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NGHIN CU GP PHN HON THIN CNG NGH SN XUT PH GIA TRO TRU VIT NAM

TS. O VN NG Vin Khoa hc & Cng ngh XDGT Trng i hc Giao thng Vn ti

Tm tt: Bi bo trnh by tm tt cng ngh sn xut ph gia tro tru vi quy m th nghim trong iu kin Vit Nam. V tru c t c khng ch trong l th nghim, m bo nhit t t 500 n 700oC. Qu trnh t m bo khng kh c tun hon to iu kin cho phn ng chy xy ra trit . Tro tru sau khi t c nghin 3 ch , gm: a) nghin nc bng my nghin m; b) nghin kh bng my nghin bi 3000 vng; v c) nghin kh bng my nghin bi 6000 vng. Kt qu th nghim cc ch tiu l - ho ca sn phm thu c cho thy loi tro tru sn xut th nghim hon ton p ng c cc yu cu k thut i vi ph gia pozzolan hot tnh dng cho b tng xi mng. Kt qu nghin cu cho php xut cng ngh t ph hp cho cc nh my nhit in chy tru Vit Nam t va tn dng c nhit lng phc v cho cc ngnh cng nghip khc, va tn thu c tro tru m bo cht lng nhm thay th cho cc ph gia khong hot tnh nhp ngoi t tin. ng thi, y cng l c s gim thiu nhim mi trng do v tru gy ra. Summary: This paper presents briefly a technical process to manufacture rice husk ash in a pilot scale in condition of Vietnam. Rice husk was burned in controlled condition in an experimental combustion furnace at a temperature range from 500 to 700oC. The burning process also maintains air circulating to support fully burning reactions. Rice husk ash after burning was ground in three regimes, namely: a) water grinding; b) ball milling of 3000 revolutions; and c) ball milling of 6000 revolutions. Experimental results of physical-chemical properties shown that the rice husk ash product satisfied requirements of a reactive pozzolanic admixture for cementituos concretes. The results also alow suggesting a suitable burning technology to rice husk power plants in Vietnam to utilise both released energy and high performance rice husk ash to replace for costly imported pozzolanic admixtures. In addition, this is a fundamental approach to reduce environmental pollution due to rice husk waste. T kho: RHA; ph gia khong hot tnh; nhit in chy tru.

CT 2

I. GII THIU La c trng hu ht cc chu lc v chim trn 1% din tch b mt tri t to ra ngun lng thc nui sng hng t ngi, ch ng sau la m c v din tch v sn lng [1].

