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Damergidda (V), Chevella (M), R.R. Dist
Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to JNTUH, Govt of A.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008, Accredited by NBA
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS: 1. Preparation of green sand mould using single piece casting. 2. Preparation of green sand mould for double piece pattern. 3. Preparation of a pattern to a given draft allowance 4. Preparation of stepped pulley pattern of given dimensions 5. Moulding material properties and compositions 5. Preparation of a double welded lap joint by shielded metal arc welding. 6. Preparation of a double welded butt joint by shielded metal arc welding of given dimensions. 7. Preparation of a T- joint by shielded metal arc welding of given dimensions 8. Prepare a model by using blanking and piercing 9. Prepare a model using injection Moulding
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
Damergidda (V), Chevella (M), R.R. Dist
Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to JNTUH, Govt of A.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008, Accredited by NBA
PREPERATION OF GREEN SAND MOULD USING SINGLE PIECE PATTERN AIM: Preparation of green sand mould for given single piece pattern. MATERIAL REQUIRED: Green molding sand, pattern, molding boxes. TOOLS REQUIRED: Rammers, slicks, strike of bar, riddle, shovel, riser, sprue pin etc. DESCRIPTION: A mould can be described as a cavity created in compact sand mass which when filled with molten metal will produce a casting. Obviously it is the impression left behind by a pattern after with drawing the pattern. The cavity obtained will exactly resemble with the external shape and size of pattern. The process of producing this cavity is called molding technique.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
Damergidda (V), Chevella (M), R.R. Dist
Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to JNTUH, Govt of A.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008, Accredited by NBA
PROCEDURE: 1. First of all a suitable flask is selected. Large enough to accommodate the pattern and allow some space around it for ramming. 2. Sprinkle the parting sand on the floor for partly removal of pattern. The drag part is placed upside down on the floor. 3. The pattern is placed on the floor in side the flask centrally. 4. Molding sand is filled all along the pattern surface and fill up to the level flank rammed properly. Hold the pattern and ram the sand around it. Again fill the sand up to the level of flask and ram it. 5. The excess sand is removed by using strike off bar. also
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
Damergidda (V), Chevella (M), R.R. Dist
Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to JNTUH, Govt of A.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008, Accredited by NBA 6. A small amount of dry loose sand is sprinkled over the top surface and the drag is turned upside down. 7. The cope is placed over the drag and parting sand is sprinkled on the top surface. 8. Runners, riser is put in positions and supported vertically by taking small amount of molding sand around them. 9. The sand is filled in the flask and rammed it. Excess sand is removed and vent hole are made, parting sand is sprinkled around the top surface. 10. Then remove the cope and drag flask gently and carefully without spoiling the mould. 11. Remove the pattern from the flask by slightly shaking pattern in horizontal position along x and y direction. 12. Repairs are then made in the cavity and gates are cut. 13. The cope and drag flasks are assembled together and mould is ready for pouring of molten metal. PRECAUTIONS: 1. Ramming to be done uniformly. 2. Molding flask (cope and drag) is to be assembled with guide pins. RESULT:
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
Damergidda (V), Chevella (M), R.R. Dist
Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to JNTUH, Govt of A.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008, Accredited by NBA
PREPERATION OF GREEN SAND MOULD FOR DOUBLE PIECE PATTERN AIM: To prepare a green sand mould for the split pin pattern as shown in figure.
MATERIAL REQUIRED: Green molding sand, pattern, molding boxes, parting sand. TOOLS REQUIRED: Rammers, slicks, strike of bar, riddle, shovel, riser, sprue pin etc. DESCRIPTION: A mould can be described as a cavity created in compact sand mass which when filled with molten metal will produce a casting. Obviously it is the impression left behind by a pattern after with drawing the pattern. The cavity obtained will exactly resemble with the external shape and size of pattern. The process of producing this cavity is called molding technique.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
A small amount of dry loose sand is sprinkled over the top surface and the drag is turned upside down. Again fill the sand up to the level of flask and ram it. Accredited by NBA PROCEDURE: 1. is placed such that parting surface matching with floor. Chevella (M). Hold the pattern and ram the sand around it.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). R. 5. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .R. 4. Large enough to accommodate the pattern and also allow some space around it for ramming. Affiliated to JNTUH. The excess sand is removed by using strike off bar. Molding sand is filled all along the pattern surface and fill up to the level flank rammed properly. Govt of A. 3. Sprinkle the parting sand on the floor for easy removal after ramming. 6. 2. The drag part is placed upside down on the floor. The pattern which comes into the drag part. Dist Approved by AICTE.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. First of all a suitable flask is selected.
Affiliated to JNTUH. Ramming to be done uniformly. Excess sand is removed and vent hole are made. RESULT: molten DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . The sand is filled in the flask and rammed it. The cope and drag flasks are assembled together and mould is ready for pouring of metal.R. 2. parting sand is sprinkled around the top surface. The cope portion pattern is assembled drag pattern with the help of dowel pins. Dist Approved by AICTE. 12. 11. riser is put in positions and supported vertically by taking small amount of molding sand around them. Molding flask (cope and drag) is to be assembled with guide pins. Govt of A. Accredited by NBA 7. Then remove the cope and drag flask gently and carefully without spoiling the mould. 13. PRECAUTIONS: 1. 10. Chevella (M). R.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Repairs are then made in the cavity and gates are cut. 9. Assemble the cope flask. Remove the pattern from the flask by slightly shaking pattern in horizontal position along x and y direction. Runners. 8.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V).
Chevella (M).P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. That is it carries additional allowance.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Accredited by NBA PATTERN MAKING AIM: Prepare a pattern for casting as shown in fig. TOOLS REQUIRED: Planning tools. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Using draft allowance 40 . draft allowance like shrinkage allowance. Dist Approved by AICTE. machining allowance. Govt of A. sawing tools. DESCRIPTION OF PATTERN: A pattern may be a replica model of the desired casting which when packed or embedded in a suitable moulding material produces a cavity called mould. Affiliated to JNTUH.R. R. A pattern may be differing from an actual component. it carries additional projection like core prints etc. marking and lay out tools. draft allowance.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Calculate the dimension considering draft angle. 2.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Dist Approved by AICTE. Govt of A. Accredited by NBA CALCULATIONS: Draft angle=40 Vertical side length of casting=h Increment in length due to draft angle =L+δL+δL =L+2δL Where δL=L+2×h×tan 40 Increment in breadth due to draft angle=b+ δb+ δb =b+2δb Where δb=b+2×h×tan 40 PROCEDURE: 1. Chevella (M). Mark the dimensions on given wooden work piece.R. R. Affiliated to JNTUH.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008.
RESULT: The pattern is prepared by considering draft angle 40. Dist Approved by AICTE. 4.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Affiliated to JNTUH. PRECAUTIONS: Top surface of pattern must match with parting surface. Shape the work piece to the calculated size. Accredited by NBA 3. Chevella (M).P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. R.R. Finish the surface of pattern. Govt of A.
DESCRIPTION OF LATHE: Wood turning lathe is also called lathe. Chevella (M). DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . The tool is fed manually to remove UN wanted material from rotating work piece. The head stock is permanently fixed on the left side of the bed.R. using wood turn lathe.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Govt of A. scraping tools. Accredited by NBA PREPARATION OF STEPPED PULLEY PATTERN AIM: Prepare a stepped pulley pattern of given dimensions as shown in fig. Affiliated to JNTUH. On the top of the bed guide way tail stock is mounted and it is free to slide and it can be clamped in any position. From this machine any axis symmetric component can be produced. parting tool. Dist Approved by AICTE.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). R. The work piece is held between centers (head stock and tail stock) and revolved on its own axis. TOOLS REQUIRED: Gauge. head stock and tail stock. It is simple in construction having three basic parts bed. skew chisel.
