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An approximation of the fine structure constant reciprocal|Views: 12|Likes: 0

Published by J. S. Markovitch

An unusually simple approximation of the fine structure constant is shown to be more economical than those found by a brute force computer search.

An unusually simple approximation of the fine structure constant is shown to be more economical than those found by a brute force computer search.

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/13364826/An-approximation-of-the-fine-structure-constant-reciprocal

02/22/2010

April 14, 2005

An approximation of the fine structure constant reciprocal

J. S. Markovitch

P.O. Box 2411, West Brattleboro, VT 05303

Email: jsmarkovitch@yahoo.com

Copyright © J. S. Markovitch, 2005

_________________________________________________________________________

Abstract

A computer search was made for the most accurate approximation of the fine structure constant

reciprocal

α

1

in the form

c

b

a

C

B

A

+ , where the exponents a, b, and c were integers ranging from

0 to 8, and A, B, and C were integers ranging from 1 to 36. Within these restrictions, and

ignoring trivial variants, the best fit required that A = C =10 and B = 3, where these integers

prove to be identical to those used earlier by the author in a mass formula.

_________________________________________________________________________

2

A computer search was made for most accurate approximation of the fine structure

constant reciprocal

α

1

in the form

c

b

a

C

B

A

+ ,

where the exponents a, b, and c were integers ranging from 0 to 8, and A, B, and C were

integers ranging from 1 to 36. Within these restrictions, and ignoring trivial variants, the best

fit was obtained by

... 037037 . 137 10

3

10 1

2

3

3

= + ≈

α

, (1)

where the 2002 CODATA value for

α

1

equals 137.03599911 [1] (see Appendix A for the

computer program that uncovered this approximation).

Note that only two distinct integers are needed to produce Eq. (1): so A and C both

equal 10, while B = 3. Moreover, despite allowing A, B, and C to range as high as 36, both

3

integers employed are less than 11.

A second computer search was made for most accurate approximation of the fine

structure constant reciprocal in the form

e

d

E

D

− +

−

2

3

3

10

3

10

,

where the exponents d and e were integers ranging from 0 to 3, and D and E were integers

ranging from 1 to 30. Within these restrictions the best fit was obtained by

036 . 137 10 10

3

10 10 1

3 2

3

3 3

= − +

−

≈

−

−

α

, (2)

(See Appendix B for the computer program that uncovered this approximation). Note that the

exponents d and e each equal 3, while D and E each equal 10. Moreover, despite allowing D

and E to range as high as 30, both integers employed equal 10. So the number 10, which

occurred twice in Eq. (1), now occurs twice more in Eq. (2).

It is 10 and 3, along with 4.1, that earlier played a central role in a mass formula

introduced by the author [2]. The above approximations should, therefore, be taken as a degree

of independent corroboration for a role for 10 and 3 among the fundamental constants of

nature.

4

Acknowledgements

The author wishes to thank Joe Mazur, Eric Ramberg, and C. Y. Lo for their useful comments.

References

[1] P. J. Mohr, and B. N. Taylor, “The 2002 CODATA Recommended Values of the

Fundamental Physical Constants, Web Version 4.0,” available at physics.nist.gov/constants

(National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, 9 December

2003).

[2] J. S. Markovitch, “A Precise, Particle Mass Formula Using Beta-Coefficients From a

Higher-Dimensional, Nonsupersymmetric GUT”, available at

www.slac.stanford.edu/spires/find/hep/www?r=apri-ph-2003-11 (Applied and Pure

Research Institute, Nashua, NH, APRI-PH-2003-11, 2003).

5

Appendix A

//

// FineStructureApproximation.cpp : Find best approximaton of Fine Structure Constant

//

#include "stdafx.h"

#include <assert.h>

#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stddef.h>

#include <string.h>

#include <math.h>

#include <time.h>

#include <limits.h>

#include <ctype.h>

#include <float.h>

#include <errno.h>

#include <signal.h>

#include <locale.h>

#include <setjmp.h>

#include <stdarg.h>

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

#define MAX_NUMBER 36.0

#define MAX_POWER 8.0

#define AVOID_ROUND_OFF_ERROR 0.0000000001

#define max(x,y) ( ((x) > (y)) ? (x) : (y) )

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int main(int argc,char *argv[])