Ngnh nng nghip trng la th gii trong nhng nm gn y t c nhng tin b vt bc trong vic p dng cng ngh sinh hc nhm nng cao nng sut gp phn to ra tng sn lng la ton cu c tnh 640 triu tn nm 2007 [2]. Vit Nam, thnh tu ny cn ni bt hn vi tng sn lng la hng nm t 36 triu tn v d kin n nm 2020 con s ny s tng ln 40 triu tn nm [3]. Khi ch bin, c mi tn la to ra khong 200 kg v tru v lng v tru ny sau khi t to ra khong 40 kg tro [4]. Nh vy, trung bnh hng nm th gii to ra khng 130 triu tn v tru. Hin ti, hu ht lng v tru to ra cha c tn dng m b vt b nh l mt dng cht thi nng nghip. Cht thi ny tp trung ph bin cc quc gia nng nghip. Ring Vit Nam, khi lng cht thi v tru trung bnh l 8 triu tn nm. Do cha c gii php x l hiu qu nn v tru sau khi b thi thng ra mi trng gy hu qu nghim trng v nhim mi trng, nht l ngun nc v cc ngun li gn lin vi ngun nc [5, 6]. Tru c tn dng lm nhin liu t tro cc nh my pht in, pht nhit nh, hay t sy kh thc nh n , Thi Lan, Innsia v Vit Nam [7]. ng thi, vic tn dng tro t t v tru c xem xt t u nhng nm 1970 [8]. K t , nhiu nghin cu v quy trnh sn xut, bao gm cng ngh t v nghin, c tin hnh nhm to ra cc loi tro tru c cht lng cao. Tro tru (Rice Husk Ash - RHA) c s dng c hiu qu trong cc ngnh cng nghip nh: cng nghip thp sn xut cc loi thp tm cht lng cao v sn xut cc vt liu cch nhit [7]. Mt s loi RHA cht lng cao c sn xut thnh cng n , Thi Lan lm ph gia hot tnh nhm nng cao cht lng cho b tng xi mng [9, 10, 11, 12]. RHA cng c sn xut th nghim Vit Nam trong nhng nm gn y [13]. Tuy nhin, mi ch c mt nh sn xut c th cung cp RHA mc sn phm thng mi. Hn na, cht lng ca RHA ny vn cn cn c xem xt. Vit Nam ang trin khai xy dng nh my ng Hi Cn Th s dng vic t v tru ng thi pht nhit v in vi quy m tng ng 20 tn hi/gi v 70 MW in. Mt s d n nh my nhit in, hi khc s dng tru ang c d kin xy dng cc tnh Cn Th, An Giang v Kin Giang. Tuy nhin, nhng nh my chy tru c trn th gii v Vit Nam, mi ch quan tm n hiu qu tn thu ngun nhit khi t tru. Vic iu chnh ch t va tn dng c nhit lng khi t tru va thu c RHA c hot tnh pozzolan cao vn cha c quan tm. Bi bo trnh by tm tt c s khoa hc ca cng ngh sn xut RHA v c ch cc loi l t tru. T xy dng l t tru quy m th nghim sn xut RHA m bo cht lng ca ph gia khong hot tnh dng cho b tng xi mng. ng thi kin ngh cng ngh t ph hp cho cc nh my nhit in chy tru Vit Nam thu c ph gia RHA pozzolan hot tnh. II. C S KHOA HC CA CNG NGH SN XUT TRO TRU V tru c kch thc trung bnh khong 8 - 10 mm di, 2 - 3 mm rng v 0.2 mm dy. Khi lng th tch ca v tru khi nn trong bao ng khong 122 kg/m3 [14]. Thnh phn ho

CT 2

hc ca v tru thay i theo loi thc, ma v canh tc, iu kin kh hu v c trng vng min. Tuy nhin, hu ht cc loi v tru c thnh phn hu c chim trn 90% theo khi lng. Cc hp cht chnh c cu trc xp dng cellulo v lignin [15]. Nhng hp cht ny khi chy s chuyn ho thnh tro cha ch yu SiO2 v cc kh CO2, CO thot ra mi trng.
Bng 1. Thnh phn hu c ca v tru [15]

Thnh phn ch yu -cellulose Lignin D-xylose I-arabinose Methylglucuronic axt D-galactose Tng cng

T l theo khi lng (%) 43.30 22.00 17.52 6.53 3.27 2.37 94.99

Tng sn lng thc l kh n nh trn ton cu nhm duy tr lng thc cho nhn loi. Do vy, v tru c th c xem l mt ngun sinh khi quan trng, kh n nh v c tnh ti to trn th gii. Khi t v tru to ra nhit lng khong 15 MJ/kg [7]. Nh vy, vi tng khi lng v tru ton cu l 130 triu tn th hng nm ngun sinh khi ny c th to ra xp x 2109 GJ nng lng (tng ng 556106 MWh). i vi Vit Nam, con s ny tng ng s l 0.12109 GJ nng lng (tng ng 33106 MWh). Nu s dng v tru lm nguyn liu cho cc nh my in (nng - in) th c vi cng sut ca nh my l 1 MW yu cu 10000 tn tru nm. Nh vy, vi khi lng tru hng nm ca Vit Nam xp x 8 triu tn nm cho php tn dng lm nguyn liu cho cc nh my in vi cng sut gn 800 MW, tng ng vi cng sut ca 8 nh my nhit in Ninh Bnh hin ti. Cc qu trnh t tru thnh tro c thc hin bng nhiu cng ngh khc nhau v to ra sn phm RHA c cht lng khc nhau. Tuy nhin, in hnh nht hin nay l mt trong s nhng phng php sau [7]: t t do: v tru c thnh ng v t t do ngoi khng kh. Phng php ny khng iu chnh c nhit v s i lu ca khng kh nn khng qun l c cht lng ca tro. t khng tn thu nng lng: v tru c t trong cc loi l c khng ch nhit nhng khng thit k cc b phn tn thu nhit nng. Phng php ny thu c sn phm RHA c cht lng m bo nhng nhit nng b pht tn ra mi trng. t s dng cho l hi: nhit thu c t qu trnh t tru c tn dng un nng nc trong cc l hi. Cc loi l ny hin nay cha quan tm n cng ngh t t c RHA m bo cht lng m mi ch quan tm n vic tn dng nhit lng. t trong l t tng si: y l loi l t c iu khin nhit cho php chuyn ho

