Hints and Tips Step by Step – Vikings

By Michael Farnworth March 2010

Wargames Factory Viking figures, painted by Mick Farnworth

Item Helmet Helmet Chainmail Armour edges Clothing Leather Belt Shoes Sword and Spear Javelin Shaft Spear Shaft

Colour Silver Bronze Silver Brown

Vallejo Model Colour Natural Steel 70.863 or GW Chainmail 61.56 GW Shining Gold 61.63 Natural Steel 70.863 or GW Chainmail 61.56 Mahogany Brown 70.846 or GW Bestial Brown 61.13

Various (see notes) Brown Brown Silver Sand Brown Mahogany Brown 70.846, Flat Brown 70.984 Mahogany Brown 70.846, Flat Brown 70.984 Natural Steel 70.863 or GW Chainmail 61.56 Vallejo Iraqi Sand 70.819 or GW Bleached Bone 61.17 Mahogany Brown 70.846 or GW Bestial Brown 61.13

Revell Viking Ship crewed by Wargames Factory Viking figures, painted by Mick Farnworth Hints & Tips - Vikings Copyright Mick Farnworth - farnworth@bluewin.ch January 2010


This guide will help you to quickly paint units of Vikings to look good on a war games table. Historical notes, paint references and painting tips are included.

Historical Notes
Vikings were warriors originating from Scandinavia. The word Viking has many interpretations ranging from voyager to explorer to pirate. Vikings travelled far and wide reaching Greenland and America in the West and Russia and Byzantium in the East. The Viking Age is regarded as starting with raids on Lindisfarne in 789 and ending with the Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066. Throughout the 9th and 10th Centuries Vikings raided England, Ireland, France and Spain. Vikings settled in northern France where they became the Normans and also in Russia, where they were known as Rus. There were various Viking kingdoms in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Beneath the kings, were Jarls (Earls) and beneath them the Hersir. The Hersir were local military commanders whose function could be a local governor. Their retainers and guards were referred to as the Hird. Hirdmen or Huscarls provided the bulk of most armies on raids and international campaigns. On raids, they were often accompanied by mercenaries and adventurers seeking loot. In times of crisis, national armies were enlarged by calling up the Bondi. Bondi were land owning farmers. In an extreme crisis, slaves, known as Thralls were also pressed into military service. Among the Hirdmen were fanatics, who whipped themselves into a furious battle rage. They were known as berserkers. Although we think of berserk as meaning fighting mad, the word actually derives from bear-shirt. Similar troops from earlier times were the Ulfhednar who wore wolf skins. Both of these troop types were seen in pagan armies. As Vikings converted to Christianity, the berserker beliefs were outlawed. In battle, Vikings adopted a defensive position known as Skjalborg (shield-wall). The shield wall formed a defensive barrier of closely packed men with their shields interlocking. Shield walls were often formed as a line on a ridge. Occasionally, circular shield walls were used. The shield wall was supported with a reserve of fast moving troops and archers who would try to disrupt attacks. In attack, a wedge formation called Svinfylka (swine-array) was often used. Horns were used for signalling and flags denoted the position of the commanders. The most famous flags depicted a Raven. Wargames Factory offers the following sets WGF-HG001 WGF-HG002 WGF-HG003 WGF-HG004 Viking Huscarls - 32 Armored Viking Warriors Viking Bondi - 32 Unarmored Viking Warriors Saxon Thegns – 32 Armored Saxon Warriors Saxon Fyrd – 32 Unarmored Saxon Warriors

For Thralls and Berserkers, the following can be used in combination with the Vikings parts. WGF-MR007 Ancient German Warband – 30 Unarmored German Warriors

Hints & Tips - Vikings Copyright Mick Farnworth - farnworth@bluewin.ch January 2010


Uniform Notes
Spears were probably the main weapon in the shield wall. Once the attack started, axes and swords were used. Vikings are famous for double handed axes with a bearded shape. Many of the Hirdmen would have had chainmail shirts, good swords and iron helmets. Shields were round until the 11th century. Better shields had a leather face and an iron boss. Shields were often edged with hide. Poorer troops would have had plain wooden shields, spears and often a sax single edged short sword. Bows were popular. Slings are also recorded. Vikings had blonde, brown or red hair. Wealthier warriors often wore very bright colours. Red, leaf green and blue were favourites Burgundy, brown, black, white and grey are also recorded. Striped trousers are also known. Poorer warriors would have been dressed in earth tones – cream, brown, mossy green and grey. It is often easier to differentiate between spears and javelins if the spears are dark and javelins are light coloured. This simulates that javelins would be new freshly cut wood, whereas spears were kept for a long time and often stained.

