FOR BUSINESS, ECONOMICS, AND FINANCE
Warren B. Gordon / Walter O. Wang / April Allen Materowski
Baruch College City University of New York
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Cover designed by Joshua Gordon. Photograph of the TI89 Platinum Graphing Calculator reproduced by permission of Texas Instruments.
Copyright © 2007, 2006 by Pearson Custom Publishing All rights reserved. Permission in writing must be obtained from the publisher before any part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system. All trademarks, service marks, registered trademarks, and registered service marks are the property of their respective owners and are used herein for identi cation purposes only.
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501 Boylston Street, Suite 900, Boston, MA 02116 A Pearson Education Company Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Preface
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics and Finance is a combination of the authors two texts Precalculus and Elements of Calculus and Applied Calculus. This single text may be used to cover the content of an applied calculus course for nonscience majors in a variety of ways. This text continues the approach used in its precursor texts, that is, the integration of precalculus with the calculus as well as the integration of technology. Most sections of this text conclude with Calculator Tips, illustrating how the calculator may be used to enhance the understanding and appreciation of the topics considered in that section. While the text illustrates the TI 89 calculator, many of the calculator examples and exercises may be worked with most graphing calculators. As most students are now required to have a basic knowledge of spreadsheets, we utilize them several times in the text. They make the calculations involved in Newton s method painless, they allow us to easily illustrate the use of left, right and midpoint variations in computing Riemann sums, and even suggest the notion of speed of convergence. Many of the graphs and tables found in this text were created using MAPLE®, the TI 89 calculator and Excel®. The exponential and logarithmic functions are introduced in this text, assuming no prior knowledge. There are abundant examples illustrating the importance of these functions, perhaps more than time may allow and therefore selection is left to the instructor. In an introductory applied calculus text we believe it is inappropriate to give a detailed treatment of multivariable functions. We make no attempt to develop the methods used to sketch surfaces, but instead, examine functions of two variables using level curves. Our objective in this chapter is for students to understand the notion of a partial derivative, and the optimization of multivariable functions, including the method of Lagrange multipliers, an important tool in Economics and Finance. The chapter concludes with an examination of double integrals and their application to areas, volumes and probability. To learn mathematics, students must work out exercises and we have included many in this text. The text includes answers to both the odd and even exercises. For many students, applied calculus is a terminal course. Most of the exercises were written with the goal of reinforcing the concepts and skills introduced in the section. We also include, in most exercise sets, problems which will allow the stronger students to stretch their understanding of the calculus. These exercises can be assigned by the instructor as extra credit or honors problems. As there are a significant number of students majoring in quantitative disciplines who will continue with their study of mathematics, they may find some of these exercises useful in easing their transition to the next course. On the publisher s web page http://www.pearsoncustom.com/gordon_appliedcalcbus/ there is located a link to the text videos. These videos, presented by two of the authors, correspond to the text material, section by section. We have found that the videos are very useful to students who miss a class, or just need another detailed look at the material. The videos allow students to go over the section material at their own speed. There is more material in this text than can be included in a one semester course, and as a result, there is some flexibility in the inclusion of topics. Chapter 0 is provided for students who need an algebra refresher. It has been our experience that students should be referred to this material as needed (or to the corresponding videos). The content of this
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Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Preface
chapter is aimed directly at the algebraic skills needed for calculus. Appendix A, Matrices and Linear Systems, is generally not found in most applied calculus texts. We include it as many business schools require their students to be familiar with matrices and their applications. No other chapter in the text uses this material, and it may be included or omitted as required by the needs of the course. Trigonometric functions do not appear in this text. While we have been tempted to include them, we realize that periodic functions arise mostly in the study of physics, infrequently, if ever, in business applications. A supplement can be made available to those who wish to briefly examine the calculus of these functions. In the inside cover of this text are images of the TI 89 and TI 89 Titanium calculators. Note that in addition to the symbol on each key there are two additional symbols associated with each key; on the TI 89, either in orange, accessed by first pressing the orange 2nd key and then the key with the associated symbol, or in green, accessed by first pressing the green diamond key and then the key with the associated symbol. We shall indicate the green diamond by the symbol * in this text. The TI 89 Titanium model has the * key in light green and the 2nd key in blue. Both of these keys are found in the upper left portion of the keypad on each of the calculators. Also note the purple alpha key which is needed for the space and and insertions. We gratefully acknowledge the help of many of our colleagues at Baruch College who have provided suggestions and offered constructive criticism of this text, in particular, we thank Sherman Wong who is our local Maple guru. We thank Delia Uherec, Acquisitions Editor at Pearson Publication for her assistance with publication of this text, and Curt Hinrichs and Ann Day, Editors at Thompson Brooks/Cole Publishing, for allowing us to use material written by the first author from the text Succeeding in Applied Calculus: Algebra Essentials, and its website. Warren B. Gordon Walter O. Wang April Allen Materowski April, 2006
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Contents
Preface iii
Chapter 0
Reviewing the Basics
2 3 5 5 6 9 10 12 14 15 17 18 21 22 24 25 26 27 28 29 32 32 38 39
0.1 Solving Linear Equations
Addition and Multiplication Properties Linear Equations with Fractions Linear Equations with Decimals Solving for a Particular Variable Applications of Linear Equations Calculator Tips Exercises Isolation of Squared Term Isolation of Squared Binomial Term Calculator Tips Exercises Completion of the Square Calculator Tips Exercises
0.2 Solving Equations of the Form ax2  b = 0
0.3 Completing the Square
0.4 The Quadratic Formula and Applications
Quadratic Formula Clearing Fractions Applications Equations Reducible to Quadratics Calculator Tips Exercises Sign Analysis Interval Notation Calculator Tips Exercises
0.5 Solving NonLinear Inequalities
Chapter 1
1.1 The Line
Functions and their Applications
42 43 45 46 47 49 v
Two Dimensional Coordinate System Horizontal and Vertical Lines The Slope Intercept Form Graphing The PointSlope Equation The Slope Formula
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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The General Linear Equation An Economic Application Calculator Tips Exercises
51 53 56 58 60 61 62 64 66 67 68 69 70 70 71 75 79 80 82 83 84 88 90 91 91 94 94 97 99 102 103 104 105 109 111 113 114 115 116 117 119 124 124 126
1.2 Basic Notions of Functions
Definition of a Function Functional Notation Difference Quotient Domain and Range Independent and Dependent Variables Vertical Line Test Combining Functions Composition Decomposition Functions of Several Variables Calculator Tips Exercises BreakEven Analysis Depreciation Piecewise Linear Graphs Calculator Tips Exercise
1.3 Applications of Linear Functions
1.4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas
Scaling Vertical Translation Axis of a Parabola Horizontal Translation Locating the Vertex Graphing a Parabola in the form y = ax2 + bx + c Applications to Optimization Calculator Tips Exercise Definition of a Circle Equation of a Circle Graphing a Circle Tangent Line The Ellipse Calculator Tips Exercises Supply Function Demand Function Market Equilibrium Revenue, Cost and Profit Functions Marginal Functions Calculator Tips Exercises
1.5 The Circle
1.6 Economic Functions
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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1.7 More on Functions
Using the Zeros Even Functions Symmetry About the yaxis Odd Functions Symmetry About the Origin Rational Functions Vertical Asymptotes Horizontal Asymptotes Translations Calculator Tips Exercises
127 130 131 132 135 136 144 147 149 151 153 155 156 156 161 162
1.8 Regression
Scatter Plot Line of Best Fit Linear Regression Correlation Coefficient NonLinear Regression Calculator Tips Exercises Chapter Summary
Chapter 2
An Introduction to Calculus
169 170 171 171 174 175 176 177 179 180 181 182 184 185 186 188 190 191 193 196 196 198 199
2.1 Slope of a Curve
Slope of a Tangent Line The Slope as a Limit Slope of a Curve Equation of a Tangent Line A Place Where No Tangent Exists The Derivative Calculator Tips Exercises Derivative of a Linear Function The Simple Power Rule The Constant Multiplier Rule The Sum Rule Calculator Tips Exercises The Limit Limits by Substitution One Sided Limits Jumps and Holes Continuity Removable Discontinuities Differentiability and Continuity Calculator Tips Exercises
2.2 Derivatives Rules 1
2.3 Limits and Continuity
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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2.4 Limits at Infinity, Infinite Limits and Asymptotes
Limits at Infinity Dominant Terms Horizontal asymptotes Infinite limits Vertical asymptotes Calculator Tips Exercises The Product Rule The Quotient Rule Calculator Tips Exercises
202 203 205 207 207 208 209 210 211 214 214 217 218 221 221 222 224 225 227 229 229 232 232 234 235 237 237 239 242 242 243 245 246 246 247 248 249 252 252 253
2.5 Derivative Rules 2
2.6 The Chain Rule
The Chain Rule The General Power Rule Calculator Tips Exercises Marginal Functions Average Cost Velocity Average and Instantaneous Rates of Change Calculator Tips Exercises Finding a Tangent Line Finding the Derivative Calculator Tips Exercises Vertical Angles Parallel Lines Similarity Congruence Midpoint Formula Exercises
2.7 Marginal Functions and Rates of Change
2.8 Implicit Differentiation
2.9 Elements of Geometry
2.10 Related Rates
A Geometric Example An Ecological Example An Economic Example Using Similarity Exercises Newton s Method Calculator Tips Exercises Chapter Review
2.11 Newton s Method
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Chapter 3
Applications of the Derivative
256 257 258 259 261 264 265 266 267 269 274 274 276 277 278 279 281 281 288 289 290 294 295 295 298 299 300 302 303 306 309 310 312 314 315 315 317 319
3.1 Extrema of a Function
Continuity Maximum and Minimum Values Extreme Value Theorem Relative Maxima and Minima Critical Numbers and Critical Points Calculator Tips Exercises Increasing and Decreasing Functions The First Derivative Test Sign Diagrams Calculator Tips Exercises The Second Derivative Higher Order Derivatives Velocity and Acceleration Concavity The Second Derivative Test for Concavity The Second Derivative Test for Relative Extrema Implicit Differentiation and Curve Sketching Calculator Tips Exercises Area and Perimeter Optimization Procedure Volume Distance and Velocity Calculator Tips Exercises
3.2 The First Derivative Test
3.3 Concavity and the Second Derivative
3.4 Applications I Geometric Optimization Problems
3.5 Applications II Business and Economic Optimization Problems
Price, Demand and Revenue Cost and Average Cost Elasticity of Demand Exercises
3.6 Linearization and Differentials
Linearization Differentials The Differential Approximation Differentiable Functions Differential Formulas Exercises Chapter Review
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Chapter 4
Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
322 322 323 325 329 331 332 332 335 336 339 340 342 343 343 346 349 350 353 353 354 355 357 359 359 362 363 364 364 367 368 370 371 373 375 376 377 378 380 382 383 384 384
4.1 Inverse Functions
OnetoOne Function Horizontal Line Test Increasing and Decreasing Functions Inverse Function Composition Property Derivative of the Inverse Calculator Tips Exercises Exponential Expressions The Graph of y = f1x2 = bx Solving Special Exponential Equations Finding the Exponential Function Growth and Decay Rates Power Function Calculator Tips Exercises Continuous Compounding of Interest The Constant e Calculator Tips Exercises The Simple Exponential Rule The Generalized Exponential Rule Exponential Domination Calculator Tips Exercises
4.2 Exponential Functions
4.3 The Number e
4.4 The Derivative of the Exponential Function
4.5 Logarithmic Functions
Definition of a Logarithm Base 10 and e pH of a Solution Graphing Logarithmic Functions The Simple Logarithmic Rule The Generalized Logarithmic Rule Calculator Tips Exercises Multiplicative and Division Properties Exponential Property Derivatives Using the Properties Logarithmic Equations Exponential Equations Change of Base Derivatives in Different Bases Logarithmic Differentiation Calculator Tips Exercises
4.6 Properties of Logarithmic Functions
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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4.7 Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
Exponential Growth Population Growth Continuous Compounding Radioactive Decay Carbon Dating Logistic Growth Richter Scale Calculator Tips Exercises Chapter Review
387 387 388 388 389 390 392 393 394 395
Chapter 5
Integration and its Applications
398 399 399 401 402 403 404 405 407 410 411 412 413 414 415 418 419 421 421 423 424 425 426 433 433 435 436 436 439 440 444 445
5.1 Antidifferentiation Integration
Antiderivative Integration Theorems Simple Power Rule Simple Logarithmic Rule Simple Exponential Rule Calculator Tips Exercises
5.2 Applications of Antidifferentiation
Particular Solutions Equations of Motion Marginal Functions Separable Differential Equations Calculator Tips Exercises Reversing the Chain Rule Generalized Power Rule Generalized Logarithmic Rule Generalized Exponential Rule Calculator Tips Exercises Areas by Rectangles Left Endpoints Right Endpoints Midpoints Calculator Tips Exercises
5.3 The Substitution Method
5.4 Approximation of Areas
5.5 Sigma Notation and Areas
Sigma Notation Linearity Property Summation Formulas Riemann Sums Areas by Riemann Sums Calculator Tips Exercises
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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5.6 The Definite Integral
Definite Integral Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus Basic Properties Calculator Tips Exercises Substitution Odd and Even Functions Average Value Derivative of an Integral Calculator Tips Exercises
447 448 450 456 459 462 464 466 468 470 471 472 479 481 483 484 485 486 489 492 494 494
5.7 Substitution and Properties of Definite Integrals
5.8 Applications of the Definite Integral
Area Between Curves Consumer and Producer Surplus Continuous Income Flow Probability Calculator Tips Exercises Substitution Integration by Parts Tabular Integration Exercises Chapter Review
5.9 Two Integration Techniques
Chapter 6 An Introduction to Functions of Several Variables
6.1 Functions of Several Variables
Functions of Several Variables Difference Quotients ThreeDimensional Coordinate System Surfaces Calculator Tips Exercises 498 499 499 500 501 503 504 507 509 511 513 516 518 519
6.2 Partial Derivatives
Partial Derivative Visualization of the Partial Derivative Level Curves Contours CobbDouglas Production Function Utility Functions and Indifference Curves Higher Order Partial Derivatives Calculator Tips Exercises
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
0
Reviewing the Basics
T
his chapter reviews some of the basic concepts from elementary and intermediate algebra. Each section begins with a pretest which you may take to see if you remember the material. If you do, then the section may be skipped, if you cannot solve most of the problems in the pretest, then you should review the entire section.
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Section 0.1
Solving Linear Equations
0.1
» » » » » »
Solving Linear Equations
Addition and Multiplication Properties Linear Equations with Fractions Linear Equations with Decimals Solving for a Particular Variable Applications of Linear Equations Calculator Tips
Pretest 0.1  Time 10 minutes
Each question is worth one point. Solve for the unknown: 1. x + 2 = 3 3. 3y  2 = 7 5. 2z  5 = 5z  3 7. 9.
3 5x
2. x + 5 = 2 4.  2x + 4 =  10 6. 0.2x + 3.212  5x2 = .5 8.
3 4w
= 12 =
4 3

1 4
= 2 3w +
7 2
2x 3x  2
10. Solve for y: 2x  3y = 5
In this section we review the method of solving a linear equation. The objective of this section is to remind you how to solve an equation of the form ax + b = c for x (we assume, of course, that a Z 0). The basic idea of solving an equation is to isolate the unknown on one side of the equation. The solution is then the number on the other side. Usually, two steps are required. First isolate the term containing the unknown, then isolate the unknown itself. This often takes the application of two properties: the first is the addition property which states that the same term may be added (or subtracted) to each side of an equation. For example if A + D = E then A + D  D = E  D or A = E  D. This property may be rephrased as follows: an expression may moved from one side of an equation to the other provided its sign is reversed. Notice we move D from the left side of the equation A + D = E to the right side by changing its sign and writing A = E  D. Sometimes the procedure is called transposition. Once the unknown term is isolated, we use the multiplication property to solve for it; this property states that two sides of an equation may be multiplied by the same (nonzero) expression. For example, if A = B then AC = BC or if AB = D, then if we multiply this equation by 1/B (or equivalently divide by B) we have that A = D/B. We illustrate how these properties are used in the following examples. Example 1 Solve the following equation for x: x + 2 = 5. Solution We isolate the x term by transposing the 2 to the right hand side of the equation and write x = 5  2, or x = 3.
Addition and Multiplication Properties
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
and Finance. we need only multiply both sides of the equation by the reciprocal of 2/3. Wang. and April Allen Materowski. . by Warren B. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. ? 3132 . 1/3 yielding. ? 3 + 2 = 5 5 = 5 Thus. Example 3 2 Solve the following equation for x: x = 5 3 Solution Method I Since the x term is already isolated. In this example. 11/323x = 11/329 or x = 3 We check our result. 2 x = 5 3 3 2 3 a b x = a b5 2 3 2 15 x = 2 Method II Recall that whenever an equation contains fraction. we could have equivalently divided each term by 3. This is performed by substituting our result for x wherever it appears in the original problem. Gordon. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. we may multiply every term on each side of the equation by the LCD (lowest common denominator) to clear the fractions. Inc. which is 3/2.Section 0.2 = 7 7 = 7 which checks our solution. In Linear Equations with Fractions Applied Calculus for Business. Note: in the last example.1 Solving Linear Equations * ** 3 It is important to check the result. our solution checks the original equation Example 2 Solve the following equation for x: 3x .2 = 7 ? 9 . Thus. instead of multiplying each term on both sides of the equation by 1/3.2 = 7 Solution We isolate the x term by transposing the . Economics.2 to the right hand side of the equation and write 3x = 7 + 2 or 3x = 9 we next solve for x by multiplying both sides of the equation by the reciprocal of 3. Walter O.
First we transpose the .11 + 7 5y = 2y .1 Solving Linear Equations this example.2w + 30 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. so we have 5y = 2y . 2 x = 5 3 2 3# x = 3#5 3 2x = 15 1 1 a b 2x = a b 15 2 2 15 x = 2 We leave the checking of the solution in this and the rest of the examples as exercises for you. there is often more than one way to solve an equation.w + for w. Walter O. we multiply both sides by 1/3 (or equivalently divide both sides by 3) to obtain y = 4/3 Example 5 2 3 1 5 Solve the equation w + = . by Warren B. Solution We need to isolate the y term.2y = 4 or 3y = 4 and finally. Inc. Economics.4 We next transpose the 2y term to the left hand side by changing its sign to obtain 5y .w b + 12 # 3 4 6 2 8w + 9 = . 4 6 2 3 Solution We multiply every term on both sides of the equation by the LCD which is 12 to obtain 2 3 5 1 12 # w + 12 # = 12 # a . Sometimes one method may be preferred to another as it results in less work in obtaining the solution.9 8w + 2w = 21 10w = 21 w = 21/10 Applied Calculus for Business. As we see from the last example.4 * ** Section 0. and April Allen Materowski.7 from the left to the right side of the equation by changing its sign.7 = 2y .11 for y. Gordon. Example 4 Solve the equation 5y . Wang. we need only multiply each term on either side of the equation by the LCD which is 3 and then complete the solution as follows. and Finance.2w + 30 8w = .
Economics.19 + 16m .5. to obtain x = or x = 8 4 y.04).4m2 for m.2x2 = 100 # 0. Wang.213 . more than one variable may appear in an equation and we are asked to solve for one of them in terms of the others. We isolate the y term by transposing the x term to the right hand side of the equation to obtain Applied Calculus for Business.28/5.5x + 100 # 0.4y 3 Solving for a Particular Variable Linear Equations with Decimals (b)We next solve the original equation for y.28m = .04 50x + 2013 .213 .12m = .12m = .12m .12m + 3 = .22 + 16m . Gordon.22 . isolate the term containing the desired variable.56 x = . and Finance.4y Now we divide each side of the equation by 3.22 m = 22/28 = 11/14 Example 7 Solve the equation 0.6m2 = 9 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.5x + 0.) Sometimes.1 Solving Linear Equations * ** 5 Example 6 Solve the equation 312m . where they are cleared by multiplying by the LCD.42 + 315 . Solution We first distribute. Walter O. Inc. 6m .19 + 16m .417 .6 (Note that we could have written the answer as . Observe that the smallest decimal involves hundredths (0.40x = 4 10x = . so we multiply each term on each side of the equation by 100 to obtain 100 # 0.04 Solution Just as with fractions.12 + 15 . combine like terms. we left the answer in decimal form. and April Allen Materowski.2x2 = 0. . and transpose to isolate m and then solve.56 10 = .2x2 = 4 50x + 60 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.18m = 9 .16m = . Example 8 Solve the equation 3x + 4y = 24 for (a) x (b) y. but since the original problem involved decimals. 3 24 .3 . Solution (a) As before we isolate the x term by transposing the y term to obtain 3x = 24 .28 + 16m . we may do the same thing with decimals. Our tactics are still the same. by Warren B.Section 0.
by Warren B. twice Susan s age (two times her age) will be 28 years more than Mark. Find the length of the longer piece.m + 102 respectively. Solution Let x = the length of the shorter piece. therefore. so we must have 2127 . At that time. we have Susan s present age = 27 .6 * ** Section 0.3x = 6 . twice Susan s age (then) will exceed Mark s age (then) by 28 years. The longer piece is 3 feet longer than twice the shorter piece. and Finance. we have e !!!! 24 !!!! e !!!! e ! !!!!! x 3 + 2x Figure 1 x + 13 + 2x2 = 24 3x + 3 = 24 3x = 24 . Inc. we have Applied Calculus for Business. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Walter O.x 4 4 It is important that we be able to use mathematics as means by which we may solve applied problems. What are their present ages? Solution Let Mark s present age = m. The next few examples illustrate how we translate an applied problem into a mathematical equation and then solve the equation. Solving.x + 6 4 3 24 . Gordon. Example 10 The sum of Susan and Mark s present ages is 27 years. the shorter piece is 7 feet long and the longer piece is 3 + 2172 = 17 feet long. more than into + . Wang. since the sum of their present ages is 27.m + 102 = 1m + 102 + 28 twice Susan s age is 28 years more that Mark s age Note that twice Susan s age exceeds Marks age by 28. Ten years from now.m. In 10 years their ages will be 1m + 102 and 127 .) The sum of the shorter piece and the longer piece is the total length which is 24 feet (see Figure 1).3x Dividing each side of the equation by 4 gives y = often. we need to add 28 to Mark. Economics. this last equation is written as 3 y = .3 3x = 21 x = 7 Thus. so for them to be equal. The longer piece = 3 + 2x (Note that is translates into = .1 Solving Linear Equations 4y = 24 . . and April Allen Materowski. Application of Linear Equations Example 9 A 24 foot rope is cut into two pieces. Let us translate the statement the longer piece is 3 feet longer than twice the shorter piece. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.
Section 0. and Susan s is 27 .3m = . representing the porch. so we have Al s salary + Bob s Salary = 100000 or 2b . (Alternately.000 less than twice Bob s salary = 2b .8000 = 21360002 . and the length 2162 + 7 = 19 feet. . Gordon. Solution We recall that the perimeter of a rectangle of length l and width w is P = 2l + 2w. Wang. Due to the remaining lot size.8000 = 72000 . How much does each earn? Solution Let b = Bob s salary. why?) Exercise 12 The Smiths want to add a rectangular porch to their home. We labeled the above rectangle.000. in Figure 2 with all the pertinent information.000 and Al s salary is 2b .m2 = m + 38 74 . Inc. the length of the proposed porch must be 7 feet more than twice the width. we have that 50 = 2l + 2w = 212w + 72 + 2w or 50 = 4w + 14 + 2w 36 = 6w 6 = w Thus. Economics. and Finance. we could subtract Bob s salary from $100.8000 Together they earn 100.000 to compute Al s salary. From the perimeter relationship.12 = 15 years. together they earn $100. Al s salary is $8.36 m = 12 Thus.000. Exercise 11 Al earns $8.000 less than twice Bob s salary. determine the dimensions of the room.1 Solving Linear Equations * ** 7 2137 .2m = m + 38 . Mark s present age is 12 years. the width of the porch is to be 6 feet. by Warren B. and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.8000 = $64. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.8000 + b = 100000 or 3b = 108000 or Bob s salary is b = 108000/3 = $36. If the perimeter of the room is to be 50 feet. Walter O. w l = 2w + 7 Figure 2: Porch Applied Calculus for Business.000.
the distance (d) and the time (t) is given by the formula rt = d (that is.) If we solve this equation for r we have that r = d/t. Gordon. Wang.33% We conclude this section with one more application which further reviews the concept of solving an equation using the method of cross multiplication. If John averages 50 mph and Isabel averages 60 mph. Depending on what needs to be solved for. e !!!!!385 miles!!!!! e !!!!! e !!!!!!!! 50t 60t John s distance Isabel s distance Figure 3 When money is invested and earns simple interest. we use one of these equivalent forms to solve motion problems. and April Allen Materowski. Inc. . in 31*2 hours they will be 385 miles apart. and the time in years the money is invested (t) and the interest earned (I) is I = Prt Example 14 If Carl wishes to earn $500 in interest by investing $3000 for five years. Using I = Prt. we have 500 = 3000r152 or 500 = 15000r or r = 500/15000 = 0. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. bicycles. and need to find the annual interest r.) are moving at a constant rate (speed). the distance he travels in this time is 50t.1 Solving Linear Equations Recall that when objects (cars. The next example illustrates a simple application of this result. planes. the annual interest rate (r). by Warren B.8 * ** Section 0. Economics. the relationship among the rate (r). Walter O. Similarly. how long does it take them to be 385 miles apart? Solution Let t be the time they need to travel to be 385 miles apart. Since John s average rate is 50 mph. that is. or if solve this equation for t. we have that t = d/r. etc. so we have the equation 50t + 60t = 385 or 110t = 385 t = 385/110 = 31*2 hours Thus. what simple interest rate will be required? Solution We are given P = 3000. rate times time is equal to distance.033333 L 3. the relationship between the Principal (P . t = 5. and Finance. Recall that if two fractions are equal. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Note that the sum of John and Isabel s distances must be 385 miles (see Figure 3).the money invested). Example 13 John and Isabel leave the parking lot and travel in opposite directions. people. the distance Isabel travels in this time is 60t. I = 500. if Applied Calculus for Business.
Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Calculator Tips Applied Calculus for Business. We illustrate in Figure 4. and Finance. then the denominator is x 1 + 2x. it follows that AD = BC Example 15 The denominator of a fraction is one more than twice the numerator. the original fraction was 3 3 = 2132 + 1 7 The calculator may be used to solve most equations for an unknown. then the new fraction is . we have 2x 2 = 2x + 3 3 cross multiplying. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.= 2x + 4 for x. the solve command is used. You may obtain this command by pressing the Catalog key and then either scrolling down to s or pressing the letter s (the alpha key followed by s). . Wang. Pressing enter produces the solution x = . Economics. Solution Let x be the numerator of the original fraction.Section 0. Therefore the original fraction is represented by . we have 312x2 = 212x + 32 or 6x = 4x + 6 or 2x = 6 or x = 3 Therefore. variable). where eqn stands for the equation that is to be solved and variable represents the unknown you are solving for. scrolling down to solve and then press enter. For example. Inc. 3 5 Note the syntax. If the numerator is dou2x + 1 2x bled and the denominator is increased by two. as seen in Figure 5. suppose we wish to solve the equation 2 7 x .81/20. by Warren B. Determine the original fraction. Walter O. and April Allen Materowski. Since this 2x + 3 new fraction is 2/3. solve(eqn.1 Solving Linear Equations * ** 9 A C = B D Then by multiplying each side of the equation by the common denominator BD. If the numerator is doubled and the denominator is increased by two the resulting fraction is 2/3. Gordon.