CT 2

nhanh v tru thnh nhit lng v tro iu kin nhit khng i nh trc. Trong qu trnh hot ng, hn hp khng kh v nhin liu t c thi p lc vo bung t ca l. Di tc ng ca nhit v lu tc dng kh, tru c t chy chuyn ho thnh nhit v tro. Sau , nhit nng v tro nh s c thu theo nhng thit b c thit k trc. t trong l t ho hi: tru nhin liu c t ch nhit cao (trn 700oC) chuyn ha thnh cc nhin liu kh thng mi nh CO; H2 v metan. Tuy nhin, do phi t nhit cao nn RHA thu c khng t c cht lng pozzolan mong mun

Hnh 1. Cu trc xp ca v tru [15]

Hnh 2. Tro tru (RHA) [16]

T nhng phn tch nu trn cho thy, l t tng si l kiu l ph hp nht cho vic t tru. Kiu l ny mt mt va thu c nng lng khi t tru phc v cho cc mc ch cng nghip, mt mt m bo c cht lng ca RHA thu c.
CT 2

Khi tru c t iu kin khng ch nhit, SiO2 v nh hnh vi hot tnh cao, kch c ht mn v t din tch b mt ln c th c to ra. Nh vy, cc yu t nh hng n cht lng ca sn phm RHA sau khi t bao gm: a) tc tng nhit trong qu trnh t; b) nhit cao nht trong qu trnh t; c) thi gian duy tr nhit cao nht khi t; v d) mc cung cp oxy (khng kh) cho phn ng chy khi t. Nhng yu t ny nh hng n cht lng ca RHA thng qua nhng c ch sau: Tc tng nhit trong qu trnh t: Yu t ny quyt nh n qu trnh oxy ho ccbon. Khi chy vi tc nhanh, qu trnh oxy ho ccbon kh xy ra do s chy b mt din ra trc, dn n hm lng cc cc ht mu en tng ln. Khi lng MKN s cao. Ngc li, nu tru chy vi tc chm th qu trnh oxy ho ccbon din ra trc khi s chy b mt ca SiO2, lm gim ng k hm lng cc ht mu en, ng thi s kch thch qu trnh oxy ho ccbon xy ra gii phng kh CO2. Nhit cao nht trong qu trnh t: y l yu t quan trng nht trong qu trnh t. Nu nhit t thp s lm cho tru khng chy trit v dn n hm lng ccbon tn ti trong tro ln, tng ng vi lng MKN cao. Ngc li, nu nhit chy qu cao s hnh thnh SiO2 dng tinh th, lm cho hot tnh pozzolan ca RHA thp. Cc nghin cu ch ra nhit ph hp phn ng chy din ra trit v hnh thnh RHA c hm lng SiO2 v nh hnh cao nht l vng nhit t 500 n 700oC.