Hirdmen or Huscarls (Wargames Factory)

Bondi (Wargames Factory)

Berserkers and Ulfhednarn (Crusader figures)
Hints & Tips - Vikings Copyright Mick Farnworth - farnworth@bluewin.ch January 2010


Painting Tips
Bases It is worth deciding on the rules that you are going to use before you start to base and paint the figures. Mass battle games often specify multiple bases to represent regiments. For Fields of Glory, in 28mm scale you should mount four figures on a 60mm x 20mm base although it is acceptable to base 3 figures on a 60mm x 20mm base. For Warhammer Ancients Battles, Vikings go on 20mm x 20mm squares or on 25mm x 25mm squares. For skirmish games, most rules suggest individual bases. Some rules suggest 25mm diameter bases and some suggest 20mm diameter bases. Plastic bases (e.g. Slottabases), wooden bases, washers or coins are all suitable. 20mm steel washers can be used with magnetic bases so that the figures can be adapted to many different sets of rules. Transfers Transfers provide a quick and easy way to add complex details to models. Transfers allow detailed heraldic designs and insignia to be made easily. There are three principle types- waterslide transfers, stickers and rub on transfers. Waterslide transfers are the type provided in plastic kits of aircraft and tanks. Little Big Man Studios- LBMS make transfers as wonderful full colour paintings miniaturised to stick on shields and flags. These require care to apply correctly, so read the instructions. LBMS transfers must be applied to a flat white surface. These figures used LBMS transfers. Waterslide Transfers - These are the same as the items that you find in model aircraft kits. They are applied to a painted shield. There are several manufacturers and are usually simple one colour designs. VVV manufacture shield transfers to fit WF Vikings. Veni Vidi Vici DD3 fits the WF Viking shields but DD4 is too small. The Revell Viking Ship is a very good match for WF Vikings. It comes with 64 shield transfers. The shields are about 1mm larger diameter than the WF ones so they match well. The shield transfers fit to the WF shields (but you must cut them out round the design and also cut a hole for the boss). A pliers type paper punch with revolving punch sizes works well.

Hints & Tips - Vikings Copyright Mick Farnworth - farnworth@bluewin.ch January 2010


Step by Step
There are many ways to paint 28mm figures. Many people paint the clothing with a dark shade then the main colour and then a highlight colour. For wargaming, where you want to get reasonably good results quickly, it is easier to paint only the main colours and then add shade with a wash of dark transparent stain. Here is a basic assembly and painting sequence for typical Vikings. This method is designed for painting about 20 figures at a time. The painting sequence is designed so that minor mistakes can be corrected at the highlight stage. There is no need to correct minor mistakes as you go along. It is a good idea to do a practice run on 10 figures first, using one of each type of sprue. 1. Remove the parts from the sprue using side cutters. I use Tamiya Sharp Pointed Side Cutter for Plastic 74034 but GW sprue cutters are also good. Cut away the remaining sprue tab with a scalpel on a cutting mat. 2. Clean up any obvious mould lines either with a scalpel or with a needle file. Pay particular attention to the head, the neck, the spear shaft and the arms as any remaining sprue tabs will show up later. Sort out the parts into boxes of bodies, heads, right arms, shields and weapons. 3. Before you start to assemble the figures decide on whether you want to paint the shields on the figure or separately. If the shield is large and close to the body, painting the body is difficult. TIP - With Vikings, it is much easier to add the shields after you have painted the body. I glued on the shields and this made the addition of the LBMS transfers very difficult. If you are going to use waterslide transfers, it is OK to glue on the shields at the start.

4. Glue the figure to a base. If you are going to use individual bases, this will be the final base. If you are going to use multiple bases, use a coin as temporary base so that you can hold the figure for painting. For plastic figures on plastic bases, use polystyrene cement. For plastic figures on metal bases use cyanacrylate adhesive (superglue). For temporary bases, use PVA glue, as it is easy to remove later. 5. Assemble the figures using a polystyrene cement. For best results use a brush on liquid adhesive such as Revel Contacta Liquid. Start with the torso. Next, add the right arm, then the head and lastly, the weapons.