{

double dwA, dwAP, dwB, dwBP, dwC, dwCP;

double dwFSC_Reciprical = 137.03599911; // 2002 CODATA value for FSC

double dwFSC_Approx = 1000.0/27.0 + 100.0; // value produced by best approximation

double dwErr1 = fabs(1 - dwFSC_Reciprical / dwFSC_Approx );

double dwApprox, dwErr2;

for( dwA = 1.0; dwA <= MAX_NUMBER; dwA++ )

for( dwAP = 0; dwAP <= MAX_POWER; dwAP++ )

for( dwB = 1.0; dwB <= MAX_NUMBER; dwB++ )

for( dwBP = 0; dwBP <= MAX_POWER; dwBP++ )

for( dwC = 1.0; dwC <= MAX_NUMBER; dwC++ )

for( dwCP = 0; dwCP <= MAX_POWER; dwCP++ )

{

dwApprox = pow(dwA, dwAP ) / pow(dwB, dwBP ) + pow(dwC, dwCP );

dwErr2 = fabs(1 - dwFSC_Reciprical / dwApprox );

if( dwErr2 <= dwErr1 + AVOID_ROUND_OFF_ERROR )

{

printf(

"%12.8f = %02.0f^%1.0f / %02.0f^%1.0f + %02.0f^%1.0f (Max=%02.0f)

\n",

(float) dwApprox,

(float) dwA,

6

(float) dwAP,

(float) dwB,

(float) dwBP,

(float) dwC,

(float) dwCP,

(float) max( dwA, max( dwB, dwC ))

);

}

}

return 1;

}

#ifdef RESULTS

137.03703704 = 10^3 / 03^3 + 10^2 (Max=10)

137.03703704 = 10^3 / 27^1 + 10^2 (Max=27)

137.03703704 = 10^6 / 30^3 + 10^2 (Max=30)

137.03703704 = 20^3 / 06^3 + 10^2 (Max=20)

137.03703704 = 30^3 / 03^6 + 10^2 (Max=30)

137.03703704 = 30^3 / 09^3 + 10^2 (Max=30)

137.03703704 = 30^3 / 27^2 + 10^2 (Max=30)

Press any key to continue

#endif

7

Appendix B

//

// FineStructureApproximationRefinement.cpp : Find best approximaton of Fine Structure Constant

//

#include "stdafx.h"

#include <assert.h>

#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stddef.h>

#include <string.h>

#include <math.h>

#include <time.h>

#include <limits.h>

#include <ctype.h>

#include <float.h>

#include <errno.h>

#include <signal.h>

#include <locale.h>

#include <setjmp.h>

#include <stdarg.h>

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

#define MAX_NUMBER 30.0

#define MAX_POWER 3.0

#define AVOID_ROUND_OFF_ERROR 0.0000000001

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int main(int argc,char *argv[])

{

double dwD, dwDP, dwE, dwEP;

double dwFSC_Reciprical = 137.03599911; // 2002 CODATA value for FSC

double dwFSC_Approx = 137.036; // value produced by best approximation

double dwErr1 = fabs(1 - dwFSC_Reciprical / dwFSC_Approx );

double dwApprox, dwErr2;

for( dwD = 1.0; dwD <= MAX_NUMBER; dwD++ )

for( dwDP = 0; dwDP <= MAX_POWER; dwDP++ )

for( dwE = 1.0; dwE <= MAX_NUMBER; dwE++ )

for( dwEP = 0; dwEP <= MAX_POWER; dwEP++ )

{

dwApprox = (pow(10.0, 3.0) - pow(dwD, -dwDP)) / pow(3.0, 3.0)

+ pow(10.0, 2.0) - pow(dwE, -dwEP);

dwErr2 = fabs(1 - dwFSC_Reciprical / dwApprox );

if( dwErr2 <= dwErr1 + AVOID_ROUND_OFF_ERROR )

{

printf(

"%12.8f = (%02.0f^%1.0f - %02.0f^-%1.0f) / %02.0f^%1.0f +

%02.0f^%1.0f - %02.0f^-%1.0f\n",

(float) dwApprox,

(float) 10,

(float) 3,

8

(float) dwD,

(float) dwDP,

(float) 3,

(float) 3,

(float) 10,

(float) 2,

(float) dwE,

(float) dwEP

);

}

}

return 1;

}

#ifdef RESULTS

137.03600000 = (10^3 - 10^-3) / 03^3 + 10^2 - 10^-3

#endif

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