Thi gian duy tr nhit cao nht: L yu t m bo s oxy ho trit ca cc phn ng chy ca v tru. Nu thi gian ngn, mt phn v tru cha chy ht s li lng MKN ln. Ngc li, khi duy tr thi gian chy di s lm cho hiu sut ca chu trnh t thp. S lu thng ca khng kh: y l mt yu t quan trng m bo t l oxy ho cc thnh phn v tru. Nu lng oxy khng cho cc phn ng oxy ho khi chy s lm cho hm lng ccbon trong tro ln. Ngc li, khi cung cp oxy trong qu trnh chy th ton b cc thnh phn ho hc trong v tru c th oxy ho tch phn ccbon v chuyn ho thnh kh CO2 thot ra khi l t. III. SN XUT TRO TRU QUY M TH NGHIM Da trn kt qu phn tch c s khoa hc ca qu trnh t tru v cc phng php t (loi l t) sn xut RHA c cht lng ph hp lm ph gia hot tnh pozzolan nh nu mc 2, mt loi l quy m th nghim c xy dng (hnh 3). Loi l th nghim da trn nguyn l ca l t tng si nhng im sau: 700 C;
o

Khng ch nhit trong qu trnh t m bo vng nhit trong khong 500 n

m bo s lu thng khng kh trong qu trnh t vi din tch tip xc gia tru v khng kh l ln nht. Yu t ny ng thi cng m bo c thi gian t ph hp oxy ho trit tru; L t phi d dng xy dng v s dng cc vt liu, thit b sn c trong nc.
CT 2

Qua nhiu ln th nghim, hiu chnh da trn kt qu thc nghim hin trng, mt loi l quy m th nghim c ti u vi cc c im sau: Vt liu: s dng tn t l loi inox dy 1.5 mm, chu nhit, khng r. ng knh l t 2mm (m bo v tru khng b lt). Mt 4 l/cm2. Kch thc: cu to v kch thc ca l t c th hin nh hnh 1. Vi quy m l nh trn, mi m t s dng khong 100 kg tru v sn xut c khong 20 kg RHA. m bo mc cung cp khng kh cho phn ng chy: m bo lu thng khng kh trong qu trnh t, tru c vo l t v khng nn. ng thi chiu dy ca mi lp tru theo phng ngang nn khng ln hn 500 mm. Qu trnh t tru: Tc tng nhit trung bnh khong 5oC/pht. Sau khong 2 gi, nhit l t t t 550 n 650oC. Nhit cc tr ny duy tr trong khong 4 gi, sau ngui dn v nhit mi trng. iu chnh nhit trong qu trnh t: Xung quanh l t c quy bt iu chnh tc gi thi vo l v tc to nhit ra mi trng. T gp phn khng ch v iu chnh tc thay i nhit ca tru khi t. Qu trnh ny c th kt hp vi vic y/m np nh l.

Cc lu khc: Trong qu trnh t, cn chun b vt liu che chn phng gi v ma. Sau khi t hon chnh, tro tru c ngui t nhin. Sau khong 4 n 6 gi th tin hnh thu sn phm v lu gi trong cc bao nilng m bo cch m. Khi lng tro tru thu c trong nghin cu t khong 50 kg. Chng c nghin th nghim 3 ch nghin v dn nhn tng ng, gm: a) nghin nc bng my nghin m (RHA3.1); b) nghin kh bng my nghin bi 3000 vng (tng ng vi thi gian nghin clanke sn xut xi mng poclng (XMP) PC30 truyn thng) (RHA3.2); v c) nghin kh bng my nghin bi 6000 vng (tng ng vi thi gian nghin clanke sn xut XMP PC50) (RHA3.3). Sau khi nghin, RHA tip tc c lu gi trong cc bao nilng cch m cho n khi th nghim hoc s dng.