TIP – Some of the heads with hair at the back need the back of the neck cutting away or filing to ensure that it fits neatly to the collar.

TIP – The two arms holding the axe look best when the angle between the arms and the body is 90 degrees or less.

TIP – When you add the head, it should usually be pointing slightly towards the left arm so that the figure looks logical when the shield is attached. 6. If you are using slotted bases, glue on some small squares of thin plastic card to cover the slot.
Hints & Tips - Vikings Copyright Mick Farnworth - farnworth@bluewin.ch January 2010


7. Optional - Using epoxy putty (e.g. Milliput), blend the figure base into the base. 8. Prime and undercoat the figure. This can be done with brush on enamel paint (e.g. Humbrol Matt Black) or with a spray paint (e.g. GW Chaos Black Spray). For plastic figures spray undercoat usually works well. Metal figures often need touching up afterwards as the spray rarely reaches into the recesses. A black undercoat is usually easiest as it also acts as the darkest shade. TIP - It can be difficult to get the spray paint on the under surfaces of the figure. A simple method is to lay the figures on their side on a paper and spray. When the paper has dried to matt black, turn the figures over and spray again. Then stand the figures upright and spray from all sides.

9. I sorted out the figures in chainmail armour and put them to one side. Next, I spray painted all of the rest in brown. This saves time later as you do the base, belts, hair, spears, scabbards, shoes and straps in one go. 10. Paint the back of the shield brown. Try to leave the dimple unpainted. A good trick is to put a small blob of Blu-tack in the dimple and then spray the shields.

11. Drybrush the helmet, spear point and sword in a steel colour. This is done first so that you do not need to be careful about covering other areas. TIP – use a cocktail stick to smear a small amount of paint onto a piece of cardboard. Brush the paint out using a largish brush (I use a no 6 brush with fairly stiff bristles.) so that there is a very small amount of paint on the brush. Then brush in several directions across the figure. 12. Paint the hands and face with a basic flesh colour (GW Dwarf Flesh is a good base coat for flesh). Highlight with a quick damp brush of a lighter flesh tone (e.g. GW Elf Flesh).

Hints & Tips - Vikings Copyright Mick Farnworth - farnworth@bluewin.ch January 2010


13. With irregular armies such as Vikings, a variety of clothing colours looks best. To do this task quickly - sort out the figures into groups before painting. Then paint the groups in a sequence – e.g. group A gets blue trousers, group B gets grey trousers, group c gets green trousers and group D gets red trousers. Next, sort the figures into new groups and do the same again for the vests or tunics. TIP – Decide on a colour scheme before you start. I chose Turquoise, Light Green, Blue, Burgundy, Grey and Sand for Vikings. For the better armoured troops, I also added bright Red. 14. Shade the whole figure a dark wash applied with a brush (Army Painter Strong Tone or Vallejo Transparent Smoke 70.939 or GW Devlan Mud Wash). TIP - Army Painter Strong Tone worked very well. Be careful not to let it pool too much or they look like they have had a mud bath. I prefer the result from a brush as the results from a dip is rather dark. Dipping is also very messy. Note that Army Painter is an oil-based gloss varnish and needs at least 24 hours to dry. TIP - For a more sophisticated result, use different coloured washes in different areas. (GW Devlan Mud on the bronze parts, GW Sepia Wash on the flesh and wood and GW Badab Black Wash on the silver. 15. Using a fine brush and dilute paint, paint the eyes as a horizontal white dash. 16. Dot the eyes with black or dark blue. A cocktail stick can be used instead of a brush. 17. Transfers - Add the transfers according to the manufacturer’s instructions. TIP - I like to finish the shields to a reasonable level before gluing them to the figure. Glue the shield to the figure before you start the highlight process. 18. LBMS transfers - Spray the front of the shield with two coats of GW Skull White spray. Cut out the transfer from the shield. Remove the clear backing paper and stick the transfer to the shield, using the centre hole to line up with the boss. For best results, leave the shield for a few days before you paint the boss and the rim.

