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PSE4NE2 - Power System Analysis 101

# PSE4NE2 - Power System Analysis 101

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# Competency Training and Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

Training Course in

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

U. P. NATIONAL ENGINEERING CENTER NATIONAL ELECTRIFICATION ADMINISTRATION

Power System Analysis 101

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Power System Analysis
Performance Standards Power Quality Efficiency Safety Reliability Power System Analysis Load Flow Analysis System Loss Analysis Short Circuit Analysis Reliability Analysis

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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Bus2 Bus1 I12 , Loss12 = ?

I23 , Loss23 = ?

Utility Grid

V1 = 67 kV P1 , Q1 = ?

I24 , Loss24 = ? V4 = ? P4 , Q4 = ? Bus4 V2 = ? Lumped Load A P2 , Q2 = ? 2 MVA 85%PF Lumped Load B 1 MVA 85%PF

Bus3 V3 = ? P3 , Q3 = ?

What are the Voltages, Currents, Power and Losses of the Distribution System?
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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Load Flow of an Existing System
Can we see how electric power flows in the system, coming from the sources (where power is purchased) and down to all customers (where power is sold)?
Can we determine: • If any customer is being provided with voltage that is too low (or even too high)? • If too much power flow through any of our equipment, especially our transformers? • How much power is lost along the lines and equipment?

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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Load Flow of a Contemplated System
Can we have a picture of the system as we contemplate possible changes? Can we determine in advance the effects of:
• • • • •

Growth or addition of new loads Addition of generating plants Upgrading of Substation Expansion of distribution lines Installations of equipment such as capacitors

before the proposed changes are implemented?

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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Load Flow (also called Power Flow) is a snapshot picture of the power system at a given point.

mathematically determine) the performance of an electric power system under a given set of conditions.
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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How would the engineers do that? • Identify physical components • Know the characteristic of components • Mathematically represent the behavior of components • Calculate electrical parameters

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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G

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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Substation Transformer Transmission Line Utility Grid or Generator

G
Bus

Distribution Line

Distribution Transformer

Load Flow mathematically determines the Voltages, Currents, Power and Losses
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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Basic Information From a Load Flow Study Voltage Profile Injected Power (Pp and Qp) Line Currents (Ipq and Ipq) Power Flows (Ppq and Qpq) Line Losses (I2R and I2X)

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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Other Information From a Load Flow Study Overvoltage and Undervoltage Buses Critical and Overloaded Transformers and Lines Total System Losses

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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Sensitivity Analysis
1) Take any line, transformer or generator out of service. 2) Add, reduce or remove load to any or all buses. 3) Add, remove or shift generation to any bus. 4) Add new transmission or distribution lines. 5) Increase conductor size on T&D lines. 6) Change bus voltages. 7) Change transformer taps. 8) Increase or decrease transformer size. 9) Add or remove rotating or static var supply to buses.
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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1) ANALYSIS OF EXISTING CONDITIONS • Check for voltage violations PGC: 0.95 – 1.05 p.u. (For Transmission) PDC: 0.90 – 1.10 p.u (For Distribution)*
*Recommended 0.95 – 1.05 p.u.

• Check for branch power flow violations Transformer Overloads Line Overloads • Check for system losses Caps on Segregated DSL

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS • Voltage adjustment by utility at delivery point Request TransCo to improve voltage at connection point TransCo as System Operator will determine feasibility based on Economic Dispatch and other adjustments such as transformer tap changing and reactive power compensation

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS • Transformer tap changing Available Taps
At Primary Side At Secondary Side Both Sides

Typical Taps
Tap 1: +5% Tap 2: +2.5% Tap 3: 0% (Rated Voltage) Tap 4: -2.5% Tap 5: -5%

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS •Capacitor compensation • Compensate for Peak Loading • Check overvoltages during Off-Peak • Optimize Capacitor Plan • System configuration improvement

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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3) EXPANSION PLANNING • • • • • • • New substation construction Substation capacity expansion New feeder segment construction / extension Addition of parallel feeder segment Reconducting of existing feeder segment/ circuit Circuit conversion to higher voltage Generator addition

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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4) CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS Reliability analysis of the Transmission (Grid) and Subtransmission System 5) SYSTEM LOSS ANALYSIS Segregation of System Losses

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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1. For Generating plants, the amount of power that can be delivered can be controlled by the plant operator (as long as within the capacity of the plant) 2. Flow of power is affected by the voltages and impedances across the components • Specialized Transformers and other equipment may be utilized to control the flow of power across the network

3. Capacitors are used to improve the voltage profile across the network • • • The current drawn by the load is reduced The voltage drop across the line is reduced The voltage at the load side is increased
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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SYSTEM LOSS ANALYSIS

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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System Loss Analysis
1. Components of Distribution System Losses 2. Segregation of Distribution System Losses 3. System Loss Reduction and Control

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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Components of Distribution System Losses
The Philippine Distribution Code (PDC) mandates system losses to be segregated into the following components: a. Technical Loss; b. Non-Technical Loss; and c. Administrative Loss.

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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Total Distribution System Losses
Energy Delivered to the Distribution System

=

Energy Delivered to Users

Total Distribution System Losses

Technical Loss

+ Non-Technical Loss

Bundled Technical & Non-Technical Losses
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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Components of Distribution System Losses
The electric energy used by the Distribution Utility in the proper operation of the Distribution System.
a. Distribution Substations; b. Offices, warehouses and workshops of the DU; and c. Other essential electrical loads of the Distribution Utility.

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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Components of Distribution System Losses
Technical Losses
a. Sub-transmission lines and substation transformers; b. Primary distribution lines and distribution transformers; c. Secondary distribution lines and service drops; d. Voltage regulators, Capacitors and reactors; and e. All other electrical equipment necessary for the operation of the distribution system.
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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Components of Distribution System Losses
Non-Technical Losses
The component that is not related to the physical characteristics and functions of the electrical system, and is caused primarily by human error, whether intentional or not. Includes the electric energy lost due to pilferage, tampering of meters and erroneous meter reading. Errors that are attributable to inaccuracies in metering and billing.
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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Total Distribution System Losses
Total DSL = Energy Input - Energy Output Total DSL
= Σ[Energy delivered by the Transmission System] + Σ[Energy delivered by Embedded Generating Plants] + Σ[Energy delivered by Other Distribution Systems] + Σ[Energy delivered by User Systems with Generating Units] - Σ[Energy delivered to the Users of the Distribution System]
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss
Technical Losses
+

Non-Technical Losses
Shall be quantified through 3-Phase (Unbalanced) Load Flow Simulations

Technical Losses
Residual after subtracting Administrative & Technical Losses from the Total Distribution System Losses

=

Non-Technical Losses

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss
Technical Loss

electrical equipment, devices and conductors]
a)Sub-transmission Lines b)Substation Power Transformers c)Primary Distribution Lines d)Distribution Transformers e)Secondary Distribution Lines f) Service Drops g) h) i) j) Voltage Regulators Capacitors Reactors Other electrical equipment

Plus Calculated Metering Equipment Loss
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss
Subtransmission Lines Primary Distribution Lines (Main Feeder) Substation Transformer

a)Sub-transmission Lines b)Substation Power Transformers c)Primary Distribution Lines Distribution d)Distribution Transformers Transformer e)Secondary Distribution Lines f) Service Drops g)Voltage Regulators h)Capacitors i) Reactors j) Other electrical equipment
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Primary Distribution Lines (Laterals)

Secondary Distribution Lines Service Drop

Residential

Commercial

Industrial

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss
Calculation of Metering Equipment
Potential Transformer Loss = Power Loss in PT (kW) x Number of PT x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period Current Transformer Loss = Power Loss in CT (kW) x Number of CT x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period Electric Meter Potential Coil Loss = Power Loss in Electric Meter Potential Coil (kW) x Number of Electric Meters x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period Electric Meter Current Coil Loss = Power Loss in Electric Meter Current Coil (kW) x Number of Electric Meters x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period
Operating Hours = No. of days x 24 hours – SAIDI
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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Unbundling the Technical and Non-Technical Loss
Non-Technical Loss
= Total Distribution System Losses - Administrative Loss - Technical Loss - Recovered Losses Note: Losses recovered from anti-pilferage activities are subtracted from the total distribution system losses.
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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DSL Segregation Distribution System Loss Segregation Program
Distribution System Data

Segregated Technical Loss
(Billing Period)

Customer Energy Bill

Distribution Reliability Assessment Metering Equipment Inventory

Metering Equipment Loss
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Analysis 101

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Segregated Distribution System Losses
Monthly DSL Segregation
Segregated DSL for the Whole Distribution System Segregated DSL Per Receiving/Metering Point Segregated DSL per Substation Segregated DSL per Feeder Segregated DSL per Distribution Transformer

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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Distribution Network Models
IA A Ia Impedance/ Admittance parameters of Distribution System Element a Ib b Ic c Vc Vb Va Ground (Reference Node)

Distribution B System C Element

IB IC VA VB VC

Distribution Network Model must capture the unbalance characteristics of the System

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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350 300 250

Demand (W)

200 150 100

Customer Energy Bill
1.2 N rm edD an (p u it) o aliz em d er n 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Time (24 hours)

50 0

Area under the curve = Customer Energy Bill
Customer Energy Bill Converted to Hourly Power Demand
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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Power System Analysis 101

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Data Requirements
ERC-DSL-01 ERC-DSL-02 ERC-DSL-03 ERC-DSL-04 ERC-DSL-05 ERC-DSL-06 ERC-DSL-07 ERC-DSL-08 ERC-DSL-09 ERC-DSL-10 ERC-DSL-11 ERC-DSL-12 ERC-DSL-13 ERC-DSL-14 ERC-DSL-15 ERC-DSL-16 ERC-DSL-17 ERC-DSL-18 ERC-DSL-19 ERC-DSL-20 ERC-DSL-21

Administrative Load Data Customer Data Billing Cycle Data Customer Energy Consumption Data Load Curve Data Bus Data Subtransmission Line Data - Overhead Subtransmission Line Data - Underground/Submarine Cable Substation Power Transformer Data - Two Winding Substation Power Transformer Data - Three Winding Primary Distribution Line Data - Overhead Primary Distribution Line Data - Underground Cable Primary Customer Service Drop Data - Overhead Primary Customer Service Drop Data - Underground Cable Distribution Transformer Data Secondary Distribution Line Data Secondary Customer Service Drop Data Voltage Regulator Data Shunt Capacitor Data Shunt Inductor Data Series Inductor Data Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Analysis 101

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Optimal Level of System Loss

Cost

Total Cost System Loss Reduction Program Cost

Unrecovered
Energy Cost

High

Optimal

Low

System Loss
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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Power System Analysis 101

