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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A bathroom is a room for bathing in containing a bathtub and/or a shower and optionally a toilet, a sink/hand basin/wash basin and possibly also a bidet. In North American English a "bathroom" is commonly used as a euphemism for a room containing a toilet or possibly a public toilet (which, in the USA, is more commonly called a "restroom").
■ 1 History ■ 2 Variations ■ 2.1 Shower room ■ 2.2 Ensuite ■ 2.3 Family bathroom ■ 2.4 Jack and Jill bathroom ■ 3 Regional differences ■ 3.1 Australia and New Zealand ■ 3.2 Terminology in the United States ■ 4 Design considerations ■ 5 See also ■ 6 References
A smaller U.S. residential bathroom
Although it was not with hygiene in mind, the first records for the use of baths date back as far as 3000 B.C. At this time water had a strong religious value, being seen as a purifying element for both body and soul, and so it was not uncommon for people to be required to cleanse themselves before entering a sacred area. Baths are recorded as part of a village or town life throughout this period, with a split between steam baths in Europe and America and cold baths in Asia. Communal baths were erected in a distinctly separate area to the living quarters of the village, with a view to preventing evil spirits from entering the domestic quarters of a commune. According to Teresi et al. (2002):
The Great Bath of Mohenjo-daro
This was probably because of easy access to geothermic hot springs on this volcanic island. Germany.org/wiki/Bathroom 24/02/2012 . in the name of the River Lousios ("bathing" [river]). along with a sophisticated twin plumbing system to transport hot and cold water separately. later λουτρά." Toilets and sewers were invented in several parts of the world. Both the Greeks and the Romans recognised the value of bathing as an important part of their lifestyles. Virtual Historical Reconstruction of the Roman Baths in Weißenburg. Not all ancient baths were in the style of the large pools that often come to mind when one imagines the Roman baths. "The high quality of the sanitary arrangements could well be envied in many parts of the world today. on the Aegean island of Thera. and hails from the Palace of Knossos in Crete. using data from laser scan technology The Roman attitudes towards bathing are well documented.C. they built large purpose-built thermal baths. balaneíon. Despite this they still made use of the http://en. but also the way in which the plumbing works surrounding it differ so little from modern models. Sir Mortimer Wheeler. loetrá. it is perhaps notable that the mother of Achilles bathed him in order to gain his invincibility. from the verb λούειν. Latinized as balneum.Wikipedia. What is remarkable about this tub is not only the similarity with the baths of today.C. They had vertical chutes. Homer uses the word λοετρά. with lavatories built into the outer walls of houses. in Arcadia. but also providing a public source near Durham. wrote. Public baths are mentioned by the comedian Aristophanes as βαλανεία. Even the fastidious Egyptians rarely had special bathrooms. as well as sophisticated drainage systems. Writers such as Homer had their heroes bathe in warm water so as to regain their strength. marking not only an A bathroom in the Beamish Museum important social development. "baths". into the municipal drainage system. spaces with ceramic bathtubs." Nearly all of the hundreds of houses excavated had their own bathing rooms. The water drained away through a hole in the floor. A more advanced prehistoric (15th century BC and before) system of baths and plumbing is to be found in the excavated town of Akrotiri. loúein. The same root finds an even earlier attestation on Linear B tablets. These were "Western-style" toilets made from bricks with wooden seats on top.Bathroom . had some of the most advanced. During this period there was a distinction between private and public baths. balaneía (Sing. Here was a place where people could meet to discuss the matters of the day and enjoy entertainment. sometimes with a surrounding curb to sit on. Palaces have been uncovered throughout Greece with areas that are dedicated to bathing. There. the earliest surviving bathtub dates back to 1700 B.wikipedia. loutrá. the director general of archaeology in India from 1944 to 1948. was the "Age of Cleanliness. Generally located on the ground floor. down chutes or pottery pipes in the walls. alabaster tubs and other bath fittings were found. a "balneary"). the bath was made of brick. with many wealthy families having their own thermal baths in their houses. United Kingdom of relaxation and rejuvenation.: βαλανείον. through which waste fell into street drains or cesspits. to bathe. the free encyclopedia Page 2 of 5 The third millennium B. and Mohenjo-Daro circa 2800 B.C.