That is live center and dead center. 4. Govt of A. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Chevella (M).R. Check the end faces weather they are perpendicular or not with the rectangular faces. PRECAUTIONS: Use goggles to protect the eyes from dust. Affiliated to JNTUH. Take the work piece of required length and size. Fix the work piece between centers. 6. Rotate the work piece in anti clock wise direction. R. Accredited by NBA PROCEDURE: 1. 2. Dist Approved by AICTE. 5.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Mark the centers on both end faces.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). 3. Feed the tools manually to get the desired shape.
Accredited by NBA MOULDING MATERAILS A large variety of moulding materials are used in foundries fro manufacturing moulds and cores.2 8 13. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Parting sand and Core sand. R.5 --- Green strength: The moulding sand that contains moisture is termed as green sand.SiO2) Silicon Carbide(SiC) Graphite Melting point.5 4.0C 1710 2020 2800 3050 2700 2650 ̃ 2700 ̃4200 Coefficient of linear expansion. At this stage. Properties of Some refractory materials are Material Silica( SiO) Alumina(Al2O3) Magnesia(MgO) Thoria(ThO2) Ziroconia(ZrO2) Zircon(ZrO2.5 9.R. Chevella (M). The properties that are generally required in Moulding materials are Refractoriness: It is the ability of the moulding material to with stand the high temperatures of the molten metal so that is does not cause fusion.5 6. Facing sand. X 106/0C 16.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. the sand around the mould cavity is quickly converted into dry sand as the moisture in the sand immediately evaporates due to the heat in the molten metal.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). it should retain the mould cavity and at the same time withstand the metallostatic forces. They are: Moulding sand. Dry strength: When the moisture in the moulding sand is completely expelled. it is called dry sand. Dist Approved by AICTE. When molten metal is poured into a mould. The green sand should have enough strength so that the constructed mould retains its shape. Govt of A. Rebounded sand. Affiliated to JNTUH.5 3. System sand (backing sand).
Affiliated to JNTUH. Chevella (M). they should be reusable and should have good thermal conductivity so that heat from the casting is quickly transferred. If these gases are not allowed to escape from the mould. Govt of A. sub-angular. The moulding sand should be sufficiently porous so that the gases are allowed to escape from the mould. sodium (Na 2O+K2O) and magnesium oxide (MgO+CaO). Permeability: During the solidification of a casting. The strength of the sand that is required to hold the shape of the mould cavity then is called hot strength. Besides these specific properties.R. large amounts of gases are to be expelled from the mould. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Accredited by NBA Hot strength: After all the moisture is eliminated. R. air absorbed from the atmosphere and steam and other gases that are generated by the moulding and core sands. In the river sand.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). it does not provide any resistance which may result in cracks in the casting. all sizes and shapes of grains are mixed. The main source is the river sand which is used with or without washing. they would be trapped inside the casting and cause defects. Shape of the grains may be round. MOULDING SAND COMPOSITION: The main ingredients of any moulding sand are: The silica grains ( SiO2). and Moisture to activate the clay and provide plasticity SILICA SAND: The sand which forms the major portion of the moulding sand (up to 96%) is essentially silica grains. the moulding sand should also have collapsibility so that during the contraction of the solidified casting. The sand grains may vary in size from a few micrometers to a few millimeters. angular and very angular. The gases are those which have been absorbed by the metal in the furnace. the sand would reach a high temperature when the metal in the mould is still in the liquid state. Ideally the fusion point of sand s should be about 1450 0C for cast irons and about 15500C for steels. The clay as binder. This gas evolution capability of the moulding sand is termed as permeability. Dist Approved by AICTE. the rest being the other oxides such as alumina. These impurities should be minimized to about 2% since they affect the fusion point of the silica sands.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. The size and shapes of these sand grains greatly affect the properties of the moulding sands.
The typical composition is ZrO266. it also used to manufacture heavy steel castings requiring better surface finish. Clay: clays are the most generally used binding agents mixed with the moulding sands to provide the strength. Chromite sand is crushed from the chrome ore whose typical composition is Cr 2O3-44%. Chevella (M). Affiliated to JNTUH.5%. Al2O3-1. CaO-0. It is possible to improve the properties of calcium bentonite by treating it chemically with soda ash (sodium carbonate) Water: clay is activated by water so that it develops the necessary plasticity and strength.25%. Accredited by NBA Zircon sand is basically a zirconium silicate (ZrSiO4).96%. Olivine sand contains the minerals fosterite (Mg2SiO4) and fayalite (Fe2SiO4). high dry strength and high resistance but higher green strength.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V).R.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. R. Govt of A. bentonite can absorb more water which increases its bonding power. It is generally used to manufacture precision steel castings requiring better surface finish and for precision investment casting. The clays besides these basic constituents may also contain some mixtures of lime. The fusion point is about 18000C. one with sodium as adsorbed ion which is often called western bentonite and the other with calcium ion called southern bentonite. The most popular clay types used are Kaolinite or Fire clay ( Al2O32 SiO22H2O) Bentonite (Al2O34 SiO2H2OnH2O) Kaolinite or Fire clay has a melting point of 1750-1787 0C and Bentonite has a melting temperature range of 1250-13000C. It is very versatile sand and the same mixture can be used for a range of steels. Of the two. This is because a part of the water absorbed by clay helps in bonding while the remainder up to a limit helps in improving the DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . It has a fusion point of about 24000C and also a low coefficient of thermal expansion. Fe2O3-0. alkalies and other oxides which tend to reduce their refractoriness. There are basically two types of bentonites. In India it is available in the quilon beach of Kerala.92%. and Al2O3+MgO—25%. SiO2-30. because of their low cost and wider utility. It is very expensive. The amount of water used should be properly controlled.74% and traces of other oxides. Dist Approved by AICTE.5%. SiO2-2. It is best suited to austenitic manganese steel castings. Fe2O3-28%. Sodium bentonites produce better swelling properties-volume increases some 10-20 times.
Moisture content: moisture is an important element of the moulding sand as it affects many properties. A measured amount of carbide in a container along with a separate cap consisting of measured quantity of moulding sand is kept in the moisture teller care has to be taken before closing the apparatus that carbide and sand do not come into contact. The normal percentages of water used are from 2-8. Accredited by NBA plasticity but more than that would decrease the strength and formability. The sample is then weighted. This method of drying completes the removal of moisture in a matter of minutes compared to 2 hours as in the earlier method. A pressure gauge connected to the apparatus would give directly the amount of DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Govt of A. Chevella (M). R.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Alternatively a moisture teller can also be used for measuring the moisture content. The moulding sand should be prepared exactly as is done in the shop on the standard equipment and then carefully enclosed in a closed container to safeguard its moisture content.R. TESTING SAND PROPERTIES: Sand preparation: tests are conducted on a sample of the standard sand. In this the sand is dried by suspending the sample on a fine metallic screen and allowing hot air to flow through the sample. The weight difference in grams when multiplied by 2 would give the percentage of moisture contained in the moulding sand. Another moisture teller utilizes calcium carbide to measure the moisture content. Dist Approved by AICTE. The apparatus is then shaken vigorously such that the following reaction takes place. To test the moisture of a moulding sand a carefully weighted test sample of 50g is dried at a temperature of 1050C to 1100C for 2 hours by which time all the moisture in the sand would have been evaporated. Affiliated to JNTUH.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. CaC2+2H2O→C2H2+Ca (OH) 2 The acetylene (C2H2) coming out will be collected in the space above the sand raising the pressure.