22. 17.4 = 3m + 12 7.6n 12. For x: 5x . Walter O.2r2 = 100 In Exercises 22 29. 5n . and then check your solution.315 . Wang. 2 3x 14.52140 . For y: ax + by = c 26. 0.7 5. Gordon.3w2 9. .10 * ** Section 0.72 + 14 .2y = 19 24.1 In Exercise 1 21.1 Solving Linear Equations Figure 4: Using the Calculator to Solve an Equation Figure 5 EXERCISE SET 0. 3 5y = 9 4 5 2z = 3 3 1 4w + 2 = w .215 . 15. and Finance. 314w . Economics.52 = 719 . 9 . For y: 5x .2y = 19 23.92 = 7t .62 = 19 + 417 .2x . 5x = 0 4.2x2 = 0.3t2 11.0. For x: ax + by = c 25. 13 . x .35 + 0. 2w . and April Allen Materowski.319 . 16.24x = 0. 18.3 = w + 5 6. x + 11 = 5 3. solve for the unknown. 1. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Inc.0.3 = 219n .5x + 312x .5r = 4r + 11 8.7 = 5w . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 0.2 2 1 1 3 4w . by Warren B. 7m . 3p + 215p .92 = 12x 13. solve for the indicated variable.4 = 4 y + 10 + 3 19.3x2 21.7 = 9 2. 0. 2 + 315t .4r .3w + 4 = 6w 3 3 1 7 5 y .2p2 10. For C: F = 9/5C + 32 = 8 Applied Calculus for Business.4 20. 4w .
find the three integers.2 = 8 3. The length of a rectangle is two feet less than three times its width.213 + 2x2 . the sum of their ages will be 57. The numerator of a fraction is three less than the denominator. 3 .1 27.15. If the equal sides are 6 centimeters less than twice the unequal side. by Warren B. Two planes leave JFK airport at the same time. 5x . If one angle is 30 degrees less than six times the other. What are their present ages? 32.1. Alphonse took four examinations and his average on these four exams was 83. In five years. One travels at 60 mph and the other at 45 mph. One train leaves Boston traveling towards New York at an average speed of 80 mph. A nine foot rope is cut into two pieces so that one piece is twice the other. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Determine the original fraction. Boston and New York are approximately 280 miles apart. Today. How long before the cars are 60 miles apart? 1 Solving Linear Equations * ** 11 39.4y = 9 Applied Calculus for Business. the sum of their ages then will be 41. Determine the original fraction.000 to earn a total interest of $600 if the annual simple interest rate is 4%? 47. Solve for y: 3x . 4 3x 1 6x = 20 2 3 = 3 4x + 2 = 3 4 8.52 . (a) How long will it take them to meet. If he has 5 fewer nickels than dimes. In how many hours will they be 4400 miles apart? 40.115x . Two angles are said to be complementary if the sum of the measures of their angles is 90 degrees. Tripling the numerator and quadrupling the denominator results in a fraction equal to 3/5.000 is invested for two years earning annual simple interest at 4%. what is the measure of the smaller angle? 41.Time 10 Minutes Each question is worth one point. $6. 8. What are their present ages? 31.3z2 = 519 + 2z2 7. 1 . (b) How far has each train traveled when they meet? 38. Gordon. to what does it accumulate? 46. Another train leaves New York at the same time traveling toward Boston at an average speed of 60 mph. what is the measure of the larger angle? 42. If one angle is 15 degrees more than twice the other. 312z . Solve for the unknown: 1. 36. If the perimeter is 36 feet. . 3x 2 . one flying north at 500 mph and the other south at 600 mph. and Finance. If the numerator is increased by 1 and the denominator is decreased by 2 the resulting fraction is 1*2.x = 2 2. Mike is 5 years older then Joan. and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Two angles are said to be supplementary if the sum of the measures of their angles is 180 degrees. The sum of three consecutive integers is 96. 5 . The sum of two consecutive odd integers is 15 more than the next odd integer. How long does it take $5.Section 0. What annual simple interest does a $10.200 after three years? Posttest 0. 88 and 78. The denominator of a fraction is 1 less than three times the numerator. 6. If his grades on the first three exams were 82.7y = 26 5. Inc. 37. what grade did he get on the fourth exam? 33. Maria s age is 5 years less than twice Louie s age. Wang. Two cars leave a city traveling in the same direction. James has a collection of nickels and dimes which total to $5. 44. Find the three integers.5x 4. what is the length of the two equal sides? 35. For h: V = pr2h 28. what are the dimensions of the rectangle? 34. An isosceles triangle has a perimeter of 33 centimeters. 45. How long is the larger piece? 9.42 = 2 10.000 investment earn if it accumulates to $11. Walter O. In ten years. how many dimes has he? 43. For b: A = *2h1a + b2 29. Economics. For S: 1/R = 1/S + 1/W 30.412 .
and April Allen Materowski. Wang. 3. Inc. x2 = 9 We now take the square root of each side.2 » » » Solving Equations of the Form ax 2 * b + 0 Isolation of Squared Term Isolation of Squared Binomial Term Calculator Tips Pretest 0. . 2x . We recall that if AB = 0. 5x 2 . Gordon. 1x .29 = 3. 31x .x . remembering that x could also be negative. by Warren B. so we have the two possibilities. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. therefore.2 Solving Equations of the Form ax2 . or more succinctly x = .49 = 0 5.14 = 1 4 9. Consider the following.12 * ** Section 0. Economics. given the equation ax 2 . 12x .20x = 0 4. Walter O.12 = 0 6.3 or x = 3. We write. 16x2 .522 .1213x + 22 = 24 7. 4x 2 + 32 = 0 8.3213x + 42 = 0.321x + 32 = 0 Isolation of Squared Term and we immediately find that x = . we shall examine other techniques for solving quadratic equations which will easily yield their solutions.522 + 81 = 0 You should recall how to solve quadratic equations by factoring.4/3 and x = 3/2. 29 = . so we have x1 = 29 = 3 or x2 = . You may not be able to (easily) factor every quadratic equation.18 = 0 10. 3 More generally. or written more succinctly as x = .b = 0 0.Time 10 minutes Solve each of the following quadratic equations for the unknown. then either A = 0 or B = 0. for example the equation 6x2 . 4x2 = 5x 3. 1. This problem is most easily solved by factoring. We can also solve this equation by isolating the x 2 term. also called their roots.2 . 9x2 .12 = 0 may be factored as 12x .3 = 0 or 3x + 4 = 0.9 = 0. 3 2 2 x = 0 4 3 2. Consider the equation x2 .4/3. 3 12x .522 . and Finance. the first equation yields x = 3/2 and the second x = . we can write Applied Calculus for Business. Rewrite the equation with the x2 term isolated on one side of the equation. 1x . so the two solutions to the given quadratic are x = .b = 0.
Walter O. = . 28 x = . 2 Example 2 Solve the equation x 2 . . if fractions appear in the quadratic equation.b = 0 * ** 13 ax2 = b b x2 = a b x = . Solution Isolating the x2 term. Aa Of course. This results in an equivalent quadratic equation all of whose terms are integers. A4 5 x = . and Finance.Section 0. One general remark: for simplicity in carrying out the algebraic manipulations. first multiply every term on each side of the equation by the LCD. Gordon.3 = 0 8x2 = 3 3 x2 = 8 3 3#2 26 x = . 2 1 12 # x2 . Wang. Solution Isolating the x2 term. That is.8 = 0. by Warren B. we would have to simplify the radical expressions. We multiply every term on each side of the equation by the LCD which is 12. the first thing we should do is to clear any fractions. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. we have 4x2 = 25 25 x2 = 4 25 x = . = . 2 22 Example 3 2 1 Solve the equation x 2 .25 = 0. A8 A8 2 4 Applied Calculus for Business. and April Allen Materowski. We illustrate the various cases in the examples that follow.= 0 4 3 Solution We begin by first clearing fractions. Example 1 Solve the quadratic equation 4x 2 . the solutions could be complex numbers.2 Solving Equations of the Form ax2 . Inc.12 # = 12 # 0 3 4 2 8x . we have x2 = 8 x = . Economics. and sometimes.
3 . by Warren B. i 24 22 = .2 Solving Equations of the Form ax2 ..5 = .4 = 0.14 * ** Section 0. Economics. and Finance. that could not be done so easily on the next example.522 . Wang..6 .5 = . Example 5 Solve the quadratic equation 1z .8 x = . A slight variation on the above method of solution occurs when the left hand side is not x2. In the study of calculus we will be mostly concerned with solutions which are real numbers. In such a case.522 = 4 We next take the square roots. Gordon.2 or z2 = 5 + 2 z1 = 3 or z2 = 7 We remark that if we actually squared the expression and rewrote the quadratic as z2 . and April Allen Materowski. . Solution We first isolate the squared term by rewriting the expression as 1z . as illustrated in the next two examples.10z + 21 = 0. 2 . we have x2 = . 24 z . 2 z1 = 5 . 212 = .2 z = 5 . = . 2 23 = . 2 23 4y = .6 . = 4 4 4 2 2 2 Applied Calculus for Business. However. the radicand was negative resulting in imaginary solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. i 28 = .6 . z . we isolate the squared expression and then take the square roots. 23 . we could have easily solved the problem by factoring. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 14y + 622 = 12 4y + 6 = . Example 6 Solve the quadratic equation 14y + 622 . but some expression squared. Solution Isolating the x2 term. 2 23 y = 4 We can reduce this expression by either breaking it into two fractions or by factoring.12 = 0 Solution. we have y = 6 2 23 3 23 . 2 23 .b = 0 Example 4 Solve the equation x 2 + 8 = 0. If we break it into two fractions. Walter O. 2 22i Isolation of Squared Binomial Term Note that in the last example.8 = . Inc.
Consider the problem Calculator Tips Figure 1: Using solve on a Quadratic Equation (Note that ¿ is used for exponentiation.2 Solving Equations of the Form ax2 . Walter O.2. by Warren B. we could factor the expression and write y = 2 A . that is of the form a . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.23 or y2 = .Section 0. the object of the next section.3 .366. Applied Calculus for Business.3 + 23 . and April Allen Materowski. linear or not. To do so. 23 = = 4 2 4 Thus.634 and y2 L . Note that the two solutions to the quadratic equation in the previous examples are conjugates of each other. For approximate solutions you need only press (the green diamond and then Enter) Enter.) The calculator produces the two solutions.C = 0 may be solved by isolating the squared binomial term and then take the square roots. You will quickly see that it is not a simple matter to find the factors since they are irrational numbers. We now make one very important observation. 23 B . What we shall do is to learn to rewrite any given quadratic equation in the above form. This command will work on most equations.6 . . Try solving this last example by multiplying out the expression and factoring. we can use a calculator to find y1 L . Economics. as we shall see. You may recall in the last section we introduced the solve command to solve a linear equation and quadratic. we must first learn how to complete the square.3 . we have the two solutions y1 = .2b and a + 2b. and will yield the real solution(s). Inc. Gordon. It is precisely this observation that will enable us to solve any quadratic equation. see Figure 2. and Finance. 2 23 .0. This will be true in general. Any quadratic equation written in the form 1x + B22 . Wang.3 . If we need a numer2 2 ical approximation.b = 0 * ** 15 Alternately. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.
b = 0 Figure 2: Obtaining Approximate Answers with the Calculator Note that if the solutions are not real. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Figure 4: Using csolve Applied Calculus for Business. and Finance. meaning there are no real solutions. see Figure 3. as in Example 4. see Figure 4. Figure 3: Using solve When There Is No Real Solution The complex solution may be obtained by using csolve in place of solve. Inc.16 * ** Section 0. the solve command results in the answer false. Walter O. Gordon. .2 Solving Equations of the Form ax2 . Wang. by Warren B. and April Allen Materowski. Economics. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.
14x .b = 0 * ** 17 EXERCISE SET 0. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 57.32 = 12 34.5214x + 52 = . 53. 16x2 . 2 2 3x 3 2 4y 5 2 6r 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 29. (3z . 12r . 1y . Wang. x2 + 25 = 0 16. 6w2 + 96 = 0 24. 54. x + 4 = 0 18. 1x . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.Section 0.52 + 3 = 2 1 2 2 5 12z . 1x .18x = 0 4.4 = 3 1 2 8x + 3 = 0 2 .322 = 49 37.36 17. 30. 3z .7 = 2x + 20 10. 1.4 = 21 8. r + 21 = 5 21. 14y + 722 + 36 = 0 47. 5y2 + 12 = 3y2 .422 + 3 = 39 36.40 = 24 9. 13x . 12y . x2 = 18 12. x + 20 = 0 22. 52.522 + 12 = 0 45.4)2 = 64 38. 1.322 + 24 = 0 48. Gordon.522 + 48 = 0 Applied Calculus for Business. 1x + 322 = . x2 + 16 = 7 20.52 + 2 = 3 5 2 1 5 6w . 20x2 . z2 .322 .9 7.22 . 1x + 322 = 25 35. 14x .81 = 0 5.2 Solving Equations of the Form ax2 . 16y . 5 15x + 422 . 5x . 6y2 + 9 = 4y2 . 1x .96 = 0 14.45 = 0 6.8 = 0 + 24 = 0 2 3 = 3 4 Posttest 0.422 + 48 = 0 50. 3x + 24 = 0 23.722 = 18 39.32 + 24 = 9 3 15 3 2 81x + 72 + 4 = 2 3 15 3 2 8 12r + 72 + 2 = 4 2 1 2 513x . 17x + 20 = 11x + 74 11. y + 49 = 0 19. 56. and Finance.Time 10 minutes Solve each of the following quadratic equations for the unknown. 1x . y .4 = 0 4. w = .24 25.2 .49 = 0 5. 6x 2 + 120 = 0 8. 12y . 7x2 = 3x 3.24 = 0 13. 2y = 48 15.24 = 0 10.422 + 16 = 0 44. .222 + 25 = 0 46. Walter O.25 = 39 6. x2 = 36 3. x2 .522 + 18 = 0 49.222 + 9 = 41 42. x = 25 2.2 Find the unknown in each of the following exercises. y2 . Inc. 16x . y2 .9 43.19 = 1 3 9.24 = 0 41.22 = 9 32. 51. 4 2 3 x = 0 5 10 2.18 = 0 4 2 5 15w + 22 + 25 = 0 3 2 412z . 1x + 322 . 1x + 1212x . 31.321x + 22 = 14 33. Economics. 41x . 28. 4x 2 . 13x . 55.45 26. by Warren B. 15x + 422 = 20 40. 27. 8x . and April Allen Materowski. 2 2 3 1x + 32 = 12 3 2 2 13y . x + 7 = 16 7.
3 Completing the Square 0. 3. 1. how do we rewrite it so that the unknown appears within a square as in (1)? The procedure by which this is accomplished is called completion of the square. Bx + a x . Walter O.82 B 2 .A 1*21 . Gordon.12x . and in addition to the solution of quadratic equations is useful in numerous applications. take onehalf the coefficient of the x term. What number should be added to x 2 + 3x so that it is a perfect square? Complete the square to solve each of the following quadratic equations.4 = 0 In the preceding section we observed that any quadratic equation written in the form 1x + B22 . .16 The expression may be rewritten as x2 . and Finance.25/4 The expression may be rewritten as x 2 + 5x = A x + 1*2152 B 2 .C = 0 (1) Completion of the Square may be solved by isolating the squared term and then take square roots.Time 10 minutes Each question is worth two points. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.8x = 1x . x 2 . Economics. Inc.10x .3 = 0 4. 2 2 1 1 Bb * a Bb 2 2 (2) Applied Calculus for Business. square the sum. and April Allen Materowski.9 The expression may be rewritten as x2 + 6x = A x + 1*2162 B 2 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. x2 + 5x .A 1*2152 B 2 Do you see the pattern in each of the examples? We spell it out more generally.422 . The question that naturally arises is given any quadratic equation.A 1*2162 B 2 x 2 . then subtract the square of onehalf the coefficient of the x term from the previous squared sum.3 .8x = A x + 1*21 .3 » » Completing the Square Completion of the Square Calculator Tips Pretest 0. Let us make some observations on several expressions which are identities: x 2 + 6x = 1x + 322 .82 B 2 x 2 + 5x = 1x + 5/222 .8x so that it is a perfect square? 2.5 = 0 5. The sum x 2 + Bx may be written as a perfect square as follows: In words. x2 . by Warren B. (the sign is part of the coefficient) add it to x. Wang. What number should be added to x2 .18 * ** Section 0. 3x 2 . Leave the answer in simplest form.
3/222 . so we have x2 .10x = .3x in the perfect square form as given on the righthand side of (2). and comparing it to the left hand side. Gordon.522 .522 . 1x .25. Solution The coefficient of the x term is . so we have x2 .1622 or x 2 + 12x = 1x + 622 .25 = . Consider the quadratic equation x2 . Inc.10x = 1x .3x = 1x . and April Allen Materowski. you may verify that the identity is true by simply multiplying out the right hand side of (2). This identity is useful not only in solving quadratic equations.10x in the perfect square form as given on the righthand side of (2).10x = 1x .522 . but in other applications as well. onehalf this number is . Example 1 Rewrite the expression x2 + 12x in the perfect square form as given on the righthand side of (2). Solution The coefficient of the x term is .9/4 It is just one more step to see how rewriting a quadratic may be used to solve any quadratic equation.3/222 = 1x . as you shall see later in this text as well as in calculus. Solution The coefficient of x is 12. by Warren B. therefore 1*2 1122 = 6. 215 Applied Calculus for Business. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.522 = 15 x .3 Completing the Square * ** 19 Of course.10x + 10 = 0 We isolate the two terms involving x. Economics.3/222 .10. The quadratic equation may now be written as 1x .522 = 1x . 215 x = 5 .1 .5 = .10 The problem is now in the form we studied in the previous section. and Finance.5.10 We rewrite the lefthand side of this equation as in Example 2 as x 2 . Wang. onehalf this number is . Walter O. . x2 .Section 0.522 .3/2.3. so we have x2 + 12x = 1x + 622 .25 Example 3 Rewrite the expression x2 .36 Example 2 Rewrite the expression x2 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.1 . We isolate the square term and solve.
.4 1x .7x = 6 x2 .82 B 2 .422 = 12 x .422 . Walter O. 2 23 Example 5 Solve the quadratic equation x2 . 212 = . 1x . = .1 .8x = A x + 1*21 . Therefore.7/222 . Solution Multiplying each term on both sides of the equation by the 1/4.4 and next rewrite the lefthand side as x 2 . 2 A4 2 7 273 7 .49/4 therefore we have. the coefficient of the x 2 term has been 1.7/222 = 73/4 7 73 273 x . we have 1x . Wang.20 * ** Section 0. = 2 2 2 In all the examples considered so far.4 = .7/222 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. the reciprocal of 4. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 273 x = .7/222 = 49/4 + 6 1x .422 .7x = 1x .25/4 = 0 rewriting. by Warren B.6 = 0 Solution We rewrite the equation as x2 .49/4 = 6 or 1x .3 Completing the Square We illustrate how the method of completion of the square is used to solve quadratic equations in the following examples. and Finance. and April Allen Materowski.8x + 4 = 0 Solution We rewrite the equation as x 2 . we have x 2 + 3x = 25/4 Applied Calculus for Business.82 B 2 = 1x . Example 6 Solve the quadratic equation 4x2 + 12x .7/222 . multiplying each term on both sides of the equation by the reciprocal of the coefficient reduces the problem to an equivalent one with coefficient 1. Gordon. When this is not the case.A 1*21 .16. Example 4 Solve the quadratic equation x2 .8x = . gives x2 + 3x . 2 23 x = 4 .7/222 = 1x . We illustrate in the following examples. Inc.25 = 0.16 = .7x .= . Economics.
9/4 = 25/4 1x + 3/222 = 25/4 + 9/4 1x + 3/222 = 34/4 3 234 = .Section 0.8x + 25 = 0.i = . As we illustrated in the last section. 234/4 = . you would enter csolve 12x 2 . We illustrate these tips along with the screen shots on other examples at the end of the next section.13/222 = 25/4 1x + 3/222 . Wang.i A4 2 2 A2 A2 2 x = 2 .4. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. x) the calculator will give us the two solutions.i = . x2 the calculator responds with false.2 = . Calculator Tips Applied Calculus for Business.416 and .4x = . if you try to solve a problem with complex solutions with the solve function. x2 the calculator then provides the solution obtained above. we have A x + 1*21 . 2 2 3 234 .25/2 1x . use the function csolve which will solve for complex (as well as real) solutions.4 = .222 .8x + 25 = 0 Solution. in the previous example. giving x2 . indicating there is no real solution. and Finance. Economics. we have 1x + 3/222 . Thus. We first multiply each term on each side of the equation by the reciprocal of the coefficient of the x2 term. However. . Gordon. 234 4 . that if approximate answers are needed. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.25/2 1x .i = . Walter O. you should be warned. we would use a calculator to approximate the square roots.8x + 25 = 0.A 1*21 .25/2 or 1x . and April Allen Materowski. 234i i = 2 2 The use of completion of the square in this section was to solve a quadratic equation.222 = .. solve 12x 2 . For example.17/2 x . = 2 2 2 x + We remark. Inc. that is.42 B 2 . if we want to solve the quadratic in Example 6. by Warren B. we may use the solve function to solve equations having real solutions. 1*2. Instead.25 = 0. if you entered the last example.4x + 25/2 = 0 or x2 .3 .42 B 2 = .25/2 completing the square. the roots to the nearest onethousandth are 1. for example.416.222 = 4 . to solve this problem for the complex solutions.3 Completing the Square * ** 21 completing the square and solving. it tells us there is no solution. 234 x = . we enter solve(4x2 + 12x . Example 7 Solve the quadratic equation 2x 2 . A 34 234 17 17 17 # 2 = .
1 2 2x 3 2 5x Solve each of the quadratics by first completing the square. x2 .3 4x = .4 . find the dimensions of the plot. x 2 + 2x + 10 = 0 25. x + 9x 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 28. is given by the equation h = . Give your answers rounded to the nearest tenth of a meter. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.10x 6.C. 9 .6x 4. by Warren B. 1x .1 = 0 24. 1*2 x2 + 5x + 2 = 0 47.1 = 0 23. x2 + 6x + 3 = 0 15. x2 . When the roots are irrational.Time 10 minutes Each question is worth two points. 6x2 + 5x .7x = 12 43. x2 .6 = 0 42. x . 12x . Economics.3x 9. 1x .12x . 4x2 . The area of a triangle is 20 square feet.6x + 3 = 0 17. x2 . where t is the time in seconds.5x + 8 = 0 46. 2x2 + x . x + 5x 11. x . 1x .10 30. x2 . x2 .321x + 52 = 20 27. 3 .20 31.3x2 + 5x = 8 + 2x2 51.321x + 52 = 12 29. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.6x + 23 = 0 32. Leave the answer in simplest form.9 = 0 5. 13. 53. 1. 52. x2 . 6x2 + 23x = .6 = 0 41. x2 + 6x = 3 18. Walter O. Gordon. What number should be added to x2 . Inc. 3.4 = 0 20.20 44.3 Completing the Square EXERCISE SET 0. 12x . also give the solutions to the nearest onethousandth. 48. Posttest 0. h. x2 + 5x = 5 21. . x2 . x2 + 6x 3.8x = 4 19.3x + 3 = 0 38. x2 . x2 . x2 .10 = 0 14. What number should be added to x 2 + 5x so that it is a perfect square? Complete the square to solve each of the following quadratic equations. Wang. 2x2 + 5x + 10 = 0 45. x2 + 5x + 10 = 0 39.7x 12. If the height. 1x + 321x + 22 = . x + 12x 7.3 .421x + 12 = 6 26. x2 + 10x + 50 = 0 34. If the height is three feet less than the base.16x .4x = 8 36.48t + 200.4x2 = 8x 50.16t2 .3213x + 52 = . x2 + 2x .22 * ** Section 0. x . x2 + 3x 8.12x .4 = 0 4.12x so that it is a perfect square? 2.12x = .3 2x = 5 6 7 10 49. If the width of the plot is 10 meters less than the length.8x + 36 = 0 35. 4x 2 .48 33. 1.8 = 0 Applied Calculus for Business.3213x + 12 = . x2 + 6x + 21 = 0 37. x2 + 3x . x . x2 + 4x 2. A rock is thrown down from the ledge of a mountain 200 feet above the ground with an initial velocity of 48 feet per second. and Finance.10 = 0 16. 2x2 + 8x + 1 = 0 40.8x 5. find the length of the height and base of the triangle. A farmer wants to set aside a rectangular plot of land to contain 100 square meters. how long does it take for the rock to hit the ground? Give your answer to the nearest onehundredth of a second. x2 . 12x2 . and April Allen Materowski.3 Complete the square in each of the following by putting in the form 1x + B22 . x2 . x2 + 3x .3x .5x = 5 22.2x . x2 .5x 10.
Leave answers in simplest radical form.4x .5 = 0 3.4 . by Warren B.Time 10 minutes Solve each of the following using the quadratic formula.Section 0. squaring and combining fractions. Each question is worth two points. That means we will have a formula for the solutions to any quadratic equation. . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.a b = a 2a 2a b c x = a a b c x + = 0 a a Transposing.1 4. Economics. 2x2 . b and c. Suppose we apply this method to the general quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 (1) What should then happen is that our solution should depend on a.6x + 4 = 0 = 2 3x + 1 6 5. obtaining x2 + we rewrite this equation as x2 + we next complete the square and obtain ax + b 2 b 2 c b . 3 2 4x 2. 4x .4ac b = = = a 2a 4a 2 4a 2 4a 2 4a 2 Applied Calculus for Business.4 The Quadratic Formula and Applications * ** 23 0. The vertical height h of a rocket measured in feet at time t measured in seconds is given by the equation h = . Gordon. To the nearest thousandth of a second.16t2 + 3200t. we have ax + b 2 b2 c b2 4ac b2 . Walter O.4 » » » » » The Quadratic Formula and Applications Quadratic Formula Clearing Fractions Applications Equations Reducible to Quadratics Calculator Tips Pretest 0.280 feet? We saw in the last section that any quadratic equation could be solved by the method of completion of the square. We proceed by solving (1) using completion of the square. which means that a Z 0. We multiply every term on each side of (1) by 1/a. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Inc. and April Allen Materowski. 3x2 . and Finance. Wang. We assume that (1) is indeed a quadratic. how long does it take the rocket to reach a height of 5.x 2 = . 1.
as the .3/2. Sometimes. Walter O. Rewrite the equation so that the terms are in descending powers. and Step 3 is accomplished by multiplying each term in the equation by the least common denominator. 225 + 144 . some suggestions that will make the use of the formula more convenient. Wang.5 + 132/12 = 8/12 = 2/3 and x2 = 1 . Economics.4 The Quadratic Formula and Applications taking square roots.62 . First.5 . we call one solution x1 and the second solution x2. 2 2a 2a B 4a x + (2) Quadratic Formula The solution given in (2) is the solution to the general quadratic equation and is known as the quadratic formula. Solution We first rewrite the equation as 6x2 + 5x .1.6 = 0. Applied Calculus for Business.3/2.4ac b .5 .2212x + 32 = 0 yields x = 2/3 and x = .sign to write the other solution. Example 1 Use the quadratic formula to solve the equation 6x2 + 5x = 6. Gordon.6.41621 . and then use the .5 . and Finance. Sometimes. We remind you that there are two solutions. we have as our two solutions (roots). Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. These remarks will be illustrated in the examples that follow.4ac . 21522 . Clear all fractions so the coefficients are all integers. Inc.18/12 = .5 . We next substitute into the quadratic formula to obtain x = . We remark that Step 2 is easily accomplished by multiplying each term in the equation by . We identify the coefficients. perform the following steps.132/12 = . We illustrate the use of this formula on the following exercises. x1 = 1 . we have x + Solving for x. . we call the solutions the roots. 2b2 . Given any quadratic equation. Note that the preceding example could have easily been solved by factoring as 6x 2 + 5x . 2169 . if required: 1. 13 = = = 2162 12 12 12 therefore.6 = 13x . we find x = or writing as a single fraction we have * b_ 2b 2 * 4ac 2a b 2b2 .5 . 3. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. a = 6. Rewrite the equation so that the coefficient of the squared term is positive. and April Allen Materowski. 2.24 * ** Section 0. symbol is a shorthand that tells us first use the + sign to write one solution. by Warren B. b = 5 and c = .4ac = = . 2a 2a b2 .
Section 0. We set a = 2. the two roots are x1 = 9 . and c = 2. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.4 . 21422 . Economics. 8 2 4 Solution We clear fractions by multiplying each term by the LCD which is 8.92 .4 . we would compute them using a calculator to approximate the square root. (b) Approximate the roots to the 4 6 3 nearest thousandth Solution (a)We first clear fractions by multiplying each term by the least common denominator 12.2 27 and x2 = 3 3 If we needed numerical solutions.8 = 0.2 .1 . Substituting into the quadratic equation.4 The Quadratic Formula and Applications * ** 25 Example 2 Use the quadratic formula to solve the equation 4x = .2 . Gordon. 4 27 . 21 .1231056 we obtain. gives Clearing Fractions Applied Calculus for Business. Walter O.82 . b = . 216 + 96 . We rewrite this equation as 2z2 .305 or x2 = 0. 217 = = 2182 16 16 Thus. Example 4 1 5 1 Solve the quadratic equation z2 + = z. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and April Allen Materowski. We now identify a = 3.x + = 0. remembering what we learned about the simplification of radicals.2 + 2 27 . Wang.8. . 216 # 7 .4 . b = .4z + 5 = 0. This gives x = . We have. to three decimal places.922 .9x + 2 = 0. and c = . by Warren B.3x2 + 8. x = 2 A . b = 4. Example 3 2 3 1 (a) Solve the quadratic equation x 2 .820.4 .4182122 9 . we have . and Finance. We set a = 8. x1 = 0.41321 .217 9 + 217 and x2 = 16 16 (b) Using 217 L 4. 2112 = = 2132 6 6 x = We next simplify this expression. Solution We first apply Step 1 and rewrite the equation as 3x 2 + 4x . We obtain 8x2 . 2 27 B .4 . we have irrational conjugate expressions as the two roots (solutions) x1 = . Substitution into the quadratic formula. 281 .4 and c = 5.64 9 . giving 2z2 + 5 = 4z. Inc. 2 27 = = = 6 6 6 3 thus.9.2 .
