Munachi Hugh Mbaezue

Reproductive Cloning • Is used to make a genetic copy of a living or recently deceased animal. Making a full living copy requires a surrogate mother • Some animals are easier to clone than others • An Example: Dolly the Sheep .

.Dolly. o Dolly the Sheep  Born in Scotland at the Roslin Institute  Alive July 5th 1996 to February 14 2003  Was the first cloned mammal  Died at the same age as the cell she was created from. She only lived to half the life expectancy of a sheep... with cancer and arthritis.

[a-b] process might be repeated several times. it transferred into a uterus of a female host d) Birth ."somatic cell nuclear transfer" (SCNT) a) nucleus is removed from donor egg [take a donor egg from animal 1] and placed into another egg that had its nucleus removed b) electric current / chemicals are added to generate cell division .It proved that a specialized adult cell could be “reprogrammed” to create an entire new organism .Why is Dolly’s case so amazing? . as it was in Dolly’s case c) Once cloned embryo is stable.Reproductive Cloning Procedure o Basic process -.

• when animals are cloned. diseases or die mysteriously • When the genes are moved from cell to egg. there is always the risk of damage which can lead to disorders and harm to the eventually created animal • Is extremely expensive.Reproductive Cloning--the issues • mutations in mitochondrial DNA could be playing a part in the aging process. and not very effective (ex. most have problems. Dolly was only one embryo that developed out of 267 that were implanted) .

Advanced Cell Technologies sucessfully harvested stem cells. since the cell that divided the most only divided 6 times.Therapeutic Cloning Is the taking of a stem cell from and embryo and producing a certain kind of cell from it so that it can be used to treat disease or grow organs. Example: in 2001. The expirament was not very successful though. the nucleus of a skin cell. and inserted into each of them. .

Therapeutic Cloning Procedure • the same. "somatic cell transfer" occurs in therapudic cloning as it does in reproductive • stem cells are harvested from embryos to create any type of human cell • this harvested human cell is then given a new nucleus with new DNA and is shocked so that it reproduces • but instead of putting the newly created egg (from animal 1's donor cell and animal 2's DNA) into the uterus to develop. it is put into a tissue culture so that it can multiply .

killing it.Therapeutic Cloning--the issues • Harvest stem cells to study development to treat disease and create new organs o Stem cells taken from the egg. your mental health would be nonexistent. but your body would still be living . but after a certain point. raises ethical concerns (killing of unborn children) • You would be able to prolong your life using the recreating of organs.

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