Chevella (M).AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). the sieves are taken apart and the sand left over on each of the sieve is carefully weighed. The above operation is repeated till the water above the sand becomes clear. This sample is thoroughly stirred. It is possible to calibrate the pressure gauge to directly read the amount of moisture. 125mm of this water is siphoned off the flask and it is again topped to the same level and allowed to settle for five minutes. To calculate the grain fineness. Accredited by NBA acetylene generated which is proportional to the moisture present. each sieve has been given a weight age factor as shown in table. R. which gives the grain fineness number. After this shaking operation. Sand grain size: To find out the sand grain size. To obtain the grain distribution. Affiliated to JNTUH. The difference in weight of the dried sand and 50g when multiplied by two gives the clay percentage in the moulding sand.R. The sieves are shaken continuously for a period of 15min. a sand sample which is devoid of moisture and clay such as the one obtained after the previous testing is to be used. Govt of A. After the stirring. Fig: The sand retained on each of the sieve expressed as a percentage of the total mass can be plotted against the sieve number as in figure. for a period of five minutes the sample is diluted with fresh water up to a 150mm graduation mark and the sample is left undisturbed for 10 minutes to settle. and then divided by the total mass of sample. The amount retained on each sieve is multiplied by the respective weight age factor. But more important is the Grain Fineness Number (GFN) which is a quantitative indication of the grain distribution. which is an indication that all the clay in the moulding sand has been removed. summed up. The dried clay-free sand grains are placed on the top sieve of a sieve shaker which contains a series of sieves one upon the other with gradually decreasing mesh sizes. Clay content: the clay content of moulding sand is determined by dissolving of washing it off the sand.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. The same can be expressed as DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . The sand settles at the bottom and the clay particles washed from the sand would be floating in the water. To determine the clay percentage a 50g sample is dried at 105 to 110 0C and the dried sample is taken in a one litre glass flask and added with 475 ml of distilled water and 25ml of a one percent solution of caustic soda (NaOH 25g per litre). Now the sand is removed from the flask and dried by heating. Dist Approved by AICTE.
25kg is allowed to fall on the sand three times from a height of 50. fi=amount of sand retained on the ith sieve. a laboratory sand rammer is used along with a specimen tube. to produce this size of specimen usually sand of 145 to 175g would be required.R.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008.08cm P= air pressure. on the degree of ramming. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .8mm in diameter and a length of 50. R. it is necessary that the specimen be prepared under standard conditions.357. Chevella (M). The measured amount of sand is filled in the specimen tube. To get reproducible ramming conditions. Permeability: the rate of flow of air passing through a standard specimen under a standard pressure is termed as permeability number. Govt of A.8mm. and a fixed weight of 6.8mm. we get P=501.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Accredited by NBA GFN=ΣMifi/Σfi Mi =Multiplying factor for the i Table: th sieve. Dist Approved by AICTE. then the permeability number P is obtained by P=VH/p AT Where V= volume of air=2000cm3 H= height of the sand specimen=5. g/cm2 A= C/S area of sand specimen=20.28/pT Specimen preparation: since the permeability of sand is dependent to a great extent. The standard permeability test is to measure time taken by a 2000cm 3 of air at a pressure typically of 980 pa to pass through a standard sand specimen confined in a specimen tube. The standard specimen size is 50.8±0. Affiliated to JNTUH.268cm2 T= time in minutes for the complete air to pass through the gaps Inserting the above standard values in to the expression.
it may be necessary to apply larger stresses than the previous tests.R. 2000cm3 of air are passed through the sample and the time taken by it to completely pass through the specimen is noted. Since the strength greatly increases with drying. R. Dist Approved by AICTE. the reading is zero indicating a very soft mould. The sand specimen is taken out of the specimen tube and is immediately (any delay causes the drying of the sample which increases the strength) put on the strength testing machine and the force required to cause the compression failure is determined. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . green tensile strength. Affiliated to JNTUH. The sands that could be tested are green sand. The compression and shear test involve the standard cylindrical specimen that was used for the permeability test. Then from the above equation the permeability number can be calculated. depending on the sand sample. The green strength of sands is generally in the range of 30 to 190kPa. The range of dry compression strengths found in moulding sands is from 140 to 1800 kPa. expansion. Strength: measurement of strength of moulding sands can be carried out on the universal sand strength testing machine. Govt of A. Mould hardness: the mould hardness is measured by a method similar to the Brinell hardness test. Besides these. The depth of indentation can be directly measured on the scale which shows units 0 to 100. shear and tension. Dry sand of core sand. Green compression strength: green compression strength or simply green strength generally refers to the stress required to rupture the sand specimen under compressive loading. hot strength. The strength can be measured in compression. then it is a mould hardness of 100 and when it sinks completely. When no penetration occurs. A spring loaded steel ball with a mass of 0. Accredited by NBA After preparing a test sample of sand as described. there are other tests to determine such properties as deformation. The stress required to shear the specimen along the axis is then represented as the green shear strength.9kg is indented into the standard sand specimen prepared.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Dry strength: the tests similar to the above can also be carried with the standard specimens dried between 105 and 1100C for 2 hours. a different adapter is fitted in the universal machine so that the loading now be made for the shearing of the sand sample. etc. The green shear strengths may vary from 10 to 50 kPa. Chevella (M). Green shear strength: with a sand sample similar to the above test.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008.
The electrode is coated with flux which prevents oxidation of parent metals. electrode holder. welding shield etc. chipping hammer. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). THEORY: Arc welding is fusion welding process. ground clamp. R.R. Chevella (M). Affiliated to JNTUH.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008.S. MATERIAL REQUIRED: 2 M. Govt of A. Accredited by NBA LAP JOINT AIM: Preparation of double welded lap joint as shown in fig using shielded metal arc welding. electrodes. connecting cables. flat of given size. Arc welding is a process of joining two metallic pieces by the application of heat is obtained from the electric arc between two electrodes. TOOLS REQUIRED: Welding transformer. Dist Approved by AICTE. In this process two metallic pieces will act as base metal or parent metal and electrode will act as filler metal.
Tack welding to be done before full welding. 3. gloves in order to protect the human being. 5. R. Switch on the supply and initiate the arc by either striking arc method or drag. The metallic pieces are thoroughly cleaned from rest. No edge preparation is required for a lap joint. 2.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). 7. Govt of A.R. The overlapping portion is called lap. Chevella (M). Affiliated to JNTUH. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . grease. based on thickness of metal piece and hold it in the electrode holder. RESULT: Lap joint is prepared as shown in fig by using arc welding process. Accredited by NBA LAP JOINT: The lap joint is used in joining two overlapping plates so that edge of each plate is welded to the surface of the other. 2. The given metallic pieces are prepared to given sizes by filling. The width of lap may be 3 to 5 times the thickness of the plates to be welded. The full welding process is carried after completion of one pass slag is removed from the full weld bed with help of chipping hammer and metallic wire brush. oil etc. PRECAUTIONS: 1. 4. Now given metallic pieces were assembled as shown in fig. Dist Approved by AICTE. PROCEDURE: 1.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Welds usually run each side of the lap. Use goggles. Then the above process is repeated until to reach desired height of the weld. 6. select the electrodes. Maintain constant arc length to have uniform weld bead.