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.40 4 . this rocket will achieve its maximum altitude and then begin to come down.4122152 4 . . by Warren B. i 24 26 4 .16t2 + 2500t We rewrite this equation as 16t2 . so the time it takes for the rocket to return to the ground is 156.903 seconds.16t2 + 2500t. However.1 . 26i B 4 . Therefore we need to solve the equation 4700 = . we have t = 2500 .4 The Quadratic Formula and Applications z = .903 seconds.25 seconds.26i 2 + 26i and z2 = . and April Allen Materowski. Why are there two solutions? When the rocket is going upward. the rocket is being launched. Economics.t116t . so we need to solve the equation 0 = . (b) When the rocket returns to the ground its altitude h = 0.24 = = = 2122 4 4 2 A 2 . we sometimes find that both solutions make sense and sometimes we find that one of the solutions needs to be rejected as it makes no physical sense. 21 . z1 = Applications In applications involving quadratic equations. there are two complex conjugate roots. i 224 4 . 2 . where t is the time from firing in seconds. Walter O. we find the two solutions are t1 L 154. and Finance. 225002 . Applied Calculus for Business. Wang. (a) How long does it take the rocket to reach an altitude of 4700 feet? (b) How long does it take for the rocket to return to the ground? Solution (a) We are asked to find t when h = 4700 feet.42 . it reaches a height of 4700 feet in approximately 1.4 # 16 # 4700 32 2500 .2500t + 4700 = 0 Using the quadratic formula.16t2 + 2500t This equation may be solved by factoring 0 = . Example 5 The altitude h of a rocket fired vertically upward is given by the equation h = . At approximately 154. 25949200 t = 32 Using a calculator.26 * ** Section 0. 216 . 2 2 Thus. When t = 0. 2 26i = = = 4 4 4 4 z = 2 .25002 yielding t = 0 or t = 2500/16 = 156.422 . Inc.25 seconds.347 seconds after launch it will again be at this position but coming down. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.347 seconds or t2 L 1. Gordon. 26i 2 2 . Consider the following examples.
2000 = 0 or 3x 2 .2000 = 1000 or equivalently 3x2 . 2 2 2 x 6 Figure 1 14 Exercise 7 (a) If the profit P (in dollars) earned by selling x units of some item is given by the equation P = . (b) Find the quantity (to the nearest integer) which produces a break even situation 1Profit = 02. Using Pythagoras theorem. 2. Inc. so we solve . Exercise 8 Solve for x: (note that x Z . The other leg of the triangle is therefore approximately 12. we have x + 6 = 14 isolating the unknown. x = 23 or 43. see Figure 1. x = .000. it must be a positive number. 12.649 Since x represents a length. we find that x2 = 160.8. find (to the nearest integer) the value of x which produces a profit of $1. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.200x + 3000 = 0 We may solve this equation using the quadratic formula. and Finance.3x2 + 200x . we reject the negative solution. therefore.200x + 2000 = 0 20 A 5 . Solution (a) We need to solve the equation . Gordon. Economics. we find x = .649 inches. by Warren B. Walter O.4 The Quadratic Formula and Applications * ** 27 Exercise 6 One leg of a right triangle is 6 inches and the hypothenuse is 14 inches. find the length of the other leg of the triangle to the nearest thousandth of an inch.3x 2 + 200x . 210 B 3 Or to the nearest integer. 2160 L = . and April Allen Materowski. 3 Sometimes. Wang. we need to perform some algebraic simplifications on an equation before we recognize it as a quadratic. 210 B Solving.2 Equations Reducible to Quadratics Applied Calculus for Business.2000. . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. as the next two examples illustrate. x = 12 or 54. x + 8 x . or to the nearest integer.3x2 + 200x .Section 0. Solution Let x represent the length of the unknown leg. (b) A break even situation arises when the profit is zero. We find (verify) x = 10 A 10 . Why?) 24 20 + = 12.
so the ellipsis symbol (.27 = 0.4213x + 192 = 0 Therefore x1 = . Wang. we keep the base and multiply the exponents.128/3 = 1. Sometimes. and April Allen Materowski. 3 6 3 3 Calculator Tips The solve command will work well on all the problems considered in this section.1.1.27 = 0.19x 8 . Similarly. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Applied Calculus for Business. and Finance. Walter O. Therefore. we obtain 12x 2 + 28x .19/3 and x2 = 4.22.22 Multiplying out and collecting similar terms.28 * ** Section 0. Thus..19x 3/8 .. if we let the smallest power be called u.e. We leave it as an exercise for you to check the solutions. when u = 27/8. when u = .19u . we have x = 127/828/3 = 1127/821/328 = 13/228 = 6561/256.2721u + 12 = 0 Thus u = 27/8 or u = .. You ll note that the equation is too big for the screen. Economics. however. Inc.) appears on the input line to indicate you need to scroll to see the rest of the equation. we have x = 6561/256. Solution The key to this problem and problems similar to it is that the exponent of the highest power term in the trinomial is twice the exponential of the next highest power term. we have x = 1 . u = x8 then u2 = A x 8 B 2 = x 8 = x 4 (Recall that when raising a power to a power.27 = 0 which is a quadratic in the variable u and factors as 18u . we enter the equation into the calculator as illustrated in Figure 1 and press enter.22 + 201x + 82 = 121x + 821x .762 = 41x . Since u = x8. 8x 3/4 . but by a simple substitution it may be transformed into a trinomial which is a quadratic.4 The Quadratic Formula and Applications Solution We multiply each term on both sides of the equation by the LCD which is 1x + 821x . we have 1u23 = A x 8 B 3 or x = u3. x = 1 does not check (it is extraneous that is. yielding 241x . 3 8 3 8 8 However. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Exercise 9 3 3 Solve the equation 8x 4 . the black arrow appears on the screen to indicate the entire image is not there and you need to scroll to see the remainder of the image. by Warren B. Gordon. as illustrated by the next example. Consider the last example.) We may rewrite the original equation as 8u2 . a trinomial may be at first glance appear not to be a quadratic equation.304 = 0 or 413x 2 + 7x . we need to find x. . it does not check the original equation). i. thus.
and then determine the coefficients a.321x + 52 = 12 31. 12x . x2 + 2x .11 8. 1x . 4x2 .4 30. x2 + 6x + 3 = 0 18. x2 . determine all irrational solutions to the nearest thousandth. 1x . 1x .12 = 0 4. 2x2 = 10 9.11 = 0 2. 3x2 + 7x . 7x + 3x2 . solve the given quadratic equation exactly using the quadratic formula.3x . x2 . Do not solve the equation. x2 . x2 .32 = 3x12x .3x + 3 = 0 40. x2 . 6x2 + 5x .12x . 4x = 9x2 + 4 7.5214x + 32 = 7 14.421x + 12 = 6 28.62 = 25 15.7x = 12 45. 2x2 + 5x + 10 = 0 47. x2 + 2x + 10 = 0 27. x2 . x2 + 10x + 50 = 0 36. 5x2 = . 413x .19x8 . and Finance. x2 + 5x + 10 = 0 41. 16.11 10.1 = 0 26.6 = 0 43. b. x2 . x2 .10 = 0 19.Section 0.6x + 3 = 0 20.6 = 0 44. 3x = 7x 2 11.321x + 52 = 20 29. 5x2 . 1*2 x2 + 5x + 2 = 0 49. . x + 4x .8x .8x + 36 = 0 37.4 = 0 23. 1 2 2x In each of the following. 6x2 + 23x = .10 = 0 17. 1. Economics. Write the solutions in its simplest form.4 In exercises 1 15 rewrite the equation in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0.3213x + 12 = . and c.10 32. x2 .27 = 0 with the Calculator 3 3 EXERCISE SET 0.4215x . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.5x + 8 = 0 48.5x2 = 0 6. and April Allen Materowski.6x + 23 = 0 34. 1x . Gordon. x2 . 2x2 + 8x + 1 = 0 42. with a 7 0. Using a calculator.48 35.3213x + 52 = . 12x . x2 + 6x = 3 21. 12x . 1x . .2x = 8x + 5x2 .2213x + 42 = 5 13. 12x2 . x2 + 5x = 5 24.3 4x = 5 6 Applied Calculus for Business. Walter O.4 The Quadratic Formula and Applications * ** 29 Figure 1: Solving 8x4 .20 33.12x = .8x = 4 .7212x . 1x + 321x + 22 = . x2 + 6x + 21 = 0 39. 4x2 = 9x 12.10 = 0 5. 3 .8 = 0 3.5x = 5 25.2x .4x = 8 38.20 46.27x + 10 . Inc. 2x2 + x .42 2 22. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. x2 . by Warren B. Wang.
measured in feet.4 . * ** Section 0. The objects height in feet. 66. measured in seconds. Here is another proof of the quadratic formula. 18 9 12 + = x .4x = 8x 52.4ac. 68. A ball is thrown vertically upward from the ledge of a building 75 feet above ground. If the rectangular rug she purchases has an area of 216 square feet and is placed an equal distance from each wall (a) how wide is the uniform strip of uncovered flooring? (b) what are the dimensions of the rug? Solve each of the following equations for the real values of x. .17x3 + 12 = 0 71.5x + 3 = 0 = 1 10 x + 1 2 5. How long does it take the ball to hit the ground? Applied Calculus for Business. If the legs of an isosceles right triangle are each 12 inches.4 x + 4 2 18 8 = 1 2x + 3 x + 5 4x 16 . and the area of this strip is 624 square feet. Inc. The profit in dollars in producing xitems of some commodity is given by the equation P = . find the integers. 9 . what was his speed each way? 63.4ac and add b2 to each side giving 4a2x2 + 4abx + b2 = b2 . A rectangular swimming pool is 30 feet by 40 feet.4 7 10 The Quadratic Formula and Applications 62. x4 + 5x2 . 55. how wide is the strip? 60.30 50. On his return his average speed is 2 miles per hour more than when going. how long. The hypothenuse and one leg of a right triangle are 18 and 12 inches respectively. 74. 4x 2 .Time 10 minutes Solve each of the following using the quadratic formula. The ball s height h in feet above the ground at time t in seconds is given by the equation h = .16t2 + 86t + 200. (a) how long does it take the ball to reach a height of 90 feet? (b) How long before the ball is back to its original position (at 75 feet)? (c) How long before the ball hits the ground? Give each answer to the nearest onethousandth of a second. where t is measured in seconds. is given by the equation s = . x .3 = 0 73. Now factor the lefthandside of this equation and complete the proof. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.4 4. Given the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 and cx2 + bx + a = 0. How long does it take Mary alone to build a computer? 64. to the nearest onethousandth of an inch. Rewrite the equation as 4a2x 2 + 4abx = .3x2 + 5x = 8 + 2x2 53. A ball is thrown vertically upward from a ledge of a building 200 feet above the ground. 6x6 . 3 . 2 1 Posttest 0.16t2 + 80t + 75.35x 3 + 216 = 0 72. how many far (to the nearest mile) did each car travel? 61. The sum of the squares of three consecutive odd integers is 515. one goes north and the other goes east. 67. If the car moving north traveled 12 miles more than the one going east. how many items should be produced to (a) yield a profit of $2. and April Allen Materowski. Two cars leave an intersection at the same time.3x + = 2 3x . Wang. This gives 4a2x 2 + 4abx + 4ac = 0. 58.36 = 0 70. Its height above the ground s. 2x4 . 54. Gordon. to the nearest onethousandth of an inch is the other leg? 57. John bikes a distance of 120 miles and then returns over the same route.15000. h is given by the equation h = . they can build a computer in 2 hours and 24 minutes. The profit in dollars in producing xitems of some commodity is given by the equation P = . find the integers.000? (b) break even? 3 2 5x . how long. The sum of the squares of three consecutive integers is 110. 4x2 . Walter O.2 2x + 2 69. and multiply each term of the equation by 4a.3x . 59. Leave answers in simplest radical form. by Warren B. Barbara wants to purchase an area rug for her dining room whose dimensions are 20 feet by 24 feet. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.2x2 + 400x . prove that the roots of one equation are the reciprocals of the roots of the other equation. An object is dropped from a helicopter hovering at 250 feet above the ground.15000. Some time later they are 125 miles apart. 1. Working together.20x2 + 1300x . If a rectangular strip of grass of uniform width is to go around the pool. Begin with ax2 + bx + c = 0.4x2 . How long before the object is (a) 100 feet above the ground? (b) 50 feet above the ground? (c) on the ground? Give each answer to the nearest onethousandth of a second.2 = 0 3. Mary can build a computer in two hours less time than Tim. is the hypothenuse? 56. x3 . Each question is worth two points. 2 2 5x 2.2x 2 = .16t2 + 250. in terms of its time of flight t. To the nearest integer. (a) How many items should be produced to break even? (b) How many items should be produced to maximize profit? (c) What is the maximum profit? 65. If the combined time for both trips was 22 hours.3 2x = 2 51. Economics. and Finance.
22 3102 . 2x3 . Table 1: Sign of 13x . Let us now reexamine the same problem and suggest another approach which will work on any inequality which may be factored and is to be less than or greater than zero. we see that in region II the expression 13x . 3x .5 » » » Solving NonLinear Inequalities Sign Analysis Interval Notation Calculator Tips Pretest 0. Solve the given inequality 3 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 5.2 = 3112 . We first solve 3x . and Finance. Inc.22 is positive therefore our solution is x 7 2/3. by Warren B. 7 2 0 3x + 4 x2 .12x2 + 18x 6 0 3.22 The only time the term 3x .2 must always be the same. we wish to find all values of x for which this inequality is a true statement. Thus. 3x2 + 10x Ú 8 2. We recall that the rules for manipulating an inequality are the same as those for solving an equation with one exception. Walter O.5 2x 31x 2 .2 is zero is when x = 2/3. This inequality is completely solved. Economics. Therefore. x .3 4. We draw the number line and indicate this value on the line as indicated in Figure 1. Gordon. and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2 = + Thus. in each of the Regions I or II the sign 3x .Section 0.2 7 0.2 = 0.22 Region I II Test Value 0 1 sign of 13x . the inequality is true. Consider Table 1 where we examine the sign at a test value in each region. Therefore. Applied Calculus for Business. for any xvalue greater than 2/3.Time 15 minutes Each question is worth two points. This is of course yields x = 2/3. For any other value of x it is either positive (greater than 0) or negative (less than 0). .2x 1.5 Solving NonLinear Inequalities * ** 31 0.5 .16 0 Given the linear inequality. Wang. that is. we need only choose any test value for x in each of these regions and examine the sign of 3x . we could write 3x 7 2 or x 7 2/3.3x + 22 2x .2 7 0. namely when an inequality is multiplied or divided by a negative number the inequality symbol reverses.2 at the test value. Sign of 3x2 I 0 II !!!!!! e !!!!!! value of x 2/3 x Figure 1: Examining the Sign of 13x . to solve the inequality 3x .
and Finance. b] is shorthand for a 6 x Note that the bracket is used to include the endpoint and b.521x + 22 This tells us that the solution to the inequality 1x . . We first observe that the right hand side of the inequality is the number zero. Gordon. and April Allen Materowski.5 Solving NonLinear Inequalities We now generalize the second method and consider the following nonlinear inequality in factored form 1x . This is done in Figure 3. that is. That is to indicate that the product of the two factors is zero at each of those x values. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. when x = . and (a. Since the product is only zero at the indicated two xvalues.521x + 22 6 0 is any x in the interval . We do this in Table 2.3x . More generally. Region I corresponds to the region in which x 6 .12 = + 1 . by Warren B. because in that region the product is negative.2. (How would you indicate a in interval x 6 b notation?) Notice that the given inequality could have been written as x 2 . Sometimes the answer is written as 1 . Observe that the only time the product on the lefthandside is zero is when either factor is zero. Walter O.2 and x = 5.2 6 x 6 5 and Region III to x 7 5. that is.3x 6 10.42132 = 112182 = + We can now redraw the sign diagram in Figure 2. we put a zero in the diagram.2. Wang.2 or x = 5. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.521x + 22 1 . Moreover. or 2 x .32 * ** Section 0. that is. it will be of the same sign. or some other equivalent formulation could have been given. we included letters for the three regions they created. indicating the sign of the product in each of the three regions. (a.521x + 22 Region I II III Test value x = 3 x = 1 x = 6 Sign of Product 1x . + 0 2 0 5 + x Figure 3: Sign Diagram for 1x . [a. 52. b] is shorthand for the interval a x b.5)(x + 2) value of x I 0 2 II 0 5 III x Sign Analysis Figure 2: Examining the Sign of 1x . the parenthesis is used to exclude it. only positive or only negative in each of the three indicated regions. All that we Interval Notation Applied Calculus for Business.10 6 0. this is shorthand for the interval . That means for any other value of x the product of these factors must always be positive or negative. Inc.521x + 22 Note that at x = .521x + 22 6 0 Our problem is to find those value of x which satisfy the inequality. This is important as we shall see. A simple way to determine this is as follows: draw the number line and indicate these two values for x on the number line as indicated in Figure 2.821 . All we need to do is to select any xvalue in each of these regions and determine the sign of the product. Economics.2 6 x 6 5. Region II corresponds to .2 6 x 6 5. b) is shorthand for the interval a 6 x 6 b. sign of (x . Table 2: Sign of 1x . find those values of x for which the product of the two factors is negative.
yielding x = 0 or x = 2. 4. or x . Wang. We have 2x3 . Solving an Inequality 1.8x 2 Ú . Gordon. by Warren B. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 2x1x . Example 1 Determine the values of x satisfying the inequality (a) 2x 3 .2 = 0. to obtain 2x1x2 . The above suggests a general procedure for the solution of an inequality. 5. and Finance. I 0 0 II 0 2 III x Figure 4: Examining the Sign of 2x1x2 . We illustrate the procedure on the following examples. We indicate the number line in Figure 4. . and then proceed as above.8x We want to determine when the expression on the left will be negative or zero.222 0 0 0 The left hand side will be zero when 2x = 0. They are indicated in Table 3.5 Solving NonLinear Inequalities * ** 33 need do is rewrite the expression so that one side of the inequality is the number zero. 3.8x 2 + 8x 0 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and April Allen Materowski.22 or finally. Read the solution from the sign diagram.8x. Factor the left hand side.Section 0. Choose any xvalue in each of the regions separated by the values found in Step 2. Solve for those xvalue at which both the numerator = 0 and the denominator = 0. 2. Applied Calculus for Business.8x 2 (b) 2x3 . we rewrite the inequality so that zero is on one side. Put the number 0 in the sign diagram above each of the zeros of the numerator and ND for each zero of the denominator.4x + 42 We choose values in each of the regions and determine the sign of the expression at these test values.221x . Inc.4x + 42 or 2x1x . Rewrite the inequality so that the expression involving x is on one side of the inequality symbol and the number 0 is on the other side of the inequality symbol. Walter O. Compute the sign of the expression at each of these values and enter them on the sign diagram. Draw a number line indicating those xvalues (in increasing order) found in Step 2. Economics. Solution (a) First.
Its solution is read immediately from Figure 4.222 21 . Economics.8x 2 + 8x Ú 0. as [0. See Figure 6. (when the factors have the same sign the quotient will be positive. We allow x = 2 because the inequality is 2x3 . because then we would be dividing by zero. or in interval notation. elsewhere in the interval it is positive.121 . We indicate this on the number line by writing ND (not defined) above . .3. ) (b) this reduces to solving the inequality 2x 3 . Using the interval notation we may write the solution as 1 .222 The expression will be negative or zero when x 0 or x = 2.5 Find those values of x so that 0 x + 3 Solution The problem reduces to determining when the quotient on the left of the inequality is negative or zero. namely the interval x Ú 0.5 Solving NonLinear Inequalities Table 3: Sign of 2x1x . x is not allowed to be . q 2. allowing the expression to equal to zero.322 = 21121 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. They are indicated in Table 4.3. Wang. 0 + 0 2 0 + x Figure 5: Sign Diagram for 2x1x . The numerator will be zero when x = 5/2 (verify!). and the denominator will be zero when x = . (The symbol . Gordon. Walter O. the expression is zero.3. I ND 3 II 0 5/2 III x x .q . and April Allen Materowski. and Finance. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and when they are different it will be negative) we proceed in almost the identical way as above.8x 2 + 8x 0. (Note that when x = 0 or 2.222 Region I II III Test value x = 1 x = 1 x = 3 Sign of Product 2x1x . by Warren B.122 = + 21321122 = + We now can complete the sign diagram as given in Figure 5.34 * ** Section 0.q is read minus infinity. Since the rules of signs for quotients is the same as for products. Be careful.) Example 2 2x .5 Figure 6: Examining the Sign of 2 x + 3 We next choose and test points in each of the regions. Applied Calculus for Business. The factors that determine the sign are the numerator and denominator. 02 or x = 2. Inc.
Example 3 3x . Economics. + ND 3 0 5/2 + x .Section 0. Wang.1 7 0. we test points as indicated in Table 5.8 2x + 5 x . .8 Solve the inequality 7 1. I ND 5/2 II 0 III 13 x . 2x + 5 3x .8 .8 Solution We first rewrite the inequality so that one side is zero.13 Sign of x 2x + 5 x = 3 x = 0 x = 14 /.3.1 = .12x + 52 3x . Walter O. but x = 5/2 since the expression is not defined at . and April Allen Materowski.13 Table 5: Sign of x 2x + 5 Region I II III Test value .3 6 x 5/2 or in interval notation. 5/2]. We have .13 Figure 8: Examining the Sign x 2x + 5 To determine the sign in each region.5 . and Finance. Note that x Z . Inc.5 Table 4: Sign of 2xx + 3 Solving NonLinear Inequalities * ** 35 Region I II III Test value . namely . We begin the sign analysis with Figure 8.5/2.= + . and the denominator is zero (the fraction is not defined) at x = ./ .) We now can complete the sign diagram as given in Figure 7. .13/ .5/3 = . Gordon.5 Figure 7: Sign Diagram for 2x x + 3 We may now read our solution directly from the sign diagram.3. 1 . 2x + 5 We combine into one fraction to obtain 3x .= + /+ = +/+ = + Applied Calculus for Business./ + = 3/7 = + / + = + (Notice that all we really need is the sign not the actual value of the expression at the test values. by Warren B. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and is zero at 5/2.3. The numerator is zero when x = 13.5 Sign of 2xx + 3 x = 4 x = 0 x = 4 .13 = = 7 0 2x + 5 2x + 5 2x + 5 2x + 5 The method of solution is now similar to the previous example.
Using interval notation. Inc. For example.25 counts as five Applied Calculus for Business.5/22 or 113.321x + 32 1x + 421x + 3221x . rather than actually evaluating it for each test value.92 = 4x 51x + 221x .22 4x 4x1x 2 . an odd number means the expression is negative. Solution We must first factor the given expression. Walter O.q . . if an inequality has no solution we indicate this by writing Ø.32 4x51x + 221x .4.5/2 or x 7 13 (which may also be written as . Our next example illustrates that as long as an expression is written in factored form. and the denominator will be zero (the expression will not be defined) when x = . 4x41x 3 .q . All we need do is count the total number of negative signs. by Warren B. I ND II ND III 0 IV 0 V 0 VI ND VII 4 3 2 0 2 3 x Figure 10: Examining the Sign of 4x51x + 221x . and Finance. Thus.4x2 1x2 + 7x + 1221x 2 . q 2. q 2. .42 = 1x + 321x + 421x . we have as our completed sign diagram.5/22 ´ 113.5/2 or 13 6 x 6 q . + ND 5/2 0 + 13 x . . and April Allen Materowski. and even number means it is positive. In determining the sign of the expression. we must solve the inequality Ú 0 The numerator will be zero when x = 0.2. or 2.22 1x + 421x + 3221x . 1 . .32 Thus. Economics.5 Solving NonLinear Inequalities Thus. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. the procedure for finding the sign of an expression generalizes to any number of factors.22 1x + 421x + 32 1x . q 2 they would write 1 . We indicate these point on the number line in Figure 10.5/22 or 113. we will instead indicate the sign of each factor for each test value. Gordon. we may write the solution as 1 .13 This expression x 2x + 5 is positive when x 6 . which represents the empty set. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.32 2 We need seven test points to determine the sign in each region. .36 * ** Section 0. Also. in place of 1 .13 Figure 9: Sign Diagram for x 2x + 5 .q .4x2 1x2 + 7x + 1221x 2 . We remark that some texts use the set theoretic symbol ´ instead of writing the word or. Be careful when working with exponents.3 or 3. Example 4 Solve the inequality 4x41x3 . Wang.q 6 x 6 . .92 Ú 0.
Inc.3.1 . .2 = + 41 + 251 + 21 + 2/1 + 21 + 221 .732. We begin our sign diagram in Figure 12. 1 .5 4 41 . by Warren B.2 Applied Calculus for Business.2] or [0.23 L .32 2 5 .251 . the expression that needed to be analyzed was easily factorable. Using the interval notation.32 2 in each of the seven regions. Walter O. .2.1 + 23 L 0.221 .4. we can write it as 1 .251 .4 6 x 6 .21 . I 0 II 0 III x x1*2.2 = 41 + 251 + 21 + 2/1 + 21 + 221 + 2 = + The information obtained from Table 5 is now placed into our sign diagram in Figure 11.22 counts as two.2/1 . and April Allen Materowski.22 1x + 421x + 32 1x .5 .3.2 = + 41 .2 = 41 .5 Solving NonLinear Inequalities * ** 37 negative signs. In each of the examples we considered so far.3 or 3 6 x .Section 0.32 2 Test value Sign of 4x 51x + 221x .251 . Even when this is not the case.2 = 41 + 251 + 21 .2/1 + 21 + 221 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.21 .2/1 + 21 + 221 .22 1x + 421x + 32 1x .22 1x + 421x + 32 1x .22 1x + 421x + 32 1x . .21 . Wang. Economics.221 .32 or 1 . Gordon.732 x2 * 0. Solution The zeros of the quadratic x 2 + 2x . 2] or 13. ND + ND 4 3 0 2 0 0 + 0 0 2 2 ND 3 + x Figure 11: Sign of 4x51x + 221x .2 = + 41 . q 2. Table 6 summarizes the sign of the expression 4x51x + 221x . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2 6 0.2 are found by the quadratic formula to be x1 = .2/1 + 21 . The next example illustrates. we can sometimes perform the analysis needed to determine the sign of a given expression.5 1 1 2.2/1 + 21 + 221 .32 We see that the expression will be zero or positive when .2 or 0 x 2 or x 7 3.2.21 .732.251 + 21 . Example 5 Solve the inequality x2 + 2x . Table 6: Sign of Region I II III IV V VI VII 4x 51x + 221x .732 Figure 12: Examining the Sign of x2 + 2x . We now proceed in the usual way. and Finance. and x2 = .
or the solution is ¤. the same analysis tell us that there is no solution. Suppose we have a quadratic whose zeros are complex numbers.6 .23 6 x 6 . in particular the determination of the sign at the test points.2 = + We now complete the sign diagram as given in Figure 13.3. Economics. We choose x = 0.38 * ** Section 0. by Warren B.q 6 x 6 q . it can be used to perform some of the analysis for us. The next example illustrates this. We need only test any particular xvalue to determine the sign of the quadratic. .732 Figure 13: Sign of x2 + 2x . so we have as our solution the interval . and April Allen Materowski. Example 6 Solve the inequality x2 + 9 7 0.2 Region I II III Test value Sign of x 2 + 2x .2 x = 3 x = 0 x = 1 9 .5 Solving NonLinear Inequalities We next test a point in each region.1 . 0 Calculator Tips Figure 14: Entering y11x2 = x2 + 2x . we need only determine its sign at any convenient xvalue. Wang. Inc.1 + 23. therefore the sign of the quadratic is always positive or always negative. Walter O. we see that x2 + 2x . and Finance. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. therefore it is everywhere positive. Solution Since x2 + 9 has no real zeros (verify!). the empty set. Consider the determination of the sign of the expression x2 + 2x .2 6 0 when .2 = + 2 = 1 + 2 . Note for the inequality x2 + 9 6 0. Gordon. That means there is no real number at which the quadratic is zero.2 Therefore. We see that for this value of x the quadratic is positive. Table 7: Sign of x 2 + 2x . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2 Applied Calculus for Business. as indicated in Table 7. The calculator cannot directly solve an inequality.2 at the test points x = .732 0 + x x2 * 0. + 0 x1*2.
