bt u xut hin vng nhm:
9

50 8
d 8
Ren1= 220. 1 = 220. =23,9.104.

0,1
Suy ra: Regh1 < Re1< Ren1: khu vc chy qu , khi (ti liu tham kho [4
(tp 1)]):
0 , 25

100
= 0,1308
1= 0,1.1,46. +
d1 Re1

* Xc nh 1:
H s tn tht ca dng nhp liu qua:
+ 10 ch un cong: u1=10.1,1 = 11.
+ 3 van (van cu): v1= 3.10 = 30.
+ 1 ln t thu: t1 = 0,5.
+ 1 ln t m: m1 = 1.
46

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

+ 1 lu lng k: l1 = 0 (khng ng k).


Suy ra: 1 = u1 + v1 + t 1+ m1 + l1 = 42,5.
20

0,149 2
+ 42,5 .
=0,064(m).
Vy:Tn tht ng ng dn: h1= 0,0345.
0,05

2.9,81
b . Tn tht ng ng dn trong thit b trao i nhit:

v2 2
l2
(m).
h2 = 2 . + 2 .
d2
2.g
Vi: + 2 : h s ma st trong ng ng.
+ l2 : chiu di ng ng dn, l2 = 18(m).
+ d2 : ng knh ng dn, d2 = 0,021(m).
+ 2 : tng h s tn tht cc b.
+ v2 : vn tc dng nhp liu trong ng dn, v2 = 0,6263(m/s).
* Xc nh 2 :
Chun s Reynolds ca dng nhp liu:(xem li mc IV.I.4)
Re2=11904 .
Theo ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)], ta c:
8

21 7
d 7
+ Chun s Reynolds ti hn: Regh2= 6. 2 = 6. =2704,68.

0,1
+ Chun s Reynolds khi bt u xut hin vng nhm:
9

21 8
d 8
Ren2= 220. 2 = 220. =90140,38.

0,1
Suy ra: Regh2 < Re2 < Ren2: khu vc chy qu , khi (ti liu tham kho
[4 (tp 1)]):
0 , 25

100
= 0,1308
2= 0,1.1,46. +
d 2 Re 2

* Xc nh 2:
H s tn tht ca dng nhp liu qua:
+ 11 ch ng cong quay ngc: q2=11.2,2 = 24,2.
+ 1 ch un cong: u2= 1,1.
+ 1 ln co hp: c2 = 0,385.
2

0,0212
= 0,6783 .
+ 1 ln m rng: m2 = 1
0,05 2

Suy ra: 2 = u2 + q2 + c2+ m 2 =26,363.


Vy:Tn tht ng ng dn trong thit b trao i nhit:
18

0,84 2
h2= 0,0334.
+ 26,363 .
=1,978(m).
0,021

2.9,81
c . Tn tht ng ng dn trong thit b gia nhit nhp liu:

v2
l
(m).
h3 = 3 . 3 + 3 . 3
d3
2.g
47

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Vi: + 3 : h s ma st trong ng ng.


+ l3 : chiu di ng ng dn, l3 = 15(m).
+ d3 : ng knh ng dn, d3 = 0,021(m).
+ 3 : tng h s tn tht cc b.
+ v3 : vn tc dng nhp liu trong ng dn, v3 = 0,6263(m/s).
* Xc nh 3 :
Chun s Reynolds ca dng nhp liu:(xem li mc IV.I.5)
Re3= 11904.
Theo ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)], ta c:
8

21 7
d 7
+ Chun s Reynolds ti hn: Regh3= 6. 3 = 6. =2704,68.

0,1
+ Chun s Reynolds khi bt u xut hin vng nhm:
9

21 8
d 8
Ren3= 220. 3 = 220. =90140,38.

0,1
Suy ra: Regh3 < Re3 < Ren3: khu vc chy qu , khi (ti liu tham kho
[4 (tp 1)]):
0 , 25

100
= 0,1308
3= 0,1.1,46. +
d 3 Re 3

* Xc nh 3:
H s tn tht ca dng nhp liu qua:
+ 9 ch ng cong quay ngc: q3=9.2,2 = 19,8.
+ 1 ch un cong: u3= 1,1.
+ 1 ln co hp: c2 = 0,385.
2

0,0212
= 0,6783 .
+ 1 ln m rng: m2 = 1
0,05 2

Suy ra: 3 = u3 + q3 + c3+ m 3 =21,963.