hipping hammer. Affiliated to JNTUH. R. connecting cables. Light gauge section requires only 90 sheared edges with no spacing between them. MATERIAL REQUIRED: 2M. Butt joint: the butt joint is join the ends or edges of plates or surfaces located approximately in the same plate with each other. Dist Approved by AICTE. In this process two metallic pieces will act as base metal or parent metal and electrode will act filler metal. electrode holder. Materials ranging from 9 to 13mm thick that can be welded only from one side should be reduced either as a single V or single U.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. where heat is obtained from the electric arc between two electrodes. How ever it is more expensive to prepare U shape. The electrode is coated with flux which prevents oxidation of parent metals. electrodes. TOOLS REQUIRED: welding transformer. However thicker plates are prepared from both sides. The U shaped type of joint is more satisfactory and requires less filler material than V type groove. Accredited by NBA BUTT JOINT AIM: preparation of butt joint as shown in figure using shielded metal arc welding process.R. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .S Flat pieces of given size. Arc welding is the process of joining two metallic pieces by the application of heat. THEORY: Arc welding is a fusion welding process.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Chevella (M). ground clamp. welding shield etc. Govt of A. Preparation of edge varies according to the thickness of the material and welding process used.
Slag is removed from the weld bed. RESULT: butt joint is prepared as shown in figure by using arc-welding process. Then the above process will be repeated until to fill the groove with weld bed or weld metal. Use goggles. 8. oil. Govt of A. 2. Select suitable range of current for selected dia. R. etc.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Maintain the constant arc length. Tak welding to be done before full welding. Select electrode dia based on thickness of work piece and hold it on the electrode holder.R. With the metal wire brush or chipping hammer. In full welding process after completion one part before going to second part. On both pieces beveled in order to have V groove. Accredited by NBA Procedure: 1. 4. PRECAUTIONS: 1. Switch on the power supply and initiates the arc by either striking arc method or touch and drag method. Affiliated to JNTUH. 9. gloves in order to protect the human body. The metallic pieces are thoroughly cleaned from rust grease. 6. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . 2.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). 7. Dist Approved by AICTE. The metallic pieces are connected to terminals of Trans former. The given metallic pieces filled to the desired size. 3. Chevella (M). 5.
connecting cables. electrode holder.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. 2. electrodes. Required edge preparation is made over the given metallic pieces. which prevents oxidation of parent metal. R. 3. Edge preparation of vertical member is come as that of the butt joint. wire brush etc. T-JOINT: joint are used to weld two plates or sections whose surfaces are at approximately right angles to each other. 4. THEORY: Arc welding is a fusion welding process. Arc welding is the process of joining two metallic pieces by the application of heat. Assemble the given work pieces as shown in fig. Accredited by NBA T-JOINT AIM: preparation of T-joint as shown in figure using shielded metal arc welding process. ground clamp. where heat is obtained from the electric arc. grease.R. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Govt of A. Affiliated to JNTUH. Plates or surfaces should have good fit up in order to ensure uniform penetration and fusion. Dist Approved by AICTE. oil etc. PROCEDURE: 1. Electrode will act as filler metal. In this process the two metallic pieces will act as base metal or parent metal. The electrode is coated with flux. welding shield. Place the electrode in the holder and ensure that all connections are given properly or not.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Chevella (M). The work pieces are cleaned properly from rust. chipping hammer. TOOLS REQUIRED: welding transformer. MATERIAL REQUIRED: two mild steel flats of given size.
Maintain uniform arc length to have uniform weld bed. 2. third passes will be carried until to get the desired height of weld. Dist Approved by AICTE.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. gloves. slag is removed from the weld bed by using chipping hammer and wire brush. RESULT: T-joint is prepared as shown in fig by using by shielded metal arc welding process. R. 6. now full welding is carried after one pass. then second. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . PRECATIONS: 1. Chevella (M). first tack welding is done. Affiliated to JNTUH. To protect the welder make use of welding shield. Switch on the power supply and initiate the arc. apron etc. Accredited by NBA 5. goggles.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). 8. 7. Govt of A.R.
magnesium and stainless steel.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). The smaller weld torches may not be provided with circulating cooling water. R. The typical combination of TIG setups to be used with these and other metals are presented in table.the pure tungsten electrodes are less expensive but will carry less current.15 to 0. Chevella (M). The electrodes may also contain 1 to 2 % thoria (thorium oxide) mixed along with the core tungsten or tungsten with 0. The thoriated tungsten electrodes carry high currents and are more desirable because they can strike and maintain a stable arc with relative ease. The zirconia added tungsten electrodes are better than pure tungsten but inferior to thoriated tungsten electrodes. Material gas Stainless steel Aluminium Magnesium DeoxidisedCopper Monel High carbon steel Power sources: Thoriated tungsten Thoriated tungsten DCEN AC or DCEN Argon Argon thoriated tungsten Alltypes Tungsten DCEN AC AC Argon Argon Argon Electrodes Power supply used preferred shielding DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Dist Approved by AICTE.40 % zirconia (zirconium oxide). it consists of a welding torch at the centre of which is the tungsten electrode. Affiliated to JNTUH.R. A Typical tungsten inert gas welding setup is shown in fig.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Govt of A. The TIG welding process can be used for the joining of a number of materials though the most common ones are aluminium. Accredited by NBA TUNGSTEN INERT GAS WELDING Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding or gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is an inert gas shielded arc welding process using non-consumable electrode. The inert gas is supplied to the welding zone through the annular path surrounding the tungsten electrode to effectively displace the atmosphere around the weld puddle.
The electrons from the oxide layer move towards the positive electrode weakening the surface layer. R. During the background current period the arc is maintained but very small heat input goes to the weld and. when AC is used. as shown in fig. Otherwise. the electrons from the oxide layer would be moving towards the electrode. The positively charged ions from the electrode would then be able to easily break the surface layer and thus would help in obtaining the fusion. Affiliated to JNTUH. Both direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) power supplies can be used for TIG welding. DCEP also causes larger heat affected zones and more weld distortion than DCEN. the electrode is to be flipped away slightly from the arc crater to allow for the cooling of the puddle before it is moved forward again. a large amount of heat is liberated at the electrode itself thereby limiting the maximum current that can be carried by an electrode. the current level is maintained at two levels . The DC power supply used for TIG can be either a steady one or more often a step pulsed one. the electrode can be negative (DCEN) or positive (DCEP).DCEP is normally used for welding thin metals whereas for deep penetration welds DCEN is used. the half cycle during which the electrode is positive. the low level is called background currents which is used for cooling the weld metal. useful for welding in out of positions (other than flat position) since it allows for the controlled heating and cooling. Dist Approved by AICTE. This type of step pulsed DC source is. the arc crater cools. But when DCEP is used. The other is the peak current used when the actual melting (welding) takes place. Roughly. The DCEP is sometimes utilized to break down the oxides on the surface of the metals such as aluminium. as shown in fig. With DCEN more heat is generated near the work piece and consequently the electrode does not get heated to a great extent.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. When DC is used. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . whereas in the other half the electrons from the electrode would be able to easily break the oxide layer on the work piece surface. particularly. an AC arc welding is likely to give rise to a higher penetration than that of DCEP. the current carrying capacity of a DCEN electrode is about 10 times as high as that of a DCEP electrode. Hence.R. as a result. But the pulsed DC arc welding provides for proper solidification during the background current period when the torch is moved forward for forming the next spot (bead). In the case of the step pulsed current machine. Thus. Similarly. Chevella (M).AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Govt of A. Accredited by NBA The power sources used are always the constant current type.