1 Ú 2 x 3 x . we type in y1(1) and the calculator gives 1.52 Ú 0 12. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 13x . 24x2 + 10x .8 7 0 61. which means in this Region III the expression is positive.12 2 2 3 x x . 1x + 121x . 2x . 1x + 2221x .x . similarly y11 .7212x + 5 5 6 2 3 0 0 7 0 923 6 1x . 1x + 221x .3 7 0 2. 6.5213x .5215x + 42 6 .9 38. 53.22 12x + 12 0 7 59.42 1x . We proceed as follows: we go to the Y = screen by pressing * F1. x12x . To compute the value of the expression at 1.7x + 10 6 0 20.42 x12x .42 1x .2x + 5 Ú 0 0 Applied Calculus for Business.2212x + 32 Ú 28 60. 49.41 7 0 64.32 6 11 35.3 0 3.3x2 Ú 0 11.72 7. and April Allen Materowski. x2 . 24x2 + 10x . x2 . 16.16 2 x .321x + 52 Ú 0 8. 25x .3 1x + 221x .52 6 0 13. Inc. 51.32 3 6 2 Ú 2 Ú 4 6 4 0 48. 10x + 7x . 6x . 15x .25 Ú 0 26. and for y1(x) we enter x 2 + 2x .2x .1 6 2 1x .121x + 22 x .2212x + 32 6 28 36. . 55.3 1x . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.42 7 0 21.12 x .2.42 12x .221x + 32 13x + 42 12x . and Finance. x2 . x12x . x2 + 7x + 12 Ú 0 19.25 6 0 27.321x + 52 6 0 9. 1x . x2 . x3 .3 12x . Economics. 40.8 0 30.4x .121x + 22 x . EXERCISE SET 0. 1.3 10 x .12 x2 .25 4 7 1 1 20 11 0 22. Walter O. 43.9 32.x 7 0 31. 13x . 15 .41 65. 13 . 6x2 . 42.7212x + 92 1x . 46. We then return to the home screen by pressing the HOME key. 14x .32 Ú 0 14.521x + 12 18.12 6 0 25.4x .x3 3 3 2 54. 10x2 + 7x .221x + 52 Ú 0 17. The expression x 2 + 2x . 25x .32 Ú 11 34. 12x + 321x .16x Ú 0 28. 15x .22 2 Ú 0 6 0 x12x . x2 . x + x .2. 1x . x2 . see Figure 14.2x + 5 6 0 66. x . x 2 + 4 7 5 33.12 7 x . 12x + 321x . which means in Region II the expression is negative. 12x + 3213x . by Warren B.2x . 45. x2 .5213x . 13x + 5214x . 13x .1 Ú 0 63. 52. 3x21x .22 12x + 12 5x 214x . solve the given inequality. x2 .1 6 0 62.221x + 32 13x + 42 12x . 47.2x21x + 42 7 0 10.2 examined in Example 5 is now in the calculator s memory and it is named y1(x). 44.9 39. 13x + 5214x . and y1102 = .32 15.3 7x x + 3 7x x + 3 3 2 2 2 0 0 7 0 0 0 41.5 Solving NonLinear Inequalities * ** 39 and 1. x2 .4x212 . x2 .72 7 0 12x .12 5x 14x . 2x .Section 0.321x + 42 6 0 5.221x + 32 0 0 4 37.16 2 x .32 = 1 which means in Region I the expression is also positive.25 20 11 7 0 7 4 3x 21x . Gordon.321x + 42 Ú 0 4.16x 6 0 29.x .32 1x . 56. 50. Wang. x1x .42 10 x .12 Ú 0 24. 57. 58.3 x 2 .5 In each of the following exercises. 14x .5215x + 42 Ú .12 7 0 23.22 1x .
Solve the given inequality 1.40 * ** Section 0.42x3 + 18x 2 6 0 12x 3 . and April Allen Materowski. Walter O. 2x . 2. Inc.5 8x + 12 0 Applied Calculus for Business. 10x2 + 11x Ú 6 4. . and Finance.9x2 0 3. Gordon. 24x4 . 2 . Economics. Wang.5 .Time 15 minutes Each question is worth two points.5 Solving NonLinear Inequalities POSTTEST 0. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.38x 2 + 20x 25 . by Warren B.7x 7 1 4 + 5x 5.
1
Functions and Their Applications
This chapter examines the basic notions of a function. It begins with the linear function, and then the quadratic functions the parabola. The functional concept needed for the study of calculus are included as well as relevant applications to economics and statistics.
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
42
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Section 1.1
The Line
1.1
» » » » » » » » »
The Line
Two Dimensional Coordinate System Horizontal and Vertical Lines The Slope Intercept Form Graphing The PointSlope Equation The Slope Formula The General Linear Equation An Economic Application Calculator Tips
PRETEST 1.1 Time 15 minutes
Each question is worth one point. 1. Determine the equation of the line whose slope is 2 and whose yintercept is (0,5). For questions 2 4, use the line 5x  2y = 9. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Determine the slope of the line. Determine its yintercept. Determine its x intercept. Find the equation of the line with slope 3 passing through the point 12,  52. Find the equation of the line passing through (5, 2) and 15,  72. Find the equation of the line passing through (5, 2) and 1  3, 22. Find the equation of the line passing through (4, 2) and (6, 7). Find the equation of the line parallel to the line 3x  2y = 7 and passing through the point (6, 5).
Two Dimensional Coordinate System
You have learned about lines at several different times in your mathematical education. We give a complete development of the line and slope in this section along with some applications. We believe a detailed review of this topic is useful as some of the basic notions of calculus generalize ideas examined in this section. Once again, we provide a short pretest for those of you who believe you remember the topic well. The box above indicates the major points of discussion of this section. Coordinate geometry is one of the most useful tools in gaining a visual understanding of functions. With coordinate geometry, algebraic formulas may be translated into graphs. In many cases, having the graph is the end of the problem. As you know from everyday experience, a picture may be far more informative than a collection of data. In other cases, the picture may reveal the solution to a problem that might otherwise appear to be too difficult to attack. Although none of this should be new to you, let us review the ideas and thereby fix what will become our standard notation and terminology. We remark that our approach is probably not the one you first learned, but as a second time through the material, it will most quickly obtain the results needed to understand linear functions. We begin with a
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Section 1.1
The Line
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43
twodimensional universe consisting of all ordered pairs of real numbers, usually denoted by R2. Examples of points in this universe are (1,4), (0.5 , 6), A 0, 22 B , and 1  p, 3.12. Because the two real numbers are ordered, (2,7) and (7,2) are different points. When coordinate axes are introduced in a plane, every ordered pair is associated with a point in the plane; and, conversely, every point in the plane has attached to it a unique ordered pair of coordinates. Let us briefly explain how this is done. First, as in Figure 1, a pair of number lines are drawn at right angles to one another, intersecting at the point zero on each line. The horizontal line is called the xaxis and the vertical line is called the yaxis. Construct a vertical line through any point in the plane. At the point where this line crosses the xaxis is a number called the xcoordinate (or abscissa) of the point. Now, construct a horizontal line through the point. At the point where this line crosses the yaxis is a number called the ycoordinate (or ordinate) of the point. If the point is called P, and its coordinates are (x, y), then we may refer to it as P(x, y). In Figure 1, the points P(2, 9), Q1  4,  52, and R1  5, 42, S14,  32 are shown. Notice that every point on the xaxis has ordinate 0 and every point on the yaxis has abscissa 0.
Horizontal and Vertical Lines
P(2,9)
R(5,4)
(0,0)
S(4,3)
Q(4,5)
Figure 1: The Two Dimensional Coordinate System
The point where the axes intersect, called the origin, has coordinates (0,0). If we have a relation between two quantities x and y, then we may plot all the points whose coordinates satisfy the rule. The resulting picture is the graph of the relationship. Of course, there may be an infinite number of points, so that actually plotting them all is impossible. On the other hand, in most cases of practical interest, the graph assumes an easily observable pattern which we can visualize without seeing every point. It is also possible to go the other way. That is, we could have a verbal description of the geometric shape that we want as a graph and then try to find the algebraic relationship between the coordinates, that would produce it. For example, the vertical line crossing the xaxis at 3 would consist of all points with xcoordinate, 3. Thus, it would be described by the rule x = 3 and y = anything. Since the last restriction is no restriction at all, we shall simply refer to this graph as the line x = 3. In general, any vertical line will be represented by the equation
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Section 1.1
The Line
x = a, where a is some constant. If a is positive, then the line lies to the right of the yaxis. If a is negative, the line lies to the left of the yaxis. Of course, x = 0 is the yaxis. See Figure 2. We note that the graphs in Figure 2 cannot be graphs of functions of x, since there are many y values corresponding to the value x = 3. In a similar manner, the equation y = b has as its graph a horizontal straight line which crosses the yaxis at (0, b). If b is positive the line lies above the xaxis; if b is negative the line lies below the xaxis; and, naturally, y = 0 is the xaxis. See Figure 3 where we graph the lines y = 4 and y =  3. The graph defined by y = b is a very simple one, and this relation is called the constant function. (We shall discuss functions in detail later in this chapter.)
y
x = 1 x=3
x
Figure 2: The lines x =  1 and x = 3
y=4
y=3
Figure 3: The lines y = 4 and y =  3
Let us now see what kind of function gives rise to any other straight line graph. To begin, we consider a line passing through the origin and making an angle u with the positive xaxis (see Figure 4). Let P(x, y) be any point on the line, other than the origin. For any choice of (x, y), the triangles formed by the given line, the vertical line through P and the xaxis are similar. Therefore, from the figure, it is clear that the ratio y/x is the same for every point P. That is, y/x is a constant. We will denote the constant by m, and call this the slope of the line. That is, the coordinates of every point on this line except the origin must satisfy the condition that y/x = m, which is a constant. Multiplying by x, we obtain y = mx and in this form we can also allow 1x, y2 = 10, 02, so that y = mx
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Section 1.1 y = mx P(x, y) y
The Line
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45
*
x
Figure 4: The line y = mx
is the equation of a line of slope m passing through the origin. Indeed, every nonvertical line passing through the origin is the graph of y = mx for some value of m. Notice that for m = 0, this equation reduces to just y = 0, which we saw above is an equation for the xaxis.
y = mx
(0, b)
y = mx + b
Figure 5
Now consider the line parallel to the line y = mx that cuts the yaxis at (0,b). If b is positive, then this line lies above the original line y = mx (as drawn in Figure 5) and for each x, the ycoordinate of every point on the new line is just b more than the value y = mx on the first line. Therefore, we conclude that every point on this line satisfies the equation y = mx + b. Of course, if b is negative, the line y = mx + b will lie below the original line, but in all other respects the analysis will be the same. Note that parallel lines have the same slope. Technically, the yintercept is the point where the line crosses the yaxis and it has coordinates (0, b). In practice, the number b will be referred to as the yintercept. Thus, we conclude that the equation of any nonvertical straight line may be written in the slope intercept form which follows.
The Slope Intercept Form
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Section 1.1
The Line
The Slope Intercept Form of a Line
An equation for any nonvertical line is
y * mx + b
where m and b are constants, m is called the slope of the line, and b is called the yintercept.
Drawing the graph of a straight line is particularly simple, since we know that two points determine a line. Thus, we need locate only two points on the line and lay a straight edge across them. Let us look at some examples. Graphing Example 1. Plot the graphs of (a) y = 2x  1 (b) y =  1*2x + 4 (c) y =  3 (d) x = 3 Solution. In (a) we have a line of slope 2 and yintercept  1. That is, the line crosses the yaxis at 10,  12. In order to draw its graph we need only one additional point. So, we substitute any convenient value for x into the equation, say, x = 1. When x = 1, y = 2112  1 = 1. That is, the line passes through 10,  12 and (1, 1). We plot these two points and draw the line as shown in Figure 6(a). In (b), the slope is  1*2 and the yintercept is 4. This line passes through (0, 4). Picking x = 2 for convenience, we get a second point y =  1*2122 + 4 = 3. Thus, for a second point we have (2, 3). The graph is shown in Figure 6(b). We see no x term in equation (c). However, we recognize this as being of the form y = constant, which is a horizontal line consisting of all points with ycoordinate  3. Its graph is Figure 6(c). We note that this line could be thought of as y = 0x + 1  32, that is, a line of zero slope, parallel to the xaxis, with yintercept  3. Finally, in (d), there is no y term and we recognize this line as a special case that cannot be put into slope intercept form. Its graph is the vertical line shown in Figure 6(d).
y = 2x 1
y = * *+ x + 4
Figure 6(a): y = 2x  1
Figure 6(b): y =  1*2x + 4
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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x=3
y = 3
Figure 6(c): y =  3
Figure 6(d): x = 3
Example 2 Find an equation of a line having slope 3, and which passes through the point 1  1, 42. Solution. form Since this is not a vertical line, its equation can be written in slope intercept y = 3x + b, where b is to be determined. Since the coordinates of the point 1  1, 42 must satisfy the equation, we have 4 = 31  12 + b 4 = 3 + b Thus, b = 7, and the equation of the line is y = 3x + 7
In the many applications, we shall frequently encounter examples in which one knows the slope of a line and one point on the line as in Example 2. Therefore, it will be convenient to have a simple formula into which such data can be substituted to find the equation of the line directly. Let us suppose that we know the slope, m, and one point 1x1, y12 on a line. As in the previous example, we know that the equation must be y = mx + b, where b is to be determined. Substituting the known point 1x1, y12, yields y1 = mx1 + b We solve for b, obtaining y1  mx1 = b We substitute this for b into y = mx + b, to obtain y = mx + 1y1  mx12 = mx + y1  mx1 Now we subtract y1 from both sides of the equation, giving y  y1 = mx  mx1.
The PointSlope Equation
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Finally, we factor the m from both terms on the right hand side of the equation, to get y  y1 = m1x  x12. This is the socalled pointslope equation of a straight line.
The PointSlope Equation of a Line
If you are given the slope of a line m, and know the coordinates of one point 1x1, y12 on the line then you may determine an equation for the line by simply substituting the information into the pointslope equation
y + y1 * m1x + x 12
Of the various forms of the equation of the straight line, the PointSlope form is the most useful for calculus. When simplifying the expression, we either write the final expression in the form y = mx + b or in the form Ax + By = C where A, B, and C are integers. Example 3 Using the pointslope equation, rework Example 2. Solution. In Example 2, we were asked to find an equation for a line of slope 3, that passes through 1  1, 42. The given information exactly suits the pointslope formula that was just derived. Therefore, we substitute directly m = 3, x1 =  1, y1 = 4 to obtain y  4 = 31x  1  122 y  4 = 31x + 12 y  4 = 3x + 3, and adding 4 to both sides, we obtain y = 3x + 7 the same form as before.
Here is another frequently encountered type of problem. Example 4 (a) Find an equation for the line that passes through (2, 9) and 1  5,  62. (b) Identify its slope and yintercept. Solution. (a) Although we know more than one point, we cannot use the pointslope formula yet, since we do not know the slope. However, since both points satisfy the same equation, y = mx + b, we substitute each set of coordinates to get two equations 9 = 2m + b  6 =  5m + b
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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If we subtract the lower equation from the upper, we will eliminate b, thus, 9  1  62 = 2m  1  5m2 15 = 7m m = 15/7 Now we may use the pointslope equation using either of the given points for 1x1, y12. Let us use the first point (no reason to burden ourselves with extra negative signs): y  9 = 115/721x  22 Multiply through by 7 to simplify, yielding 7y  63 = 151x  22 7y  63 = 15x  30 7y = 15x + 33 (b) Notice that the equation we just obtained looks nice but it is not in the form y = mx + b (or, if you prefer, y = f1x2). This is not unusual. Since we are asked to identify the slope and yintercept of this line we must divide the equation by 7 to get y = 15 33 x + 7 7
Thus, the slope is 15/7 and the yintercept is 33/7.
It is not uncommon to encounter cases in which two points are known, and an equation of the line determined by them is needed. What would help is a simple way to find the slope; then you can use the pointslope formula as in the last example. Therefore, let us suppose that we know the coordinates of two points on a nonvertical line. Call them P1x1, y12 and Q1x2, y22. Proceeding as in the preceding example, we realize that both points satisfy the equation y = mx + b So y2 = mx2 + b and y1 = mx1 + b subtracting the lower equation from the upper, we have y2  y1 = mx2  mx1 = m1x2  x12. Since the line is not vertical, no two points on it have the same xcoordinate. Therefore, x1 Z x2 and x2  x1 Z 0. Thus, dividing by 1x2  x12, we obtain the slope formula.
The Slope Formula
The Slope Formula
Let 1x1, y12 and 1x2, y22 be any two points on a line for which x1 Z x2, then the slope of the line is given by
m =
y2  y1 x2  x1
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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This result is known as the slope formula. Do we have to worry about the possibility that x2  x1 = 0? Not really. If the difference is zero, this means that x2 = x1. If the two points are different points and x2 = x1 then our line passes through two points with the same xcoordinate. That is, the line is vertical. The slope of a vertical line is undefined in any event, so we can safely use the above formula, and if the denominator is zero, we will know that the desired line is vertical. Note that it is correct to write m = but m Z y2  y1 y1  y2 and m Z x 1  x2 x2  x 1 1Why?2 y1  y2 x 1  x2
Example 5 Using the slope formula, rework Example 4. Solution. We know the two points, 1x1, y12 = 12, 92 and 1x2, y22 = 1  5,  62. Substituting into the slope formula, m = 6  9  15 15 = = 5  2 7 7
of course, now that we have m, we may finish the problem exactly as in Example 4.
The slope formula also gives us a good indication of what the slope really represents. Call the two given points, P1x1, y12 and Q1x2, y22 We can always think of Q as lying to the right of P (see Figure 7). That is, always identify x2 and x1, so that x2 7 x1; then x2  x1 is always positive. Thus, in the slope formula, the denominator is always positive. If Q is higher than P, the numerator is also positive; hence, m is positive. So, if the line is rising as you go from left to right, the slope is positive; otherwise it is negative. A zero slope indicates that the numerator is zero, which means that y2 = y1 and the line is horizontal.
P(x1, y1) Q(x2, y2) P(x1, y1) Q(x2, y2)
Figure 7(a) Q is higher than P, m 7 0
Figure 7(a) Q is lower than P, m 6 0
The numerator is the change in y as you go from the first point to the second, and the denominator is the change in x. Thus, m is sometimes referred to colloquially as the rise over the run; that is, the vertical change divided by the horizontal change. It now becomes clear that if
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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the magnitude of the slope is large, then the change in y is large for a relatively small change in x. That is, steep lines have large slopes. Here, large negative m means m is large. (Remember, m means the absolute value or magnitude of m. So, for example, 6 = 6 and  6 = 6.) Incidentally, the division between large and small in this context is 1. A line of slope 1 makes a 45* angle with the xaxis (  1 means the line makes an angle of 45* but measured from the negative portion of the xaxis.) Figure 8 shows several examples to give you an idea of how steep, lines of different slopes are.
m3 m2 m1
Figure 8: Lines with Slopes m1 6 m2 6 m3 In summary, we have the following cases summarized in Table 1. Table 1: The Relationship Between a Line and its Slope
Slope Property y decreases (gets smaller) as we move from left to right, i.e. the line slopes downhill. y increases (gets larger) as we move from left to right, i.e. the line slopes uphill. line is horizontal (parallel to xaxis). line is vertical.
m 6 0 m 7 0 m = 0
undefined
We shall see, when we study the calculus, how these observations generalize to nonlinear graphs. In short, we have seen equations of a straight line may take any of three forms: 1. x = a, a vertical straight line. 2. y = b, a horizontal straight line. 3. y = mx + b, any other straight line. Of course, the second form of a line is only a special case of Form 3 with m = 0. All this can be summarized in the following:
Theorem:
Every equation of the form Ax + By * C, A, B, and C constants, A and B not both zero, is an equation of a straight line. Accordingly, every such equation is called a linear equation.
The General Linear Equation
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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This may be verified as follows. Since A and B cannot both be zero, first consider the case where B = 0, and A is nonzero. The equation is now Ax = C, and we can divide by A yielding x = C/A. That is, x = constant, which is a vertical line. On the other hand, if B Z 0, then we can solve for B, By =  Ax + C Now divide by B, y =  1A/B2x + 1C/B2 which is of the form y = mx + b. Note that the slope of the line Ax + By = C is m =  A/B.
Example 6 Find the slope and yintercept of the line whose equation is 3x + 4y = 8. Also find the xintercept (the point where the line crosses the xaxis) and plot the line. Solution. The equation is 3x + 4y = 8, which we solve for y in order to get it into the usual form: 4y =  3x + 8 Dividing by 4, 3 y =  x + 2 4 Now, by inspection, we see that the slope is  3/4 and the yintercept is (0, 2). To find the xintercept, we are really asking to find the value of x for which y = 0. In other words, we substitute y = 0 into the given equation and solve for x. 3x + 4102 = 8 3x = 8 x = 8/3 The xintercept is (8/3, 0). In general, unless a line passes through the origin, (or is horizontal or vertical) the easiest way to draw its graph is to plot the intercepts. Thus, in Figure 9 we show the intercepts and the line.
3x + 4y = 8
Figure 9: The Line 3x + 4y = 8
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Example 7 Determine an equation for the line parallel to the line 3x  2y = 8 and passing through the point 11,  22. Solution. As above, we put the given line in the usual form by solving for y. We find that y = 3/2x  4. Since the required line is parallel to the given line, its slope must also be 3/2. Thus, the required line has slope m = 3/2, passes through the point 11,  22, and by the pointslope formula its equation is y  1  22 = 3 2 1x  12 Simplifying, we find that the slopeintercept equation of the required line is y = 3/2x  7/2. We can also write an equation for the line in the form 3x  2y = 7. An Economic Application
The slope is defined as the change in yvalues divided by a corresponding change in xvalues. Thus, slope is essentially the average rate of change of y with respect to x. It is precisely this interpretation of slope that is essential to our understanding many applications, especially in Economics and Finance. The next example illustrates such an application. Example 8 When a wholesaler sold CD players at $60 per player, weekly sales averaged 150 players. For each $5 drop in the wholesale price the average number of players sold increased by 15. (a) Describe the relationship between the wholesale price and average weekly sales and (b) what is the average weekly sales if the wholesaler charges $42 per unit? Solution. We let x represent the average weekly sales, and y the wholesale price. (a) We first plot some points to see if we notice a pattern. When y = 60, x = 150, that is, (150, 60) is our first point. If we decrease the price, y by 5, then weekly sales, x increases by 15, so we have the point (165, 55), if we drop y again by 5, then x increases by another 15, and we have as our third point, (180, 50). These points are plotted in Figure 9. Note that as we move the sales right 15 units to the right (increase), the price falls 5 dollars. Thus, we go from the point (150, 60) to the point (165, 55). Once again, as we move from the point (165, 55) and move right 15 units, we then fall another 5 units to the point (180, 50) and this trend continues. This ratio of the price to the weekly sales, or equivalently, the average rate of change of price with respect to weekly sales is the slope of the line connecting the points. Thus, we see a linear relationship between the variables y and x, the price and sales. The rate of change of price with respect to sales is 5/15 = 1/3. Since sales are increasing as the price falls, we have a negative rate of change, that is, the slope is  1/3. We can now write the equation that represents this relationship. We have m =  1/3 and choosing the point (150, 60) we have y  60 =  1/31x  1502 or simplifying, we have 3y + x = 330
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Since it makes sense to think of the price as driving the demand for the CDs, we solve for x as a function of y. This gives x =  3y + 330 (b) When the wholesale price y = 42, we have x =  31422 + 330 = 204. Thus, at a price of $42 per unit, the average sales are 204.
15 5 15 5
Figure 10: Price Plotted versus Average Weekly Sales We have already seen that parallel lines have the same slope, and conversely that two lines with the same slope are parallel. We now investigate the relationship between the slope of perpendicular lines, that is, lines that intersect at an angle of 90 degrees right angles. Let us first dispense with the case where one line is vertical, then any line perpendicular to it must be horizontal. Thus, we assume in what follows that neither line is vertical. We remind you that the formula for the distance d between the points 1x1, y12 and 1x2, y22 is given by d = 21x2  x122 + 1y2  y122 Without loss of generality, assume the two lines intersect at the origin. (Or equivalently, think of the origin as being at the intersection of the two lines.) Let m1 and m2 be the slope of these two lines, then their equations are y = m1x and y = m2x (why?). Choose points A and B on each of these lines with xcoordinate 1, then the corresponding ycoordinates are m1 and m2. Consider Figure 11. Let us first assume the lines intersect at right angles at the origin. The triangle shown with sides a, b, and c is therefore a right triangle, and Pythagoras theorem is applicable. By the distance formula, we have a = 211  022 + 1m1  022 = 21 + m1 2 b = 211  022 + 1m2  022 = 21 + m2 2 and the vertical line connecting A to B has distance c = m1  m2
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
m2 = . Wang.1 Thus. Applied Calculus for Business. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. that is.1.m222 or 2 + m1 2 + m2 2 = m1 2 . Inc. we have shown that if two lines are perpendicular.1/m1 We also observe that each step in the above argument is reversible. m2 = . Walter O. by working backwards. Example 9 Determine the slope of the line perpendicular to the line (a) y = 3x (b) y = . therefore the lines intersect at right angles. (b) m1 = . we obtain the first statement which is Pythagoras theorem.2/5x + 7 (c) 5x + 2y = 11 (d) x = 2 (e) y = 1. and Finance.2/5 therefore its negative reciprocal is m2 = 5/2. the product of their slopes is . that is. and April Allen Materowski. Gordon. .1/3. beginning with two lines whose slope product m1m2 = .1 The Line * ** 55 y = m1x m1 a c b m2 y = m2x Figure 11: Slopes and Perpendicular Lines by Pythagoras theorem a 2 + b2 = c 2 we have 1 + m1 2 + 1 + m2 2 = 1m1 . or equivalently one is the negative reciprocal of the other. (a) m1 = 3 therefore the slope of the perpendicular line is its negative reciprocal.2m1m2 + m2 2 or 2 = .1. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.2m1m2 or m1m2 = . implying the triangle is a right triangle. by Warren B. Solution. Economics.Section 1.
You now see the screen indicated in Figure 12.5/2 therefore the slope of the line perpendicular to it is 2/5. y2. Walter O.2/31x .1 . and April Allen Materowski.) Figure 12: The Y = Screen Applied Calculus for Business. Economics.2/3.5/3 or 2x + 3y = . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. you press the green diamond and then the F1 key1 F12. (e) The line y = 1 is a horizontal line. Suppose you want to draw the line y = . y3. we see its slope m1 = .2 key to the left of the Enter key on the bottom of the calculator. (The calculator distinguishes between the operations subtraction and negation.2/3x .5/2x + 11/2. .2x + 7. The slope of the line perpendicular to it is the negative reciprocal so we have m2 = . we only need y1. Wang. y1. the calculator chooses the default window which may or may not be what we desire.2x + 7. Example 10 Determine the equation of the line passing through the point 12.2y = 12. then we enter . any line perpendicular to it is vertical and vertical lines have no slope. Be careful.1 The Line (c) rewriting the line in the form y = .56 * ** Section 1.2y = 12. Solution. (d) x = 2 is a vertical line. By the point slope formula. we see immediately that its slope m1 = 3/2. by Warren B.32 = . For a single line. We illustrate with lines. by rewriting it as y = 3/2x . We write the equation in the form y = mx + b. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. .32 and perpendicular to the line 3x . therefore any line perpendicular to it is horizontal.22 or y = . and Finance. in green is Y = . the equation of the required line is y . Inc. We first find the slope of the line 3x . Horizontal lines have 0 slope. You will notice that on top of the F1 button of the calculator. and so on. Gordon. the negative sign in front of the 2 is input by pressing the 1 .5 Calculator Tips The calculator may draw graphs for us in regions called windows. It has on separate lines. To get the screen associated with Y = .6. If we do not set the window.
Inc. Wang. and April Allen Materowski.2x + 7 You can see what the default window is by pressing the window key 1* F22. The calculator calls it y1.2x + 7 Stored in the calculator s memory is the equation y = . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.Section 1. Figure 13: y1 = . see Figure 14. by Warren B. and Finance. Figure 15: The Window Screen Applied Calculus for Business. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.1 The Line * ** 57 We now have Figure 13. Economics. . in the event that you store other equations in its memory. it gives each one a separate name. Gordon. Walter O. Figure 14: y = . If you now press the graph button 1*F32 it draws the line in the default window. see Figure 15.2x + 7.
Exercise 17 38. 1. (0. and Finance. 3x . 44. the lowest yvalue (ymin) in the window is . (b) Find an equation for the vertical line passing through the xintercept of the line in 42(b).2).1. Plot the line. .1 The Line xmin. by Warren B. A vertical line passing through 1 . A horizontal line passing through 12. A vertical line passing through (12. One note of caution. xintercept and yintercept of the given line. 72. 82. 6.1. the largest (ymax) is 10. 4. 5) 12. 1*2. Exercise 15 36. Inc. Experiment. Exercise 4 25. (a) Find an equation for the horizontal line passing through the yintercept of the line in 42(a). we usually leave this alone. Exercise 10 31. 2x + 4y . 02. (b) Find the equation of the line parallel to the line given in (a) and passing through 1 . .32 15. 5. 1 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 82. EXERCISE SET 1. experiment.62. If you change any of the setting indicated above. (0. (b) Find the equation of the line parallel to the line given in (a) and four units above it. 16 . 43. Find the x and yintercepts of the line. 10. Exercise 13 34. The last item.4y = 12 7.3. Plot the line. 02 13.4y = 35 In exercises 11 15 give an equation of the line with the given slope and passing through the given point. Plot the line on the same set of axes. (3. Exercise 18 39. change some of them and then press the graph key to redraw the line. (0. 45. 4y = 5x + 12 9. 1/4. Thus. Exercise 2 23.3. 11.22 4. Gordon. (0. 1/4). Exercise 19 40. Exercise 12 33. the line y = 7 would be entered as y1 = 0x + 7.3x + 4. Exercise 6 27. 1. Horizontal lines all have zero slope.2. (2. 3) In exercises 6 10. and April Allen Materowski. each y tick mark is 1. (0. (a) Find the slope of the line whose equation is 3x + 7y + 42 = 0. Plot the line on the same set of axes.3.5y = 6. . 42. Wang.10. 1*2.2 = 0 10. Applied Calculus for Business. . Find the x and yintercepts of the line. 1/6. 19. 17. 16. 14. 0) 3. and 4 units from it. 4) 2.7y + 11. Exercise 8 29. (b) Find an equation for the vertical line passing through the xintercept of the line in 41(b). Exercise 9 30. 18. Exercise 5 26. Exercise 1 22.2. the lowest xvalue is . (a) Find the slope of the line whose equation is 2x . 0) 14. Exercise 7 28.10. this button allows you to change the window more quickly by zooming in and out on the graph.58 * ** Section 1.4) and 1 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 2. In exercises 21 40 plot the lines found in 21. 0. find the slope. the highest is xmax which is 10. 1 . you change the window. . xscl = 1 means each x tick mark is 1. Note the zoom button is F2.3. Once again. Exercise 20 41. A horizontal line passing through 1 . 20.1. 0) In exercises 16 20 find equation for the given line. Exercise 3 24. xres is the resolution. Exercise 14 35. determine the equation of the line whose slope and yintercept are given. Similarly. Find the equations of two lines parallel to the line y = .1. Exercise 16 37. it is sometimes useful to enter the equation of the horizontal line say y = a as y1 = 0x + a. Economics. A line with intercepts (0. Walter O.9 = 0 8. Exercise 11 32.1 In Exercises 1 5. 0. (a) Find an equation for the horizontal line passing through the yintercept of the line in 41(a).