Vy:Tn tht ng ng dn trong thit b gia nhit:
15

0,855 2
h3= 0,0319.
+ 21,963 .
=1,667(m).
0,021

2.9,81
Chn : + Mt ct (1-1) l mt thong cht lng trong bn cao v.
+ Mt ct (2-2) l mt ct ti v tr nhp liu thp.
Ap dng phng trnh Bernolli cho (1-1) v (2-2):
2
2
v1
v2
P1
P2
z1 +
+
= z2 +
+
+hf1-2
F .g
F .g
2.g
2.g
2

P2 P1 v 2 v1
+
+hf1-2
F .g
2.g
Vi: + z1: cao mt thong (1-1) so vi mt t, hay xem nh l chiu cao bn cao
v Hcv = z1.

hay z1 = z2 +

48

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

+ z2: cao mt thong (2-2) so vi mt t, hay xem nh l chiu cao t v tr


nhp liu ti mt t:
z2 = hchn + hnp + (Nchng+1) .(h + mm )
= 0,145 + 0,15 + 11.(0,25 + 0,0018) = 3,0648 (m).
+ P1 : p sut ti mt thong (1-1), chn P1 = 1 at.
+ P2 : p sut ti mt thong (2-2).
Xem P=P2 P1 =Nct .htl = 42 . 379,226 = 15927,492 (N/m2).
+ v1 : vn tc ti mt thong (1-1), xem v1 = 0(m/s).
+ v1 : vn tc ti v tr nhp liu, v1 = vF = 0,149 (m/s).
+ hf1-2 : tng tn tht trong ng t (1-1) n (2-2):
hf1-2 = h1 + h2 + h3 = 0,064 + 1,978 + 1,667 = 3,709(m).
2
2
P P v v1
Vy: Chiu cao bn cao v: Hcv = z2 + 2 1 + 2
+hf1-2
F .g
2.g
15927,492
0,149 2 0
+
+ 4,307
947,513.9,81
2.9,81
= 8,489(m).

=2,813 +
Chn Hcv = 10(m).

2 . Chn bm:

776,5272
= 0,7805 (m3/h).
982,099
F
Chn bm c nng sut l Qb = 0,8 (m3/h).ng knh ng ht, ng y bng nhau v
bng 21(mm),ngha l chn ng 25x2.
Cc tnh cht l hc ca dng nhp liu c tra ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)] ng
vi nhit trung bnh tF = 28 oC:
+ Khi lng ring: F = 999.256 (Kg/m3).
+ nht ng lc: F = 1,772.10-3 (N.s/m2).
Vn tc dng nhp liu trong ng ht v y:
4.Qb
4.0,8
vh = vd =
= 0,6419(m/s).
=
2
3600. ,0,0212
3600. .d h
Tng tr lc trong ng ht v ng y:
lh + ld
vh 2
+ h + d .
hhd = .
dh

2.g

Lu lng nhp liu: VF =

GF

Vi: + lh : chiu di ng ht, chn lh = 1,5 (m).


+ ld : chiu di ng y, chn ld = 11,5 (m).
+ h : tng tn tht cc b trong ng ht.
+ d : tng tn tht cc b trong ng y.
+ : h s ma st trong ng ht v ng y.
* Xc nh :
Chun s Reynolds ca dng nhp liu:
v .d .
0,6419.0,021.999.256
=7601.
Re= h h F =
F
1,772.10 3
49

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Theo ti liu tham kho [4 (tp 1)], ta c:


8

21 7
d 7
+ Chun s Reynolds ti hn: Regh= 6. h = 6. =2704,68.

0,1
+ Chun s Reynolds khi bt u xut hin vng nhm:
9

21 8
d 8
Ren= 220. h = 220. =90140,38.