If the arc is started by first touching the base metal and withdrawn. Since less current flows when the electrode is positive. a very high voltage. less heat is liberated near the electrode.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. A balanced wave maintains a steady arc and therefore is preferred for better removal of the oxide layer is possible. It changes its direction 50 times every second (in 50Hz power supply) such that half the time it is operating as DCEN and rest. But the TIG welding machine would not behave as normal AC. This is known as unbalanced wave. These capacitors get charged during the time when the electrode is negative. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . It is less expensive. the electrode tip may pick up the base metal which causes the subsequent sputtering and loss of metal in the electrode tip. Affiliated to JNTUH. as DCEP. Govt of A. the electron move from flat work piece surface to the small sized tip of the electrode which restricts the flow of electrons. when the electrode is positive and thus maintains the arc continuously. which is termed as balanced wave since the positive side and the negative side are identical in magnitude. Chevella (M). This maintains the shielding gas ionized during the period.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V).R. by incorporating a large number of capacitors in series to provide the necessary current discharges during the time when the electrode is positive. This rectification is an AC cycle during the time when the electrode becomes positive will make the AC arc. very high frequency and low current power supply is superimposed on the unbalanced wave. It is possible to provide a balanced wave as shown in fig. There are quite a few advantages of an un balanced AC arc welding machine compared to a balanced wave machine. A typical AC wave form is shown in fig. During the period when the electrode is positive. This is termed as ‘Rectification’ and is responsible for the reduced current flow during DCEP portion of the AC wave as shown in fig. these machines are more expensive compared to the un balanced type. the current continuously changes its direction. Accredited by NBA When the alternating current (AC) is used for TIG welding. which results in better penetration. This permits a higher current carrying capacity for the electrodes. However. To maintain a steady arc in an un balanced AC welding machine. R. a highly unstable one. ELECTRODES: The tungsten electrodes used for the welding should be clean and completely free from any kind of contamination such as molten filler metal. Dist Approved by AICTE.
Affiliated to JNTUH. Hence.R. so that the HF current gets concentrated and the arc is easily initiated (high frequency current tend to flow through the surface).AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Dist Approved by AICTE. The typical ranges of these values used for various electrode sizes are presented in table. Instead. stabilises the AC arc. as shown in fig.the tip should be pencilpointed as shown in fig. Also.4 mm near the root.0 AC-HF 10-60 Pure tungsten DCEN 15-80 AC-HF 20-80 2% thoriated tungsten AC 20-60 DCEN 25-85 Zirconium tungsten AC-HF 20-80 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Pure tungsten electrodes are never made into conical point since the end is likely to melt and contaminate the weld metal. it would be better to prepare the tip since it enhances the weld quality. the electrode would be made conical as in fig. to provide good performance and uniformity of the weld.the tip concentricity should be maintained . otherwise the gas flow would become uneven making some part of the puddle not properly shielded and thereby. The tungsten electrode tip should be prepared for proper weld penetration. The current setting to be used depends on the type of power supply and the electrode used. Though it is possible to use these electrodes without any tip preparation. Chevella (M). Govt of A. WELDING TECHNIQUE: The welding technique used for TIG is essentially similar to that of the gas welding. With DCEN. The metallic backing plates used are provided with a small groove of a depth of the order of 0. since tungsten oxide has a lower melting temperature. Backing of the joint is sometimes preferable. Electrode diameter Mm 1. the electrode may get consumed quickly if it is allowed to be oxidized.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. once the arc is formed which reduces the effect of current rectification and thus. The backing plate is removed after the welding is over. For AC welding with high frequency (AC-HF) un balanced machines . the shielding gas flow should be maintained for some time after extinguishing the arc so that the electrode gets sufficiently cooled in a protective atmosphere rather than in the oxidizing normal atmosphere. causing contamination of the weld joint in that portion. The edge preparation is also similar to that of gas welding. The typical shapes that can be used are shown in fig. The oxidation occurs when the electrode is allowed to cool in the atmosphere after welding. it is better to make full round ball at the tip. while grinding . with the width being about 3 to 4 times the depth. R. Accredited by NBA Also.
All the parameters for the TIG welding of aluminium are summarised in table . Govt of A. The filler metal for TIG (GTAW) welding is generally a bare wire. The size of the filler metal depends on the base metal thickness.0 6.6 2. The gas flow rate depends on the position of the weld as well as its size. it may be desirable to protect the root side of the joint by providing a flux or preferably a shroud of inert gas.too high gas consumption would give rise to turbulence of the weld metal pool and consequently porous welds. Because of the use of shielding gases no fluxes are required to be used in inert gas shielded arc welding. for various metal thicknesses for aluminium welding.0 5. The nozzle or shield size (the diameter of the opening of the electrode to be chosen depends on the shape of the groove to be welded as well as the required gas flow rate). Affiliated to JNTUH.R.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .5 3.3 50-100 100-160 150-210 200-275 250-350 325-450 20-150 125-225 225-360 360-450 450-720 720-950 50-150 130-250 225-360 300-450 400-550 600-800 60-120 100-180 160-250 200-320 290-390 340-525 50-160 135-235 250-400 400-500 750-980 750-980 50-150 130-250 225-360 300-450 600-800 600-800 Sometimes filler metals may have to be used depending on the base metal.15 4. R. However for thicker sections. Dist Approved by AICTE. Accredited by NBA 1.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. The sizes of the filler rods are shown in table. Chevella (M).
c) The contact resistance between two work piece plates. b) The contact resistance between the electrode and the work piece. The pressure on the joint is continuously maintained and the metal fuses together under this pressure.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). d) The resistance of the work piece plates. A t = time for which the electric current is passing through the joint. PRINCIPLE: In resistance welding (RW).25 s). In contrast. the name Resistance welding. resistance welding process is a fusion welding process where both heat and pressure are applied on the joint but no filler metal or flux is added. J I= electric current. are fusion welding process where only heat is applied in the joint. It is likely to be released at all of the above-mentioned points. but the only place where a large amount of heat is to be generated to have an effective fusion is at the interface between the two work piece DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . R is a complex factor to know because it is composed of a) The resistance of the electrodes.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. a low voltage (Typically 1 V) and very high current (Typically 15. s R= the resistance of the joint. ohms K= a constant to account for the heat losses from the welded joint. The resistance of the joint. The amount of heat released is directly proportional to the resistance. due to the contact resistance at the joint and melts it. R. The heat generated in resistance welding can be expressed as H= k l2 R t Where H= the total heat generated in the work.000 A) is passed through the joint for a very short time (Typically 0. Chevella (M). Accredited by NBA RESISTANCE WELDING The welding process covered so far. Govt of A. Dist Approved by AICTE. The high amperage heats the joint.R. Affiliated to JNTUH. The heat necessary for the melting of the joint is obtained by the heating effect of the electrical resistance of the joint and hence.