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BENECO DSL Segregation
SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES ANALYSIS

NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION PROGRAM
TECHNICAL, ECONOMIC & FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION PROGRAM
TECHNICAL, ECONOMIC & FINANCIAL ANALYSIS U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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BENECO DSL Segregation
Technical Loss, 52.76% NonTechnical Loss, 46.74%

TEST YEAR SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES

Loss

Kwhr
167, 791 18,181,059 15,487,726 33,836,577

%
0.0594% 6.3153% 5.5951% 11.9698%
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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Power System Analysis 101

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BENECO DSL Segregation

SEGREGATED SYSTEM LOSSES Administrative Loss Technical Loss Non-Technical Loss TOTAL LOSSES

13.2 KV System 0.3998% 9.8906% 7.4183% 17.7088%

13.2KV SYSTEM 23KV SYSTEM
SEGREGATED SYSTEM LOSSES Administrative Loss Technical Loss Non-Technical Loss TOTAL LOSSES

23 KV System 0.0393% 6.1051% 5.4879% 11.6324%

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101
DSL RESULT PER FEEDER PER HOUR PER DAY IN A MONTH

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U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

22

Power System Analysis 101

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U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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BENECO DSL Segregation
SEGREGATED TECHNICAL LOSS
Power Transformer Load Loss Power Transformer No-Load Loss Primary Line Primary Service Drop Dist. XF Load Loss Dist. XF No-Load Loss Secondary Secondary Service Drop Shunt Capacitor Loss kWhR Meter Loss Total Technical Loss U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

% LOSS
0.0590% 0.2372% 1.3805% 0.0000% 0.3438% 1.7397% 2.1652% 0.0691% 0.0029% 0.3180% 6.3153%

% SHARE
0.9338% 3.7559% 21.8597% 0.0000% 5.4445% 27.5469% 34.2848% 1.0937% 0.0456% 5.0350% 100.0000% Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

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BENECO DSL Segregation
TECHNICAL LOSS DISTRIBUTION TECHNICAL LOSS ALLOCATION
kWhR Meter Loss 5% Pow er Xformer Load Loss 1% Shunt Capacitor Loss 0% Pow er Xformer No-Load Loss 4% Primary Line 22%

Secondary Service Drop 1% Secondary 34%

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

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BENECO DSL Segregation
TEST YEAR SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES PER SYSTEM VOLTAGE
PERCENT (%) TECHNICAL LOSSES 13.2 KV System 23 KV System

KWHR TECHNICAL LOSSES

SEGREGATED SYSTEM LOSSES Administrative Loss Technical Loss Non-Technical Loss TOTAL LOSSES

13.2 KV System

23 KV System

Total

Total

62,768.60

105,022.54

167,791.14

0.3998% 9.8906%

0.0393% 6.1051%

0.0594% 6.3153%

1,552,634.80

16,299,669.83

17,852,304.63

1,164,538.99

14,651,941.84

15,816,480.83

7.4183% 17.7088 %

5.4879% 11.6324 %

5.5951% 11.9698 %

2,779,942.39

31,056,634.21

33,836,576.60

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

24

Power System Analysis 101

49

BENECO DSL Segregation
TEST YEAR SEGREGATED TECHNICAL LOSSES PER SYSTEM VOLTAGE
KWHR TECHNICAL LOSSES PERCENT (%) TECHNICAL LOSSES 13.2 KV System
0.0333% 0.6708% 2.8732% 0.0000% 0.2054% 3.7661% 1.3342% 0.0272% 0.0025% 0.9779% 9.8906%

TECHNICAL LOSSES
Power Xformer Load Loss Power Xformer No-Load Loss Primary Line Primary Service Drop Dist. XF Load Loss Dist. XF No-Load Loss Secondary Secondary Service Drop Shunt Capacitor Loss kWhR Meter Loss Total Technical Loss

13.2 KV System
5,232 105,295 451,032 32,239 591,212 209,447 4,275 394 153,507 1,552,635

23 KV System
161,467 565,221 3,451,427 6 939,729 4,326,553 5,911,176 190,979 7,753 745,359 16,299,670

Total
166,700 670,517 3,902,460 6 971,968 4,917,765 6,120,623 195,254 8,147 898,866 17,852,305

23 KV System
0.0605% 0.2117% 1.2927% 0.0000% 0.3520% 1.6205% 2.2141% 0.0715% 0.0029% 0.2792% 6.1051%

Total
0.0590% 0.2372% 1.3805% 0.0000% 0.3438% 1.7397% 2.1652% 0.0691% 0.0029% 0.3180% 6.3153%

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

50

BENECO DSL Segregation
FORECASTED SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES

YEAR

Energy Input (KWH)

Total System Losses (%)

Technical Loss (%)

Non Technical Loss (%)

2006

313,577,324

12.1222%

0.0621%

6.4611%

5.5951%

2007

341,755,055

12.2757%

0.0583%

6.6187%

5.5951%

2008

372,339,284

12.3994%

0.0535%

6.7477%

5.5951%

2009

405,588,445

12.5074%

0.0491%

6.8604%

5.5951%

2010

442,271,657

12.7071%

0.0493%

7.0604%

5.5951%

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

25

Power System Analysis 101

51

PROPOSED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSS CAPS
YEAR 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Technical Loss Cap 5.9833% to 6.9388% 6.1281% to 7.1094% 6.2431% to 7.2523% 6.3431% to 7.3778% 6.5249% to 7.5959% Declining NonTechnical Loss Caps 5.5951% 4.7486% 3.8585% 3.1278% 2.7644% Administrative Loss Cap (Annual KWH) 194,741 199,147 199,147 199,147 218,218

FORECASTED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSS
YEAR 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration FORECASTED SYSTEM LOSS RANGE 11.6480% 10.9425% 10.1628% 9.5279% 9.3467% 12.6047% 11.9251% 11.1733% 10.5639% 10.4191% Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101
BENECO SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSS (base year 2004)
Distribution System Loss Total System Loss Energy (KWHR) 33,836,577 Percentage (%) 11.970% Peso Equivalent (Php) (as of February 2007 costing**) P 239,339,641

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Administrative Loss Technical Loss Non-Technical Loss

167,791 17,852,305 15,816,481

0.059% 6.315% 5.595%

P 1,186,854 P 126,276,492 P 111,876,296

BENECO SEGREGATED TECHNICAL LOSS (base year 2004)
Technical Losses Energy (KWHR) Percentage (%) Peso Equivalent (Php) (as of February 2007 costing**) P 1,179,134 P 4,742,833 P 27,603,658 P 42 P 6,875,117 P 34,785,321 P 43,293,617 P 1,381,108 P 57,626 P 6,358,036 P 126,276,492

Power Xformer Load Loss Power Xformer No-Load Loss Primary Line Primary Service Drop Dist. XF Load Loss Dist. XF No-Load Loss Secondary Secondary Service Drop Shunt Capacitor Loss kWhR Meter Loss Total Technical Loss

166,700 670,517 3,902,460 6 971,968 4,917,765 6,120,623 195,254 8,147 898,866

0.0590% 0.2372% 1.3805% 0.0000% 0.3438% 1.7397% 2.1652% 0.0691% 0.0029% 0.3180% 6.3153%

U. P. National Engineering 17,852,305 Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

26

Power System Analysis 101
SEGREGATED SYSTEM LOSS PER METERING CONNECTION POINT
ENERGY LOSSES (KWHR) Metering Connection Metering Connection Pt. Loss 4,898,458 5,182,063 7,770,156 9,854,817 2,682,647 1,595,739 932,559 97,772 25,055 63,242 251,644 371,989 110,435 LOSSES IN PERCENTAGE (%)

53

Admin Loss 38,384 6,636 22,323 37,680 50,108 11,625 1,036 -

Technical Loss 3,326,440 3,081,395 3,643,277 4,973,278 959,893 890,558 547,017 38,621 17,677 24,629 115,060 190,389 44,072

Non-Technical Loss 1,533,634 2,094,032 4,104,556 4,843,859 1,722,755 655,073 373,918 59,151 7,378 38,613 135,549 181,600 66,364

Metering Connection Pt. Loss 10.0966% 11.8636% 11.8636% 11.8636% 11.8636% 19.5406% 14.8130% 16.4621% 12.1417% 15.0311% 20.3546% 18.8304% 26.5489%

Admin Loss 0.0791% 0.0152% 0.0341% 0.0454% 0% 0.6136% 0.1846% 0% 0% 0% 0.0838% 0% 0%

Technical Loss 6.8564% 7.0544% 5.5626% 5.9870% 4.2450% 10.9053% 8.6889% 6.5027% 8.5662% 5.8537% 9.3068% 9.6377% 10.5949%

NonTechnical Loss 3.1611% 4.7940% 6.2669% 5.8312% 7.6186% 8.0217% 5.9394% 9.9594% 3.5755% 9.1774% 10.9641% 9.1927% 15.9540%

Lamut Irisan NSC Old 20MVA NSC New 20MVA NPC-Beckel Atok Mankayan Asin Mini-Hyrdo Bakun Mini-hydro Ampuhaw Minihydro Ambuclao NPC-Itogon LUELCO

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101
NON-TECHNICAL LOSS PER METERING CONNECTION POINT
Metering Connection Non-Technical Loss (kWhr) 1,533,634.21 2,094,031.95 4,104,556.00 4,843,859.12 1,722,754.60 655,072.51 373,917.67 59,150.85 7,378.26 38,613.44 135,548.81 181,599.91 66,363.50 15,816,480.83 Cost of Unrecovered NTL (Pesos) P 11,289,465 P 15,414,693 P 30,214,663 P 35,656,858 P 12,681,627 P 4,822,153 P 2,752,501 P 435,424 P 54,313 P 284,243 P 997,809 P 1,336,802 P 488,518 P 116,429,070 NTL % (System) NTL % (Feeder)

54

Lamut Irisan NSC Old 20MVA NSC New 20MVA NPC-Beckel Atok Mankayan Asin Mini-Hyrdo Bakun Mini-hydro Ampuhaw Minihydro Ambuclao NPC-Itogon LUELCO TOTAL

0.5425% 0.7408% 1.4520% 1.7135% 0.6094% 0.2317% 0.1323% 0.0209% 0.0026% 0.0137% 0.0480% 0.0642% 0.0235% 5.5951%

3.1611% 4.7940% 6.2669% 5.8312% 7.6186% 8.0217% 5.9394% 9.9594% 3.5755% 9.1774% 10.9641% 9.1927% 15.9540%