this would be called a 3/4 bathroom. Variations Shower room A shower room or shower-room is a room that contains a shower cubicle (or shower stall). combs. Family bathroom A family bathroom. and 18th centuries. incense. It was only after the Renaissance that bathing declined. the latter being very popular. the use of public baths declined gradually in the west. showing the value that they had as a public institution. Jack and Jill bathroom Main article: Jack and Jill bathroom A Jack and Jill bathroom is a bathroom with two doors. and thus sweat baths and heavy perfumes were preferred. 17th. water was feared as a carrier of disease. accessible from two bedrooms. this is not completely accurate. in British estate agent terminology. It was actually the Middle Ages that saw the beginning of soap production. In the United States. Although some sources suggest that bathing declined following the collapse of the Roman Empire. ensuite and other variations) is a bathroom or shower room attached to and only accessible from a bedroom. as it was to become. and private spaces were favoured. is a full bathroom in a house where one or more bedrooms have ensuites. but no bathtub. in the 20th century.org/wiki/Bathroom 24/02/2012 . The strength of the Roman Empire was telling in this respect. the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 5 public baths. Ensuite An ensuite bathroom or ensuite shower room (also en suite. proof that bathing was definitely not uncommon.Wikipedia. imports from throughout the world allowed the Roman citizens to enjoy ointments. However in Japan shared bathing in sento and onsen (spas) still exists. and mirrors. A Hong Kong bathroom saves space by combining the shower and rest of the bathroom Regional differences Australia and New Zealand http://en.wikipedia. thus laying the foundations for the bathroom. In fact throughout the 16th.Bathroom .
shower. and shower. and hot humid air may cause condensation on cold surfaces. In some U. as well as smooth plastic materials. and sink. and shower are considered a "full bath". "3. showering. The use of ceramic or glass. such as the United Kingdom. In some countries. toilet. such as lights. for cleaning the human body. Such surfaces are often cold to the touch. For all the activities like shaving. the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 5 In Australia. Water may be splashed on the walls and floor. UK Building Regulations also define what type of electrical light fittings (i.org/wiki/Bathroom 24/02/2012 . although the terms vary from market to market. sink. sinks and showers.g.g. See also ■ Bathroom cabinet http://en.e. An additional complication is that there are currently two ways of notating the number of bathrooms in a dwelling. Bathroom lighting should be uniform. Ground-fault circuit interruptor electrical sockets can reduce the risk of electric shock. and so water-resistant bath mats or even bathroom carpets may be used on the floor to make the room more comfortable. One method is to count a half bathroom as ". "2.S. generally need to be installed as fixtures. New Zealand and other British Commonwealth countries it is common for a bathroom to not contain a lavatory.5" baths would mean 2 full baths and 1 half bath). and are required for bathroom socket installation by electrical and building codes in the United States and Canada. however. This lack of a single.. sink.Bathroom . possibly by strategically placing heater conduits close to the surface. Electrical appliances..wikipedia. how water-/splash-proof) may be installed in the areas (zones) around and above baths. in significant quantities. a toilet. universal definition commonly results in discrepancies between advertised and actual number of baths in real estate listings. The mirror area should definitely have at least two sources of light at least 1 feet apart to eliminate any shadows on the face. bright and must minimize glare. This minimizes the risk of electric shock. grooming etc. only special sockets suitable for electric shavers are permitted in bathrooms. markets. wall and floor materials and coverings should be impervious to water and readily and easily cleaned. From a decorating point of view the bathroom presents a challenge. The water is also used for moving solid and liquid human waste to a sewer or septic tank. the floor may be heated. Alternatively. containing a shower and a tub that is adjoining to a master bedroom. Skin tones and hair color are highlighted with a tinge of yellow light.Wikipedia. Ceiling. Design considerations The design of a bathroom must account for the use of both hot and cold water. and are labelled as such. and "3/4 bath" containing toilet. "2. is common in bathrooms for their ease of cleaning.5" and then add this to the number of full bathrooms (e. newer method is to put the number of full bathrooms to the left side of the decimal point and to put the number of half bathrooms to the right of the decimal point (e. The other. heaters. containing four plumbing fixtures: bathtub. one must ensure equitable lighting across the entire bathroom space. bathrooms are generally categorized as master bathroom.2" would mean 3 full baths and 2 half baths). Terminology in the United States In the United States. with permanent connections rather than plugs and sockets. "half (1/2) bath" (or "powder room") containing just a toilet and sink. but with a separate 'toilet' next door (a very small room with only a toilet and perhaps a tiny hand washbasin). a "full bathroom" (or "full bath").1" would mean 2 full baths and 1 half bath. and heated towel rails.
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