1] for melting (assuming the weld area as a cylinder of 5 mm diameter and 1. Because of the squaring in the above equation. Govt of A. Chevella (M). The average resistance may be of the order of 100 micro ohms.5 mm height) would be of the order of 339 J. sophisticated electronic timers are available.0001) (0. The contact resistance is affected by the surface finish on the plates. Dist Approved by AICTE. the rest of the heat is actually utilized in heating the surrounding areas and lost at the other points.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). as required for different materials.R. With a 10. The contact resistance also will be affected by the cleanliness of the surface. The time of the electric supply needs to be closely controlled so that the heat released is just enough to melt the joint and the subsequent fusion takes place due to the force (forge welding) on the joint. R.000 A current passing for 0. Accredited by NBA plates. This is obtained by means of a step down transformer with a provision to have different tapings on the primary side.000) (0. The force required can be provided either mechanically. hydraulically or pneumatically.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. The secondary windings are connected to the electrodes which are made of copper to reduce their electrical resistance.1 s. the current. The schematic representation of the resistance welding process is shown in fig. The critical variable in a resistance welding process is the contact resistance between the two work piece plates and their resistances themselves. The actual heat required [26. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . the current required would be of the order of tens of thousands of amperes. as shown in fig. since the heat released at those places would not aid in the welding. I need to be precisely controlled for any proper joint. the heat liberated is H= (10. the main requirement of the process is the low voltage and high current power supply. the rest of the component resistances should be made as small Aas possible. Therefore.1) = 1000 J This is a typical for the welding of 1 mm thick sheets. Affiliated to JNTUH. to precisely control the time. Oxides or other contaminants if present should be removed before attempting resistance welding. since the rougher surfaces have higher contact resistance. as a result. The lower resistance of the joint requires very high currents to provide enough heat to melt it.
This eliminates the removal of smaller amount of heat generated in the sheet through the electrode and thus balances the heat. For example. Similarly while welding a material of higher thermal conductivity to the one with lower conductivity. They also help to remove the heat from the weld zone thus preventing overheating and surface fusion of the work. This is taken care of by providing an electrode with a smaller contact area at a thinner sheet and a thicker electrode at the thicker sheet together with high current densities for short times. do not have the conductivity required for electrodes. the heat liberated in the lower resistivity metal is less and therefore it is necessary to use an electrode of higher resistivity near this metal or use an electrode diameter of larger contact area near the metal which has higher electrical conductivity.R. Affiliated to JNTUH. Govt of A. Similarly. the proper fusion can be obtained only if there is a proper ‘heat balance’. R. Hence copper in alloyed form is generally used for DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . the electrodes should have higher electrical conductivity as well as higher hardness.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Heat balance: One of the very important characteristics of the resistance welding process is the transfer of heat to the two parts being joined differently so that proper fusion obtained even when the plates are dissimilar from the stand-point of material or thickness. Steels though strong. For both these purposes. Electrodes for resistance welding: The electrode in resistance welding carry very high currents required for fusion as also transmit the mechanical force to keep the plates under pressure and then alignment during fusion. Chevella (M). Dist Approved by AICTE.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. consider the case of two metal pieces of same composition and different thicknesses which are to be joined in a lap joint as shown in fig. when two dissimilar metals with different electrical resistivities or thermal conductivities are to be joined. an increase in the welding current for the proper fusion. it is necessary to provide an electrode contact area that is smaller near the higher conductivity metal compared to that electrode kept near the lower conductivity metal plate. Accredited by NBA The welding force used has the effect of decreasing the contact resistance and consequently.
Hence. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . R. To this end cooling water is circulated through the electrodes as shown in fig. to allow for different welding situations.5 to 1. it is necessary to cool the electrodes to maintain their strength.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. these are used for welding higher heat resisting alloys such as stainless steels and steels with tungsten and other such alloying elements. Copper cadmium (0. Since a large amount of heat is liberated in the electrodes. Affiliated to JNTUH. Govt of A. it is poor in mechanical properties. Chevella (M).5 to 0. Though pure copper has higher electrical and thermal conductivities. The electrode tips are available in a number of different configurations as shown in fig.R. Accredited by NBA making electrodes.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). its conductivity is decreased to a great extent but the strength is increased. Copper chromium (0. These are used for resistance welding of low strength steels such as mild steel and low alloy steels.8%) alloys have slightly lower electrical conductivities than above but better mechanical strength. When cobalt and beryllium are added to copper. Dist Approved by AICTE.0%) alloys have the highest electrical conductivity with moderate strengths and therefore are used for welding non-ferrous materials such as aluminum and Mg alloys.
A resistance welding schedule is the sequence of events that normally take place in each of the welds. where the spot is to be made. it essentially consists of two electrodes. This is the most common resistance welding process. Hence the electrode holders and the pneumatic pressurizing system is present in the form of a portable assembly which is taken to the place. Accredited by NBA RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING The process description made so far is called the resistance spot welding (RSW)or simply spot welding. out of which one is fixed. portable spot welding machines are used. if the tip becomes upset and the contact area increases. Govt of A. compressed air and the cooling water needed for the electrodes is supplied through cables and hoses from the main welding machine to the portable unit. as shown in fig. For welding large assemblies such as car bodies. This would not be able to melt the metal and hence there would be no proper fusion. Affiliated to JNTUH. The other position is that of a pneumatic or hydraulic cylinder being directly connected to the electrode without any rocker arm. Chevella (M). The events are: The squeeze time is the time required for the electrodes to align and clamp the two work pieces together under them and provide the necessary electrical contact.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. The other electrode is fixed to a rocker arm (to provide mechanical advantage) for transmitting the mechanical force from a pneumatic cylinder. In spot welding. A typical resistance spot welding machine is shown in fig. This is the simplest type of arrangement. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . R.R. The weld time is the time of the current flow through the work pieces till they are heated to the melting temperature. the current density will be lowered and consequently the weld is obtained over a larger area. This is essentially done to join two sheet metal jobs in lap joint forming a smaller nugget at the interface of the two plates.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Dist Approved by AICTE. The current density depends on the contact area between the electrode and the work piecewith the continuous use. a satisfactory weld is obtained when a proper current density (A/sq mm) is maintained. The electric current.
Affiliated to JNTUH. During this time. Accredited by NBA The hold time is the time when the pressure is to be maintained on the molten metal without the electric current. then the porosity may develop at the centre of the nugget or cracks may form. these welding schedules can be precisely controlled with the modern programmable electronic controllers. The off time is time during which. the pressure on the electrode is taken off so that the plates can be positioned for the next spot. too large an electrode force and improper mating surfaces.R. This gives rise to a visible concave depression under the electrode tip. The repulsion of the molten metal may take place. The main reason for this is the generation of excessive weld heat by a smaller electrode contact area. the metal under this area would reduce in size under the absence of any such restraining force.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). it cannot be totally eliminated. The only way in which this can be reduced is to use short duration currents such that heat from the welding zone is not be conducted far beyond. But the metal under the electrode tip cannot expand in the axial direction of the electrode. Chevella (M). as shown in fig.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. the pieces are expected to be forge welded. The off time is not normally. The use of high welding current for short periods causes excessive heat generation in the weld area. The welding pressure used depends on the thickness of the metal and the geometry of the weld. but only when a series of spots are to be made in a predetermined pitch. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . specified for simple spot welding. Surface indentation is also possible sometimes due the repulsion of the molten metal from the weld zone. However. the nugget does not develop any porosity or crack. A typical welding schedule whose time elements are measured in terms of the time unit for a cycle of AC. Govt of A. improper alignment of the work and the electrodes. while cooling. The forging pressure is applied to ensure that during the solidification. R. If the pressure is not properly applied immediately after welding or if the pressure is in sufficient. Porosity in spot welds may also develop if the forging pressure is released prematurely. It is generally preferable to have the pressure increased by two to three times during solidification phase. Dist Approved by AICTE. The metals expand due to the temperature. if the spot is done very near the edge. because of the restraining force. compared to that during the melting. Though this is very small. too long a time for the current flow.