0,1
Suy ra: Regh < Re < Ren: khu vc chy qu , khi (ti liu tham kho [4
(tp 1)]):
0 , 25

100
= 0,1.1,46. +
= 0,1308

Re
d
h

* Xc nh h:
H s tn tht cc b trong ng ht qua:
+ 1 van cu: vh= 10.
+ 1 ln vo ming thu nh: t = 5.
Suy ra: h = vh + t =10,5.
* Xc nh d:
H s tn tht cc b trong ng y qua:
+ 1 van cu: vd= 10.
+ 2 ln un gc: u =2.1,1 = 2,2.
Suy ra: h = vd + u =12,2.
Vy:Tn tht trong ng ht v ng y:
1,5 + 11,5

0,6419 2
=0,4955(m).
+ 10,5 + 12,2 .
hhd = 0,1308.
0,021

2.9,81
Chn : + Mt ct (1-1) l mt thong cht lng trong bn cha nguyn liu.
+ Mt ct (2-2) l mt thong cht lng trong bn cao v.
Ap dng phng trnh Bernolli cho (1-1) v (2-2):
2
2
v
v
P
P
z1 + 1 + 1 + Hb= z2 + 2 + 2 +hf1-2
F .g
F .g
2.g
2.g
Vi: + z1: cao mt thong (1-1) so vi mt t.
+ z2: cao mt thong (2-2) so vi mt t.
+ P1 : p sut ti mt thong (1-1), chn P1 = 1 at.
+ P2 : p sut ti mt thong (2-2), chn P2 = 1 at.
+ v1,v2 : vn tc ti mt thong (1-1) v(2-2), xem v1=v2= 0(m/s).
+ hf1-2 =hhd: tng tn tht trong ng t (1-1) n (2-2).
+ Hb : ct p ca bm.
Suy ra: Hb = (z2 z1) + hhd = Hcv + hhd = 10 +0,4955 =10,5(m.cht lng)
Chn hiu sut ca bm: b = 0,8.
Q H .g 0,8.10,5.999,256.9,81
Cng sut thc t ca bm: Nb = b b F =
3600. b
3600.0,8
= 28,59(W) = 0,0383 (hp).
50

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Tm li: m bo thp hot ng lin tc ta chn 2 bm li tm loi XM v Qb =


0,8 (m3/h) v acid axetic l cht c hi.

51

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

CHNG V : GI THNH THIT B.


I . TNH S B GI THNH CA THIT B:
Lng thp X18H10T cn dng:
G1 = 53.m2+ m3+ 2.m4 = 53.1,955 + 531,808 + 2.7,347 = 650,117(Kg).
Lng thp CT3 cn dng:
G2 = Gbch ghp thn + Gbch ghp ng dn

= 30.18,144 +(2.4. .(0,1402-0,0502).0,012 + 2.2. . (0,2052-0,1002) .


4
4
.0,014). 7850
= 565,498(Kg).
S lng bulng cn mua:
n = 15.20 + 4.5 = 320 (bulng).
Th tch vt liu cch nhit cn dng:
V = .(Dt + St ).a .H = .(0,5 + 0,003).0,02.14,5 = 0,4583(m3).
Chiu di ng dn:
* Ong 25mm: L1= Lb +LTBTN +LTBGN +Lni un +LTBnt +LTBln
= 13 + 18 + 15 + 91.1,5 + 91.1,5 + 20.2 =359(m)~360(m).
* Ong (31-50)mm: L2= Ldn + LTBGN +LTBTN +l1 = 40 +15 +18 +20
= 93(m) ~ 95(m).
* Ong 100mm: chn ng dn hi nh v y thp: L3 = 10(m).
Knh quan st: ng knh l:100(mm), dy 5(mm).

S = 2. 0,12 = 0,0157(m2).
4
B phn ni cong ng:
Nhng ch quay ngc ng ta dng 2 b phn ni ng cong 90o.
* Ni ng 25mm: 11.2 + 1 + 2.2 = 27 (ci).
* Ni ng (31-50)mm: 10 + 11.2 + 1 = 33 (ci).
Vy: s tin mua vt t ch to thit b l 55394934 (ng).
Tin gia cng ch to thit b(gia cng phc tp, chnh xc cao) bng 500% tin
vt t: 500%.55394934 = 276974670 (ng).
Tm li: Chi ph u t: 55394934 + 276974670 = 332369604 (ng). Tng chi
phi u t (bao gm chi ph pht sinh) c chn l 400 (triu ng).