1/3. . B. 56.h2 + b related? (m. 88. 10.32 (d) y . Find an equation of a line whose yintercept is 4 and such that the area of the triangle formed by the line and the two axes is 20 square units. Suppose a person has total income of $40. (b) Repeat for Ax + By + C = 0 for A. how are the lines y = mx + b and y . Exercise 47. Exercise 54. (0. .42. Using the previous exercise.5. In general. 0). 2/32 and (0. b. 11. (a) Find the length of the portion of the line 5x + 12y = 84 that is cut off by the two axes. (a) y = 2x (b) y . The Line * ** 59 75. 63. 62 and (0.1/42. . For each $2 increase in price the producer will supply an additional 6 radios. . (a) Plot the line 4x + 6y + 12 = 0. .92 and (1/2. Determine an equation for the line (a) parallel (b) perpendicular to 3x + 7y = 11 and passing through the point 11. Economics.5y = 9 and passing through the point 1 . 02. 70. the average monthly sales for this item at a department store is 450. . 55. (4. . Let A1x1.32 (c) y = 21x + 32 (d) How are these lines related? 83. 0). Exercise 49.3). Exercise 58. Determine an equation for the line (a) parallel (b) perpendicular to 2x .2 B and 11/4. When the price for a color television is $240.2. h. Wang. 50. 02. (b) Do they lie on the same line? (c) How can you tell without plotting? 79. the average monthly sales fall by 20 units. C positive.52. .92 and (12. 61. a b 87.52 and 12. What is the average monthly sales if the price is $400 per color television? 81. .7. C positive. (0. 58. Show if ab Z 0. Exercise 48.k = m1x .(Two possible answers. 51. 3) and 1 .52. 5). Exercise 50. Find her tax.4). In Exercise 59 70 find the equations of the lines and plot the lines from 59. 64. 2) and (8. 48. Applied Calculus for Business. .Section 1. 0 B . 12.32 (c) y + 4 = 21x .0). 2/3).32.1 46. 1 . 68.) 76. When the price is $50 per radio.4 = 2x (c) y + 4 = 2x (d) How are these lines related? 84.42. determine the equation of the line with intercepts (a) (3. Exercise 56. 11.4 = 21x + 32 (e) y + 4 = 21x + 32 (f) How are these lines related? 85. In Exercises 47 58 find the slope of the line passing through each pair of points 47.732. Exercise 57. (a) Plot these points. A 1*2. Plot each of the following lines on the same set of axes. by Warren B. .5. Exercise 52 65.22 and 11. 69. Find the equations of two lines parallel to x = 2. 52. (0.4 = 21x . The area of a triangle formed by a line and the two axes is 40 and the slope of the line is . Given the two parallel lines y = mx + b and y = mx + B. .42 (c) A 1*2. 0) and (0. 2/52 and (0. (a) y = 2x (b) y = 21x .1/4. 72. Plot each of the following lines on the same set of axes. 16) and 112. 4) and 1 . (12. (a) y = 2x (b) y . . 78. . 74. A 1*2. B.) 77. 90. Exercise 51. Find the point on the line y = 2x + 3 that is equidistant from the points 1 . Inc. 57. Gordon. How many radios are supplied if their per unit price is $72? 82. 71. Exercise 53 66. y22 be in any two points in the plane. as a function of x. b) has the equay x tion + = 1. 67. For each $10 increase in price. Exercise 55. 16 B and A 1*2. 4) and (2. Plot each of the following lines on the same set of axes.1. Determine an equation for the line parallel to y = 3x . 0). (0. 49. 60. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. .73 B . What are the coordinates of the point at which these two lines intersect? (c) Using the theorem of Pythagoras. Find an equation for the line. the xaxis and the yaxis. Walter O. and April Allen Materowski. . 80. determine the perpendicular distance between these two lines. 89. In 1990 the Massachusetts NonResident State Income Tax calls for a tax of 5% on earned income and 10% on unearned income.) 86. then the line with intercepts (a. a producer will supply 100 radios each month for sale. (b) Repeat for Ax + By + C = 0 for A. 6) (b) (2. Find the area of the triangle formed by the line. 62. 1 . 73. (1.6.000 of which amount x is earned.72. 0). Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.1. 4). derive the distance formula. and 6 units from it. 54. t. (b) Obtain the right triangle formed by drawing a horizontal line from A and a vertical line through B. and Finance.7 and passing through the point 11. (a) Plot the points 1 . and k are constants. (Two possible answers. 10. y12 and B1x2. 53.
52. 2. Determine its yintercept. 9. for example. 32. use the line 2x + 7y = 12. Inc. 8. Find the equation of the line slope 3/2 passing through the point passing through 1 . Economics. With these examples in mind. Gordon. Walter O. a child s height is usually a function of age. Find the equation of the line 7. 1 . we may now formulate the definition of a function.8. 19. or h. taxicab fare as a function of distance means to each trip we associate a fare. but any letter may be chosen). Observe the definition indicates that a function is a set. 3. to represent functions. g. your tax rate is a function of your total earnings. 12. trips of the same distance should cost the same. Find the equation of the line passing passing through (3.82. 3) and 15. the more you (usually) pay in taxes.32. .2. by Warren B. Let us look at a few of these examples to understand what we mean by a function. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Determine the equation of the line whose slope is 3 and whose yintercept is 10. Find the equation of the line parallel to 2x + 5y = 9 and passing through the point 110. and April Allen Materowski. two people with the same income (and with all other deductions being equal) should pay the same taxes.1. Wang. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 62 and (3. The more you earn. . f Applied Calculus for Business. 1. 4) and 1 . 1126 is an example of a function (not a very interesting one) that we named f (we often use the letters f. . 6). 72. For questions 2 4. taxicab fare is a function of the distance traveled. through (5.8.60 * ** Section 1. Determine the slope of the line. 1. Determine its x. For example.2 Basic Notions of Functions POSTTEST 1. and Finance. f = 511.2 Basic Notions of Functions » » » » » » » » » » » Definition of a Function Functional Notation Difference Quotient Domain and Range Independent and Dependent Variables Vertical Line Test Combining Functions Composition Decomposition Functions of Several Variables Calculator Tips Definition of a Function The concept of a function comes up regularly in everyday usage. A function is a set of ordered pairs obtained by some rule so that to each first element in the ordered pair there corresponds a unique second element in the ordered pair. . 4.Time 15 minutes Each question is worth one point. 5. Find the equation of the line with 6. 52.intercept.32. and longer trips should cost more than shorter ones.
5 corresponds 2 and 11 corresponds to 9. by Warren B. so each point on the line is an element of f. Gordon.3x + 4. we could instead describe this function by its graph. We could not have (1. In general. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. we mean that y is the value associated with the number x. Note that any nonvertical line defines a function. y = f1x2 is not a function. Thus. we might say a function is defined by the equation f1x2 = 2x + 1. y * f(x)) is the equation of a line. (2. The equation can be a simple one. Walter O. 11). (Why did we say nonvertical?) Example 1 Given the function defined by the equation y = f1x2 = x 2 .3). . then the second element is found by multiplication of the first element by 2 then adding 1. Notice that each first element (in this example 1. Wang. This is sometimes called functional notation.7) belonging to the function since we would have two different second elements (3 and 7) corresponding to the same first element (1). Since it is impossible to list the elements of the function. and Finance. and April Allen Materowski. Applied Calculus for Business. or it maybe more complex. (1. Function Notation f(x) = 2x + 1 Figure 1: The Graph of f1x2 = 2x + 1 Note that the caption in Figure1 states the graph of f1x2 = 2x + 1. when we write y = f1x2. That means that the function has an infinite number of elements.3) and (1. we indicate the graph of f in Figure 1. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Note that in this example x could be any real number. We know that y = 2x + 1 (remember y is the same as f(x). instead of saying 3 corresponds to 1. The function is the set of all ordered pairs obtained through the use of this equation.2 Basic Notions of Functions * ** 61 contains three members. Inc. it would be wrong to say the graph of the function f1x2 = 2x + 1. 9) corresponds to a unique second element. it is the equation which defines the functional relationship between x and its corresponding yvalue. For example if x = 5 then the corresponding yvalue is 2152 + 1 = 11. f122 = 5 f192 = 11. Economics.12 (d) f(2) (e) f(2x).Section 1. (9. This means if x is any first element in an ordered pair. Often the rule by which we obtain the correspondence between x and y is given by an equation of this form. or we would write f152 = 11. we prefer to write this correspondence as f112 = 3. Determine (a) f(0) (b) f(1) (c) f1 . 5). as we shall see. 2. that is. For example.
Given a function defined by the equation y = f1x2.62 * ** Section 1. and a nonzero number h. You will verify this remark in the exercises (Exercise 23).f1x2 = x2 + 2xh + h2 . We illustrate the computation of the difference quotient in the next example.12 = 1 . Applied Calculus for Business. This means we replace x by x + h.3112 + 4 = 2 (c) f1 . we replace x everywhere it appears with the given xvalue.3102 + 4 = 4 (b) f112 = 1122 . then the difference quotient is defined as f1x + h2 .3h = = 2x + h .3x + 42 = 2xh + h2 .3x . Economics.3h + 4 and f1x + h2 . Inc. a function defined by an equation whose graph is a nonvertical line. therefore. We first compute f1x + h2. say f1x2 = mx + b.6x + 4 Difference Quotient Note that to determine the yvalue at any xvalue. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2 Basic Notions of Functions Solution. we replaced x by 2x wherever x appeared. Recall. given the expression a 2b + c 2 d.122 . by Warren B. It is precisely this quotient that generalizes the concept of slope which is fundamental to the development of the calculus. Solution. and April Allen Materowski.1x2 .3x + 4. . everywhere it appears in the equation. Walter O. The product of two conjugates A a 2b . that is.f1x2 h (1) We remark that for a linear function. The trick was to multiply the binomial to be rationalized by its conjugate expression. (a) f102 = 1022 . f1x + h2 = 1x + h22 . the difference quotient will turn out to be precisely the slope of the line.c 2 d B A a 2b + c 2 d B = a2b . Example 2 Compute the difference quotient for the function defined by the equation f1x2 = x2 .3122 + 4 = 2 (e) f12x2 = 12x22 .c2d contains no radicals.32 2xh + h2 .3 = h h h We momentarily digress and remind you about the rationalization of denominators and numerators that you learned about in algebra. We have f1x2 = x2 .3x .f1x2 h12x + h .3h therefore.31x + h2 + 4 = x 2 + 2xh + h2 . One of the most important uses of functional notation in the study of the calculus is the evaluation of the difference quotient. f1x + h2 . We have. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. to find f(2x) in the preceding example. The basic idea was to eliminate the square roots appearing in a binomial expression. its conjugate is a 2b .3x + 4.c 2 d. Gordon. Wang. Thus. and Finance.312x2 + 4 = 4x 2 .31 .12 + 4 = 8 (d) f122 = 1222 .3h + 4 .
the result should not contain any radicals in the numerator. determine the value of the expression for h = 0.f1x2 = 22x + 2h + 1 . Inc. However.3 9 + h .22x + 1 therefore. we obtain the result 1/6.2 . Economics. After the rationalization process is completed. We have h 2 . we would like to determine what the rationalized expression equals if we allow h to be 0. h Solution. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. in this last example. h cancelled in both the numerator and denominator. Thus. and Finance. Walter O. that after performing rationalizations like these. we have to rationalize the numerator in order to perform the necessary evaluation.24 + h and let us rationalize the denominator. and April Allen Materowski. in problems similar to the last one. Solution. Wang. Sometimes.24 + h This last expression is algebraically equivalent to the original expression when h is not zero. if we evaluate the expression with the numerator rationalized with h = 0.24 + h B A 2 + 24 + h B h A 2 + 24 + h B h = =  = . Example 4 Determine the difference quotient for f1x2 = 22x + 1. the difference quotient is Applied Calculus for Business.3 Rationalize the numerator of the expression for h Z 0. Note the cancellation of h in both the numerator and denominator of the last expression. . You will note that evaluation before the rationalization produces 0/0 an expression which is called an indeterminate form. f1x + h2 = 221x + h2 + 1 = 22x + 2h + 1 subtracting f(x) from this expression yields f1x + h2 . when we study the calculus. by Warren B. Gordon. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.24 + h h A 2 + 24 + h B 4 .Section 1.3 B A 29 + h + 3 B 29 + h . A 29 + h .2 Basic Notions of Functions * ** 63 Consider the expression (for h Z 0) h 2 .9 = = h h A 29 + h + 3 B h A 29 + h + 3 B = h h A 29 + h + 3 B = 1 A 29 + h + 3 B We shall see. after rationalization.14 + h2 = h A 2 + 24 + h B A 2 . as the next example illustrates Example 3 29 + h .
2x + 5 if 1 x 4. 12. Gordon. Economics. 32. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. In those texts. 52.22x + 1 = h h We rationalize the numerator by multiplying numerator and denominator by the conjugate of the numerator. If we now set h = 0. the form using h is easier to enter. We also assume that only real numbers are allowed in the domain. Wang. and the set of all second elements is called the range of the function.12x + 12 h A 22x + 2h + 1 + 22x + 1 B = 2h h A 22x + 2h + 1 + 22x + 1 B 2 = = A 22x + 2h + 1 + 22x + 1 B Notice the cancellation of the h in the numerator and denominator. When the correspondence which determines the function is given by an equation. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.2 Basic Notions of Functions f1x + h2 . . Note that the domain is specified in this example. and Finance. and 9 and three second elements 3. the domain is determined by examination of the permissible values of the (independent) variable. 3) and 14. The set of all first elements in the ordered pairs contained within a function is called the domain of the function. we have 2 22x + 1 + 22x + 1 = 2 2 22x + 1 = 1 22x + 1 Some texts use the symbol ¢ x in place of h. y can assume all values between . Applied Calculus for Business. Note that the graph of this function is a line segment connecting the two endpoints (1. 5. therefore the range is the set of all yvalues with . 5. 11. this function has three first elements 1. 19. f1x + h2 . 1126. Inc.3 and 3. 96 and its range R = 53. Thus this function has as its domain D = 51. 116.3 y 3. . Therefore.f1x2 22x + 2h + 1 . The range is often obtained from the sketch of the graph. we need only determine the range. its interpretation is the same. Solution. Example 5 Determine the domain and range of the function defined by the equation y = f1x2 = . namely the set of all x such that 1 x 4.64 * ** Section 1.f1x2 ¢x In does not matter which symbol is used. 2.22x + 1 # 22x + 2h + 1 + 22x + 1 = B R B R= h h 22x + 2h + 1 + 22x + 1 12x + 2h + 12 . In the example in which f = 511. 2. When using a calculator to compute the difference quotient. We illustrate in the next few examples. by Warren B.f1x2 22x + 2h + 1 . and April Allen Materowski. Walter O. We sketch the graph of this linear function in Figure 2. the difference quotient is written as Domain and Range f1x + ¢ x2 .32.
To determine the range we will sketch a graph of the function. .2 27 L 2. Wang.6 3 Using these points. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. q 2. we must require that 2x .3 Ú 0 for x. Inc. then the radicand would be negative resulting in imaginary values for y). Sometimes this is written in interval notation as [3/2. 3) Figure 2: The Graph of y = f1x2 = .2 Basic Notions of Functions * ** 65 (1. by Warren B. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.3 Ú 0 (if it were not. Note that the lowest yvalue on the graph is at the point (3/2. Solution. we draw the graph in Figure 3.7 25 L 2.3) y = f(x) = x+5 (4. we have as the range. Thus.Section 1.3 x 3/2 2 3 4 5 6 y = f1x2 = 22x . Applied Calculus for Business. Gordon. Table 1: Points to Plot the Graph of y = f1x2 = 22x . Therefore. To determine the range recall that we must deal only with real numbers. and Finance. Walter O. y Ú 0 or in interval notation [0. q 2. 0) and the graph rises and will assume all positive yvalues. 1 x 4 Example 6 Determine the domain and range of the function defined by the equation y = f1x2 = 22x .2x + 5.3 0 1 23 L 1. solving the inequality 2x . Thus.3. we obtain that the domain is x Ú 3/2. we begin with x = 3/2. The next example illustrates another way the domain may be restricted. and April Allen Materowski. Of course. Economics. We do this by plotting some points as indicated in Table 1.
66 * ** Section 1. x+ + y = f(x) f Figure 4: A Function Viewed as a Machine Applied Calculus for Business. but any symbol may be used. All xvalues are allowable with the exception of those which make the denominator zero. . the length of the ride determined the taxicab fare. or 1x . For example velocity as a function of time is often written as v = f1t2. The denominator will be zero when x 2 . This machine accepts an input. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Economics. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. the fare (the dependent variable) is dependent on the ride s length (the independent variable).2 Basic Notions of Functions Figure 3: The Graph of the Function Defined by y = f1x2 = 22x . the domain consists of all xvalues except 3 or 4. x and produces an output.321x . you will learn how to easily sketch its graph and (sometimes) obtain its range from examination of its graph.3 Example 7 Determine the domain of the function defined by the equation f1x2 = x . Often we use the letter x to indicate the independent variable and f(x) or y to indicate the dependent variable. In the illustrations above. x 2 . Usually. Wang. This function is an example of a rational function and will be considered in detail later in this chapter.7x + 12 = 0. The terminology certainly makes sense. Sometimes. Inc. Gordon. the amount paid in taxes (the dependent variable) depends upon the income earned (the independent variable).7x + 12 Solution. it is convenient to visualize a functions as a machine as indicated in Figure 4. Walter O. by Warren B. Thus.42 = 0. or when x = 3 or 4. y. and Finance. where v represents velocity and t time. we call the elements in the domain the independent variables and the elements in the range the dependent variables. Independent and Dependent Variables Note that we did not find the range of the function defined in the previous example. At that time. and April Allen Materowski.
to each input. . Consider the graph in Figure 5.1 and 5 (violating the condition that each x corresponds to a unique y). and April Allen Materowski.) If a machine is reliable. (This gives the correspondence between x and y. Note in Figure 1 that if we were to draw a vertical line anywhere on the graph it would intersect the graph (which represents the function) exactly once. . as shown. Economics. The set of all possible inputs accepted by the machine is its domain. you would expect that its output should be replicated by using the same input (independent variable). there corresponds a unique output (the dependent variable). This is true for all graphs which represent functions. there are two different y values. 1) Figure 5: A Graph That Does Not Represent a Function Example 8 Consider the graphs in Figure 6. A graph represents a function if and only if any vertical line intersects the graph in at most one point.Section 1. 5) (10. and the set of all outputs produced by the machine is its range. when x = 10. therefore this graph cannot represent a function. Gordon. to each xvalue (first element) there corresponds and unique yvalue (second element). Remember. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. by Warren B. Inc. which of these represent a function? Figure 6a Figure 6b Figure 6c Applied Calculus for Business.2 Basic Notions of Functions * ** 67 The machine performs an operation on the input x producing the output y. and Finance. Wang. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Vertical Line Test x =10 (10. Note that a vertical line passing through this graph will intersect the graph in more than one point. Walter O. that is.
Since the two functions have a common domain (what is it?). Often functions arise in many different formats. we see in Figure 7 that it intersects the graph it two different points. Figure 7: A Vertical Line Intersecting a Graph at Two Points Example 9 The fare for riding in a cab in a small town is as follows: $1. we use the description C1d2 = 2. no matter where you draw a vertical line.501d . (d) f1x2/g1x2 = 12x + 32/1x 2 + 4x + 42.50 + 2. it intersects the graph in exactly one point. The next example illustrates one which you may have some familiarity with.50d . Example 10 Let f1x2 = 2x + 3 and g1x2 = x2 + 4x + 4 (b) f1x2 .2x . d .68 * ** Section 1.50. this cannot be the graph of a function. . We may combine these two pieces as follows: c1d2 = e 1.50152 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.1 = $11.3 miles long? Solution.g1x2 (c) f(x)g(x) (d) f(x)/g(x) determine (a) f1x2 + g1x2 Solution. C18. (a) f1x2 + g1x2 = 12x + 32 + 1x2 + 4x + 42 = x 2 + 6x + 7. subtracted.50d . Combining Functions Functions defined over a common domain may be added. Gordon. (b) To determine C(5).5192 .50d .50.2. each of these graphs represents a function. rounded up to the next integer when d is not an integer (so 1.50 2.50 plus $2.50 for each additional mile or part traveled. Walter O. The cost C as a function of distance may be determined as follows: C1d2 = 1. therefore. for x Z . (c) Since we round up.50 if d 1 if d 7 1 the cost will be $1. These operations are easily performed. These operations are defined. (a)Let d represent the distance traveled.1 gives the number of additional miles traveled after the first.50 for the first mile or part and $2. Wang.g1x2 = 12x + 32 .1.4 miles is round up to 2 miles). Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. (b) f1x2 .x 2 .1x2 + 4x + 42 = . (since d = 5 which is greater than 1) which gives C152 = 2. (c) f1x2g1x2 = 12x + 321x2 + 4x + 42 = 2x 3 + 11x 2 + 20x + 12. If we draw a vertical line through any point (except x = 2) in Figure 6c. as illustrated in the next example. In Figure 6a or Figure 6b. this violates the vertical line test and therefore.50 times each additional mile traveled. (b) What is the fare for a ride that is 5 miles long? (c) 8.1 = $21.12 = 2. and Finance. and April Allen Materowski.1 if d 7 1.2 Basic Notions of Functions Solution. by Warren B.1. Economics. so we have C1d2 = 1. (a) Determine an equation that describes this function.1 if if 0 6 d 1 d 7 1 A function written like this is sometimes called a piecewise function since its definition depends upon which piece you are on. Note that we have two different formulas for the cost.32 = C192 = 2. Applied Calculus for Business. multiplied and even divided so long as we do not divide by zero. depending on whether the distance is less or more than one mile. Inc.
the first is the composition of f with g and the second is the composition of g with f. x must be in its domain. Applied Calculus for Business. x must be in the domain of g otherwise. Thus. the domain of the composite function defined by the equation y = f1g1x22 is the set of all x such that x is in the domain of g and g(x) is in the domain of f.) The next example illustrates our concern about the domain of the composite function. We wish to consider under what conditions can we define the new composite functions y = f1g1x22 and y = g1f1x22 When these functions are defined. We examine the conditions under which we may define y = f1g1x22.Section 1. (d) g1f1x22 = 1f1x222 + 1 = 12x + 322 + 1 = 4x 2 + 12x + 10. the conditions for y = g1f1x22 are similar and will be left as an exercise. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Wang.) (a) g132 = 32 + 1 = 10. called the composition of functions. Inc. for the g machine to operate. (b) f132 = 2132 + 3 = 9.2 Basic Notions of Functions * ** 69 Functions have one additional way of being combined. First. therefore g1f1322 = g192 = 92 + 1 = 82. g(x) must be in the domain of f. We illustrate this pictorially in Figure 8. Some care needs to be taken with regard to the domain. Second we are using the value g(x) to compute f(g(x)). and for the f machine to operate. (c) f1g1x22 = 21g1x22 + 3 = 21x2 + 12 + 3 = 2x 2 + 5. (c) f(g(x)) and (d) g(f(x)) Solution. and Finance. Economics. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Gordon. Suppose we are given two functions defined by the equations y = f1x2 and y = g1x2. Walter O. therefore f1g1322 = f1102 = 21102 + 3 = 23. . (Verify that setting x = 3 in (c) and (d) yields the same results found in (a) and (b). Composition x+ g(x)+ f (g(x))+ g f Figure 8: A Pictorial Representation of f(g(x)) Example 11 Let f1x2 = 2x + 3 and g1x2 = x 2 + 1. determine (a) f(g(3)). we could not obtain g(x). so there are no concerns about the domain. by Warren B. therefore the number g(x) must be in the domain of f.q 6 x 6 q . (b) g(f(3)). and April Allen Materowski. Note. For any xvalue in this domain. (We note that the domain of each function . the composite function determined by the equation y = f1g1x22 is defined.
Note that some texts write 1f g21x2 to mean f(g(x)). Computations with functions of two or more variables is handled the same way as with a function of a single variable. To each pair. Note that another possibility is to choose f1x2 = x 2.22 is not defined). There are many possible choices for the two functions. g1 . and y is the number of units of labor available. is called decomposition. Inc. y2 = 100x4y4. thus. 16). Economics. Function of Several Variables Breaking apart a composite function. Also note that g(x) must not be 0 as 0 is not in the domain of f. we need only solve the equation x + 1 = 0 x + 2 whose solution is x = . verify this is correct. Suppose we let u = g1x2. we will make the choice that is most useful when such problems arise in the study of the calculus. then u is to be the expression inside the parenthesis. Determine f(81. . Walter O. To determine when g1x2 = 0.325. we may often need to deal with functions of more than a single variable. Productivity may depend on the amount of available capital as well as the number of units of labor available. Gordon. The definition extends is a natural way to any number of variables. It follows that in realistic applications. the domain of the composite function f1g1x22 = 1x + 22/1x + 12 is all x except . We choose u to be the inner function. (x. Decomposition Example 13 Consider the function defined by the equation y = 12x 2 .1. y2. The cost of an automobile may depend on the labor.3210. if we view f1 2 = 1 210. where x is the number of units of capital available.2 Basic Notions of Functions Example 12 Let f1x2 = 1/x and g1x2 = Solution. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. by Warren B.3. cost of steel. and Finance. that is.2 and . and u = g1x2 = 12x2 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.1 (verify!). the cost is a function of four variables. find f(x) and g(x) so that f1g1x22 = 12x2 . We prefer the latter notation. that is. You substitute for each variable as it appears in the equation.3210. capital and labor. A simple calculation yields f1g1x22 = 12x2 . we observe that x Z . y).70 * ** Section 1. as in the previous example. productivity is a function of the two variables. that is. we choose u = g1x2 = 2x 2 . as the next two examples illustrates. Example 14 1 3 Suppose the productivity z is given by the equation z = f1x. then we may write f1g1x22 = f1u2. x + 2 If we compute f(g(x)) we have that f1g1x22 = 1/1g1x22 = 1x + 22/1x + 12 however when does this make sense? First. Thus. Solution. The definition of function extends in a very natural way. fiberglass and rubber. and April Allen Materowski. Applied Calculus for Business. determine the domain of f(g(x)). written z = f1x. x + 1 . Wang. we associate a unique value z. Consider first the case of a function of two variables.2 as it is the domain of g (that is.3210.
1Recall 814 = 2 1 3 1 4 16 B 3 = 23 = 8. y + k2 . Of course. assuming neither h nor k is zero. as the next example illustrates. We proceed as follows: We go to the Y = window and define y1.1.xz + 3yz. y + k2 .1x 2 + 2xy + y 22 = k k 2 k 1 2 x + 2 y + k 2 2xk + 2yk + k = = 2x + 2y + k k k We remark that a function of two variables defines a three dimensional graph.3. However. f181. y + k2 = x 2 + 2x1y + k2 + 1y + k22 = x 2 + 2xy + 2yk + y 2 + 2yk + k2 f1x. y.12122 + 3132122 = 17. (a) h k Solution. f1 . determine f1x + h. y2 = x2 + 2xy + y 2 f1x + h. Inc. y2 = x2 + 2xy + y 2 f1x. 3 4 81 = 3. the vertical line key to the left of the 7 key. 3. z2 = xy .f1x. y2 .f1x. Solution. . 162 = 1001812411624 = 100132182 = 2400. y2 .2 Basic Notions of Functions * ** 71 Solution.) Calculator Tips Applied Calculus for Business. We define the function in Figure 9. Suppose you want to draw the graph of the function whose equation is y = f1x2 = 22x . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. y2 = x2 + 2xy + y 2. we realize the domain is x Ú 3/2. 22 = 1 . determine f1 . (To get the Ú symbol press . Walter O. y2 = 1x + h22 + 21x + h2y + y 2 = x 2 + 2xh + h2 + 2xy + 2hy + y 2 f1x. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. we also want to include the domain. Gordon. Example 16 Given z = f1x. 22. The idea of the difference quotient also can be generalized. y2 . Wang. (a) f1x + h.f1x. There is a key that allow us to insert the domain.1x 2 + 2xy + y 22 = h h12x + h + 2y2 2xh + h2 + 2hy = = 2x + 2y + h h h (b) f1x.12132 . 3. by Warren B. and April Allen Materowski.2 and that 164 = A 2 Example 15 Given the function defined by the equation w = f1x.1 . y2 1x 2 + 2xy + 2xk + y 2 + 2yk + k22 . (b) . 0. Economics.1.Section 1. (Period key) similarly for the . y2 = h 1x2 + 2xh + h2 + 2xy + 2hy + y 22 .f1x. y2 f1x. and Finance.