ACTIVITIES CONSIDERED AND COSTED FOR NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION OPTIMIZATION COMPUTATION
► ► ► ► ► Communal Distribution Transformer Block Metering Inspection, Calibration and Apprehension Kwhr Meter Replacement (apprehended and defective) Phased-Out Kwhr Meter Replacement (Old kwhr meters) Sole-Use Distribution Transformer Monitoring ► ► ► ► ► Streetlight kwhr Metering Streetlight Photo Switching Right-of-Way Clearing Loose Connection Correction Software and Hardware Requirements Procurement

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

27

Power System Analysis 101
Average Rank Metering Connection

PRIORITY RANKING IN TERMS OF SELECTED NTL ACTIVITES FOR IMPLEMENTATION
COMMUNAL TRANSFORMER BLOCK METERING Metering Connection KWHR NTL / NO. OF DT's RANK 1 3 2 4 7 6 5 8 9 10 12 11 13 NSC Old 20MVA NPC-Beckel NSC New 20MVA Lamut LUELCO NPC-Itogon Irisan Ampuhaw Mini-hydro Asin Mini-Hyrdo Atok Ambuclao Mankayan Bakun Mini-hydro KWHR NTL / NO. OF METERS 430 201 157 88 155 107 86 105 83 77 69 42 21 RANK 1 2 3 7 4 5 8 6 9 10 11 12 13 INSPECTION, APPREHENSION, CALIBRATION

55

1 2.5 2.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 6.5 7 9 10 11.5 11.5 13

NSC Old 20MVA NPC-Beckel NSC New 20MVA Lamut LUELCO NPC-Itogon Irisan Ampuhaw Mini-hydro Asin Mini-Hyrdo Atok Ambuclao Mankayan Bakun Mini-hydro

38,722 10,194 11,009 6,786 2,765 2,977 6,326 2,413 2,366 2,120 1,442 1,723 434

FEEDER COVERAGE
Lamut Feeder 1 Feeder 2 Irisan Feeder 3 Feeder 4 NSC Old 20MVA FeederU. 5 FeederNational 6 Multi-Feeder Metering Connection Points NSC New 20MVA Feeder 7 Feeder 8 Feeder 9 Feeder 10 NPC-Beckel Totalizer 1 Engineering Atok Circuit 1 Circuit 2 Circuit 3 Mankayan Circuit 4 Single Feeder Metering Points Asin Mini-Hyrdo Bakun Mini-hydro Ampuhaw Mini-hydro Ambuclao NPC-Itogon LUELCO

P. National Center Circuit 5 Totalizer 2 Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101 SUMMARY OF OPTIMIZED PROJECT COST FOR NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION PROGRAM
Metering Connection Lamut Irisan NSC Old 20MVA NSC New 20MVA NPC-Beckel Atok Mankayan Asin Mini-Hyrdo Bakun Mini-hydro Ampuhaw Minihydro Ambuclao NPC-Itogon LUELCO TOTAL = % Unrecovered NTL per Feeder 3.161% 4.794% 6.267% 5.831% 7.619% 8.022% 5.939% 9.959% 3.575% 9.177% 10.964% 9.193% 15.954% 5.5951% Level of Optimum %NTL per Feeder 2.024% 3.053% 2.154% 3.029% 3.237% 5.403% 4.532% 5.623% 3.056% 4.752% 7.769% 5.534% 8.611% 2.7644% % Recovered NTL per Feeder 1.137% 1.741% 4.113% 2.802% 4.382% 2.618% 1.408% 4.337% 0.520% 4.426% 3.195% 3.659% 7.343% % Recovered NTL as per Entire System 0.3474% 0.4718% 0.4991% 0.8901% 0.2589% 0.1561% 0.1009% 0.0118% 0.0022% 0.0071% 0.0340% 0.0387% 0.0127% 2.8308% Optimized Project Cost for NTL Reduction 6,643,459.93 9,021,486.28 9,544,620.05 17,019,823.88 4,950,875.25 2,984,882.11 1,929,917.47 225,901.85 42,656.16 135,238.81 649,735.01 739,469.91 242,309.48 P 54,130,376.19

56

NOTE: Project Cost for implementation per Metering Connection at targeted reduced Non-technical Loss percentage SHALL NOT EXCEED the computed Optimized Project Cost.

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Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

57

BENECO NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
Cost of Unrecovered VS NTL Reduction Program

120 M illion s 110 100 90 80 C ost (Php ) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 5.5951% 5.3853% 5.1755% 4.9657% 4.7559% 4.5461% 4.3362% 4.1264% 3.9166% 3.7068% 3.4970% 3.2871% 3.0773% 2.8675% 2.6577% 2.4479% 2.2381% 2.0282% 1.8184% 1.6086% 1.3988% 1.1890% 0.9791% 0.7693% 0.5595%

Cost of Unrecovered NTL Cost NTL Reduction Program

Optimum level of loss reduction

Non-Technical Loss (%)

OPTIMUM LEVEL OF NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION = 2.7644%

EQUIVALENT PROJECT COST = P53,447,802.55
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58

System Loss Reduction and Control
Reduction and Control of Technical Losses Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses

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Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

59

Reduction and Control of Technical Losses
Use the results of the Distribution System Loss Segregator for System Loss Reduction Program.
Ranks the losses from the highest to lowest ( Per Substation, Per feeder, per distribution transformer) Prepare a Specific Technical Loss Reduction Program based on your technical analysis!!! Simulate your proposed technical loss reduction solutions to quantify the technical loss reduction Optimize your proposed technical loss reduction solutions

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Power System Analysis 101

60

Reduction and Control of Technical Losses
Distribution Rehabilitation Plan
Safety Power Quality Problem Correction Reduce Technical Losses

Distribution Expansion Plan
Capacity that complies with Power Quality Standards and Controlled Technical Losses

PDC: Distribution Development Plan
• Technical Analysis • Economic Analysis
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

• Financial Analysis
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

30

Power System Analysis 101

61

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP Causes of Pilferages
Long run of secondary networks “conducive” for illegal tapping Services run from one building to the next and attached to various structures (e.g., trees) making it difficult for meter readers to follow the wires or spot illegal connections Secondary wiring with “rat’s nest” appearance due to poor workmanship Inaccessible meters (located indoor or inside a compound) Control of meter seals Poor meter records (where and when the meters are installed, maintained, removed, condemned, etc.)
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Power System Analysis 101

62

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP Detection of Pilferages
Surveillance Teams (working full time) Consumer connections inventory to assure that:
• • All service connections are metered All energized services are in an “active” status in the billing system • There are no illegal taps, by-passed meters, or tampered meters • Each household is metered separately (no flying taps) • Each consumer is properly classified 1. Match all service connections found in the field to a distribution transformer 2. Match the meter number to the account number 3. Check meter reading against previous readings to assure that meter readings are being properly reported
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31

Power System Analysis 101

63

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP Tampered Meters
In-Place Quick-test for Accuracy Hard-to-Detect Tampering
• • • • • • Gear teeth removed Small hole bored at the top of the meter housing “Floating Neutral” Swapping the line-side and load side Service conductors are not properly supported Service wire insulation has deteriorated

Correcting Problems

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Power System Analysis 101

64

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP Apprehension of Pilferers
Confronting the consumer Documenting the findings Calculating the amount of electricity stolen Setting the penalty amount to be charged Disconnecting service and removing the meter
• May include policemen or barangay officials

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Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

32

Power System Analysis 101

65

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP Punitive Measures Against Pilferers
R.A. 7832 – Theft of electricity is a crime Removal of fraudulent hook-ups Collection for unregistered consumption Penalty charge Connection charge Disconnection of service Filing charges with judicial authorities Charging for tampering with seals Regularly scheduled inspections

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Power System Analysis 101

66

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP Prevention of Pilferage by Service Entrance Modification
Installation of meters on the service pole Meter clustering in apartment buildings Better meter seals Security plates or cabinets Coaxial service cable

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Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

33

Power System Analysis 101

67

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP Political and legal measures
Strengthening of laws that would impose severe penalties on employees who collaborate with consumers for the purpose of defrauding the DU Modification of Procedures for recovery and prosecution Elimination of political interference with bill collections Consistent enforcement practices Publicize successes

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Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

68

Reduction and Control of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP Complaints for low voltage from the customers Look for the overload distribution transformers and compared the billings of all customers connected to that DT. Distribution transformers that always trips may be suspected for illegal connections.

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Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

34

Power System Analysis 101

69

SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

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Power System Analysis 101

70

Short Circuit Analysis
1. What is Short Circuit? 2. Short Circuit Studies 3. Selection of Device Duties

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Power System Analysis 101

71

What is Short Circuit?

+

Very Large Current Flow

Very Small Resistance

I=

V ⇒∞ R →0

Short Circuit

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Power System Analysis 101

72

What is Short Circuit?

Analogy of Normal and Short Circuit Current in a Hydroelectric plant
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36

Power System Analysis 101

73

What is Short Circuit?
Equipment Explosion because of Short Circuit

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Power System Analysis 101

74

What is Short Circuit?
Type of Faults

Three Phase Fault

Line-to-Line Fault

Double Line-to-Ground Fault
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Single Line-to-Ground Fault
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

37

Power System Analysis 101

75

What is Short Circuit?
Sources of Short Circuit Currents
Utility

G

MV
LV

Fault

Fault Current Contributors
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

76

What is Short Circuit?
PROTECTIVE DEVICES: FUSE
Low Voltage Fuses Up to 1000 Volts

High Voltage Fuses Above 1000 Volts

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

38

Power System Analysis 101

77

What is Short Circuit?
PROTECTIVE DEVICES: LOW VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Molded-Case Circuit Breakers Low Voltage Power Circuit Breakers
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Power System Analysis 101

78

Substation Vacuum Circuit Breakers

What is Short Circuit?
PROTECTIVE DEVICES: HIGH VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Outdoor-Type Circuit Breaker in Switchyard
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

39

Power System Analysis 101

79

What is Short Circuit?
PROTECTIVE DEVICES: HIGH VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Indoor Type Circuit Breaker in a Switchgear
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Power System Analysis 101

80

Short Circuit Studies

Short Circuit Current and Time Characteristics of Protective Devices
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

40

Power System Analysis 101

81

Short Circuit Studies
Comparison of Momentary and Interrupting Duties of Interrupting Devices Comparison of Short-time or withstand rating of system components Selection of rating or setting of short circuit protective devices Evaluation of current flow and voltage levels in the system during fault

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Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

82

Short Circuit Studies
First Cycle Fault Current
Short circuit ratings of low voltage equipment Ratings of Medium Voltage (MV) to High Voltage (HV) switch and fuse Close & Latch (Making) capacity or ratings of HV Circuit Breakers Maximum Fault for coordination of instantaneous trip of relays