36 × (t1 + t2) cycles : 3937 × (t1+t2) A : 876 × (t1 + t2 ) N Where t1 = thickness of the first plate. Electrode tip diameter: 2. Accredited by NBA The depth of penetration of the weld would normally vary from 0. R.3 to 0.8 times the thickness of the joining members. Affiliated to JNTUH. The spacing of spots affects the current required for fusion. higher currents may be required to obtain proper melting. Dist Approved by AICTE.54 + (t1 + t2) mm Weld time Current Electrode force : 2. Therefore it is necessary that the spots are not made closer than required. some current would be shunted through a weld already made. even while welding thicker plate to a thinner plate. mm DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Also. Govt of A. If the spacing becomes small.R. mm t2 = thickness of the second plate. The typical equations for welding mild steel up to a thickness of 3. The surface melting of the plate may also be caused by poor electrode cooling.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V).2 mm are given below. A depth of penetration less than this would not give rise to enough strength whereas a very high penetration nearing the thickness would bring the nugget outside and disfigure the appearance of the sheet. and as a result. Chevella (M). Dirty or oxide surfaces on the work piece may interfere with the heat flow into the electrode and thus may allow the top surface to melt. the penetration should be equal from both the sides.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Designing of spot weld parameters are essentially based on the sheet thickness being welded. This also reduces the life of the electrode tip.
P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Chevella (M). DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . The plasma gas flowing through the constriction reaches a very high temperature and provides a low resistance path to initiate the welding arc between the electrode and the work piece. The filler metal if required is fed into the arc as in GTAW process. The arc in PAW is straight and concentrated. This constriction increases the heat per unit volume of the arc plasma. Govt of A. a low current pilot arc is obtained between the electrode and the constricting nozzle which ionizes the plasma gas flowing through the nozzle. The plasma arc welding closely resembles the TIG process in that it also uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode and a shielding gas such as argon. Affiliated to JNTUH.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Procedure: To initiate the arc in PAW. In plasma arc welding. R. Accredited by NBA PLASMA ARC WELDING Theory: Plasma is the state of the matter when part of the gas is ionized making it a conductor of electric current.R. This is termed as a transferred arc. The main difference is in the construction of the torch. A small amount of pure argon gas flow is allowed through the inner orifice surrounding the tungsten electrode to form the plasma gas. Dist Approved by AICTE. the plasma arc is tightly constrained.
the higher the mechanical strength of the joint will be. Solid filler may be preplaced on the metal and melted as the metal is heated or it may be applied to the metal after the brazing temperature is reached. The greater the degree of adhesion and the inter-diffusion between the molten filler metal and the base metal. the basis requirement is that the filler metal must be thoroughly wet the base metal surface. Dist Approved by AICTE. During brazing. two pieces to be joined is not melted.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). A flux is applied to all surfaces where filler metal is to flow. Accredited by NBA BRAZING Theory: The brazing process can be defined as the process to join two metal pieces heated to a suitable temperature by using a filler metal having a liquidus above 427°C and below the solidus of the base metal. To achieve this and to obtain a strong joint. Some diffusion or alloying of the filler metal with the base metal takes place even though the base metal does not reach its solidus temperature. R. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Govt of A. Therefore the surfaces must be clean and free from contaminants that would prevent adhesion. Procedure: The surfaces to be joined are cleaned and fitted closely together. Affiliated to JNTUH. After that the joint is heated to proper brazing temperature.R.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Chevella (M).
R. The removed portion is called a blank and is usually further processed to be of some use. Dist Approved by AICTE. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). The force required to be exerted by the punch in order It can be given by the following formula P=L*t*Ƭ Where p is punching force Ƭ is shear strength in Mpa to shear out the blank from the stock can be estimated from the actual shear area and the shear strength of the material. Affiliated to JNTUH. Chevella (M). Piercing: This is also called Punching. R. Accredited by NBA BLANKING AND PIERCING Blanking: It is the process in which the punch removes a portion of the material from the stock which is a strip of sheet metal of the necessary thickness and width.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. It is identical to blanking except of the fact that the punched out portion coming out through the die in piercing is scrap. The piercing is making holes in a sheet. Normally a blanking operation is will generally follow a piercing operation. Govt of A.
it s possible to make components which have a constant crosssection over any length as can be had by the rolling process. Generally brittle materials can also be very easily extruded. because the die required being very simple and easier to make.The complexity of parts that can be obtained by extrusion is more than that of rolling. Govt of A. Also extrusion is a single pass process unlike rolling. Dist Approved by AICTE. The operation is identical to the squeezing of tooth paste out of the tooth paste tube. A dummy block which is a steel disc of about 40mm (0. It is possible to produce sharp corners and re-entrant angles.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. By the extrusion process.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Some typical parts that are extruded are shown in fig2 . Chevella (M). It is also possible to get shapes with internal cavities in extrusion DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .acquiring the shape of the opening .thus forcing in to flow through the die opening .From the other end .The equipment consists of a cylinder r a container in to which the heated metal billet is loaded .75 of diameter) thick with a diameter slightly less than the container is kept between the hot billet and the ram to protect it from the heat and pressure. a plunger or a ram compresses the metal billet against the container walls and the die plate .The extruded metal is then carried by the metal handling system as it comes out of the die. Accredited by NBA EXTRUSION PRINCIPLE Extrusion is the process of confining the metal in a closed cavity and then allowing it to flow from only one opening so that the metal will take the shape of the opening. the die plate with the necessary opening is fixed .On one end of the container. Affiliated to JNTUH. The amount of reduction that is possible in extrusion is large.05 to 0. R. A typical extrusion process is presented in the Fig1.R.
Low extrusion ratios are used for intermediate operations when the billets are extruded to a given diameter before the final extrusion . the cylinder and ram are severely affected by the temperature as well as the stresses.Too high an extrusion speed would cause excessive heat generation in the extruded metal causing lateral cracks DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .The extrusion ratio is defined as the ratio of cross-sectional area of the billet to that of the extruded section.05 m/sec. The extrusion speed depends on the work material. The flow of the metal in the extrusion process is shown schematically in fig3.since hot extrusion involves temperatures in the range of 500 to 1200 depending on the work material extruded. R. Large diameter.R. Chevella (M).50m/sec. Affiliated to JNTUH.whereas for the copper alloys it may be as high as 4.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Accredited by NBA by the use of spider dies which are explained later. thin walled tubular products with excellent concentricity and tolerance characteristics can be produced. Govt of A. Dist Approved by AICTE.Typical extrusion pressures for various materials are presented in table .The extrusion pressure for a given material depends on the extrusion temperature. The typical values of the extrusion ratio are 20 to 50. the reduction in area and the extrusion speed.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). The pressures applied may range from 35 to1000MPa. Some of the light alloys may be extruded at a speed of 0.
a blank holder is normally provided on all deep drawing dies as shown in the fig . is normally used for thicker materials which are less . Chevella (M). .for drawing deeper cups it is necessary to make specific provisions to confine the metal in order to prevent the excess wrinkling of the edges . shells.when the cup reaches counter bored portion of the die. in fig plank through out the operation. R.The The rigid blank holding as in fig likely to wrinkle. spring loaded pressure pad which moves with the punch. the cup would be stripped by this counter bored portion. When the punch move sin the return stroke. A more common usage is the spring loaded pressure pad shown. and similar articles from metal blanks . The punch slowly descends on the blank and forces it to take the cup shape formed by the end of the punch.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008.Typical tools used for drawing are shown in fig . Accredited by NBA DEEP DRAWING Drawing is the process of making cups. by the time it reaches the bottom of the die . the top edge of the cup formed around the punch expands slightly due to the spring back. maintains a uniform pressure on the DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Affiliated to JNTUH. Dist Approved by AICTE. Govt of A. This description is true in the case of shallow drawing operation only .shallow drawing is defined as that where the cup height is less than half the diameter .R.for this purpose.The plank is first kept on the die plate.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). The setup is similar to that used in blanking except the punch and die are provided with the necessary rounding at the corners to allow for the smooth flow of the metal during drawing .