Hints & Tips - Vikings Copyright Mick Farnworth - farnworth@bluewin.ch January 2010


19. Waterslide Transfers – Waterslide transfers can be applied to the finished figure (i.e. at step 24). If you are going to add waterslide transfers, you will need to paint the shield in the final colours, add highlights and then apply some varnish or a thin coat of watered down PVA glue. Then cut the designs from the sheet and wet the transfer. Sometimes, you will also need to cut a hole for the shield boss. Slide the transfer onto the shield and position it with a wet paint brush. 20. Glue on the shield. To ensure a good bond, scrape the paint off the hand where it is glued to the shield dimple. Superglue Gel works well. 21. Touch up any mistakes and add highlights as desired. 22. Varnish with a spray of gloss varnish to protect the figure. This is not necessary if you have used Army Painter Strong Tone. After this has dried overspray with matt varnish. 23. Flags - At one time, flags were cast onto the figures and very difficult to paint. Now paper flags are very easy. There are several websites which have flags available to download free of charge. a. To make a paper flag, simply print out the chosen design onto ordinary printer paper. A laser printer produces the best results because the image is very sharp and the inks are water resistant. Here, a North Star NSS102 long spear is used as a flagpole. Cut out the flag carefully and fold it in the middle. b. Paint a thin layer of PVA glue on the inside surface and join the two halves taking care to line up the edges. Start from the edge farthest away from the centre and close the flag towards the fold line. Don’t forget to insert the flag pole before you finish closing the loop. The flag can be bent and shaped to look like it is waving in the wind before the glue dries. This flag pole has a bead to support the flag. The flag is not glued to the pole and can be rotated. For a final professional result, paint the edges and paint over some parts of the flag so that the shading effects match your style of figure painting.

Hints & Tips - Vikings Copyright Mick Farnworth - farnworth@bluewin.ch January 2010


24. Decorate the base. The easiest way is to paint on PVA glue and dip the base in sand. I glued on the sand in two stages. The first time, I covered the upper surface of the base with PVA and dipped it in sand. Once the first stage was dry, I added more glue and sand to make sure that the step left by the plastic base was hidden. Once the glue is dry, shade the base with a brown wash mixed with a little PVA glue. This also fixes the sand.

25. Highlight with a pale sand colour (GW Bleached Bone 61.17) lightly dry-brushed onto the sand. 26. Add static grass

Hints & Tips - Vikings Copyright Mick Farnworth - farnworth@bluewin.ch January 2010


Revell Viking Ship

There was mention of the Revell Viking Ship (1/50 scale, Kit Number 05403) on the WF forums. I bought one and it is a very good match for WF Vikings. The kit is closely based on the Gostad ship and can be built as a near replica in sail or rowing mode or also as a voyager. It comes with 64 shields and also with 64 shield transfers. The shields are about 1mm larger diameter than the WF ones so they match well. The shield transfers fit to the WF shields (but you must cut them out round the design and preferably also cut a hole for the boss) Here are a few notes from my experience. 1. The kit is intended for display so you need to cut off the keel to make a waterline model. I clamped the hull sides with the deck in place. I marked the waterline using an overhead projector pen on bases to make the tip approx 10mm from the bottom. For best results, I suggest that you also secure the keel with lot of Blu-Tack so that it does not rock.

2. I cut the hull sides, one at a time, down to the waterline using a Dremel with a cutting wheel. The first pass should be to cut a groove in the pen line. Be careful and cut slowly as the wheel cutter can veer off if you go to fast. 3. Glue the hull sides and deck together using plenty of glue so that it is strong. Leave it 24 hours so that the glue sets completely. 4. I sanded the base flat with a belt sander. Here again there are some problems as the plastic tends to melt rather than coming off. Every so often stop and let it cool. Remove the build up
Hints & Tips - Vikings Copyright Mick Farnworth - farnworth@bluewin.ch January 2010


with a strong craft knife or box cutter. The ship is flexible so if you press down too hard it will bow resulting in a curve rather than a flat bottom. Finish the sanding by hand. Fill any gaps with epoxy putty (e.g. Miliput)

5. After this, I replaced the hole in the bow floor by making a plasticard deck with planking to match the other decking. Reinforce the base on the mast. I used the nameplate from the kit and glued two right angles of sprue to form a picture frame to form a socket for the mast. I then glued this under the deck directly under the mast hole.