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

41

Power System Analysis 101

83

Short Circuit Studies
1.5 to 4 Cycles Fault Current
Interrupting (breaking) duties of HV circuit breakers Interrupting magnitude and time of breakers for coordination

30 Cycles Fault Current
For time delay coordination

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Power System Analysis 101

84

Selection of Device Duties
ANSI/IEEE: American National Standards Institute/ Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission

Prescribes Test Procedures and Calculation Methods
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

42

Power System Analysis 101

85

Selection of Device Duties
8-Cycle Total-Rated Circuit Breakers (KA) Example Maximum System Operating Voltage Momentary Rating (Total 1st-Cycle RMS Current Interrupting Rating (Total RMS Current at 4-cycle ContactParting Time 5-Cycle Symmetrical-Rated Circuit Breakers (KA) Closing and Latching Capability (Total First Cycle RM Current) Short-Circuit Capability (Symmetrical RMS Current at 3-Cycle Parting Time Circuit Breaker Nominal Size Identification

4.16 – 75 4.16 – 250 4.16 – 350 13.8 – 500 13.8 – 750 13.8 – 1000

4.16 KV 4.16 KV 4.16 KV 13.8 KV 13.8 KV 13.8 KV

20 60 80 40 60 80

10.5 35 48.6 21 13.5 42

19 58 78 37 58 77

10.1 33.2 46.9 19.6 30.4 40.2 Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Power System Analysis 101 COMPARISON OF DUTIES

86

186 % 259 % 218 % 265 % 252 % 290 % 277 %

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Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

87

POWER SYSTEM RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

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Power System Analysis 101

88

Reliability Analysis
1. What is Reliability? 2. Measuring Reliability 3. Component Reliability 4. System Reliability 5. Distribution System Reliability 6. Economics of Power System Reliability

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Power System Analysis 101

89

What is Reliability?
Outage (Component State)
Component is not available to perform its intended function due to the event directly associated with that component (IEEE-STD-346).

Interruption (Customer State)
Loss of service to one or more consumers as a result of one or more component outages (IEEE-STD-346).

Types of Interruptions
Momentary Interruption. Service restored by switching operations (automatic or manual) within a specified time (5 minutes per IEEE-STD-346). Sustained Interruption. An interruption not classified as momentary
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90

What is Reliability?
A reliable piece of equipment or a System is understood to be basically sound and give troublefree performance in a given environment. But, How do you measure reliability? How do we compare reliability of the same equipment from two different manufacturers? Definition of Reliability Reliability is the probability that an equipment or system will perform satisfactorily for at least a given period of time when used under stated conditions.
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Power System Analysis 101

91

Measuring Reliability
1 System Failure Failure Events 4 Reliability Data 3 Mathematical Reliability Model 5

2

Application (Reliability Index)

Power System Reliability Evaluation
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92

Measuring Reliability
ORGANIZATION, CUSTOMER, kVA INCIDENTS HISTORICAL ASSESSMENT COMPONENT POPULATION COMPONENT PERFORMANCE SYSTEM DEFINITION PREDICTIVE ASSESSMENT HISTORICAL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS ENGINEERING CUSTOMER INQUIRIES

PREDICTED SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS AID TO DECISION-MAKING PLANNING STUDIES

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46

Power System Analysis 101

93

Component Reliability
Component Failure Data
Item No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time-to-Failure (hrs.) 8 20 34 46 63 86 111 141 186 266
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

How Reliable is the component?

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Power System Analysis 101

94

Component Reliability
Failure Density Function
Time
0–8 8 – 20 20 – 34 34 – 46

∆ ti
8 12 14 12 17 23 25 30 45 80

f(t)
1 10 = 0.0125 8 1 10 = 0.0084 12 1 10 = 0.0074 14 1 10 = 0.0084 12 1 10 = 0.0059 17 1 10 = 0.0043 23 1 10 = 0.0040 25 1 10 = 0.0033 30 1 10 = 0.0022 45 1 10 = 0.0013 80
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

f(t)
measure of the overall speed at which failures are occurring.

46 – 63 63 – 86 86 – 111 111 – 141 141 – 186 186 – 266

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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Power System Analysis 101

95

Component Reliability
f(t) fractional failures/hr.x10-2

1.4 1.2
1.0 0.8

0.6
0.4 0.2

0

0

100 200 Operating time, hr.

300

Failure Density Function from Component Failure Data
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

96

Component Reliability
Failure Hazard Function
Time
0–8 8 – 20 20 – 34 34 – 46

∆ ti
8 12 14 12 17 23 25 30 45 80

h(t)
1 10 = 0.0125 8 19 = 0.093 12 18 = 0.0096 14 17 = 0.0119 12 16= 0.0098 17 15= 0.0087 23 14= 0.0100 25 13 = 0.0111 30 12 = 0.0111 45 11 = 0.0125 80

h(t)
measure of the instantaneous speed of failure [Propones to Failure]

46 – 63 63 – 86 86 – 111 111 – 141 141 – 186 186 – 266

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Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

48

Power System Analysis 101

97

Component Reliability
1.4

h(t) failures/hr.x10-2

1.2

1.0
0.8

0.6 0.4 0.2
0 0 100 200 300

Operating time, hr.

Hazard Function from Component Failure Data
0.011 failure/hr x 8760 hrs/yr = 97 failures/yr
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98

Component Reliability
Reliability Function
h (τ )d τ R (t ) = e ∫0 −
t

For the component with a hazard rate of 0.011 f/hr, R(1 hour) = 0.989 R(24 hours) = 0.768

For a component with a constant Hazard
h = 0.01 f/yr R(1) = 0.99
[Probability that the component will not fail in 1 year]
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

h = 0.02 f/yr

R(1) = 0.98

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

49

Power System Analysis 101

99

Component Reliability
h(t )

h(t )

λ
t

Kt
t

a. Constant Hazard
h(t )

b. Increasing Hazard

K0

h (τ )d τ R (t ) = e ∫0 −
K0 K1 t0 t

t

a. Decreasing Hazard
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Reliability Function
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

100

Component Reliability
The Bathtub Curve

a. Hazard Function

b. Failure Density Function
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50

Power System Analysis 101

101

Component Reliability
Hazard Model for Different System

a. Mechanical

b. Electrical

c. Software

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Power System Analysis 101

102

Component Reliability
Weibull Model (A General Reliability Model)
h (t ) K

R (t )

5 4 3
2 1

m=3 m=2 m=1 m = 0 .5 m=0 m = −0 .5

5 4 3

2 1

t→

1

2

τ →

m=1 m=2 m=3

m = − 0 .5 m=0 m = 0 .5

1

2

Hazard function
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Reliability function
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

51

Power System Analysis 101

103

Component Reliability
RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT of MERALCO Distribution Transformers* Distribution Transformer Failures
• 1997: 996 DT Failures • Average of three (3) DT Failures/day • Lost Revenue during Downtime • Additional Equipment Replacement Cost • Lost of Customer Confidence Identify the Failure Mode of DTs Develop strategies to reduce DT failures
* R. R. del Mundo, et. al. (2000)
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104

Component Reliability
METHODOLOGY: Reliability Engineering
(Weibull Analysis of Failure Data)
• Gather Equipment History (Failure Data) • Classify DTs (Brand, Condition, KVA, Voltage) • Develop Reliability Model • Determine Failure Mode • Recommend Solutions to Improve Reliability

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Power System Analysis 101

105

Component Reliability Parametric Model • Shape Factor • Characteristic Life
Shape Factor <1 =1 >1 Hazard Function Decreasing Constant Increasing

Failure Mode
Failure Mode Early Random Wear-out
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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106

Component Reliability
MERALCO DTs (1989–1997)
Brand A B C D E F G H TOTAL New 29,960 5,986 6,358 2,037 44,341 1,118 Recond 835 118 49 116 1,588 Rewind 1,333 135 31 90 2,338 Convert 2,048 269 21 Total 34,712 6,586 6,561 2,344 192 168 79 69 51,129

Note: Total Include Acquired DTs U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

107

Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis: All DTs
Interval 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 Failures 1444 797 638 508 475 363 295 224 159 89 98 51 19 2 0 Survivors 57095 48852 39997 32802 27515 22129 18200 14690 11865 9010 6473 4479 2254 821 127 Hazard 0.0269 0.0178 0.0174 0.0167 0.0189 0.0178 0.0178 0.0167 0.0151 0.0114 0.0177 0.015 0.0122 0.0042 0
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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108

Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis: All DTs
0.03 0.025

Weibull Shape = 0.84
Hazard
0.02 0.015 0.01

Failure Mode: EARLY FAILURE
0.005 0
0 200

Is it Manufacturing Defect?
400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000

Time Interval
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Power System Analysis 101

109

Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis: By Manufacturer
BRAND A B C D E F G H Size 34712 6586 6561 2344 192 168 79 69 Shape 0.84 0.81 0.86 0.76 0.85 0.86 0.76 0.98 Failure Mode Early Failure Early Failure Early Failure Early Failure Early Failure Early Failure Early Failure Early Failure

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Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis: By Manufacturer & Condition
BRAND A B C D New 1.11 0.81 0.81 0.67 Reconditioned Rewinded 1.23 1.12 1.29 1.27 1.13 0.77 1.11 1.49 Converted 1.4 1.23 0.94 -

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111

Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis: By Voltage Rating
PRI 20 20 20 20 13.2 13.2 7.62 7.62 4.8 3.6 2.4 SEC 7.62 120/240 139/277 DUAL 120/240 240/480 120/240 DUAL 120/240 120/240 120/240 All DTs 0.75 0.79 1.14 0.72 0.88 0.91 0.99 0.77 0.87 0.78 1.15 New DTs 0.94 1.1 1.03 1.54 1.46 1.61 1.17 Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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112

Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis: By KVA Rating (New DTs)
KVA 10 15 25 37.5 50 75 100 167 250 333 Shape 1.3 1.25 0.92 0.83 0.73 1.05 1.04 1.16 1.11 1.46 Failure Mode Wear-out Wear-out Early Early Early Random Random Random Random Wear-out
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Power System Analysis 101

113

Component Reliability
MERALCO Distribution Transformer Reliability Analysis: Recommendations • Review Replacement Policies - New or Repair - In-house or Remanufacture • Improve Transformer Load Management Program - Predict Demand Accurately (TLMS) • Consider Higher KVA Ratings • Consider Surge Protection for 20 kV DTs
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114

Component Reliability
Preventive Maintenance and Hazard Rates
Hazard rate

m

2m

3m

Effect of PM on Increasing Hazard Rate

Hazard rate

Hazard rate

m

2m

3m

m

2m

3m

Effect of PM on Constant Hazard Rate
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Effect of PM on Decreasing Hazard Rate
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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115