Gordon.2 Basic Notions of Functions Figure 9: Defining y1 = 22x .3 We now press the graph key. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Inc. and April Allen Materowski. see Figure 11. . Wang. by Warren B. Walter O. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Figure 11: Changing the Window Applied Calculus for Business. Figure 10: y1 = 22x . and obtain Figure 10. Economics. and Finance.72 * ** Section 1.3 in the Default Window We can improve this graph by changing the window.
for example. Walter O. Figure 12: Redrawn Graph of y1 = 22x .Section 1. by Warren B. Applied Calculus for Business.3. if your are in the HOME screen (press the HOME button to get to this screen) and want to evaluate this function when x = 3. (You can determine how many decimal places will be shown using the MODE button and then modify Display Digits). just enter one as y1(x) and the other as y2(x) in the Y = screen 1*F12. As y1 = 22x .73205. you need only enter y1(3) and press Enter.122? Piecewise functions can be drawn several ways. their product. If you want a numerical approximaion.3 It should be noted that calculations are easily done on the calculator with functions. The calculator gives the answer as 23. Gordon. and Finance. . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.3 1 2 x . Wang. Inc.17 if if if x 1 2 1 6 x 6 4 x Ú 4 The functions are input as indicated in Figure 14. Economics. you press * Enter to obtain 1. y11x2 # y21x2. Consider the following example. their compositions y1(y2(x)) and y2(y1(x)). y = f1x2 = c 2x . What happens if you try to compute y1(1)? Why? The composition of two (or more) functions is easy to do as well. we enter these as illustrated in Figure 13. What happens if you try to compute y11y21 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Figure 13 Returning to the HOME screen will allow us to do computations with these two functions. Compute. Consider the functions defined in Example 12.2 Basic Notions of Functions * ** 73 The graph is redrawn in Figure 12. Perhaps the easiest way is to define each piece separately. and April Allen Materowski.
The calculator cannot always accurately portray the continuity of the graph. Walter O. and Finance. We next press the graph key and obtain Figure 15. Gordon. We shall examine the concept of continuity more fully later in the next chapter. see below. The Alpha key is needed to type in the and.2 Basic Notions of Functions Figure 14: Piecewise Defined Functions Note that the space bar key is located above the 1 . because of the way it displays the graph by means of pixels being on or off. by Warren B. but that is how it is displayed by the calculator. Inc. it does not.2 key on the bottom of the calculator. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Once this is done then the Y = screen becomes a Z = screen. Wang. We remark that the calculator can easily perform most functional notation operations including the computation of the difference quotient. Figure 16 Applied Calculus for Business. . see Figure 16.74 * ** Section 1. You must first press the MODE key and change FUNCTION to 3D (three dimensional) by scrolling down. Figure 15: Graph of the Piecewise Function The graph looks like it has a jump at x = 4. Computations with functions of two variables can also be performed on your calculator. Economics.
526 In exercise 9 16 determine the domain and range of the set given in 9.52. Exercise 3 12.12. 1 . by Warren B. 15. Economics. Figure 18 Remember to press MODE and change GRAPH back to FUNCTION when you are done. 52. 16. This is illustrated at the end of Section 3. and Finance. . . 72. 17. 112. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.5. .1. (d) g(8). where we use z1 in place of z. 17. 22. Given the function defined by the equation f1x2 = 3x . (b) g1 .12. 13. 926 2. 12. 111. 15. 32. 12. (c) g(3). 14. (d) f(2x). . 1126 6.12. (c) f(1). Exercise 1 10. (e) f1x + h2 18. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.2226 8. V = 514. h = 513. (c) f(2) (d) f(2x). s = 513. (b) f1 .52. determine (a) f(0). .12. 52. 1126 3.126 7.52. r = 512.Section 1. (d) f(3x). and we want to evaluate f(81. Gordon. 16). 19. 1 . 32. Exercise 6 15. Exercise 7 16. and April Allen Materowski.2 In exercises 1 8 determine if the given set is a function.22. 92. (b) f1 . 52. Exercise 2 11. . The calculator computes the difference quotient using the expression avgRC. 119. 13. Exercise 5 14. f = 511. 16). Figure 17 We next return to the home screen and enter z1(81. 14. . (b) f1 . 526 5. Walter O. we illustrate in Figure 17. Given the function defined by the equation g1x2 = 2x 2x + 1 determine (a) g(0). (e) g(2x) Applied Calculus for Business. 19. Inc. 13.7. (c) f(3). T = 5112. (e) f1x + h2 x + 1 19. Wang. Exercise 8 17. Exercise 4 13. 232. 72. 52. Given the function defined by the equation f1x2 = determine 2x . Given the function defined by the equation f1x2 = 2x 2 .1 determine (a) f(0). 72. 13.2 Basic Notions of Functions * ** 75 Suppose z = f1x. . W = 511. 15. EXERCISE SET 1. g = 512. 14.12. found in the Catalog. see Figure 18. . 15. 1926 4. 112. 17. y2 = 100x 1/4y 3/4. 42. .52.12. 1.3.3 (a) f(0). 22. 52. (e) f1x + h2 20. 32.
f1x2 = 2x + 3 Hint: refer to Example 19 Section 5. 31. g1x2 = x + 5 36. Gordon. 42. Inc. f1x2 = 5x2 . f1x2 = 3x .9x In exercises 46 54 use the vertical line test to determine if the given graph may represent a function. f1x2 = x + 1 x . f1x2 = x2 . f1x2 = x2 + 3x + 9 26.5 34.3 In exercises 42 45. Walter O.5x + 3 25. f1x2 = 43. g1x2 = 2x . f1x2 = 3x . f1x2 = 2x2 + 3x .76 * ** Section 1. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. determine the domain of the function defined by the given equation. h1x2 = 1x 38.7 27. 48 49.4x + 11 28. 47 48. 51 Applied Calculus for Business. r1x2 = 3x + 2 2x . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. In Exercises 21 32 compute the difference quotient . Figure 22: Ex. g1x2 = . by Warren B. f1x2 = x3 29.2 22. and Finance. w1x2 = 23x . g1x2 = 44. h1x2 = 45. 46 Figure 23: Ex.4 40. Economics. 32.12 2x + 1 50. 21. In exercises 33 41 (a) determine the domain. Wang. 49 x3 . and April Allen Materowski.2x2 + 4 37. .2 Basic Notions of Functions f1x + h2 . f1x2 = 5x + 7 23.3 x + 1 2x + 5 5x + 3 6x2 . simplify the expression so that the resulting expression is defined when h = 0. f1x2 = x 41. r1x2 = 22x + 1 39. (b) sketch the graph and (c) determine the range of the function defined by the given equation. 46. Figure 21: Ex. 33. f1x2 = 2/x 30. h Z 0.3 Figure 20: Ex. f1x2 = mx + b 24.1 Hint: refer to Example 19 Section 5.f1x2 47. 51. 50 Figure 19: Ex. f1x2 = 22x . 2 Figure 21: Ex.x . h Whenever possible. f1x2 = 4x + 1 35.
otherwise x if x. Use these functions to solve exercises 76 81.11x5 . f1x2 = 2x .52. and April Allen Materowski.3 2 Figure 24. 72. Walter O. 52 53. (a) Determine an equation which give the height h as a function of age a.3 x + 1 g1x2 = 2 4x + 2 g1x2 = 2 x . c and d if f1g1x22 = g1f1x22. 66.3 . f1x2 = 2x + 1 69. From age 12 to age 19 growth is 2 inches per year. Applied Calculus for Business.1). Inc. f1x2 = 22x + 3 g1x2 = x2 . by Warren B.75 for the first mile or part. assume there is no growth after age 19. f1x2 = 2x .52. (b) flr1 .1). What is the height at age (b) 9? (c) 15? In exercises 58 62. The Elite Limo company charges by the hour for use of its cars.g1x2. The charge for each additional hour or part up to 6 hours is $55. if x is an integer integer to x s left. f1x2 = 3x + 7 68. f1x2 = 3 x + 2 g1x2 = 4x + 7 g1x2 = x 2 g1x2 = 2x . and Finance.2 52. Sketch the graph of y = flr1x2 for .5. Height is a function of age. (a) Determine C(h) an equation represent the cost C of the ride in terms of the hours h. Sketch the graph of y = x . (b) f1x2 . (a) ceil(5). by composition. (c) 7 hours. (a) Determine C(d) an equation representing the cost C of the ride in terms of the distance d traveled. 81. The Floor and CEILING functions are defined as follows: x x x 6 0 x Ú 0 Figure 26: Ex. $0. The absolute value function is defined as follows: Figure 25. x x 3. 75. (c) ceil(5. f1g1x22 = 12x8 .3 In exercises 83 86 determine two simple functions who composition is f(g(x)). f1x2 = 2x + 3 64. f1x2 = 3x . Sketch the graph of y = ceil1x2 for . f1x2 = x + 3 x + 2 65. What is the charge for (b) 4 hours.12 77.7x2 + 3x . is an integer integer to x s right otherwise. determine (a) f1x2 + g1x2.3 86. The fare for riding a cab is as follows: $1.12 78.3 2 g1x2 = x 2 + 3 g1x2 = 2x . 73. f1g1x22 = 13x2 . 3. f1x2 = x .2 59.3 x x 3. Ex. 83. (c) f(x)g(x). Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. the following function f1x2 = 4x + 3x + 2x + 1x. 71. .3 60.1 g1x2 = 70. (b) g(f(x)) and the domain of the composite function. Sketch the graph of y = x + 2 .Section 1.2x + 23218 84.2 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Determine the domain of the composite function defined by y = g1f1x22. Sketch the graph of y = flr1x2 + x for . f1g1x22 = 2 3 x 4 . Determine a relationship between flr(x) and ceil(x). 58. 53 y = x = e 54. (b) How much does it cost for a 10 mile ride? 56. 80. Show how to build. Sketch the graph of y = 2x . Let f1x2 = ax + b and g1x2 = cx + d determine the conditions on a. Basic Notions of Functions * ** 77 In Exercises 63 69 determine (a) f(g(x)) and the domain of the composite function. 3.2x + 19254 85. f1g1x22 = 2x2 . f1x2 = 3x + 7 61. (c) flr(5. 57.4 2 y = flr1x2 = e y = ceil1x2 = e x. and for each hour or part above 6 hours the hourly charge is $48. 74.50 for each additional mile or part. 76. (d) flr1 . Sketch the graph of y = ceil1x2 + x for . 54 55. Suppose at birth the average male is 16 inches tall and grows 3 inches per year until age 12. Wang. (d) f(x)/g(x) when defined. Economics.3 82.5 67. b.2 87. Sketch the graph of y = x .3 79. Gordon. Ex. f1x2 = x2 + 5 62.1 g1x2 = 12/x g1x2 = g1x2 = x + 5 2 x . (d) ceil1 . (a) flr(5).5. The charge for the first hour or part is $80. (b) ceil1 .7 3 x2 . 63.
z2 l . (f) . by Warren B. In symbols. under the river to some point A. If the assembly line produces x items per month.78 * ** Section 1. if the total cost of the power line is to be as small as possible (a sketch of the grap or a table may be useful) h f12 + h. k. If it costs $80 per mile to run the line under water and $50 per mile to run it overland. The slope of the line y = C1x2 is the cost per item m (also known as the marginal cost). D.2. this is C1x2 = D + mx. Applied Calculus for Business. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. y2 .3y3. Given f1x. is given by the rule Cost = Overhead + 1Cost per item2 # 1Number of items2. h k f12 + h. Thus. y2 . the simplest description of production costs is a linear one. (b) f1 .2xy2 . . 22. y.x F 20 miles  92. Given f1x. Gordon.f1x. estimate x.1. and a factory is on the other side.3 Applications of Linear Functions neither h nor k is zero. y. y. 88 (This problem and the next will be reexamined when we learn more aboutcalculus. . 1 + k2 .f1x. C(x) is a linear function of x. (g) In (c) and (e) what happens if you allow h to k equal 0 at the end of your calculations? (h) Same question for (d) and (f) if you allow k to equal 0 at the end of your calculations. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Suppose that a manufacturer has fixed overhead costs of D dollars per month.f1x. A power line is to be run from the power station. y + k2 .f1x. discuss what effect (if any) the overland and under water costs have on the determination of x.f12. (b) f(2. 27). 90. (g) In (c) and h k (e) what happens if you allow h to equal 0 at the end of your calculations? (h) Same question for (d) and (f) is you allow k to equal 0 at the end of your calculations. z2 = x 2 . y2 . if (c) (e) f1x + h.f1x. and April Allen Materowski. 20 miles upriver. P 5 miles x A 20 .f1x. and the yintercept is the overhead. 88. Inc. the point on the other side of the river where the power line comes out of the river. 27: Ex.2xy 2 . 5). determine (c) f1x + h. which is x miles upriver from P. z2 . y2 93.3y 3z2 + z2.f1x. y2 k f1x. (d) f1x. y2 h . y2 = 8x3y2 determine (a) f (3. y2 . If neither h nor k if f1x. l is zero.f1x. z + l2 . 3 + k2 . . y + k. 91.f12. 32 (b) f10. and then over land to the factory (see Fig.22 if neither h. C(x). y2 f1x. Wang. y. y2 = x2 . (d) . 12 . Suppose the power station in the previous exercise is moved one mile inland find the point A at which the power line enters the river. . (e) f1x + h. and Finance. Suppose further that the cost of producing each of a particular item is m dollars. Many real processes are modeled by linear functions. A power station is on one side of a straight river which is five miles wide. Referring to the previous two problems.3 Applications of Linear Functions » » » » BreakEven Analysis Depreciation Piecewise Linear Graphs Calculator Tips In the previous section we defined and examined the notion of a function. zero. determine (a) f11.f1x. z2 h f1x. z2 . Economics. 1. z2 k . then the total monthly cost.12. To start with.) 89. y + k2 . 1. Walter O. y2 . determine Fig. y. We will look at some examples from business. in this section we consider linear functions in some detail. y. . y2 . determine (c) (d) (f) f1x. 2). . determine (a) f12. 32 (e) . Given f1x.
The point at which revenue equals cost is called the breakeven point. and Finance. See Figure 1(b). the manufacturer is selling things for less than it costs to make them and will surely never make a profit! The xvalue for which P1x2 = 0.D .mx = 1p . revenue function. Notice that the slope. lower case p represents price). Gordon. D/1p . ) The selling price per item p should be higher than the cost of producing it. This time. the slope is the selling price per item p. That is. (b) Find the profit function.1D + mx2 = px . (a) Find the cost function. and the yintercept is zero. Walter O. a profit). Economics. is given by Revenue = 1Price per item2 # 1Number of items2. and to the right. and write P1x2 = R1x2 .. Alternatively. R(x). (c) How large must sales be in order to achieve a profit of $1500 per month? Applied Calculus for Business. In this case.3 Applications of Linear Functions * ** 79 Now. and April Allen Materowski. P(x) is negative (i.m2x . suppose that the manufacturer sells each item produced for p dollars per item.m and the yintercept is .m)x . We shall use P(x) to denote profit (note upper case P represents profit. R1x2 = px Thus.D.Section 1. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.m2. a loss).C1x2 = px . Figure 1(b): Linear Profit Example 1. To the left of this value. See Figure 1(a). P(x) is positive (i. and breakeven point.D C(x) = mx + D break even point x break even point x Figure 1(a): Linear Revenue and Cost Here is a simple numerical example. is also a linear function of x. The wine sells for $30 per bottle. The profit function is also linear. BreakEven Analysis y = R or C R(x) = px y=P P(x) =(p . R(x). Wang. is the breakeven point. ( You sell nothing. The total revenue to the producer. you could simply consider the profit. otherwise.m should be positive. the revenue line would have a higher slope than the cost line but starts at the origin for zero sales. BBZ Wineries has a fixed monthly overhead of $2000 and a cost of $20 per bottle to make and bottle wine. revenue will eventually match and finally exceed cost. the xintercept of the line. p . As x increases. which is revenue minus cost. by Warren B. that is. In such a case. . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Inc.e.D. Its xcoordinate is the number of sales for which revenue would equal cost.e.. the slope is p . the revenue. you get nothing.
Economics. C(x) = 2000 + 20x R(x) = 30x P(x) = 10x .80 * ** Section 1. That is. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. by Warren B. that is. Walter O. Gordon. so we solve 1500 = 10x . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. The cost equation is C1x2 = 2000 + 20x The revenue equation is R1x2 = 30x (In the general notation. the winery breaks even (See Figure 2(a)).2000 (c) (The breakeven point can be determined (again) by setting P(x) equal to zero. D = 2000. the winery shows a monthly profit of $1500.2000 . Depreciation Another common business situation where a linear function arises is in modeling the process of depreciation of assets. Suppose that a company or individual invests in a piece of equipment.) The two lines intersect when R1x2 = C1x2. The graph of this situation is shown in Figure 2(b). Thus. R12002 = C12002 = $6000. .12000 + 20x2 = 30x . Wang.) We want P1x2 = 1500.2000 3500 = 10x x = 350 That is.3 Applications of Linear Functions Solution. on sales of 350 bottles.20x = 10x . m = 20. This gives x = 2000/10 = 200. (a)Let x = the number of bottles produced per month. Inc. Let the value of that item when new be V. and Finance. as above. building.2000 Figure 2(a): Linear Revenue and Cost (b) The profit function is Figure 2(b) Linear Profit P1x2 = 30x . and p = 30. only to have it drop to value zero in the year in Applied Calculus for Business. when 30x = 2000 + 20x 10x = 2000 x = 200. when sales are 200 bottles per month. or other tangible asset that does not have an unlimited life expectancy. It is not reasonable to carry that asset on your books at value V year after year. and April Allen Materowski.
000 Taxi over Four Years t A(t) 0 40. because the asset (car) loses value over time. The slope of the line must be m 2000 .13000 . . A1t2 = .Section 1.000 (that is 1 4 of $40. Economics.000 3 10. and April Allen Materowski. we are using linear depreciation.000) each year. That is.10. Solution. Since at time 0. the rate at which the taxicab is depreciating to zero is the total change in value divided by the length of time.000 when new.000. and Finance. the value of the item plotted versus time will have a constant negative slope . Winslow buys a new car for her business for $13. we have Table 1. we may interpret the slope as the rate of depreciation. For example. The equation is A1t2 = . In general. The simplest way is to assume that the asset depreciates by a fixed amount each year.2000).000. it must lose 1/4 of its original value each year.10000 and yintercept 40. the car is worth 13.0 5 and since we know the yintercept is 13. we know that the line passes through the two points (0. Find the function A(t) that describes the value of the car after t years 10 t 52 if she uses straight line depreciation.000. Applied Calculus for Business.000 4 0 It is not difficult to see that these points (t. of which only a few are acceptable to the business community and the Internal Revenue Service.V/T and yintercept V: A1t2 = 1 . Notice. Thus.13000) and (5. Instead.000. Letting t be time measured in years. Consider the following example. Walter O.000. There are several ways this can be done.40. it is not necessary that an asset be depreciated to zero. Therefore. Wang. Example 2. Inc. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Ms. the value of the cab will drop to zero in T = 4 years.000 2 20.000t + 40. Notice again that the slope is the rate of change of value and it is negative.3 Applications of Linear Functions * ** 81 which it finally wears out. Suppose also that he anticipates a usable life of 4 years. by Warren B. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.11000 = = . Table 1: Depreciation of a $40.000 and at time t = 5.2200t + 13000. or . it must depreciate $10. Notice also that the slope is negative since the value is decreasing. In other words. you normally write off the value of the item by some systematic plan over the item s expected lifetime.000 1 30.2200 5 .000.V/T2t + V Of course. T. She expects to use the car for five years and then sell it to a used car dealer for $2. and A(t) be the value of the cab at time t. for this method. called linear or straightline depreciation. suppose that a taxicab driver values his cab at $40.000/4. Gordon. If the cab is assumed to depreciate a constant fixed amount each year and drop to zero after 4 years. It is perfectly natural for the cab driver to assume that there will be some salvage value to the car at the time it is disposed of. the salvage value of the car will be 2. at which time he will junk the cab. A(t)) lie along the straight line with slope .
We express the function in algebraic form. y x Figure 3: A Piecewise Linear Graph The transition point x = 3 is handled similarly.3 Applications of Linear Functions Piecewise Linear Graphs Actually. Inc. For simplicity. for x 6 1. since both give the same yvalue. By inspection. Walter O. Applied Calculus for Business. that is easy. For given straight lines. So we can pick either. If our answer for a breakeven point had not turned out to be a whole number. It is easy to calculate that the slope is . the graph is a horizontal line with height y = 2.2) and (5. (If the two rules gave different values at such a point.) At any rate. the straightline depreciation relationships are true only for integer values of x and the graphs really consist of isolated dots rather than continuous straight lines.0). we shall continue to let x be any real number. since every x must define exactly one y. and Finance. the graph is a straight line passing through (3. by Warren B. Economics. 2. if x is to the right of 3. Finally. its slope is 2 and its yintercept is 0.0) and (1.x + 5 as its equation. Wang. and April Allen Materowski. . So the equation of this line is just y = 2x. then we could make the following natural interpretation: that is.82 * ** Section 1. In addition. For instance when the xvalues are not expressed in units but in hundreds or thousands of units as is common in most real business problems. Therefore. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. we get y = . Given such a graph. So. however. the next larger integer value would give the first profit. The graph of a function can be distinguished by the fact that every vertical line intersects the graph in at most one point. if we are lucky. Gordon. we would have been forced to decide precisely which was intended. consider the graph in Figure 3.1. We see that to the left of x = 1. we see that between x = 1 and x = 3.2). it does not matter whether you use the rule y = 2x or y = 2. Next. Graphs such as this are called piecewise linear . there are cases in which fractions make perfect sense. Thus. the graph is a straight line that passes through (0. However. f1x2 = 2x. What about the transition points x = 1 and x = 3? At x = 1? In this case. f1x2 = 2. and using the pointslope formula. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Remember the vertical line criterion for functions. it is certainly the graph of a function (by the vertical line criterion). this graph can be described as: f1x2 = c 2x 2 x + 5 1 if x if 1 6 x if x 7 3 3 A good example of a piecewise linear graph is offered by an Income Tax Form. we can figure out an algebraic equation represented by the graph and express f(x) that way. for 1 6 x 6 3.
10x 0. by Warren B. the rule gives the same value for t. To get the symbol you press and then the 0 key.500. Proceeding similarly.400 and 68. If x 7. Solution.2 key and you must press Alpha and then this key.800.500 This Amount Plus This % Of the Excess Over $0 $700 $3.688002 + 14010 if 0 6 x 7000 if 7000 6 x 28400 if 28400 6 x 68800 if 68800 6 x 143500 We show how to use your calculator to sketch the graph of this function below.251x .400. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.151x . similarly.7. and Finance. for x between 28. 0. If x is between 7.000 and 28. the space bar is located above the 1 . find t = T1x2 for the domain 0 6 x 143.910 $14.800 $143. Economics. The graph shown for T(x) in the previous example may be drawn with your calculator by entering each of the pieces of the function separately on the Y = screen.400 $68.70002 + 700 T1x2 = d 0.010.281x .7.0002.800 The Tax is Letting x be your taxable income and t be your tax. Calculator Tips Figure 4(a): Entering the Function From Example 3 Applied Calculus for Business.284002 + 3910 0. Table 2: Portion of Schedule X Schedule X If Taxable Income Is THEN Is Over Single $0 $7.4002 + 3. We illustrate in Figures 4(a) and 4(b). and for x between 68.28. Note that at the splitting point.000 $28.500. Some remarks: first.800 But Not Over $7.910. Walter O.68. The condition (in this case the interval of definition) is inserted using the vertical bar key to the left of the number 7 key. Gordon.Section 1. to get the Ú symbol you press and then the # (period) key. In short The graph of T(x) is shown in Figure 4. we have t = 0.0002 + 700.400 $68. Wang. The 2003 Schedule X is used by single taxpayers to determine their tax.281x .3 Applications of Linear Functions * ** 83 Example 3.800 and 143.8002 + 14. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. .000 $28. and April Allen Materowski. then t = 0.151x .000 $28.010 10% 15% 25% 28% $0 $7. Inc. we have t = 0. Thus. Table 2 is a portion of this schedule. t = 0.10x.251x .000.400 $68. then the tax is 700 plus 15% of 1x .
200.3 Applications of Linear Functions Notice the black arrow to the right of y2. Economics. Wang. Again. Suppose that the manufacturer in Exercise 1 can manage to reduce the overhead to $1.400 and the third at x = 68800. Alternately. you choose the portion of the graph you want to zoom in on by moving the cursor to the left and pressing enter and then move to the right and press enter. . the first bend is difficult to see in the present window as it has a relatively smaller yvalue. so we need to set an appropriate window. (Note that the first switch in pieces occurs when x = 7000. Figure 4(c): Sketch of T(x) EXERCISE SET 1. we have the sketch in Figure 4(c). One possible window is given in Figure 4(b). Rework Example 1 for fixed overhead of $2. If his overhead remains $2. the shifts from one piece of the graph to another is not easily seen. Walter O. what is the new breakeven point? Applied Calculus for Business. y3 and y4.3 1. that means there is not enough room to show the rest of the line on the screen and you need to scroll (use the arrow keys) to see it. zooming in at these points will better show the transition (bend) from one piece of the graph to the next. to see them more clearly would require you to zoom in near each transition point. the second at x = 28. by Warren B. Figure 4(b): A Window to View T(x) Using this window. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. The calculator shows a slight bend at these xvalues. Inc.500 and cost per bottle remains $30. Gordon. Suppose that the manufacturer in Exercise 1 is forced to cut the selling price to $35 in order to clear inventories.500. The default window will not be accurate. How does this affect the breakeven point? 3. in this window we can press F2 (Zoom) and we obtain different zoom options. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and selling price of $45. and Finance.84 * ** Section 1. In most cases. cost per bottle of $30. Now we know we are working with larger numbers here. We leave it to you to experiment with these options. and April Allen Materowski. Since this graph has such a large range of values. 2.
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Find the breakeven point. it is decided that the machinery still has another twenty years of life left but it will then be worth nothing. find the marginal production cost per lamp and find the profit on sales of 130 lamps. Applications of Linear Functions * ** 85 (1.5) (0. find and graph the relation. 22. find the cost equation for flashlight production. find the overhead and the marginal cost of a figurine.2y + 2 = 0. Plot the graph of y = f1x2. Find f1 . 2) ° + (4. Find the algebraic formulation of f(x). At a selling price of $50. Find f1 .3 x + 6 if x 1 if 1 6 x if 3 6 x f1x2 = c 3 Find f(0). Plot the profit function. How many points of intersection do you see? What are their coordinates? 21. f(1). The Amalgamated Flashlight Company shows a profit of $4. . how should he set the selling price to guarantee breaking even? 5. and f(5). find and plot the graphs of the total cost function and the revenue function. 19. Assuming that demand is linearly related to price.3 4. Inc. If a manufacturer has fixed costs of $700. 2) (1. A house and lot valued at $100. If each sixpack sells for $1.2x + 1 2x . 1) (3. How many points of intersection do you see? What are their coordinates? 20.500 when the production is 10. Find the algebraic formulation of f(x). A manufacturer of vases discovers that it sells 1800 vases at $12 per vase but only 1300 at $15 per vase. Find the function that describes straight line depreciation for this situation. a lamp company breaks even on total sales of $3000. How must the price be set to make possible a $90. A small bottling company finds that it costs $6. find the assumed value of the land. f11*22. Wong Industries is depreciating the value of its machinery over a thirtyyear life. 7. 16.25 apiece. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 2) (1. f(0). to be used by married tax payers in 2003 is given in Table 2.) 13.22.000 to prepare 15. Gordon. (Ignore inflation. and expects to sell at least 100 items.000.22.000 sixpacks of cola. A machine worth $10. Walter O. and f(7). 11.000. If the company s overhead is $1200. 8. Find f1 .Section 1.2y + 1 = 0 on the same axes as the graph of y = f1x2 from Exercise 18. 1) ° Figure 5 (a) Figure 5 (b) 14. Plot the graph of y 17.2) + + + (3. Its original value was $1. Assuming that cost is a linear function of number of items.20. and f(4) Applied Calculus for Business. and f(5).000 and it is assumed to have a scrap value of $100. f(2). on the same axes as the graph of y = f1x2 from Exercise 17. 2) (1. Figure 5(a) shows the graph of a piecewise linear function f. f102. Find a piecewise linear function that describes the brokenstraightline depreciation that the company is using.. and Finance. f142. 1) Figure 5 (c) 15. At what time will the machine be worth $5000 according to this model? 12. After 10 years the book value of the asset is $64. Consider the function given by f1x2 = e x + 3 x + 3 if x 0 if 0 6 x Find f1 . (a) If flashlights sell for $2. 1) (1. Economics.3 on the same axes as the graph of y = f1x2 from Exercise 16. Schedule Y1.000 new and having a scrap value of $500 is to be depreciated over a tenyear life. Figure 5(c) shows the graph of a piecewise linear function f. Consider the function given by 2 f1x2 = c x + 2 6 = f1x2. Consider the function given by .000. a cost per item for production of $20. (c) Suppose that the capacity of the flashlight assembly line is 30.5).000 sixpacks.000 profit? 10. f(3) and f(5). by Warren B. if x 0 if 0 6 x if 4 6 x 4 Find f1 .4) + (1. Find the algebraic formulation of f(x).22.000.800 for a production run of 1000 and $2200 for a production run of 1500. After 20 years.12. f112.500 on a production of 6000 flashlights and a profit of $10. Plot the graph of y = f1x2 18. (3.000 is being depreciated over 25 years by the straight line method. (a) Sketch the graph of the line y = 2x . what should he set the selling price to be? 6. and April Allen Materowski. 9. (b) Plot cost and revenue on the same axes and locate the breakeven point. 1) (2. A manufacturer of small glass figurines discovers that it costs $1. Sketch the graph of the line x . f(2).1) + (2. Plot the cost graph. f102. How many points of intersection do you see? What are their coordinates? (b) Sketch the graph of the line x .52. Wang. Since only the value of the house depreciates.000 to prepare 10. If the manufacturer of Exercise 4 wishes to guarantee profits of at least $600. and $8. Figure 5(b) shows the graph of a piecewise linear function f.000 flashlights. f(1. and f(3).