TIP – Before you go further, decide whether you want to build it as a warship with shields on the side or as a general voyager / raider. Similarly decide whether you want it under sail, under oars or moored. Also decide if you want the mast fixed or removable. For gaming a removable mast is a good idea. 6. For the remainder of the assembly follow the kit instructions. If you want it as a trader, remove the 64 pins on the outside of the hull. Rather than mount the oars, I glued them together as piles that can be moved during gaming. 7. I used some WF Vikings to make crew. These were mostly mounted on 20mm washers with the top covered in plasticard and made to look like planks. Scratch the plasticard to create a wood

grain effect.

Hints & Tips - Vikings Copyright Mick Farnworth - farnworth@bluewin.ch January 2010


8. Seated crew figures were made by cutting down WF Viking Bondi.




TIP – The lines on figure A show the cutting points to produce the reclining oarsman figure B. These cuts can be done with a good pair of sprue cutters or with a modelling saw. Figure C shows a more complicated conversion to a seated figure. This requires filler (e.g. epoxy putty such as Milliput) to form the buttocks and an additional cut at the knees.

9. The helmsman is a charioteer from the WF Celt set, with a Viking head, mounted on a trapezium that fits into the stern decking.

10. Andrés Amián suggested on the WF forum that chariot drivers would make good oarsmen and indeed they do. I gave them oars made from 1.3mm diameter brass rod.

Hints & Tips - Vikings Copyright Mick Farnworth - farnworth@bluewin.ch January 2010


11. Casualties were made from WF figures snipped from their bases.

12. Additional archers made from Wargames Factory figures with arms from Perry War of the Roses archers.

13. Spearmen made from Wargames Factory figures with arms from Perry War of the Roses billmen.

Hints & Tips - Vikings Copyright Mick Farnworth - farnworth@bluewin.ch January 2010


Appendix: Viking Berserkers
by Ruarigh Dale BA(Hons) MA MIfA My guide to Crusader and Artizan Vikings went on-line 24th September 2009. As a result, there was a debate on TMP about the origin of the word berserker. Ruarigh Dale, a PHD researcher at Nottingham University provided this insight.

Berserkers and Ulfhednar “Regarding the etymology of berserkr, academic opinion favours an etymology derived from a reconstructed bera/ber/berr (meaning bear) from an older word that was supplanted by 'bjorn' before the end of the Viking Age. The etymology from berr (naked) stems primarily from Snorri's description of them in Ynglinga saga. This seems more like a folk etymology based on Snorri's understanding of the language. The main reason for preferring a 'bear' meaning is the way in which Old Norse formed compound nouns. Generally it forms them using two nouns (e.g. bear and shirt) rather than an adjective and a noun (e.g. bare and shirt). The 'bear-shirt' meaning is also to be preferred because it parallels ulfhedinn (wolfskin). The earliest reference I have found to an etymology with 'bear' dates from 1860. There has been much speculation over the berserker rage, but little questioning of whether it actually happened. It has been attributed to disease, alcohol, drugs, religion and adrenaline. Jesse Byock postulated that Egil Skallagrimsson suffered from Paget's disease and suggested that it was a feature of berserkers. Others have proposed the use of mushrooms and alcohol. The idea that berserkers used mushrooms first surfaced in 1784, based on research into the trances of Siberian shamans, but Howard Fabing's experiments in the mid- to late-fifties demonstrated that mushroom usage was almost certainly not the cause of the berserker fit. The loss of motor control caused by alcohol is one of the main reasons why alcohol is not thought to be the cause. Another reason is that strong alcohol was not generally available to the Scandinavian people (ref Fernando Guerrero's PhD thesis), and finally, while alcohol has some analgesic properties in the short term, it can also enhance pain felt. Finally, alcohol is not actually mentioned as a cause of the berserker fit, and, in one instance in Grettis saga, it is actually the cause of berserkers becoming tired rather than going berserk. The berserker fit was most likely caused by adrenaline, pure and simple. The howling and shield biting were probably designed to stimulate this, as would performing the weapon dance before battle and other martial displays. Think of it as a form of psychological warfare designed to intimidate the enemy while encouraging your own troops, a bit like the All Blacks doing the haka. Later descriptions probably confused the act of psyching themselves up with the fit itself, and so the legend was born. The berserkers' role appears to have been limited, but an integral part of early Viking Age society. They were members of the chieftain's bodyguard and would probably fight as his champion (in the sense of someone that fights in the stead of someone else). They also appear to have been cultic warriors associated with Odin and to have had a variety of roles related to that, such as initiating young nobles into society.
Hints & Tips - Vikings Copyright Mick Farnworth - farnworth@bluewin.ch January 2010