Component Reliability
RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT of MERALCO Power Circuit Breakers*
Number of Feeder Power Circuit Breakers
VOLTAGE 34.5 KV 13.8 KV 6.24 KV 4.8 KV TOTAL OCB 149 7 VCB 160 28 26 2 216 GCB 41 2 MOCB ACB

36 3 39

156

43

12 122 11 145

* R. R. del Mundo & Melendrez (2001)
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Component Reliability
RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT of MERALCO Power Circuit Breakers*
Annual Failures of 34.5 kV OCBs
1997 Causes of Failure Contact Wear Bushing Failure Mechanism Failure Totals Installed 158 158 158 Failed 2 1 3 1998 Installed 155 155 155 155 Failed 2 3 1 6 1999 Installed 149 149 149 Failed 1 3 4 2000 Installed 145 145 145 Failed 2 1 3 Average Failures (Units/yr) 1.15 1.317 0.645 2.636

3 Circuit Breakers failing per year! Preventive Maintenance Policy: Time-based (Periodic)
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Reliability Assessment of MERALCO Power Circuit Breakers
HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV OCBs
HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV GCBs
HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 13.8 KV MOCBs

0.4
H a za rd R a te

0.2
H a z a r d R a te
H a z a rd R a t e

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0
3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60 Time Interval (months)

0.3 0.2 0.1 0
3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60

0.15 0.1 0.05 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
Time Interval (months)

Time Interval (months)

34.5 kV OCBS OCBs
HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 6.24 KV MOCBs

34.5 kV GCBs
HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 6.24 KV ACBs

13.8 kV MOCBs
HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR ALL PCBs CONSIDERED

0.4
H a z a rd R a t e

0.3 0.2 0.1 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
Time Interval (months)

0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
Time Interval (months)

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

H a z a r d R a te

H az ard R ate

.

3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60
Time Interval (months)

6.24 kV MOCBs

6.24 kV ACBs

All PCBs

TIME-BASED HAZARD FUNCTION
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118

Reliability Assessment of MERALCO Power Circuit Breakers
HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV OCBs 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Tripping Interval
0.05

HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV GCBs
y= + 0.032 0.00006x2 – 0.0007x

HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV GCBs
0.05

H a z a r d R a te

H a z a r d R a te

H a z a rd R a t e

0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0
25

0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0
25 50 75 100 125 150

50

75

100

125

150

Tripping Interval

Tripping Interval

34.5 kV OCBS OCBs
HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 6.24 KV MOCBs
H a z a rd R a te
H a z a rd R a te
0.3 0.2 0.1 0
5 10 15 20

34.5 kV GCBs
HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 6.24 KV MOCBs
H a z a rd R a te

13.8 kV MOCBs
HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV OCBs 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Tripping Interval

0.3 0.2 0.1 0
5 10 15 20

Tripping Interval

Tripping Interval

6.24 kV MOCBs

6.24 kV ACBs

All PCBs

TRIPPING OPERATIONS-BASED HAZARD FUNCTION
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Component Reliability
RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT of MERALCO Power Circuit Breakers*

Schedule of Servicing for 41XV4
0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Hazard Rate

Number of Tripping Operations

Reliability-Based Preventive Maintenance Schedule
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System Reliability
Series Reliability Model
R(x1) R(x2) R(x3) R(x4)

Series System This arrangements represents a system whose subsystems of components form a series network. If any of the subsystem of component fails, the series system experiences an overall system failure.

Rs = ∏ R( xi )
i =1
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n

60

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System Reliability
Parallel Reliability Model
R(x1) R(x2) R(x3) R(x4) Parallel Network
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This structure represents a system that will fail if and only if all the units in the system fail.
n

Rs = 1 − ∏ [1 − R( xi )]
i =1

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System Reliability
Standby Redundancy Model R(x1) R(x2) R(x3) R(x4)
This type of redundancy represents a distribution with one operating and n units as standbys. Unlike a parallel network where all units in the configuration are active, the standby units are not active.
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System Reliability
K-Out-of-N Reliability Model
R(x1) R(x2) R(x3) The system reliability for k-out-of-n number of independent and identical units is given by

 n Rs = ∑   R i ( 1 − R )n −i   i=k  i 
n

This is another form of redundancy. It is used where a specified number of units must be good for the system success.
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1 2 3 5 7 4 6

System Reliability Networks
Reliability Network Models for Typical Substation Configurations of MERALCO*

Primary side
11 15

9

8 10

12 13 14 16 18 19 21 23 25 27 28 29 30 24 26 20 22

17

31

32

33

34 35 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 50 51 52 53 54 55 49 36

Secondary side

Scheme 1: Single breaker-single bus (primary and secondary side)

* Source: A. Gonzales (Meralco) & R. del Mundo (UP), 2005
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System Reliability Networks
Reliability Network Diagram of Single breaker-single bus scheme (Scheme 1)
15λc λ 29λct λ 2λbus λ 4λd1 λ 2λb1 λ λp 2λb2 λ 3λd2 λ

Summary of Substation Reliability Indices for Scheme 1 Event 1

Probability 1.0

λs (failure/yr)

Us (hr/yr)

Opened 115kV bus tie breaker & opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker (normal condition)
Total

0.247152 0.828784

1.0

0.247152 0.828784

where: λs - substation failure rate or interruption frequency Us – substation annual outage time or unavailability U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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L1
1 2 3 5 7 8 77 4 6 75 76 73 71 72 74

System Reliability Networks
18 127 129 131 128 130 22 132 35 136 138 139 140 141 28 135 137 25 26 27 24 23 19 20 21

L2
70

9 16 15 14 13 12 10 11 92 91 34 33 32 88 31 30 87 86 90 89

78 17

Reliability Network Models for Typical Substation Configurations of MERALCO

133 134

79 80 81 82 83 84 85 29

36

93

Primary side
95

37 38 39

94

96

40 41

97 98

Scheme 2: Single breaker-double bus (primary side) and two single breaker-single bus with bus tie breaker (secondary side)

Bank 1
43 44 45

42

99

Bank 2

100 101 102 46 103 104 105 107 108 52 109 110 54 111 112 119 121 122 123 120 117 116 118 115 114 113 126 106

47 49 48 50 51 53 55 57 56 125 58 59 61 63 65 66 67 68 69 60 62 64 124

Secondary side

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Substation Reliability Models
Reliability Network Diagram of Single breaker-double bus with normally opened 115kV bus tie breaker (Scheme 2)
16λc λ 29λct λ 2λbus λ 3λd1 λ 2λb1 λ λp 2λb2 λ 3λd2 λ

Event 1: Opened 115kV and 34.5kV bus tie breakers;

P1 = 0.997985

20λc λ

37λct λ

3λbus λ

5λd1 λ

2λb1 λ

λp

2λb2 λ

3λd2 λ

Event 2: Closed 115kV bus tie breaker & opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P2 = 0.000188

20λc λ

37λct λ

2λbus λ

3λd1 λ

2λb1 λ

λp

3λb2 λ

5λd2 λ

Event 3: Closed 115kV bus tie breaker & closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P3 = 0.000000344

20λc λ

37λct λ

2λbus λ

3λd1 λ

2λb1 λ

λp

3λb2 λ

5λd2 λ

Event 4: Opened 115kV bus tie breaker & closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P4 = 0.00182614 U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Substation Reliability Models
Summary of Substation Reliability Indices for Scheme 2 Event 1 2 3 4 Total Probability 0.997985 0.000188 0.000000344 0.001826 1.0 λs (failure/yr) 0.251752 0.302966 0.308936 0.308936 0.251866 Us (hr/yr) 0.848919 1.008374 1.023840 1.023840 0.849275

Event 1: With two primary lines energized & opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P1 = 0.997985 Power System Engineering U. P. National Engineering Center for Non-Engineers National Electrification Administration

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Substation Reliability Models
Reliability Network Diagram of Single breaker-double bus with normally closed 115kV bus tie breaker (Modified Scheme 2)
λΒ1 λΒ3 Β1 λΒ3 Β2 λΒ3 Β1 λΒ1 λΒ3 Β2 λΒ3 Β2

λ17

λ54

λΒ3

λΒ4

λΒ5

λΒ6

λΒ7

λΒ4 Β7

λΒ4 λ29

λΒ9

λΒ6

λΒ4 29

Event 1: With two primary lines energized & opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P1 = 0.997985 λ17 λB1 λB2 λB3 λB4 λB5 P2 = 0.000188

Event 2: With one line, L2 interrupted & opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker;

λ17

λ29

λB1

λB2

λB5

λB8

λB9

λB10

λB11

Event 3: With one line, L2 interrupted and closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P3 = 0.000000344 U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Substation Reliability Models
Reliability Network Diagram of Single breaker-double bus with normally closed 115kV bus tie breaker (Modified Scheme 2)
λΒ1 λΒ1 λΒ3 Β2 λΒ3 Β6 λΒ3 Β2 λΒ6 λΒ3 Β7 λΒ3 λΒ7 λΒ3 Β7

λ29

λ111

λΒ5

λΒ8

λΒ10

λΒ11

λΒ6

λΒ7

λΒ7

λ17 λΒ4

λΒ4 Β6

λΒ9

λΒ9

λΒ4 λΒ8

λ17 λΒ4

Event 4: With two lines energized and closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker;

P4 = 0.001826140

Summary of Substation Reliability Indices for Modified Scheme 2

Event 1 2 3 4 Total

Probability 0.997985 0.000188 0.000000344 0.001826 1.0

λs (failure/yr) 0.176076 0.251122 0.377120 0.233261 0.176194

Us,(hr/yr) 0.583548 0.847621 1.261549 0.758472 0.583923
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Substation Reliability Models
Comparison of Substation Reliability Indices for Scheme 2 Scheme 2 Original (opened 115kV bus tie breaker) Modified (closed 115kV bus tie breaker) λs (failure/yr) 0.251866 0.176194 Us (hr/yr) 0.849275 0.583923

Note: A remarkable 30% improvement in the performance of Scheme 2 by making the 115kV bus tie breaker normally closed.