1000 200 1300


Hnh 3. L t tru quy m th nghim (kch thc mm)
CT 2

IV. CC CH TIU K THUT CA TRO TRU SN XUT TH NGHIM Sau khi c nghin 3 ch nh nu mc 3, cc mu RHA c tin hnh phn tch cc ch tiu k thut i vi mt ph gia pozzolan cho b tng xi mng theo cc tiu chun TCXDVN 311 [17] v ASTM C618 [18]. Cc ch tiu k thut bao gm: a) nhm cc ch tiu vt l; v b) nhm cc ch tiu ha hc. Sn phm RHA sn xut th nghim c k hiu l RHA3 (gm RHA3.1; RHA3.2; v RHA3.3). Kt qu th nghim c i chng vi 2 loi RHA thng mi, mt loi do Vit Nam sn xut (RHA1) v mt loi do n sn xut (RHA2); v so snh vi yu cu k thut ca ph gia tro tru dng cho b tng v va theo TCXDVN 311 [17]. Kt qu th nghim c th hin trong bng 2. Mu ca RHA phn nh thnh phn ho hc ca tro. Vi tro mu trng, l mu phn nh cho khong silica, chng t loi tro c cha hm lng SiO2 ln. Ngc li, tro c mu en, mu c trng ca ccbon, phn nh loi tro c cha nhiu thnh phn ccbon cha chy ht. Mu sc ca 3 loi RHA1; RHA2 v RHA3 c th hin hnh 4. RHA1 ca Vit Nam c mu en, chng t hm lng cc bon trong tro ln. iu ny cng ph hp vi hm lng SiO2 thp (c trng thi tinh th v v nh hnh). Ngc li, cc loi RHA2 ca n v RHA3 thu c t sn xut th nghim c mu t trng xm cho kt qu hm lng SiO2 cao, c bit hm lng SiO2 trng thi v nh hnh cao (trn 85%) v lng MKN thp (di 2%) (bng 2). Ch tiu ny tho mn yu cu cho loi ph gia pozzolan hot tnh.

a)

b) Hnh 4. Mu sc ca RHA a) RHA1; b) RHA2; c) RHA3

c)

Xt v mn ca sn phm cho thy c hai loi RHA2 v RHA3 u tt hn so vi RHA1. Kt qu ny cng ph hp vi ch tiu v ch s hot tnh i vi XMP 7 ngy tui. iu ny chng t rng mn cao s tng hiu qu pozzolan ho v gp phn to ra cng cng nh tc pht trin cng khi s dng thay th cho XMP. Cc kt qu th nghim i vi cc mu RHA cho thy loi RHA sn xut th nghim p ng tt cc yu cu k thut ca mt ph gia pozzolan cho b tng xi mng.
Bng 2. Cc tnh cht ca RHA
Cc tnh cht Cc tnh cht vt l: Khi lng th tch xp (g/cm3) Thnh phn ht (%): Lt sng 45 m Lt sng 20 m Lt sng 10 m Lt sng 5 m Lng mt khi nung (%) Mu m (%) Thnh phn ha hc (%): SiO2 - SiO2 hot tnh - Ch s hot tnh, 7 ngy Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO K2O MgO TCXD VN 311 - 2004 RHA1 (Vit Nam) RHA2 (n ) RHA3 (tro tru sn xut th nghim) RHA3.1 RHA3.2 RHA3.3 (nghin (nghin kh (nghin kh nc) 3000 vng) 6000 vng)