Vt liu

S lng

n ga

Thnh tin

Thp X18H10T

650,117 (kg)

50000 (/kg)

32505850

Thp CT3

565,498 (kg)

10000 (/kg)

5654980

Bulng

320 (bulng)

3000 (/bulng)

960000

52

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

Vt liu cch nhit

0,4583 (m3)

4000000 (/m3)

1833200

Ong dn 25mm

360 (m)

15000 (/m)

5400000

Ong dn (31-50)mm

95 (m)

20000 (/m)

1900000

Ong dn 100mm

10 (m)

40000 (/m)

400000

B phn ni 25mm

27 (ci)

30000 (/ci)

810000

B phn ni (31-50)mm

33 (ci)

50000 (/ci)

1650000

Bm

2.0,064 (hp)

700000 (/hp)

89600

Ap k t ng

1 (ci)

600000 (/ci)

600000

Nhit k in tr t ghi

5 (ci)

200000 (ci)

1000000

Lu lng k (<50mm)

2 (ci)

1000000 (/ci)

2000000

Knh quan st dy 5mm

6.0,0157 (m2)

120000 (/m2)

11304

Van thp 25mm

5 (ci)

20000 (/ci)

100000

Van thp (31-50)mm

8 (ci)

30000 (/ci)

240000

Racco ni ng

8 (ci)

30000 (/ci)

240000

Tng cng

55394934

II . KT LUN:
Sau ba thng nghin cu, em tm hiu v hc tp c cc vn :
+ Thit k c thp chng ct Etanol Nc tng i hon chnh khi bit trc
nng sut, nng nhp liu v nng , thu hi ca sn phm nh.
+ Tnh ton tng i chi tit qu trnh lm vic ca thit bv kh nng chu bn
ca thit b v tnh n mn c hc v ho hc, cng nh iu kin lm vic ca thit b.
+ S b tnh c chi ph u t ban u cho thp chng ct.
c tnh k thut ca thit b chng ct thit k ng vi cc thng s cho ban
u:
+ T s hon lu thch hp: R = 2,973.
+ S mm chng ct thc t: 53 mm.
+ ng knh thp chng ct: 500 mm.
+ ng knh l trn mm: 3 mm.
+ B dy mm: 1,8 mm.
+ S l trn mt mm: 2716 l.
+ Tr lc ca ton thp: 20199,9 N/m2.
+ Khong cch gia hai mm: 250 mm.
+ Chiu cao thp: 14,5 m.
+ Thn y np lm bng thp X18H10T, c b dy: 3 mm.
+ Bch ghp thn y np lm bng thp X18H10T, loi bch lin khng c.
+ Bch ghp ng dn lm bng thp CT3, loi bch lin khng c.
+ ng knh ng dn cht lng: 50 mm.
+ ng knh ng dn hi: 100 mm.
u v nhc im ca thp chng ct mm xuyn l c tm tt phn u
(chng I, mc I.2).

53

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

54

AMH Qu Trnh v Thit B

GVHD : Hong Minh Nam

TI LIU THAM KHO


[1] . V Vn Ban, V B Minh Qu trnh v thit b cng ngh ho hc, truyn
khi(tp 3) Trng i Hc Bch Khoa TP.HCM.
[2] . Phm Vn Bn, V B Minh, Hong Minh Nam Qu trnh v thit b cng
ngh ho hc, V d v bi tp(tp 10) - Trng i Hc Bch Khoa TP.HCM.
[3] . Phm Vn Bn, Nguyn nh Th - Qu trnh v thit b cng ngh ho hc, Qu
trnh v thit b truyn nhit(tp 5) Nh xut bn i Hc Quc Gia TP.HCM.
[4] . S tay qu trnh v thit b cng ngh ho cht (tp 1, 2) Nh xut bn khoa hc
v k thut.
[5] . H L Vin Thit k v tnh ton cc chi tit thit b ho cht Nh xut bn
khoa hc v k thut H Ni 1978.
[6] . Tp th ging vin B Mn C Lu Cht Gio Trnh C Lu Cht Trng
i Hc Bch Khoa TP.HCM.

55