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System Reliability Networks
B2

B1
15 13 12 11 9 7 5 8 6 10 16 14

1

67

B4
81 79 78 77 75 73 71 70 74 72 76 82 80

17 32

B5 Primary side

Reliability Network Models for Typical Substation Configurations of MERALCO

4 3 2 3 18 19 20 85 21 23 24 26 27 28 29 30 31 33 96 95 93 25 89 91 87 22 69 68

69

83 84 86 88 90 92

B3

B6

94

97

B7

34

98

B8
99

Scheme 3: Ring bus (primary side) and two single breaker-single bus with bus tie breaker (secondary side)
52 54 56 58 59 60 62 61 63 64 65 66

Bank 1
36 37

35

Bank 2

101 38

100 102 103

40 42

39 41 43 106

104 105 107 108 109 110 111 112

44 45 46 47 48 49 51 53 55 50 130 128 125 129 127 126 124 57 123 121 120 122

Secondary side
115

113 114 116 119 117 118

B10

B9

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Substation Reliability Models
Reliability Block Diagram of Ring Bus Scheme (Scheme 3)
λB1 λB1 λB4 λB2

λB5

λB2

λ17

λ51

λB7

λB10

λB4 λB6 λB3

λB5

Event 1: With two primary lines energized & opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker;

P1 = 0.997985

λB1 λB1

λB4 λB3

λB5

λB2

λ31

λB8

λB9

λ51

λB10

λB4 λB6 λB3

λB6

Event 2: With two primary lines energized & closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P2 = 0.00182614 U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Substation Reliability Models
Reliability Block Diagram of Ring Bus Scheme (Scheme 3)

CONT.
λB2 λB2 λB2 λB2

λB1

λ17

λB7

λ51

λB10

λB3

λ31

λB6

λB5

Event 3: With one primary line (L2) interrupted and opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker;
λB2 λB3 λB3 λB3

P3 = 0.000188056

λB1

λ31

λB8

λB9

λ51

λB10

λB3

λ17

λB5

λB6

Event 4: With one primary line (L2) interrupted and closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P4 = 0.000000344 U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Substation Reliability Models
Summary of Substation Reliability Indices of Ring Bus (Scheme 3) Event 1 2 3 4 Total Probability 0.997985 0.001826 0.000188 0.000000344 1.0 λs (failure/yr) 0.137928 0.195112 0.147283 0.204467 0.138034 Us (hr/yr) 0.436499 0.618379 0.468233 0.650114 0.436836

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L 1
1 1 5 1 3 1 1 9 7 5 3 4 2 3 1 8 1 9 2 1 2 5 2 3 9 4 9 96 8 10 0 10 2 10 4 4 3 12 0 10 6 10 118 0 7 9 1 6 1 4 1 21 0 8 6 1 7 7 8 9 9 3 1 8 89 7 8 5 8 3 8 1 9 2 9 0 8 8 8 4 8 6 8 2 8 0 8 0 9 5 9 7 10 1 10 3 10 5 10 5 10 7 10 9 9 9

System Reliability Networks
Reliability Network Models for Typical Substation Configurations of MERALCO

L 2

B1 B5

B2

B6

B3

2 2 0 2 2 4 2 62 2 7 8 2 9

B7

Primary side

B4

2 3 9 0 3 3 1 3 3 2 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 3 7 83 4 9 0 4 4 2 1

11 9

11 1 11 11 2 11 3 11 4 5 11 6 11 11 7 8

B8

B9

4 4

12 1

B10
12 3

4 5

12 2 4 6

Scheme 4: Breaker-and-a-half bus (primary side) and two single breaker-single bus with bus tie breaker (secondary side)
6 4 6 6 6 6 6 7 8 9 7 0 7 1 7 7 3 2 7 4 7 5 7 7 6 7 6 3 6 5

Bank 1
4 8 5 5 1 3

Bank 2

6 2

12 13 8 5 0 4 5 13 5 5 5 2 13 6 75 4 8 5 13 6 13 9 6 13 7 6 0 8 1 15 14 4 0 14 14 15 14 14 6 14 2 158 1 4 2 0 15 14 14 15 14 14 3 5 3 1 9 7

4 7 4 9 5 0 5 2

12 5

12 4 12 6 12 7 12 9 13 1 13 3 13 5

Secondary side
13 9

B1 1

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Substation Reliability Models
Reliability Block Diagram of Breaker-and-a-half Scheme (Scheme 4)
λΒ3 Β1 λΒ1 λΒ9 λ62 λΒ12 λΒ5 λΒ4 λΒ7 λΒ3 λΒ3 λΒ3 λΒ3 λΒ2 Β6 λΒ4 λ119 λΒ4 Β8 λΒ7 33 λΒ5 34 λ17 λΒ2 17 λΒ3 33 λΒ7 λ7 λΒ8
A

λΒ3 Β2

λ6 λΒ1

λ6 λΒ1

λΒ3 Β1

λΒ3 Β1

λΒ3 Β1

λΒ3 Β1

λ6 λΒ1

λ6 λΒ1

λΒ3

λΒ3

λ6 λΒ3

λ6 λΒ3

A

λ17 λΒ2

λ33 λΒ4

λΒ2

λΒ2 λ33

λ7 λΒ2

λΒ2

λΒ2 Β5

λΒ5 33

λ7 λΒ5

λΒ5

λ33 λ119

λ34 17

λΒ7 33

λΒ8 λ34

λ119

λΒ2 Β4

λ33 17

λΒ6 34

λΒ8

λ119 λΒ2

Event 1: With two primary lines energized and opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

P1 = 0.997985

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Substation Reliability Models
Reliability Block Diagram of Breaker-and-a-half Scheme (Scheme 4)
λΒ3 Β1 λΒ3 Β2 λ6 λΒ1 λ6 λΒ5

λΒ1

λΒ7

λΒ3

λΒ3 Β7

λΒ3 Β4 λ7 λΒ2 λΒ8

λΒ10

λ139

λΒ11

λ62

λΒ12

λΒ2 Β6

λΒ3 33

A

λΒ5

λΒ8

λΒ7

λΒ4 λ119

λΒ4 Β7 λΒ7 λΒ2 λ17

λΒ7 λ33

λΒ5 34

λΒ3 Β5

λΒ3

λΒ3

λΒ3 Β2

λ6 λΒ2

λ6 λΒ2

λΒ3 Β5

λΒ3 Β4

λ6 λΒ4

λλ6 119

λ6 λ119

A

λΒ2 17

λΒ5 33

λΒ2 Β5

λΒ5 33

λΒ5 λ7

λΒ4

λΒ2 Β6

λΒ5 33

λΒ5 λ7

λΒ5

λΒ5

λ33 λ119

λ34 17

λΒ6 33

λΒ8 34

λ119

λΒ2 Β5

λΒ8 33

λΒ6 34

λ17

λΒ2 Β7

λΒ2 Β6

Event 2: With two primary lines energized and closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P2 = 0.001826 U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

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Substation Reliability Models
Reliability Block Diagram of Breaker-and-a-half Scheme (Scheme 4)
λΒ3 λΒ3 Β6 λΒ3 Β6 λΒ3 Β6 λΒ3 Β6 λΒ3 Β7

λΒ9

λ62

λΒ12

λΒ5

A

λΒ4

λΒ7

λΒ4 Β8

λΒ4 λ119

λΒ4

λΒ4 17

λΒ7

λΒ3 Β7

λΒ3 Β8

λΒ3 Β8

λΒ8

λΒ3 17

λΒ3 17

λΒ3 Β2

λΒ3 λ119

λΒ3 λ119

A

λΒ2

λΒ3

λΒ4 17

λΒ4 Β2

λΒ3

λ119

λΒ4

λΒ4

λΒ4 Β2

λΒ4 Β3

Event 3: With one primary line (L1) interrupted and opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker;

P3 = 0.000188

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Substation Reliability Models
Reliability Block Diagram of Breaker-and-a-half Scheme (Scheme 4)
λΒ7 λΒ3 Β6 λΒ3 Β7 λΒ3 Β7 λΒ7 λΒ3 Β4 λΒ3 λ119

λΒ10

λ139

λΒ11

λ62

λΒ12

λΒ5

λΒ8

λΒ7

λΒ4 λ17

λΒ4 Β2

λΒ3

λΒ7

λΒ4 Β7

Event 4: With one primary line (L1) interrupted and closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker;

P4 = 0.000000344

Summary of Substation Reliability Indices of Breaker-&-a-half (Scheme 4) Event 1 2 3 4 Total Probability 0.997985 0.001826 0.000188 0.000000344 1.0 λs (failure/yr) 0.137306 0.195120 0.146674 0.204473 0.137413 Us (hr/yr) 0.435214 0.611433 0.466972 0.643165 0.435545
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System Reliability Networks
Substation Reliability Models
Comparison of Substation Reliability Indices (Scheme 1 to 4) Configuration
Scheme 1 (Single breaker-single bus) Scheme 2 (Single breaker-double bus) - with normally opened 115kV tie bkr. - with normally closed 115kV tie bkr. Scheme 3 (Ring bus) Scheme 4 (Breaker-and-a-half bus)

λs (failures/yr) 0.247152 0.251866 0.176194 0.138034 0.137413

Us (hrs/yr) 0.828784 0.849275 0.583923 0.436836 0.435545

Note: Scheme 3 & 4 - better than Scheme 1 & 2 by 44% & 45% respectively for substation failure rates. Scheme 3 & 4 - better than Scheme 1 & 2 by 47% & 49% respectively for substation interruption duration or unavailabilty. Scheme 3 & 4 - better than Modified Scheme 2 by 22% & 25% for substation failure rates & unavailability, respectively

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Distribution System Reliability
CUSTOMER-ORIENTED RELIABILITY INDICES
System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI)* The average number of interruptions per customer served during a period

SAIFI =

Total number of customer interruptions Total number of customers served

System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI) The average interruption duration per customer served during a period

SAIDI =

Sum of customer interruption duration Total number of customers served

Note: SAIFI for Sustained interruptions. MAIFI for Momentary Interruptions
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Distribution System Reliability
CUSTOMER-ORIENTED RELIABILITY INDICES
Customer Average Interruption Frequency Index (CAIFI) The average number of interruptions per customer interrupted during the period

CAIFI =

Total number of customer interruptions Total number of customers interrupted

Customer Average Interruption Duration Index (CAIDI) The average interruption duration of customers interrupted during the period

CAIDI =

Sum of customer interruption duration Total number of customers interrupted
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Distribution System Reliability
CUSTOMER-ORIENTED RELIABILITY INDICES
Average Service Availability Index (ASAI) The ratio of the total number of customer hours that service was available during a year to the total customer hours demanded Customer hours of available service

ASAI =

Customer hours demanded

Average Service Unavailability Index (ASUI) The ratio of the total number of customer hours that service was not available during a year to the total customer hours demanded C ustomer hours of unavailabl e service ASUI = Customer hours demanded
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Distribution System Reliability
Average Load Interruption Index (ALII) The average KW (KVA) of connected load interrupted per year per unit of connected load served.

ALII =

Average System Curtailment Index (ASCI) Also known as the average energy not supplied (AENS). It is the KWh of connected load interruption per customer served.