0.60 76 40 16 7 6.23 en 2.9 82.6 7.39 82 3.31 0.80 1.43 2.80 0.90

0.46 100 82 53 22 1.56 trng xm 2.8 91.08 90.3 98 4.90 0.30 0.89 0.10 0.96

0.45 100 80 49 18 1.92 trng xm 2.9 89.12 88.0 96 4.00 0.53 1.12 0.60 0.86

0.50 91 42 19 8 1.96 trng xm 2.7 89.18 87.4 90 4.12 0.40 1.09 0.60 0.90

0.48 100 65 41 16 1.95 trng xm 2.7 90.02 87.5 94 4.05 0.43 1.00 0.50 0.88

CT 2

3.0 3.0 80 85

V. KT LUN Trn c s ca nhng phn tch v cc kt qu c trnh by, bi bo rt ra nhng kt

lun sau: Cht thi v tru l ngun sinh khi sch, ti to y tim nng Vit Nam. y ng thi cng l ngun nguyn liu phong ph sn xut ra RHA cho cc ng dng xy dng. Quan trng hn, vic tn dng v tru s gim thiu c nhim mi trng. Ch t khng ch nhit v khng kh l c s c th sn xut c RHA cht lng m bo. Da vo c ch ny, mt loi l t tru quy m th nghim c xy dng. RHA t bng l ny sau khi c nghin bng cc ch nghin tng t nh nghin XMP truyn thng p ng c cc yu cu k thut ca mt loi ph gia khong pozzolan hot tnh. Vic kt hp c ch t tng si vo cc nh my nhit in chy tru Vit Nam l hon ton c th thc hin c thng qua vic khng ch nhit t trong khong 500 n 700oC v thi gi tun hon. iu ny mt mt vn tn dng c nhit khi t tru, mt mt tn thu c RHA c cht lng m bo v hot tnh pozzolan nhm thay th cho cc ph gia khong hot tnh nhp ngoi t tin. Mt c ch ph hp cho cc nh u t nhm khuyn khch i mi cng ngh xy dng cc nh my nhit in chy tru v tn thu RHA cn c sm thc hin Vit Nam. y s l tin nng cao hn na gi tr ht la cho ngi nng dn.

CT 2

Ti liu tham kho [1]. FAO statistical database. (2002). http://apps.fao.org. [2]. Calpe C. (2007). Review of the rice market situation in 2007. FAO, http://www.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a1410t/a1410t01.pdf. [3]. http://www.vnagency.com.vn. [4]. Mehta, P. K. (1986). Structure, Properties and Materials, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. [5]. http://www.tuoitre.com.vn/Tianyon/Index.aspx?ArticleID=131231&ChannelID=3. [6]. o Vn ng (2008). nh hng ca ph gia tro tru n cc tnh cht ca b tng cng cao. Tp ch Cu ng Vit nam, s 9+10, tr. 26-32. [7]. Bronzeoak Ltd., (2003). Rice husk ash market study. Crown copyright. [8]. Mehta, P.K. (1994). Rice-husk Ash - A unique Supplementary Cementing Material, Advances in Concrete Technology, MSL Report 94-1 (R), CANMET 1994, ed. Malhotra, V.M., pp. 419-444. [9]. Chindaprasirt P., et al. (2008). Resistance to chloride penetration of blended Portland cement mortar containing palm oil fuel ash, rice husk ash and fly ash. Con. & Buil. Materials Journal. Vol. 22, pp. 932938. [10]. Deepa G. N., et al. (2008). A structural investigation relating to the pozzolanic activity of rice husk ashes. Cement and concrete research. Vol. 38, pp. 861-869. [11]. Columna, V. B. (1974). The effect of rice hull ash in cement and concrete mixes. M. Eng. Thesis. Asian Institute of Technology. [12]. Hamad, M.A., Khattab, I.A. (1981). Effect of the combustion process on the structure of rice hull

silica. Thermochimica Acta Vol. 48, pp. 343349. [13]. Bui, D. D., et al. (2005). Particle size effect on the strength of rice husk ash blended gap-graded Portland cement concrete. Cement & concrete composites. Vol. 27, pp. 357-366. [14]. Fang M., et al. (2004). Experimental study on rice husk combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. Fuel processing technology. Vol. 85, pp. 1273-1282. [15]. Chandrasekhar K.G., et al. (2003). Processing, properties and application of reactive silica from rice husk ash an overview. Materials Science Journal. Vol. 38, pp. 3159-3168. [16]. Bouzouba N. and Fournier B. (2001). Concrete incorporating rice husk ash: Compressive strength and chloride ion penetrability. MTL 2001-5 (TR). [17]. TCXDVN 311 (2004). Ph gia khong hot tnh cao dng cho b tng v va: Silicafume v tro tru nghin mn. Tuyn tp Tiu chun xy dng Vit Nam. [18]. ASTM C618 (2003). Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete. Annual book of ASTM standards

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