References to ulfhednar indicate that they may be a subset of berserkers, but this is by no means certain. They are depicted in similar roles and there is more, earlier evidence for them than there is for berserkers, although it is primarily iconographic. This evidence indicates that animal-skin clad warriors were a feature of the broader Germanic culture, rather than just a Scandinavian phenomenon. Berserkers and ulfhednar were rare warriors. They are usually mentioned individually or in groups of twelve, leaving aside the stylistic elephantiasis of later legendary sagas where armies of thousands of berserkers are featured. Where groups occur, they are more commonly part of a king's warband. They would fight fiercely but it seems unlikely that they would be suicidal. They would spearhead the assault and would stand where the fighting would be fiercest on the king's ship. Given their probable relationship to Odin, berserkers and ulfhednar would not have been a feature of Christian armies. This may have been the reason for later depictions of individual berserkers travelling around and challenging men to duels for their farms and wives; once their traditional role and livelihood was gone, they became outlaws and duellists to survive. During this time, berserkr became synonymous with viking. It is interesting to note that by the 14th century and after, the term ‘berserkr’ came to be used with the simple meaning of ‘champion’. We find clerics signing themselves with the epithet ‘berserkr’ in Diplomatarium Norvegicum, for example, or Jesus being described as ‘God’s berserker’ in Barlaams saga ok Josaphats, clearly indicating that they were champions of God. Thus, there is a clear development of the meaning and understanding of the term from the Viking Age through to the late medieval period. So, in short, berserkers during the pre-Christian Viking Age were bodyguards and champions; elite professional warriors. They had a religious role as warriors of Odin and probably performed rituals and ceremonies on behalf of their king. They would have fought as the king’s champions and stood beside him in the battle line. As a group though, they would almost certainly not have been the frothing loonies of modern popular perception.” Ruarigh

Wargames Factory Ancient German figures, used as Viking Berserkers, painted by Mick Farnworth

Hints & Tips - Vikings Copyright Mick Farnworth - farnworth@bluewin.ch January 2010


Further Reading Books
General Military
Colonel Tim Collins: Soldier – A Visual History of the Fighting Man (Dorling Kindersley 2007) This giant coffee table book describes soldiers from Greek Hoplites up to Modern Western Infantry. 45 soldiers are described in lavish detail. The original 2007 version is 30x25 cm. There is a 2009 compact version which is 25x22 cm. Vikings are described in 12 profusely illustrated pages. The Vikings Recreated in Colour Photographs by Nurmann, Schulze and Verhülsdonk 1999. Europa Militaria Special No 6, Crowood Press. This is one of my favorite books. It contains nearly 100 pages of colour photographs of re-enactors and museum reconstructions. Armies of the Dark Ages by Ian Heath 2nd Edition 1980, Wargames Research Group. In the early 1980s, Phil Barker and Ian Heath of Wargames Research Group published a series of books covering armies throughout history. These remain a valuable reference source today, so much so that some of the books sell for ridiculous prices. Luckily, Armies of the Dark Ages Rome is still available from www.wrg.me.uk.

Osprey books
Osprey Elite 3: The Vikings Ian Heath, Angus McBride This book describes the history of the Vikings. Osprey Men-at-Arms 85: Saxon, Viking and Norman Terence Wise Gerry Embleton. An older book which covers the Dark Age armies of Western Europe.. Osprey Warrior 3: Viking Hersir 793–1066 AD Mark Harrison, Gerry Embleton. This book describes the tactics and appearance of Viking warriors. It focuses on archaeological evidence includes detailed drawings of helmets, swords, axes, spears and shields are not in the compilation. Osprey General Military: The Vikings Magnus Magnusson. As far as I can tell, this contains the full texts of Elite 3 The Vikings, Warrior 3 Viking Hersir and New Vanguard 47 Viking Longship. Most of the illustrations are also included but not the detailed drawings of equipment from Warrior 3.

Wargames Factory Viking figures, painted by Mick Farnworth Hints & Tips - Vikings Copyright Mick Farnworth - farnworth@bluewin.ch January 2010


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