ASCI =

Total energy curtailment Total number of customers served
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Distribution System Reliability
Average Customer Curtailment Index (ACCI) The KWh of connected load interruption per affected customer per year.

ACCI =

Total energy curtailment Total number of customers affected

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Distribution System Reliability
Historical Reliability Performance Assessment
Required Data:
1. Exposure Data N - total number of customers served P - period of observation 2. Interruption Data Nc - number of customers interrupted on interruption i d - duration of ith interruption, hours

d1
Number of customers interrupted

d3
d2 N2
Time

N1

N3

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Distribution System Reliability
S Source A 1 B 2 C 3

L1

L2

L3

Number of Average Load Customers Demand (KW) 200 1000 150 700 100 400 INTERRUTION DATA

Number of Interruption Load Point Average Load Duration of Disconnected Event i Affected Curtailed (KW) Interruption Customers 1 L3 100 400 6 hours
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Distribution System Reliability
SAIFI =

∑N ∑N

C

=

100 200 + 150 + 100

= 0.222222 interruption customer - yr SAIDI =

∑ N d = (100 )(6 ) ∑ N 200 + 150 + 100
C

= 1.333333 hours customer - yr CAIDI =

∑ N d = (100 )(6 ) 100 ∑N
C C
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= 6 hours custumer - interruption
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Distribution System Reliability
ASUI =

∑N

C

d

8760 = 0.000152

∑ N = SAIDI = 1.333333
8760 8760

ASAI = 1 − ASUI = 1 − 0.000152 = 0.999848

ASCI =

ENS = ∑N

∑ L d = (400 )(6 ) ∑ N 200 + 150 + 100
a

= 5.333333 KWh customer − yr
Note: ENS - Energy Not Supplied
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Distribution System Reliability
Outage & Interruption Reporting

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Historical Reliability Performance Assessment
Outage & Interruption Reporting
*Not included in Distribution Reliability Performance Assessment

Date
1 2* 3 4* 5 6* 7 8 9 10* 11 12* 13 14* 15 16 17* 18* 19* 20 01/08/04 02/06/04 02/14/04 03/15/04 04/01/04 05/20/04 05/30/04 06/12/04 07/04/04 07/25/04 07/30/04 08/15/04 09/08/04 09/30/04 10/25/04 11/10/04 11/27/04 12/14/04 12/27/04 12/28/04

Affected hours
3 All 5, 6 4, 5, 6 3, 4 1, 2, 1 5 All 5 4 2 1, 2, 3 2, 3 3 3, 4, 2, 3 1, 2, 1.5 4 0.5 3 1.5 3.5 0.5 2 1 5 1 2 1 2.5 1.5 1.5 2 3.5 3 0.075 Line Fault at C Transmission Line Fault at D Pre-arranged Overload Pre-arranged Line Tripped Line fault Line Overload Transmission Line Fault Pre-arranged Line Fault Pre-arranged Line Tripped Line Fault at A Pre-arranged Pre-arranged Pre-arranged Line Fault

6

3

3

5 3

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Distribution System Reliability
Outage & Interruption Reporting
Customer Count
Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Annual Average 1 900 905 904 908 912 914 917 915 924 928 930 934 916 2 800 796 801 806 804 810 815 815 821 824 826 829 812 3 600 600 604 606 608 611 614 620 622 626 630 635 615 4 850 855 854 859 862 864 866 872 876 881 886 894 868 5 500 497 496 501 509 507 512 519 521 526 530 538 513 6 300 303 308 310 315 318 324 325 328 331 334 332 319 Total 3,950 3,956 3,967 3,990 4,010 4,024 4,048 4,066 4,092 4,116 4,136 4,162 4,043

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Distribution System Reliability
Outage & Interruption Reporting
Interruption Number 1 3 5 7 Load Points Affected 3 5 6 6 1 2 3 1 5 5 2 3 2 3 Number of Duration Customer Customers (Hrs.) Hours Affected Curtailed 600 497 303 310 912 804 608 914 512 512 821 626 826 630 1.5 0.5 0.5 1.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 2 1 1 1 1.5 1.5 1.5 Date

8 9 11 13 15 16

900 01/08/04 248.5 02/14/04 151.5 465 04/01/04 456 05/30/04 402 304 1,828 06/12/04 512 07/04/04 512 07/30/04 821 09/08/04 939 10/25/04 1,239 11/10/04 945

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Distribution System Reliability
Outage & Interruption Reporting
Calculate the Annual Reliability Performance of the Distribution System (according to Phil. Distribution Code)

∑N ∑N ∑N d SAIDI = ∑N ∑N MAIFI = ∑N
SAIFI =
C C C
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Distribution System Reliability
Predictive Reliability Performance Assessment
A Source
Distribution System λA, rA, UA

Source

λB, rB, UB λC, rC, UC

Required Data:
1. Component Reliability Data λi - failure rate of component i ri - mean repair time of component i 2. System Load Data Ni - number of customers at point i Li - the demand at point i
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Distribution System Reliability
For series combinations:
1 2
n

For parallel combinations:
1
P

S 2

λs = Σ λi
i=1 n
i=1

λp = λ1λ2 (r1 + r2) r1 r2 rp = __________ r1 + r2

Σ λiri

rs = _________ λs
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Distribution System Reliability
S Source 1 A L1
Feeder A B C

2 B L2 C

3

L3

COMPONENT DATA r λ (f/year) (hours) 0.2 6 0.1 5 0.15 8 SYSTEM LOAD DATA Number of Customers 200 150 100 Average Load Demand (KW) 1000 700 400
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Load Point Reliability Equivalents For L1
λ1 = λ A
r1 = rA = 6 hrs
= 0.2 f yr

U 1 = λ1r1 = (0.2 )(6 ) = 1.2 hrs yr

For L2

λ2 = λ A + λB
= 0.2 + 0.1 = 0.3 f yr

r2 = =

λ A rA + λB rB λ A + λB

U 2 = λ2 r2 = (0.3)(5.666667 ) = 1.7 hrs yr

(0.2 )(6 ) + (0.1)(5 )

0.2 + 0.1 = 5.666667 hrs r3 =

For L3

λ3 = λ A + λB + λC
= 0.2 + 0.1 + 0.15 = 0.45 f yr

λ A rA + λB rB + λC rC λ A + λB + λB

U 3 = λ3 r3 = (0.45 )(6.444444 ) = 2.9 hrs yr

0.2 + 0.1 + 0.15 = 6.444444 hrs

(0.2)(6) + (0.1)(5) + (0.15)(8) =

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Reliability Indices
SAIFI =

∑ λ N = (0.2 )(200 ) + (0.3)(150 ) + (0.45 )(100 ) 200 + 150 + 100 ∑N
i i i

= 0.288889 interruption customer − yr

SAIDI =

∑U N = (1.2 )(200 ) + (1.7 )(150 ) + (2.9 )(100 ) 200 + 150 + 100 ∑N
i i i

= 1.744444 hours customer - yr

CAIDI =

∑U N ∑λ N
i i

i

=

i

SAIDI 1.744444 = SAIFI 0.288889

= 6.038462 hours customer - interruption

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ASUI =

∑U N ∑ N
i i

i

8760 = 0.000199

=

SAIDI 1.744444 = 8760 8760

ASAI = 1 − ASUI = 1 − 0.000199 = 0.999801

ASCI =

ENS = ∑ Ni

∑ L ( )U ∑N
a i i

i

=

(1000 )(1.2 ) + (700 )(1.7 ) + (400 )(2.9 )
200 + 150 + 100

= 7.888889 KWh customer - yr

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Distribution System Reliability

Source

1 a A

2 b

3 c

4 d D C

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SYSTEM RELIABILITY DATA Component Length (km) λ (f/yr) r (hrs) 1 2 0.2 4 2 1 0.1 4 3 3 0.3 4 4 2 0.2 4 Main a b c d 1 3 2 1 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 2 2 2 2 Lateral

163

SYSTEM LOAD DATA Component No. of Customers Ave. Load Connected (KW) A B C D 1000 800 700 500 5000 4000 3000 2000

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RELIABILITY INDICES FOR THE SYSTEM Load pt. A Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D U U U U Component λ r r r r λ λ λ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) yr) yr) yr) yr) 1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 Main 2 3 4 a b c 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 2.2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2.73 0.4 1.2 0.8 0.4 1.2 0.8 0.4 6.0 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 2.2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2.73 0.4 1.2 0.8 0.4 1.2 0.8 0.4 6.0 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 2.2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2.73 0.4 1.2 0.8 0.4 1.2 0.8 0.4 6.0 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 2.2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2.73 0.4 1.2 0.8 0.4 1.2 0.8 0.4 6.0

d Total

where : λtotal = ∑ λ ; U total = ∑ U ; rtotal = ∑ U
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∑λ
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SAIFI =

∑ λ N = (2.2)(1000) + (2.2)(800) + (2.2)(700) + (2.2)(500 ) 1000 + 800 + 700 + 500 ∑N
i i i

= 2.2 int customer − yr
SAIDI =

∑U N = (6.0 )(1000) + (6.0 )(800) + (6.0 )(700) + (6.0 )(500) 1000 + 800 + 700 + 500 ∑N
i i i

= 6.0 hours customer - yr CAIDI =

∑U N ∑λ N
i i

i

=

i

SAIDI 6.0 = SAIFI 2.2

= 2.727273 hours customer - interruption

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ASUI =

∑U N ∑ N
i i

i

8760 = 0.000685

=

SAIDI 6 .0 = 8760 8760

ASAI = 1 − ASUI = 1 − 0.000685 = 0.999315

ASCI = =

∑L U ∑N
ai i

i

(5000 )(6.0 ) + (4000 )(6.0 ) + (3000 )(6.0 ) + (2000 )(6.0 )

1000 + 800 + 700 + 500 = 28.0 KWh customer - yr

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Distribution System Reliability
Effect of lateral protection
Source 1 a A C B Typical radial distribution system with lateral protections 2 b 3 c 4 d D

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RELIABILITY INDICES WITH LATERAL PROTECTION Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D U U U U Component λ r r r r λ λ λ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) yr) yr) yr) yr) 1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 2 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 3 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2 4 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 a b c d Total Lateral Main 0.2 2 0.4 0.6 2 1.2 0.4 1.0 3.6 3.6 1.4 3.14 4.4 1.2 2 3.33 0.8 4.0 0.2 1.0 2 3.6 0.4 3.6 Load pt. A

where : λtotal = ∑ λ ; U total = ∑ U ; rtotal = ∑ U
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SAIFI = ∑