Chevella (M). the metal present in each of the rings is distributed over a circle of larger diameter than that of the cup . Affiliated to JNTUH. consider the drawing of a cup as shown in fig . Upon further movement of the punch.The limited thickness is controlled by the gap between the rigid blank holder and the die or by the spring pressure in the case of a spring loaded blank holder Too high a blank holder pressure increases the friction and subsequently the drawing load .if there is no restraining force applied on the blank . the metal shown in the ring 2f the blank gets bent by the punch over the die radius. there is no deformation of the blank .along with its blank. Dist Approved by AICTE. Accredited by NBA To understand the problem of the wrinkling.A lubricant is normally applied over the face of the blank to reduce this friction . DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . such as rectangle. but that should be much more difficult.The example is presented for a circular cup since these are more generally used. As explained earlier. The blank has been divided in to sections 1 to 4.As the punch further moves down. In this portion. It is also possible to draw other sections. Govt of A.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V).ductile materials are easier to be drawn in to deeper cups. shallow drawing is relatively simple.While the material is flowing radially the outer edge gets thicker or wrinkles are formed on the outer edges .the material needs to be moved radially for the drawing action to takes place . the bent blank over the die radius gets straightened and the next ring of the metal is bent over the die radius .Since.but makes it to flow radially outward . The first contact made by the punch with the blank is over the portion marked 1 which forms the bottom of the cup. Drawing when cup height is more than half the diameter is termed as deep drawing . The restraining force applied on the blank by way of the blank holders stops the blank from increasing in thickness beyond the limit . R.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008.R.This is similar to wrinkles formed on the handkerchief when spread on a tumbler of small size and pushed into it .
. and thus is a severe operation .Thedie and punch set used is similar to that of drawing operation except the clearance between the die and punch is smaller than that used in the drawing operation . Accredited by NBA In deep drawing.For applications requiring uniform side walls. R.R.The materials gets compressed between punch and die which reduces the thickness and increases the height.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. because of the radial flow of the material. Dist Approved by AICTE. Ironing is the operation of thinning the side walls and increasing the height.There would be a slight thinning of metal at the bottom of the corners . Chevella (M). Affiliated to JNTUH. the side walls increase in thickness as the height is increased. as sown in the fig called ironing is carried out on drawn cups.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Govt of A.The wall thickness can be reduced to as much 50% in a single ironing operation. an operation DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .
in mm B=α(R+Kt) DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . it is necessary to find out the bend allowance which is the arc length of the neutral axis between the bend lines. the top layers are in tension and bottom layers are in compression as shown. R. the neutral axis moves downward.5 when R>2t t = sheet thickness. due to the applied forces. it is the required length. in mm K=location of neutral axis from bottom surface = 0. in a bent specimen. The nomenclature normally used with bending is shown in figure: 2. The disposition of the stresses in a bent specimen is shown in fig 1. Dist Approved by AICTE. The neutral axis should be at the centre when the material is elastically deformed. in radians R=inside radius of the bend. Govt of A.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Accredited by NBA BENDING Bending refers to the operation of deforming a flat sheet around a straight axis where the neutral plane lies. Affiliated to JNTUH. Bend allowance Where α=bend angle. Chevella (M). Here. Beyond the bend lines. the material is not affected. But when the material reaches the plastic stage. Hence to calculate the length required. since the materials oppose compression much better than tension.33 when R<2t = 0.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). since neutral axis remains constant. The plane with no stresses is called the neutral axis.R.
being the direction of rolling.5 t soft materials = t other materials = 3 t spring materials The other aspect to be considered in designing parts from bending is the grain orientation of the sheet which is bent.R. By virtue of the rolled sheets being used for bending. because the bend geometry gets affected by the spring back directly. But if two bending are to be done on the same sheet at right angles. can be used fro a wide range of angles as also the 900. Dist Approved by AICTE. R. The bending load may be calculated from the knowledge of material properties and the die characteristics as shown below Fb= KLst2/W Where Fb=bending force. Minimum bend radius = 0. There is a possibility of cracks appearing at the time of bending if the bending is done along the grains as shown in figure:3. Accredited by NBA The outer layers which are under tension should not be stretched too much.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Lower the bend radius. These are the ones that are most generally used. and the punch bends the extended portion of the blank as shown in figure 4. As far as possible. Here the work is held firmly to the die. Spring back in bending is difficult to estimate theoretically . The types of bending methods used are shown in figure:4. The amount of stretching depends on the sheet thickness and the radius.but it is essential to compensate it. depending on the material characteristics. otherwise there is likelihood of rupture taking place. The first one is the wiping die which is used for simple 900 bends only. N DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . the grain direction usually is along the length axis. the bending is to be done in a direction perpendicular to the grain direction in the metal. Lower the bend radius. Hence there is a minimum bend radius to be specified. Chevella (M). then it may be desirable to make them at 450 to the grain direction so that the risk of cracking is minimized. The V bending shown in fig b.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). higher is the strain in this zone. Govt of A. Affiliated to JNTUH.
33 for die opening of 8t = 1. R. Accredited by NBA K= 1.R.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. MPa t = blank thickness. Dist Approved by AICTE. Chevella (M). Govt of A. Affiliated to JNTUH.33 for a wiping die L = Length of the bent part. mm DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . mm s = ultimate tensile strength.20 for die opening of 16t = 0. mm W = width between the contact points.67 for U bending = 0.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V).
the mould is closed . curing takes place while the material is under pressure in a heated mould. Chevella (M).pressure is maintained until the molding has solidified .through a nozzle in to the enclosed mould cavity . which results in a longer cycle times than for thermoplastics. Affiliated to JNTUH. Thermosetting polymers may also be injection moulded. the molten plastic is impelled . Govt of A.Probably y the most outstanding feature of this technique is the speed with which pieces may be produced.the piece is ejected .again by ram motion . The correct amount of pelletized material is fed from a loading hopper in to a cylinder by the motion of a plunger or a ram. This charge is pushed forward in to a heating chamber.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008.Finally .AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V).R. R.the mould is opened . Dist Approved by AICTE. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . at which the thermoplastic material melts to form a viscous liquid.and the entire cycle is repeated . Accredited by NBA INJECTION MOULDING The polymer analogue of die casting for metals is the most widely used technique for fabricating thermoplastic materials. Next .
Casting like metals. Accredited by NBA BLOW MOULDING Blow moulding process for the fabrication of plastic containers is similar to that used for blowing glass bottles (Fig ). as when a molten plastic material is poured in to a mould and allowed to solidify. While still in a semi molten state. Dist Approved by AICTE. however. Chevella (M).For thermoplastics. polymeric materials may be cast. for thermosets.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. harding is a consequence of the actual polymerization or curing process. R. solidification occurs upon cooling from the molten state.R. Both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics may be cast . DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Govt of A. the length is placed in to a two piece mould having the desired container configuration. forcing the tube walls to conform to the counters of the mould. Affiliated to JNTUH. The hallow piece is formed by blowing or steam under pressure in to the parsion.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V).First a length of polymer tubing is extruded.