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. . It turns out that once we understand how two special cases appear.000 and 30.800 $114.00 Plus This % 10% 15% 25% 28% 33% 35% Of the Excess Over $0 $14. Your tax is 125216. if you earn under $10. you may subtract $3000 from your earnings. therefore this graph is symmetric with respect to the yaxis. Write C(x) algebraically and plot its graph.282. and then its applications.000 $56.000 and 20.4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas Table 2: Schedule Y1 Schedule Y1 If Taxable Income Is THEN Is Over Married Filing Jointly or Qualifying Widow(er) $0 $14. then we almost know how any other parabola will appear. on 26.950 But Not Over $14.400. where a Z 0. In Table 1 we choose xvalues and compute the corresponding yvalue. Similarly. In particular. we examine the special case y = x2.50 $39.001 1x = 20. equal and opposite xvalues have the same yvalue.50. A local photocopying store advertises as follows.9992 or $20. Plot the graph.000. Wang. However. the next step was to examine the linear function defined by y = f1x2 = ax + b.00 $7. Economics.950 This Amount $0 $1. you may subtract 1000 and pay tax on 25. the yaxis behaves like a mirror.52 = $162.00 $22. So.000.700 $311. Walter O. Would you rather earn $19.000. Gordon.650 $174. by Warren B. the yvalue is 0. if between 10.650 $174.0012? 1. The graph of this function is called a parabola.000 earnings.000 $56.4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas » » » » » » » » Scaling Vertical Translation Axis of a Parabola Horizontal Translation Locating the Vertex Graphing a Parabola in the form y * ax 2 + bx + c Applications to Optimization Calculator Tips After studying the linear equation ax + b = 0. We observe that when x = 0.950 The Tax is Letting x be your taxable income and t be your tax. 24.800 $114. 23. and then we plot these points to obtain the graph of y = f1x2 = x 2. and is positive for any other xvalue. Let x be the number of copies ordered and C(x) be the cost of the job.950 and plot its graph. that is. We charge 8¢ per copy for 100 copies or less. the portion of the graph on each side of the axis is a mirror image of the other.800 $114.000. as a function of x in thousands. T(x). and 4¢ per copy for all over 1000. given the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0.50 $84.000 $56.999 1x = 19.700 $311.820. Inc. Express the tax. and if between 20.389. and April Allen Materowski. and Finance.50 per thousand dollars of earnings. 6¢ per copy for each copy over 100 but not over 1000.096. Moreover. find t = T1x2 for the domain 0 6 x 311. you may subtract 2000. it is natural to next consider the quadratic function defined by y = f1x2 = ax2 + bx + c. for example.86 * ** Section 1. Metro City s NonResident Earnings tax is $6. Applied Calculus for Business.700 $311. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.650 $174. you may subtract 1000.
4 . The graph is symmetric with respect to the yaxis.42 13. in this case opening upward. .32 = .222 = . its turning point or vertex is the origin.2.1222 = . 1) (2. Gordon. as we shall see change the way the graph opens. y = x2 Figure 1: The Graph of y = f1x2 = x2 Table 2: Points used to Plot y = . 42 1 . by Warren B. .1 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Changing the sign will.1. Wang. the line x = 0. and Finance.32 = 9 1 .3.1 .x 2. Economics.4 . resulting in the graph opening upward. 42 1 . 0) 11. The lowest point on the graph.92 .1 .4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas * ** 87 Table 1: Points used to Plot the Graph of y = f1x2 = x 2 xvalue 3 y = f1x2 = x 2 y y y y y y y = = = = = = = 1 .92 Applied Calculus for Business.1 .1.9 .12 12.9 2 point on graph 1 . that is.222 = 4 1 .Section 1. 0). 4) (3.1322 = . . 92 1 .x2 y y y y y y y = = = = = = = . 9) 2 1 0 1 2 3 The graph is plotted using these point in Figure 1.122 = . Observe that the parabola is a U shaped graph.1122 = .1 . Inc.x 2 xvalue 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 y = .1 . As our next example. and April Allen Materowski.122 = 1 1022 = 0 1122 = 1 1222 = 4 1322 = 9 2 point on graph 1 .1022 = 0 . Table 2 gives the required points. What happens to the shape of the graph if we change the sign of the coefficient of the x2 term? In the previous example its coefficient was positive. we consider the parabola y = . 0) (1. . . 12 (0. (0.2.3.12 (0. Walter O. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. .
0) (1. The effect of adding a constant to y = x 2 has the effect as moving the curve vertically. How does this graph differ from y = x 2? The answer is simple. Wang. In fact.88 * ** Section 1. Gordon. Walter O. Economics.x 2 and y = x2 are identical. for the same xvalue. that is. That is. Table 3. 2) (2.x2 is also a U shaped graph opening downward. and a downward shaped one when a 6 0. In fact the graphs of y = .122 = 2 21022 = 0 21122 = 2 21222 = 8 21322 = 18 2 point on graph 1 . 182 1 . we plot them both on the same coordinate system in Figure 4. Notice that the graph of y = 2x 2 is narrower. Scaling Applied Calculus for Business. y = f1x2 = ax2 + bx + c will have an upward shaped appearance U when a 7 0. Note that this graph looks very much like the graph of y = x 2 except it rises faster. Notice that the graph of the equation y = . by Warren B. or vertex. is the highest point on the graph. we see multiplying the coefficient of x2 by a constant does nothing more than scale the yvalue. if we turn one of them upside down we obtain the other. Consider the graph y = 2x2. y = x2 Figure 2: The Graph y = . Thus. Inc. 8) (3. and April Allen Materowski. a vertical translation. to better see that.2.1.3. .x2 We shall see soon that all parabolas will have one of the above shapes. The reason is that for the same xvalue.222 = 8 21 . the yvalue on one curve is the negative of the other. 18) 1 0 1 2 3 The graph is given in Figure 3.the line x = 0. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. We have seen the effect of multiplying x 2 term by a constant. gives the points needed to plot this curve. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Table 3: Points used to Plot y = 2x 2 xvalue 3 2 y = 2x 2 y y y y y y y = = = = = = = 21 . and Finance. 82 1 .32 = 18 21 . 22 (0. its yvalue is doubled. for the same xvalue its has twice the yvalue. Its turning point.4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas The graph is given in Figure 2. symmetric with respect to the yaxis .
22 (0. and April Allen Materowski. Inc. by Warren B. 2) (2. 102 1 . Economics. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Walter O.1. Table 4: Points used to Plot y = x 2 + 1 xvalue 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 y = x2 + 1 y y y y y y y = = = = = = = 1 .32 + 1 = 10 1 .Section 1. 5) (3. 10) Applied Calculus for Business. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2. 52 1 . We indicate in Table 5 the points used to sketch its graph which is given in Figure 5. Wang. . and Finance.4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas * ** 89 y = 2x2 Figure 3: The Graph y = 2x2 y = 2 x2 y = x2 Figure 4: y = x2 and y = 2x2 Consider the graph of y = x2 + 1.122 + 1 = 5 1022 + 1 = 1 1122 + 1 = 2 1222 + 1 = 5 1322 + 1 = 10 2 point on graph 1 .222 + 1 = 5 1 . 1) (1.3. Gordon.
by studying either. we see that for the same xvalues. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. that is y = ax 2 + bx and y = ax2 + bx + c are identically shaped but only differ in their vertical position by c units. Walter O. the yvalue of the first graph is one unit above the yvalue of the second graph. .90 * ** Section 1.2x + 1 = 1x .4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas y = x2 + 1 Figure 5: y = x2 + 1 Note that in comparing the graphs of y = x2 + 1 and y = x2. this graph of this function only differs from the graph of y = x 2 . It is convenient to examine y = 1x . This is most easily seen in Figure 6. where the graphs are plotted together. in general. Economics.2x by one unit. but the first one is one unit above the other. they are identical. Thus.122. Consider the quadratic function defined by y = x 2 .122 since that graph s y values are most easily obtained by the substitution of its Applied Calculus for Business. and April Allen Materowski. As indicated y = x2 + 1 y = x2 Vertical Translation 2 2 Figure 6: The Graphs of y = x2 + 1 and y = x2 above. we can see what effect the xterm has on the quadratic. Gordon. without any change in the parabola s shape. Wang. we see. by Warren B. and Finance. Inc. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. that the c term in the quadratic function y = ax2 + bx + c moves the graph vertically upward or downward depending on c being positive or negative. Thus. The only remaining term we need consider is the xterm in the quadratic function. that is.
with a Z 0 is always a U shaped graph. Thus. it coincides with the graph of y = 1x . Gordon. Table 5: Points used to Plot y = 1x .1. it opens upward if a 7 0 and downward if a 6 0.122. Inc. except now the vertex is at the point (1.3 .122 = 1 11 . The b term effects the horizontal position of the vertex and the c term its vertical position.Section 1. Economics. 0) (2. therefore.12 = 16 1 .122 Observe that this graph is still symmetric with respect to the vertical line drawn through the vertex. that is.3. 9) We plot this graph in Figure 7. and April Allen Materowski. The vertical line passing through the vertex is often called the axis of the parabola or its axis of symmetry. 162 1 . 4) (4. However. 0) so the graph is symmetric with respect to the line x = 1. Table 5 contains the points we need to draw its graph.122 = 9 1 . this form is not always the one presented.122 xvalue 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 y = 1x . by Warren B.122 = 9 2 point on graph 1 . the x term in the quadratic function is the term that moves the graph horizontally. we shall consider other means. 92 1 . If we move the graph of y = x 2 one unit to the right. Walter O. In fact. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.1 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.122 = 0 12 . 1) (3. Notice that this graph is identical to the graph y = x 2 except it is shifted one unit to the right. y = (x .2 .h22 + k.122 y y y y y y y y = = = = = = = = 1 .1)2 x=1 Figure 7: The graph of y = 1x . as considered below. and Finance. 42 (0. Wang. Summarizing.2.4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas * ** 91 xvalues. we have that quadratic function defined by y = ax 2 + bx + c. causes a horizontal translation.122 = 4 14 . the most convenient form of the parabola for plotting purposes is the form y = a1x . .122 = 1 13 . 1) (1.122 = 4 10 . This is most easily observed if both graphs are plotted together as in Figure 8. Axis of a Parabola Horizontal Translation Applied Calculus for Business.
21x .215 .214 . how can we most easily draw the graph of any given parabola? A good representation of the graph should indicate its U shape. This is done in Table 6.21x . in either case the point at which x = h is the vertex. We begin with this xvalue and choose several values to its left and right. it is a simple matter to choose the appropriate points needed to plot the graph. compute their corresponding yvalues. .42 (2. plot the points. Gordon. Wang.122 and y = x2 We observed that when the parabola is given in the form y = a1x . or the highest point on a parabola opening downward. as was done above. by Warren B. Inc. 4) (4.142 Plotting these points. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. The xcoordinate of the vertex is x = 3.211 . The question that remains is. we get the graph as given in Figure 9.142 11.4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas y = x2 y = (x .42 16. since at this xvalue the parenthesis term is zero. and then choose a few points to its left and right to obtain enough points to reasonably plot the graph. if a 7 0 then all other yvalues will be above this one or if a 6 0. and then draw the graph. all other yvalues will be beneath it. Thus.213 .322 + 4 xvalue 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 y = .216 32 322 322 322 322 322 322 2 point on graph = = = = = = = . . Consider the parabola Applied Calculus for Business.210 . . and April Allen Materowski. . Walter O.322 + 4 y y y y y y y = = = = = = = . which means that we should first locate the vertex of the parabola. 2) (3. and Finance.212 . . Table 6: Points used to Plot y = .14 4 2 4 2 4 . 2) 15.14 + + + + + + + 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 10. Example 1 Sketch the graph of the parabola y = .322 + 4. We choose several xvalues to its left and right and compute their yvalues.92 * ** Section 1. Solution. The vertex occurs when x = h.21x . We observed that the vertex is always the lowest point on a parabola opening upward. Economics. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.1)2 Figure 8: The Graphs of y = 1x .h22 + k.
Gordon.5 + 4 = x 2 + 4x + 4 or y . we must do to the other.21x . Inc.2. Economics.322 + 4 y = x2 + 4x + 5. We remarked above that it is an easy matter to plot the parabola when it is written in the form y = 1x + 222 + 1. our objective is to plot the graph using the original form of the equation. We first isolate the xterms and write y . The procedure by which we locate the vertex is nothing more than a variation of the method of completion of the square. we shall search for its vertex which is its lowest point. and April Allen Materowski.2.4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas * ** 93 x=3 y = 2(x . that if we knew the xcoordinate of the vertex.2 1 0 1 y = x 2 + 4x + 5 point on graph Applied Calculus for Business.5 = x2 + 4x We next complete the square on the right hand side. and Finance. so we have y . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. . Wang. if we were to plot this parabola we could begin our table as indicated in Table 7. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Walter O. by Warren B. Thus. Table 7: Constructing a Table of Values xvalue 5 4 3 xcoordinate at vertex : . This will happen when x = . Therefore.3)2 + 4 Figure 9: The Graph of y = . we could construct a table of values including the xvalue .2. y = 1.1 = 1x + 222 or y = 1x + 222 + 1 Now observe that the lowest possible value for y will occur when the term in the parenthesis is zero. 12. We know even before plotting its graph that it opens upward (why?). and at this value. Thus. This means. and choose a few values to the left and right.Section 1. the vertex of the parabola is at the point V1 . remembering that whatever we do to one side of an equation. 1 2 142 = 2 and 22 = 4. However.
94 * ** Section 1. and Finance. and April Allen Materowski. as we shall see in the exercises. Walter O. we conlude that given the parabola y = ax 2 + bx + c.c + or solving for y gives y = aax + We can combine fractions and write this last equation as y = aax + b 2 4ac . however. doing so may prevent errors in drawing its graph. (5) Draw a smooth graph through these seven points. = . Wang. Therefore. (4) Plot each of the seven points determined from the above steps. where a Z 0. Graphing a Parabola in the form y * ax 2 + bx + c (1) Locate the xcoordinate of the vertex which is x = .the vertical line through the vertex. Inc. . to quickly draw a parabola we need only determine the xcoordinate of the vertex and then construct the table of values needed to get enough points to accurately obtain the graph. giving y/a . by Warren B. First. we divide by a so the coefficient of the x 2 term is 1. (6) Draw and label the axis of the parabola . y c b2 b b2 + = x2 + x + 2 a a a 4a 4a2 or y c b2 b 2 + b = ax + 2 a a 2a 4a b2 b 2 = aax + b 4a 2a b 2 b2 b + c 4a 2a multiplying by a gives y . The yvalues are obtained by substituting the xvalues into the equation of the parabola.2b a . Economics. 2a 2a 2a 4a 2 Therefore.2ba.4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas Remember. This is conveniently done by choosing three successive integer values to the right and left of the xcoordinate of the vertex. This gives y/a = x2 + b/ax + c/a We next isolate the xterms. including the vertex as well as three xvalues larger and smaller than this xvalue.b2 b + 4a 2a (1) Locating the Vertex Graphing a Parabola We see that the term in the parenthesis will be zero when x = . Thus. let s see what happens. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Can we determine a formula that will easily give the xcoordinate of the vertex? If we do what we did above to the general quadratic function defined by y = ax 2 + bx + c.2b a. Applied Calculus for Business. You really do not need seven points to graph a parabola (in fact. three points uniquely determine it). and a b = . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Gordon. (3) Complete the table by computing the yvalues corresponding to each of the above xvalues. we want to locate the vertex and use the original form of the equation. (2) Make a table of xvalues. the xcoordinate of its vertex is x = .c/a = x2 + b/ax 1b b b 2 b2 We now complete the square.
81 .21022 . Notice. (Note. . since the parabola is always symmetric about its Applied Calculus for Business.2x2 . 2) We use the points from Table 8 to plot the graph given in Figure 10.12 + . Walter O.1.5.322 .32 + .8x + 12 y y y y y y y = = = = = = = .4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas * ** 95 Example 2 Sketch the graph of the parabola y = .81 .21 . 122 1 . as to find them we need to solve a quadratic equation.81 .21122 .2.8x + 12 xvalue 5 4 3 xcoordinate at vertex : . 202 1 .21 .8112 + 12 2 point on graph 12 = 12 = 12 = 12 = 12 = = 12 = 2 2 12 18 20 18 1 .22 + . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Wang. and Finance. The exact answers.8x + 12 Note that the above example.2 .21 .21 .222 = . Economics. found by the quadratic formula. the yintercept is indicated on the graph. x2 = .81 .8x + 12 Figure 10: The Graph of y = .52 + .2.52 . we know that the graph opens down.) V x = 2 y = 2x2 . the equation .8x + 12 = 0 However.3. Table 8: Points used to Plot y = .21 . in the tables used above. because the coefficient of the x 2 term is negative.82/121 .2 1 0 1 y = .Section 1. In the above case. are x1 = .42 + . 12) (1. Solution. corresponding points on either side of the vertex had the same ycoordinates. Of course.2x 2 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. The xcoordinate of the vertex is x = . 22 1 .8x + 12. and April Allen Materowski.8102 + 12 .122 .4.2x 2 . 182 (0. that even before we begin the graph. The xintercepts are usually not convenient points to plot. Inc.2x2 .210.2.1 .2 and x2 L 1.2x 2 . as given in Table 8.81 . we can read off the approximate solutions to this equation from our graph.5.422 . 182 V1 . Gordon. We will choose three xcoordinates above and below this value and compute their ycoordinates.222 . this is always an easy point to plot since we need only set x = 0 and solve for y to find it. In the above case we have x1 L . In fact.2 + 210. by Warren B.
1 .10 = . the yintercept is 10. Inc.10 y y y y y y y y = = = = = = = = 31 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.222 .8122 .4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas axis.102 and is easily found.152 V14/3.8x . The graph is given in Figure 11.10. by Warren B.8x .142 13.81 . Gordon.8132 .8x . . 46/3) Figure 11: The Graph of y = 3x2 . 12 10. .96 * ** Section 1. and April Allen Materowski.81 .8x .1. Note that the only fractional arithmetic needed is to compute the yvalue at the vertex. Walter O.12 31022 .72 (4. .10 2 point on graph 10 = 18 10 = 1 = .102 11.81 . Economics.8102 . The details are indicated in Table 9. Wang.14 = 7 = 6 1 .22 31 . Example 3 Sketch the graph of the parabola y = 3x2 . The xcoordinate at the vertex is x = . 182 1 . it may not always be convenient to plot the symmetric points.10 31422 .10 31322 .10 31122 .8x .46/32 12.2. Solution. . Table 9: Points used to Plot y = 3x 2 .8112 . and Finance. . However.10 V(4/3.10 31 .122 .22 . This is true when the xcoordinate at the vertex is not an integer.10 Note that in the above example. . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Note the integer to the right of 4/3 is 2 and the one to its left is 1. In such a case. We shall choose integer values to the right and left of this xvalue.10 xvalue 2 1 0 1 xcoordinate at vertex : 4/3 2 3 4 y = 3x 2 .8142 .46/3 = .22 31222 .82/121322 = 4/3. this will always be the case for symmetrically chosen xvalues. 6) x = 4/3 y = 3x2 . Applied Calculus for Business. . we will choose integers values to the left and right of this xvalue to minimize the arithmetic in computing the ycoordinates. since we chose integer values for x at the other points.15 10 = . The next example illustrates this remark.
96) Once we recognize the function to be optimized is parabolic.161422 + 48142 + 160 = 160 2 point on graph (0. The integer tvalues to the left and right of this value are 1 and 2. 4 . so it too must be nonnegative. we plot the graph given in Figure 12. we plot its graph. Since t represents time.Section 1.5 seconds to reach the maximum height which is 196 feet above the ground.161222 + 48122 + 160 = 192 . and Finance. Walter O. That means its tintercept is the point at which this occurs.48/121 . we now have h as a function of t. Inc. as a function of time is a parabola. Wang. . Determine (a) how long it takes the ball to reach its maximum height. then it is clear from its graph that its optimal (maximum or minimum) value will occur at the vertex. Consider the following examples.9 and 3. (b) The ball hits the ground when its height h = 0. therefore it takes 3/2 = 1. (a) We see that at the vertex.16t 2 + 48t + 160 h = . x2 = . A typical problem that arises in calculus is to determine the maximum or minimum value assumed by a given function. and what is this height? (b) how long does it take for the ball to hit the ground? Solution. 192) (3. The exact intercepts are found by solving the equation 3x2 . From our graph. Example 5 A ball is thrown vertically upward from the ledge of a building 160 feet above the ground with an initial velocity of 48 feet per second. If the function is quadratic.0. Economics. 192) (3/2. The t coordinate of the vertex is given by t = .2 or 5. the ball is at its maximum height.8x . Using these points. Since the height. Since we must have a positive value for t.161322 + 48132 + 160 = 160 . We construct Table 10. 160) (4. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.16t 2 + 48t + 160 tvalue 0 1 tcoordinate at vertex : 3/2 2 3 4 h = . Gordon.161122 + 48112 + 160 = 192 h h h h = = = = .1 246 4 + 246 Doing so. we find them to be x1 = .1613/222 + 4813/22 + 160 = 196 . and April Allen Materowski.16102 + 48102 + 160 = 160 h = .6 respectively. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. h represents the height of the ball above the ground level. it is no longer necessary to plot its graph as illustrated in the next two examples.10 = 0. We solve the quadratic .1622 = 3/2. where t is the time measured in seconds. 196) (2. it makes no sense to use negative tvalues. Note that instead of y being a function of x. It can be shown that its height h measured in feet above ground is given by the equation h = .4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas * ** 97 Example 4 Determine the xintercepts in the graph given above. Solution. by Warren B. 160) (1. Applications to Optimization Table 10: Points used to Plot h = . Applied Calculus for Business. we 3 3 can see that their approximate values are .16t2 + 48t + 160 = 0 and find that t = .16t2 + 48t + 160. we have that it takes 5 seconds for the ball to hit the ground.
We let x and y represent the dimensions of the enclosure as indicated in Figure 13. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.2x + 600 therefore. by Warren B. Economics.2x2 + 600x Once again.4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas V(3/2. Determine the dimensions of the enclosure that maximize the enclosed area. y x x y x x Figure 13: A Rectangular Enclosure of Width x and Length y Solution. Gordon. He plans to subdivide the enclosure into three parts. Applied Calculus for Business. x and y. Walter O. . as illustrated in Figure 13. we can eliminate one of these variables. and Finance. However. The problem is to maximize the total area A = xy. since the total amount of fencing used in constructing the enclosure is 4x + 2y = 1200. and April Allen Materowski. we have an equation of a quadratic function whose graph is a parabola.2x + 6002 or A = . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. This is somewhat unusual.98 * ** Section 1. A = xy = x1 . Since x represents a dimension.16t2 + 48t + 160 Example 6 A farmer will construct a rectangular enclosure from 1200 feet of fencing. as A is a function of two variables. Wang. Inc. 196) = 3/2 h = 16t2 + 48t + 160 Figure 12: h = . we must have that x 7 0. Solving for y we have y = .
The maximum area is 1150213002 = 45. when the area is maximized. you need only first calculate the xcoordinate of the vertex and make sure this is included in the window selected.) In the previous example. Determine the number of bicycles that should be produced to minimize the producer s cost. for example. x = . Since this is a parabola opening down. From the equation y = . The xcoordinate of the vertex is therefore the number of bicycles that should be produced to minimize the cost (which is the ycoordinate of the vertex).2000x + 600000. by Warren B. the width of the enclosure is to be 150 feet and its length 300 feet. Calculator Tips Figure 14: y1 = 2x2 . The cost function is a parabola opening upward. . the cost of rent. In the event that these functions are quadratic. In the previous section we indicated how to plot the graph of a function using the calculator. Thus. y = 2x 2 . and April Allen Materowski. so at the vertex the area is maximized. Consider. we have.4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas * ** 99 The xcoordinate of the vertex is x = . Example 7 The cost in dollars of producing x bicycles is given by the equation C = 2x2 .000 square feet. Thus.600/121 . the methods of this section are applicable. Gordon. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.000 and the average cost per bicycle is 100000/500 = $200. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.60x + 475. for the area to be maximized. Typical business problems arising in applications are to maximize profit. Thus.Section 1. The next example illustrates. etc. we find that the corresponding length is y = . Inc. for example. the width x = 150 feet. Walter O. This procedure may be easily used to plot the graph of any parabola of the form y = ax2 + bx + c. Wang.60x + 475 Applied Calculus for Business.222 = 150.2x + 600.20002/121222 = 500 The producer should produce 500 bicycles to minimize his cost. and Finance. initial labor costs. machinery. (The cost in producing the 500 bicycles is $100.211502 + 600 = 300. see Figure 14.1 . you might have asked yourself why the cost of producing zero bicycles is $600. Therefore. Economics. the lowest point on the graph is the vertex.000. To make sure you obtain the Ushaped portion of the graph in your window. This number is sometimes called the startup or overhead cost needed to begin production. Solution. minimize costs or maximize revenue. (why?) the vertex is the highest point on the graph. We go to the Y = window and define y1.
We can generate a table of values using the TABLE key 1*F52. 25). x = . Figure 17: Choosing tblStart = 15 and ¢ tbl = 1 Applied Calculus for Business. and April Allen Materowski. by Warren B.4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas Before we press the graph button. Economics. Figure 16: Setting Up the Table tblStart is the xvalue at which we want the table to begin and ¢ tbl is the incremental value. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Walter O. Wang. Gordon. the difference in succeeding xvalues listed in the table. Inc.602/121222 = 15. we compute the xcoordinate at the vertex. Therefore. we want to include the vertex in our window. Thus.100 * ** Section 1. Note.1 . . we obtain Figure 16. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. we see that the vertex is (15. Figure 15: Using the TABLE Key The table generated does not include the vertex. and Finance. we obtain Figure 15. so we use F2 (Setup). from the home screen we calculate y11152 = 25. We will choose tblStart = 15 and (the xvalue at the vertex) and ¢ tbl = 1. that is. See Figure 17.
Walter O. Gordon. see Figure 20. Figure 18: The Table Starting at x = 15 Scrolling up and down will give different points on the graph. it is clear that we should could use a window containing xvalues between 12 and 18 and the corresponding yvalues would be between 25 and 43. Wang.60x + 475 Applied Calculus for Business. see Figure 18.4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas * ** 101 Next press Enter twice to get the table.Section 1. Inc. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. If we also want to include the origin (we don t have to) then we could choose the window given in Figure 19 (there are many other reasonable choices for a window. and April Allen Materowski. from the table. . and Finance.). Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Figure 19: Choosing an Appropriate Window The graph is now obtained by pressing the Graph key 1* F32. Economics. Figure 20: y1 = 2x2 . by Warren B. Thus.