λi Ni
i

∑N

=

(1.0)(1000) + (1.4)(800) + (1.2)(700) + (1.0)(500)
1000+ 800 + 700 + 500

= 1.153333 int customer− yr

SAIDI =

∑U N = (3.6 )(1000) + (4.4 )(800) + (4.0 )(700) + (3.6 )(500) 1000 + 800 + 700 + 500 ∑N
i i i

= 3.906667 hours customer - yr CAIDI =

∑U N ∑λ N
i i

i

=

i

SAIDI 3.906667 = SAIFI 1.153333

= 3.387283 hours customer - interruption

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ASUI =

∑U N ∑ N
i i

i

8760 = 0.000446

=

SAIDI 3.906667 = 8760 8760

ASAI = 1 − ASUI = 1 − 0.000446 = 0.999554 ASCI = =

∑L U ∑N
ai i

i

(5000 )(3.6 ) + (4000 )(4.4 ) + (3000 )(4.0 ) + (2000 )(3.6 )

1000 + 800 + 700 + 500 = 18.266667 KWh customer - yr

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Distribution System Reliability
Effect of disconnects
Source 1 a A C B Typical radial distribution system reinforce with lateral protections and disconnects
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3 c

4 d D

Power System Analysis 101

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RELIABILITY INDICES WITH LATERAL PROTECTION AND DISCONNECTS Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D U U U U Component λ r r r r λ λ λ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) yr) yr) yr) yr) 1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 2 0.1 0.5 0.05 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 3 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2 4 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 4 0.8 a b c d Total Lateral Main 0.2 2 0.4 0.6 2 1.2 0.4 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.89 2.65 1.2 2 2.75 0.8 3.3 0.2 1.0 2 3.6 0.4 3.6 Load pt. A

where : λtotal = ∑ λ ; U total = ∑ U ; rtotal = ∑ U
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SAIFI =

∑ λ N = (1.0 )(1000) + (1.4 )(800) + (1.2)(700) + (1.0 )(500) 1000 + 800 + 700 + 500 ∑N
i i i

= 1.153333 int customer − yr
SAIDI =

∑U N = (1.5)(1000) + (2.65)(800) + (3.3)(700) + (3.6 )(500) 1000 + 800 + 700 + 500 ∑N
i i i

= 2.576667 hours customer - yr CAIDI =

∑U N ∑λ N
i i

i

=

i

SAIDI 2.576667 = SAIFI 1.153333

= 2.234105 hours customer - interruption

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ASUI =

∑U N ∑ N
i i

i

8760 = 0.000294

=

SAIDI 2.576667 = 8760 8760

ASAI = 1 − ASUI = 1 − 0.000294 = 0.999706 ASCI = =

∑L U ∑N
ai i

i

(5000 )(1.5 ) + (4000 )(2.65 ) + (3000 )(3.3) + (2000 )(3.6 )

1000 + 800 + 700 + 500 = 11.733333 KWh customer - yr

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Effect of protection failures
RELIABILITY INDICES IF THE FUSES OPERATE WITH PROBABILITY OF 0.9 Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D U U U U Component λ r r r r λ λ λ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) yr) yr) yr) yr) 1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 2 0.1 0.5 0.05 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 3 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2 4 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 4 0.8 a b c d Total Lateral Main 0.2 2 0.06 0.5 0.04 0.5 0.02 0.5 1.12 1.39 0.4 0.03 0.02 0.01 1.56 0.02 0.5 0.6 2 0.04 0.5 0.02 0.5 1.48 1.82 0.01 0.02 0.5 1.2 0.06 0.5 0.02 0.4 2 0.01 0.02 0.5 2.69 1.3 2.58 0.01 0.03 0.8 0.01 3.35 0.02 0.5 0.06 0.5 0.04 0.5 0.2 2 1.12 3.27 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.4 3.66 Load pt. A

where : λtotal = ∑ λ ; U total = ∑ U ; rtotal = ∑ U
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Effect of load transfer to alternative supply
RELIABILITY INDICES WITH UNRESTRICTED LOAD TRANSFERS Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D U U U U Component λ r r r r λ λ λ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) yr) yr) yr) yr) 1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 2 0.1 0.5 0.05 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 0.5 0.05 0.1 0.5 0.05 3 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 0.5 0.15 4 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 4 0.8 a b c d Total Lateral Main 0.2 2 0.4 0.6 2 1.2 0.4 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.39 1.95 1.2 2 0.8 0.2 1.0 2 1.5 0.4 1.5 Load pt. A

1.88 2.25

where : λtotal = ∑ λ ; U total = ∑ U ; rtotal = ∑ U
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Effect of load transfer to alternative supply
RELIABILITY INDICES WITH RESTRICTED LOAD TRANSFERS Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D U U U U Component λ r r r r λ λ λ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) yr) yr) yr) yr) 1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 1.9 0.38 0.2 1.9 0.38 0.2 1.9 0.38 2 0.1 0.5 0.05 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 1.9 0.19 0.1 1.9 0.19 3 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 1.9 0.57 4 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 4 0.8 a b c d Total Distributor Section 0.2 2 0.4 0.6 2 1.2 0.4 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.59 2.23 1.2 2 0.8 0.2 1.0 2 2.3 0.4 2.3 Load pt. A

2.23 2.67

where : λtotal = ∑ λ ; U total = ∑ U ; rtotal = ∑ U
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Distribution System Reliability
SUMMARY OF INDICES Case 1 Load Point A λ (f/yr) r (hrs) U (hrs/yr) Load Point B λ (f/yr) r (hrs) U (hrs/yr) Load Point C λ (f/yr) r (hrs) U (hrs/yr) Load Point D λ (f/yr) r (hrs) U (hrs/yr) 2.2 2.73 6.0 2.2 2.73 6.0 2.2 2.73 6.0 2.2 2.73 6.0 Case 2 1.0 3.6 3.6 1.4 3.14 4.4 1.2 3.33 4 1.0 3.6 3.6 Case 3 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.89 2.65 1.2 2.75 3.3 1.0 3.6 3.6 Case 4 1.12 1.39 1.56 1.48 1.82 2.69 1.3 2.58 3.35 1.12 3.27 3.66 Case 5 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.39 1.95 1.2 1.88 2.25 1.0 1.5 1.5 Case 6 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.59 2.23 1.2 2.23 2.67 1.0 2.34 2.34

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Distribution System Reliability
SUMMARY OF INDICES (cont.) Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6 Sytem Indices SAIFI 2.2 1.15 1.15 1.26 1.15 1.15 SAIDI 6.0 3.91 2.58 2.63 1.80 2.11 CAIDI 2.73 3.39 2.23 2.09 1.56 1.83 ASAI 0.999315 0.999554 0.999706 0.999700 0.999795 0.999759 ASUI 0.000685 0.000446 0.000294 0.003000 0.000205 0.000241 ENS 84.0 54.8 35.2 35.9 25.1 29.1 ASCI 28.0 18.3 11.7 12.0 8.4 9.7
Case 1. Base case. Case 2. As in Case 1, but with perfect fusing in the lateral distributors. Case 3. As in Case 2, but with disconnects on the main feeders. Case 4. As in Case 3, probability of successful lateral distributor fault clearing of 0.9. Case 5. As in Case 3, but with an alternative supply. Case 6. As in Case 5, probability of conditional load transfer of 0.6.
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Economics of Power System Reliability
Supply Cost
• Investment Cost • Operation and Maintenance Cost • Fuel Cost
IC + O&M + FC Annual Supply Cost (ASC) = Annual kWh Generation

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Supply Cost
Luzon Grid Supply Cost*
LOLP (days/yr) Frequency (per year) Duration (Hours) Supply Cost (Php/kWh)

12.26 6.25 1.88 0.94 0.45 0.21 0.08 0.04
Source: del Mundo (1991)

70 38 13 7 4 2 0.73 0.31

2.11 2.00 1.73 1.61 1.50 1.38 1.31 1.30

0.90 0.94 1.01 1.03 1.06 1.09 1.11 1.14

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Supply Cost

Luzon Grid Supply Cost
Source: del Mundo (1991)
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Outage Cost
Impact of Power Interruptions To Electric Utility
• Loss of revenues • Additional work • Loss of confidence • Dissatisfaction • Interruption of productivity • Additional investment for alternative power supply • Loss value added/income • Loss of investors • Unemployment
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To Customers

To National Economy

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Outage Cost
Impact to National Economy: NEDA Study (1974)
P 342,380 per day – losses due to brownout in Cebu-Mandaue area

P1.4 Billion – losses due to brownouts in 1980

CRC Memo No. 27 (1988)
P 3.4 Billion – loss of the manufacturing sector in 1987 due to power outages

Viray & del Mundo Study (1988)
P 25 – losses in Value Added per kWh curtailment

Sinay Report (1989)
45% – loss in Value Added in the manufacturing sector in Cebu due to power outages
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Outage Cost
Impact to Customers: A. Short-Run Direct Cost
• Opportunity losses during outages

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Opportunity losses during restart period Raw materials spoilage Finish products spoilage Idle workers Overtime Equipment damage Special operation and maintenance during restart period Standby generators Power plant Alternative fuels Transfer location Inventory
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Outage Cost
Outage Cost to Industrial Sector in Luzon (0.0086 + 0.0023D)F + 0.1730 Pesos/kWh
Where, F – Frequency of Interruptions D – Average Duration of Interruptions

Losses of MERALCO Industrial Customers in 1989 Energy Sales: 3.781 billion kWh Outage Cost: Php 0.3544/kWh Total Losses: Php 1.34 billion
Source: del Mundo (1991)
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Outage Cost
Luzon Grid Outage Cost*
LOLP (days/yr) Frequency (per year) Duration (Hours) Outage Cost (Php/kWh)

12.26 6.25 1.88 0.94 0.45 0.21 0.08 0.04
Source: del Mundo (1991)

70 38 13 7 4 2 0.73 0.31

2.11 2.00 1.73 1.61 1.50 1.38 1.31 1.30

1.12 0.68 0.34 0.26 0.22 0.20 0.18 0.18

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Outage Cost

Luzon Grid Outage Cost
Source: del Mundo (1991)
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Total Cost
Luzon Grid Total Cost
LOLP (days/yr) Supply Cost (Php/kWh) ATC = ASC + AOC Outage Cost (Php/kWh) Total Cost (Php/kWh)

12.26 6.25 1.88 0.94 0.45 0.21 0.08 0.04
Source: del Mundo (1991)

0.90 0.94 1.01 1.03 1.06 1.09 1.11 1.14

2.11 2.00 1.73 1.61 1.50 1.38 1.31 1.30

2.02 1.62 1.35 1.29 1.28 1.29 1.29 1.32

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Optimal Reliability Level

Luzon Grid Total Cost
Source: del Mundo (1991)
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