Inc. y = . y = .*+ x . y = 1x + 122 2.21x + 422 + 7 12. .102 * ** Section 1.122 8.*+ x Figure 23 Applied Calculus for Business. we stress that there are many other window choices that could have been made that would illustrate the Uportion of the parabola.4x + 9 16. If 4200 feet of fencing is to be used in its construction determine the dimension x and y that will maximize its total area? s2 Hint: The area of an equilateral triangle with side s is 23. y = 1x .4 (a) In Exercises 1 21 draw the graph of the parabola. You should experiment with various choices. 4 x x .2x2 .8 21. y = . y = x2 . y = 2x2 + 4x + 5 15. If 6000 feet of fencing is to be used in its construction determine the dimension x and y that will maximize its total area? 2y x y 2x y y y x 2x 2x Figure 22 29.4x2 . 1. y = .15 17. measured in seconds by the equation h = . by Warren B.12 23.16t2 + 96t. y = 31x + 12 + 4 10.5x + 12 22.*+ x y y .31x + 122 7. A barnyard is to be fenced is as indicated in Figure 23. y = 2x2 + 5x + 9 24. (b) From your graph. y = .4 Quadratic Functions Parabolas Once again. determine (a) how high the bullet will go and how long it takes to reach that height. y = 1x .2x2 + 4x . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Gordon. y = x2 + 4x .2x2 + 4x + 8 18. measured in seconds by the equation h = . y = 2x2 + 5x . EXERCISE SET 1.9 19. Wang.5 13. y = 3x2 + 12x . (b) how long does it take for the ball to come back to the ground? 26. A ball is thrown vertically upward from the ground.12 25.5x . A gun is fired upward from the ledge of a 176 foot cliff.322 + 5 11. y = . y = . Walter O. y = . (c) Check your estimate by finding the xintercepts exactly. estimate the xintercepts.222 3.6 14. y = .16t2 + 80t + 176.4x . and Finance. determine (a) how high the ball will go and how long does it takes to reach that height.21x .322 4.2x2 + 7x + 12 20.*+ x y . and April Allen Materowski. y = 1x + 322 5.122 6.3x + 5x . Economics. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. The bullet leaves the gun with a velocity of 80 feet per second. A barnyard is to be fenced is as indicated in Figure 22. If its height h measured in feet is given in terms of time t.21x . y = 31x + 122 . If its height h measured in feet is given in terms of time t. A barnyard is to be fenced is as indicated in Figure 21. y = . (b) how long does it take for the bullet to come back to the ground? 27.4x2 . y = . If 3600 feet of fencing is to be used in its construction determine the dimension x and y that will maximize its total area? 2 2 y x x x y x x Figure 21 28. y = 41x .3 9.
Student Government at a University is chartering a plane for Spring Break. h) and directrix with equation y = . (b) When will its graph lie above the xaxis? (When will it lie below the xaxis? 34. a circle on a piece of cardboard. How would you go about doing it? One approach is to attach a pencil to one end of a taut string and hold the other end fixed. . Solution. you are drawing an arc of a circle. Wang. (The axis of the parabola is the line y = x. Walter O. Gordon. as accurately as you can. The above method for sketching a circle may be used to define it. (b) Suppose the focus is located at 10. 02. 38. 2) to the point P(x. k . so we may factor to obtain. and Finance.x . (a) Show that the airline s revenue R = 1150 . Inc. 4ay = 4a 2x2 + 4abx + 4ac Now add b2 both sides of the equation yielding b2 + 4ay = 4a 2x2 + 4abx + b2 + 4ac Note the first three terms on the right hand side are a prefect square. Determine the equation of the parabola passing through the points (0.p. (a) How many television sets should be produced to minimize the cost? (b) What is the minimum cost? (c) At this level of production. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Example 1 Find the equation of the circle with center at the point C (1. by Warren B.p2 and the directrix has the equation y = p. 2) and radius 3. (b) How many seats should be unused to maximize the airline s revenue? (c) What price would each passenger pay if the airline maximized its revenue? (d) Is this a good deal for the Student Government? 33.2h. Given y = ax2 + bx + c multiply both sides of the equation by 4a.p. 30). 9) and (4. obtaining. k + p2 and directrix y = k . The airline will charge $120 per passenger and added to this a surcharge of $15 per passenger for each unsold seat. (a) Suppose the The Circle * ** 103 focus is located at (0.Section 1. b2 + 4ay = 12ax + b22 + 4ac Solve for y and then show that it follows that the vertex occurs when x = . determine the equation of this parabola.5 30. 35. b and c if the parabola is to have no real xintercepts. Determine the equation of the parabola passing through the points (0.) 39. derived from selling x computers is given by R = . in producing x large screen televison sets is given by the equation C = 4x2 .b/2a. and April Allen Materowski.1. (b) focus at 1h. determine the equation of this parabola. The cost C.3x2 + 600x + 1000. Economics. . 8).x21120 + 15x2. therefore. The given point is called the center of the circle and the distance each point is from the center is called the radius. we have the distance from the center C (1. (2. Continuing once around. Keeping the string taut move the pencil. This definition may be used to determine the equation of circle if we are given the coordinates of the center and the length of the radius. As you are doing so.p2 and directrix y = k + p. This example illustrates another way of finding the vertex of a parabola (and deriving the quadratic formula). Find the equation of the parabola with (a) focus at 1h. The revenue R.2000x + 600000. 6) and 1 . Let x represent the number of unsold seats. 37. the circle is drawn. in dollars. p) and the directrix has the equation y = . Let P (x.5 The Circle » » » » » » Definition of a Circle Equation of a Circle Graphing a Circle Tangent Line The Ellipse Calculator Tips Suppose someone asks you to draw. Also show that setting y = 0 results in the quadratic formula. y) using the distance formula is Definition of a Circle Applied Calculus for Business. (a) How many items should be sold to maximize the revenue? (b) What is the revenue? 32. We illustrate in the following example. The plane can seat 150 passengers. y) be any point on the circle. Find the equation of the parabola with focus on the line y = x at (h. The circle is defined to be the set of all points equidistant from a given point. 1. 10) (1. We know that every point on the circle is 3 units from the center. what is the average cost per set? 31. 36. A parabola may be defined as the set of all points equidistant from a fixed point called the focus and a fixed line called the directrix. Given the parabola y = ax 2 + bx + c (a) determine the relationship between a. our objective is to determine an equation relating x to y. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. in dollars.
222 + 1y . we obtain x2 + y 2 . Therefore. by the distance formula.2x + 4y . or if we like. then it is a distance r from the center.k22 = r2 (1) Equation (1) is called the standard form and the most convenient form of the equation of a circle.h22 + 1y . if equation (1) is expanded. Inspection immediately yields the center and radius.2ky + h2 + k2 . Thus. Each point on the circle given by equation (1) is translated horizontally by h units and vertically by k units. Example 2 Given the equation of the circle 1x . b = . If the point P(x. we could multiply out and combine like terms and write the equation in the form x2 + y 2 . and April Allen Materowski.2h. and r 2 = 16. we have 21x .2k and c = h2 + k2 . Wang. that is. 4) and the radius is r = 216 = 4.r 2. However.222 = 3 If we square both sides of the equation we obtain 1x . we may do in general to obtain the equation of the circle centered at the point C (h. determine is center and its radius.422 = 16. We illustrate this remark in Example 5 below. k = 4.222 = 9 This is one way we can leave the equation. then we may write the equation in the form x2 + y2 + ax + by + c = 0 (2) Equation (2) is called the general form.2hx . y) is any point on the circle. and if it is. . Gordon. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. as it is not immediately obvious that it is indeed a circle (as we shall see). Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. equation (1) reduces to x2 + y2 = r2 (3) The only difference between the circle whose equation is given by (1) and the one given by (3) is their location. Inc. Solution. and Finance. h = k = 0. by Warren B. and is not the most useful form for the equation of the circle. Walter O.h22 + 1y . Economics.122 + 1y .r 2 = 0 If we let a = . Comparing with (1) we have immediately h = 2. Applied Calculus for Business.4 = 0 Equation of a Circle What we did in Example 1. the center of the circle is C (2.122 + 1y . When the circle is centered at the origin. it is not immediately apparent where its center is located nor what is its radius.104 * ** Section 1.k22 = r or squaring both sides we have 1x . k) with radius r.5 The Circle 21x .
42.Section 1. (a) We rewrite the equation as x 2 . We choose the four points suggested above. 4) and has radius 4. The circle is centered at C (2. Solution. (b) Sketch its graph. Inc. once for the x terms and once for the y terms. Move horizontally to the left from the center a distance equal to the radius and plot this point. but in this case. thus. Using the observation made above. the center of the circle is C13. Gordon. yielding x = 3 and y = . We must also remember that whatever we do to one side of an equation we must do to the other. three points uniquely determine a circle. Actually. Move vertically above the center a distance equal to the radius and plot this point. Example 3 Given the equation of the circle 1x . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Graphing a Circle When the general form is given for the equation of the circle we must first transform it into the standard form so we may easily locate its center and radius.6x + y 2 + 10y = . we see that h is the value of x that makes the first parenthesis zero and k is the value of y that makes the second parenthesis vanish. Example 4 Given the circle whose equation is x2 + y 2 . Given the equation of a circle we can sketch its graph fairly easily. 8) and moving below 4 units yields (2. 3. set x . Move horizontally to the right from the center a distance equal to the radius and plot this point. .5.k = 0. determine is center and its radius. Thus.52. The radius is r 2 = 25 or r = 5. In order to do this. Moving to the left 4 units yields 1 . but we suggest the following approach which uses four points in addition to the center. to find the xcoordinate of the center we may set x . twice. Solution.6x + 10y + 9 = 0.5 The Circle * ** 105 Looking at (1). Connect these four points with a smooth curve. We illustrate the procedure in the next example. we must complete the square. 4. 6. 4) yields (6. Moving up 4 units yields (2.2. Walter O. (a) Determine its center and radius. Solution. The points are plotted and the circle is drawn in Figure 1. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. by Warren B.h = 0 and to find the ycoordinate we may set y . Move vertically below the center a distance equal to the radius and plot this point.322 + 1y + 522 = 25. and April Allen Materowski.3 = 0 and y + 5 = 0. Economics. Graphing a Circle 1. Example 3 Sketch the circle whose equation is given in Example 2. 5. . and Finance. Plot the center 2. Moving to the right 4 units from (2. 4). Wang. We illustrate this approach with the following example. 0).9 Applied Calculus for Business.
We see that the circle is centered at 13. Economics. and Finance. Figure 2: 1x .52 and has radius 5.106 * ** Section 1.322 + 1y + 522 = 25 Applied Calculus for Business.322 + y 2 + 10y = 0 We next complete the square for the y terms: 1*21102 = 5 and 1522 = 25.5 The Circle Figure 1: 1x . Walter O. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and April Allen Materowski. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.422 = 16 We first complete the square for the x terms: 1 2 1 .62 = . so we have 1x . .322 + y 2 + 10y + 25 = 0 + 25 or 1x .322 = 9.3.322 + 1y + 522 = 25 This is the circle given in Example 3. Gordon. so we have x2 . and 1 . by Warren B. .222 + 1y . Wang. Inc.9 + 9 or 1x .6x + 9 + y 2 + 10y = .
That is.5 The Circle * ** 107 (b) we plot its graph by using the four points described above. Solution. 2) then the two graphs would be coincident.222 = 9 and x2 + y2 = 9 If we moved the circle centered at the origin so that its center would be at (1. 13 + 1. We complete the square to understand what is happening here. (x . 0). Inc. . if any point on the circle centered at (0. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.222 = 9 and x2 + y 2 = 9 on the same coordinate system. Walter O. Moving up 5 units from the center we have (3.0) is moved one unit to the right and 2 units up then we get the corresponding point on the other circle. and Finance.52.6y + 13 = 0.122 + 1y . Economics.6y + 13 = 0 is rewritten as Applied Calculus for Business. 0 + 22 yields the corresponding point (4. (b) x2 + y 2 + 4x . We plot these points and the graph in Figure 2.2. Example 5 Sketch the circles 1x .2)2 = 9 x2 + y2 = 9 Figure 3: The graphs of 1x . Example 6 Classify each of the following: (a) x 2 + y 2 + 4x . moving to the left from the center we have 1 .52. Consider the next example. Gordon. by Warren B.Section 1. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. The sketch of the two circles is given in Figure 3. (a) x2 + y 2 + 4x . Not every equation of the form x2 + y 2 + ax + by + c = 0 is a circle. and the points used to plot the graphs are indicated.102. . 0) and moving 5 units down from the center we have 13. take the point (3. 2). . Moving to the right from the center 5 units we have the point 18.122 + 1y . Wang.6y + 15 = 0 Solution. .1)2 + (y . For example. and April Allen Materowski.
6y = .6y = . The sum must be either zero or a positive number.6y + 9 = . (or the circle of radius zero centered at 1 .3. Drawing a vertical line through the circle intersects the circle at two points with different yvalues.2. it results in a contradiction. This may be seen at once from the vertical line test. so we have 1x + 222 + y 2 .62 = . so we have x2 + 4x + 4 + y 2 . namely the point 1 . and Finance. and 1 . Gordon. Walter O. 29 . 322.x 2 (Note that to each xvalue there corresponds two yvalues. the equation reduces to a single point. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. a point or a contradiction.13 + 4 or 1x + 222 + y 2 . so we have 1x + 222 + y 2 . and 1 . Wang. Therefore the equation given defines neither a curve nor a point.2 It is impossible for the sum of squares to total a negative number. (b) x2 + y 2 + 4x . and April Allen Materowski.322 = .6y = .15 + 4 or 1x + 222 + y 2 .322 = 9.15 1 *2142 = 2 and 22 = 4. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.9 1 *21 .6y = .322 = 9.11 1 *21 .6y + 15 = 0 is rewritten as x 2 + 4x + y 2 . Inc. by Warren B. so we have x2 + 4x + 4 + y 2 .) Applied Calculus for Business.9 + 9 or 1x + 222 + 1y .6y + 9 = . That is.108 * ** Section 1. therefore we have x = .62 = . The last example indicates that the equation x 2 + y 2 + ax + by + c = 0 can either be a circle.x2 or y = . Note that a circle does not describe a function.2 and y = 3. Economics.6y = . Consider the circle centered at the origin with radius 3.6y = .322 = 0 The only way a sum of squares can be zero is if each square term is zero.13 1 *2142 = 2 and 22 = 4.2.11 + 9 or 1x + 222 + 1y . 32.3.5 The Circle x 2 + 4x + y 2 . x2 + y 2 = 9 solving for y we have y2 = 9 . .
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Let the equation of the circle in Figure 6 be x2 + y 2 = 25.5 The Circle * ** 109 However.Section 1.29 . Its graph is given in Figure 4. This half of the circle does indeed define a function. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Figure 5: The Graph of y = . We may easily determine the equation of the tangent line to this circle at Tangent Line Applied Calculus for Business. and may be used as its defining property. Wang. The line T is the tangent line which is perpendicular to the radius of the circle at the point P.x 2 also defines a function. a circle does not define a function. this is the upper half of the circle and to each xvalue their corresponds one yvalue. and Finance.29 . Gordon.x2. Inc. Its graph is given in Figure 5. In Figure 1. Thus. it is not this property which generalizes to other curves. Let us look at a specific example.x2 The graph of y = . While the tangent line to a circle has the property that it is perpendicular to the radius at the point of tangency. Economics. and April Allen Materowski. Walter O. suppose we consider y = 29 . . by Warren B. Figure 4: The Graph of y = 29 . We shall make an observation about the tangent line to the circle which is carried over to other curves. but its upper or lower halves taken separately do.x2 The tangent line to a circle at a point P on its circumference is the line perpendicular to the radius of the circle at P.
938731 3.014922 4.0122 L 3.96 2.946530 3.95 2.98 2. where you will discover that some curves do not have tangent lines at points which are sharp.07 3.954289 3.03 4. using the pointslope formula.075 4. while the corresponding value on the circle is y = 225 . we indicate other corresponding values as we vary x near P. The notion of perpendicularity is unique to the circle.01. and Finance. Inc. among all different lines that touch the curve at the point P.3 4x + x 2.9925 3. DEFINITION The tangent line to a smooth curve at a point P is the best linear approximation to the curve at that point. (The term smooth used in the definition will be clarified later in this text when you study calculus.99248. ) Table 1: Comparing the yvalues near P(3.10 y = 3 4x + 4. the better the yvalues agree. Note that near P. its slope is .x 2 4. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.012 + 25/4 = Figure 6: A Tangent Line to a Circle 3.0525 4.92 2.044305 4.90 2.91 2.99 3 3. First.97 2. as in the case of the circle where it is perpendicular to the radius.029690 4. Walter O. the tangent line is the one whose yvalues best approximate the yvalues on the curve near the point of tangency. In Table 1.0075 4 3.051555 4.037016 4.4). That is. .923009 Applied Calculus for Business.058768 4.x 2 When x = 3.977323 3.09 3.0375 4.02 3.9925.930890 3.9475 3. we observe that the radius is a segment of the line passing through the origin (0. 4) on y = .05 3. and near the point of tangency. we can solve for the yvalue on the upper half of the circle which is found to be y = 225 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. we find the yvalue on the tangent line is y = . Notice the definition says nothing about the tangent line being perpendicular to other lines at the point of tangency. 0) and P(3.045 4.985 3. 4).9625 3.3/4 and passes through P(3.4). 4).93 2.06 3.94 3.5 The Circle T the point P(3.9325 3. and its equation is y = 4 3 x (why?). Gordon. by Warren B.984922 3. Note the closer we get to the point P.022325 4. and April Allen Materowski.9775 3.01 3.015 4.007481 4 3. the yvalues on the circle and line are nearly the same.955 3.94 2.3/413.110 * ** Section 1.962007 3.969685 3.03 3.0675 4.065944 4.0225 4.13.992480 3.97 3. This observation motivates an alternative definition of a tangent line to a smooth curve at a point P.04 3.08 3. its equation is found to be y = 3 4x + 25 4 Let us compute yvalues on both the tangent line and the circle for xvalues near the point P(3.073082 4. Economics. Wang.06 4. Since the tangent line is perpendicular to this line.925 25 4 25 4 and x 2 + y 2 = 25 y = 225 .
4) The observation that a tangent line approximates the curve near the point of tangency is an extremely useful tool. and April Allen Materowski. Gordon. Wang. What happens to the graph if we change the coefficients of the squared terms so that they are not the same? For example. Tangent Line y = x3 Figure 7: The Tangent Line to y = x3 at the Point P(2. the yvalues are almost identical. we indicate in Figure 7. Such a graph is called an ellipse. Walter O. that is. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Inc. The Ellipse 4x2 + 9y2 = 36 Figure 8: The Graph of 4x2 + 9y2 = 36 Applied Calculus for Business. . by Warren B. and Finance.Section 1. let us consider the graph of the equation 4x 2 + 9y 2 = 36. Observe how well the tangent line approximates the curve near the point. The determination of the equation of the tangent line is studied later in this text. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. the tangent line to the graph of y = x 3 at the point (2. A circle centered at the origin has the equation x2 + y 2 = r2.3). one that is used over and over again in mathematics and is sometimes called linearization or linear approximation. Its graph is given in Figure 8. Economics.5 The Circle * ** 111 As an illustration.
.5 or 5. or x2 = 25. y2 x2 + = 1. 2). and April Allen Materowski. see Figure 10. Thus. 2). k). Economics. any equation of the form x2 + 2 = 1 is the equation of an ellipse a b centered at the origin. y = . Figure 9: The Graph of y2 x2 + = 1 25 9 When we examined the graphs of the two circles x 2 + y 2 = r 2 and 1x .k22 at the point (1. thus the points 1 . we obtain 4x2 = 36.5 The Circle The graph is obtained by finding the four intercepts. 0). Wang. 02 and (5. they are also identical except that the second 25 9 25 9 one has its center 1x . We shall leave the analysis of these translated ellipses to the exercises. 02 and (3.h22 1y . by Warren B. we could rewrite this equation as 9x2 + 25y 2 = 225. To find the yintercepts.3.112 * ** Section 1. we set y = 0 and obtain 9x 2 = 225.32 and (0. yielding the points 10. thus the xintercepts are 1 . . . To find the xintercepts. solving. and Finance. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Note that multiplying by the LCD which is 225.3 or 3. More generally. 3). Applied Calculus for Business. solving. Setting x = 0 we obtain 9y2 = 36 or y = .3 or 3. Inc.22 and (0. x = . Now consider the graphs of x2 y2 1x . 0). + = 1 is identical to 2 2 x2 2 a + y2 b 2 a b = 1 except its center (and all its other points) are moved h units in the xdirection and k units is the ydirection.12 1y . The graph is plotted in Figure 9. It is most easily drawn by finding the x and y intercepts and plotting them. The equation 4x2 + 9y 2 = 36 may be rewritten in the standard form by dividing by 36 to obtain x 9 + Example 7 Sketch the graph of the ellipse 2 2 y2 y2 4 = 1. thus the yintercepts are 10. or y 2 = 9. and solving we have x = .k22 = r2. this equation has the form Ax2 + By2 = C. we set x = 0 and obtain 25y2 = 225. Walter O. Gordon. in general.5. By setting y = 0. we saw that they were identical except the first one is centered at the origin and2 the second is centered at (h.222 + = 1 and + = 1.2 or 2. 25 9 Solution.h22 + 1y . If the fractions are cleared.
3 4 x + 4 and y2 = 225 . is a simple matter on the calculator as they are already entered in the Y = screen. See Figure 12.x . and Finance.8 with an increment 0. See Figure 11. Alternately. press F3. and April Allen Materowski. we will choose out starting point to 2. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. A table is displayed. to see their value appear on the screen.222 y2 x2 + = 1 and + = 1 25 9 25 9 use the Table feature of the calculator. while the : . a more extensive table could be generated using a spreadsheet like Excel. One way of automating this calculation is to Figure 10: The Graphs of 1x . That is how the larger table given in Table 1 above was generated. but we need to determine the proper xvalues. Since we want to examine these two functions near x = 3. We next set up the table (*F5 or Apps then 5).5 The Circle * ** 113 Consider the problem of comparing the yvalues on the tangent line near the point of tangency with the yvalues on the circle. For the example considered above.8 in tblstart and 0. Choose an appropriate window and they are both drawn. To sketch the graph and the tangent line together. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.122 1y .1. Gordon. move the cursor along the selected curve. . Inc. Calculator Tips Figure 11 Figure 12: Comparing the yvalues Near x = 3 Applied Calculus for Business. Walter O. We do this by pressing F2 Setup and then entering 2. 25 2 y1 = . Wang.1 for ¢ tbl and then press Enter. the q p cursor arrows move you from one curve to the other. You can trace either. by Warren B. We must first go to the Y = Window 1*F12 and define these functions. What we do is define y1 to be the equation of the tangent line and y2 to be the equation of the circle.Section 1. To trace. Economics.
1x .12 + 1y + 22 + 4 = 0 18. On the same coordinate axes. 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36 41. or a contradiction (no real graph). Determine (a) f1 .12.22. 1x + 422 + 1y . x2 + y 2 . y2 x2 + = 1 9 25 y2 x2 + = 1 25 9 y2 x2 + = 1 4 16 y2 x2 + = 1 16 4 40. 32.6y + 9 = 0. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 1x . (b) Compare the yvalues on the tangent line with those on the circle near x = 5.32. 1x + 322 + 1y + 222 = 9 7. In exercises 36 41 sketch the graph of the given ellipse. Gordon. 37. Sketch the graph of 1x 44.422 + 1y . 16. Under what conditions on a. and 25 9 y = g1x2 its lower half. 1x + 422 + 1y + 322 + 9 = 0 19.42. (a) Determine the equation of the tangent line to the circle x2 + y2 = 25 at the point 13.222 + 1y + 322 = 4. (b) f1 . Determine (a) f1 . (a) Determine the equation of the tangent line to the circle x2 + y2 = 169 at the point (5. (c) f1 .422 = 4 How are the graphs related.9 = 0 20. (b) g(0). 28. x2 + y 2 + 4x . (b) g1 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 12). 1x .6y + 9 = 0 12. 29. = 1 Applied Calculus for Business. Determine (a) f(2). (b) Compare the yvalues on the tangent line with those on the circle near x = 12. x2 + y 2 + 8x . (a) Determine the equation of the tangent line to the circle x2 + y2 = 169 at the point 112.101 = 0 14.322 = 16 4. x2 + y 2 = 25 9.62.12. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 30. Determine (a) f1 . 1x .322 4 = 1. Walter O.322 + 1y . and Finance. (c) f1 . Wang.12x + 24y . (c) g1 . 1x + 42 + 1y . 39. a point.5 In exercises 1 15 determine the center and radius of the given circle and sketch its graph. 34.2x + 4y + 12 = 0 23. 1x .222 = 9 3. (d) a contradiction? 27. . and d is ax2 + ay 2 + bx + cy + d = 0 (a) a circle. 31. 38. x2 + y 2 . 36x2 + 36y 2 . (d) g(1). sketch the graph of: (a) x2 + y2 = 4 (b) 1x . 35. 36.48x + 8y . Let y = g1x2 describe the upper half of the circle x2 + y2 + 8x .6y + 9 = 0. Let y = g1x2 describe the lower half of the circle x2 + y2 = 16. Determine (a) g1 . x2 + y 2 . 1. (c) g(2).5 The Circle EXERCISE SET 1.10y + 9 = 0 10. Economics.10y + 9 = 0.283 = 0 In exercises 16 25 determine whether the given equations is a circle. x + y + 1 = 0 17.222 = 0 21. . (c) f(2). (c) f(1).22. labeling all intercepts.27 = 0 15. x2 + y 2 + 6x . 33. by Warren B. Let y = f1x2 describe the upper half of the circle x2 + y 2 + 8x . (b) a point. Let y = f1x2 denote the upper half of the ellipse y2 x2 + = 1.32.10y + 9 = 0 13. 2x2 + 2y 2 .48x + 60y . 1x + 12 + 1y + 42 = 4 6. c.2x + 4y + 1 = 0 11.6x . 1x + 322 + 1y . . b. 9x2 + 9y 2 . x2 + y 2 + 8x + 6y + 16 = 0 26.12.10x + 4y + 29 = 0 25. Let y = f1x2 describe the upper half of the circle x2 + y 2 = 16.6y + 13 = 0 24. (c) 1x + 122 + 1y .42. (d) g1 . Inc.42.12.222 = 4 2.52. (b) f(0). 4x2 + 9y 2 = 36 42. and y = g1x2 the lower half of the circle. (b) g(2).322 + 1y + 222 = 0 22. (b) Compare the yvalues on the tangent line with those on the circle near x = 3. (b) g1 .114 * ** Section 1. . Sketch the graph of + + 1y + 222 9 1y . (c) a line.32 . and April Allen Materowski. Determine (a) g1 .122 4 1x + 422 16 43. 16x2 + 16y 2 .62.322 + 1y + 222 = 25 5. Let y = f1x2 describe the upper half of the circle x2 + y 2 + 6x . x2 + y 2 = 4 8.
Wang. Now as p increases. it is traditional to plot this graph with x on the horizontal axis and p on the vertical axis. p Ú 0 Applied Calculus for Business. Economics. and April Allen Materowski. the graph of the supply function is restricted to the first quadrant. Gordon. if p2 7 p1. the relationship is p . However. and Finance. as we move from left to right the graph goes upward (see Figure 1). the producers will be willing to provide more of the item and hence the supply will rise. we could think of x as an increasing function of p or we could think of p as an increasing function of x. Graphically. There are applications in which one form might be preferred to the other. this would mean that plotting x (horizontally) versus p (vertically). suppose that the relation between price and quantity is p .3x = 42 p = 3x + 42 Which is a straight line with positive slope 3. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.3x = 42. x Ú 0. by Warren B. So. That is. For example. so should x. .Section 1. the supply of a given commodity is a function of the price of the commodity. Walter O.6 Economic Functions » » » » » » Supply Function Demand Function Market Equilibrium Revenue. p Supply Function p2 p1 x x1 x2 Figure 1: A Supply Function In the simplest case. then S1p22 7 S1p12. We would say that supply is an increasing function of price.6 Economic Functions * ** 115 1. That is. in our example. Cost and Profit Functions Marginal Functions Calculator Tips In elementary microeconomic theory there is the fundamental assumption that. That is. S(p) is a linear function with positive slope. it is assumed that as the price increases. let x be the number of units of the commodity supplied and let p be the price per unit. all other things being equal. then x = S1p2 says that the amount supplied is a function of price. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. In particular. Inc. We must also require that the values of both p and x remain nonnegative (Why?). In mathematical notation.
In symbols.2 p .116 * ** Section 1. Solving for x in terms of p yields 3x = p . and Finance. there is also a relationship between the amount that can be sold and the unit price. Wang. p is a decreasing function of x. x is a decreasing function of p (see Figure 3). Gordon. Figure 3: A Demand Function p = 72 . normally one plots p as a function of x. x = 36 .3x = 42 Figure 2: Linear Supply We see that when x = 0. and April Allen Materowski. no supplier will bother to produce the commodity in question. but if viewed from the other perspective.11/22p x x1 x2 Demand Function p p1 p2 x Ú 0. Interestingly. When solved for p in terms of x and written in the form p = D1x2. solving for p. In this rudimentary theory. we would write it p1 7 p2 then P1p12 6 P1p22.42 x = 11/32p . we note that you could just as easily have solved for p in terms of x. at price less than 42. Inc. you should read this the other way: when the price is 42 (or less) there will be no supply. As above. There is a basic assumption that for this relationship. That is. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Solving for x. Walter O.14 This is a linear supply function with positive slope 1/3. This is very typical of a linear supply function. Thus.2x Applied Calculus for Business. which must be of the form p = mx + p0 where p0 is the lowest price for which there will be any supply. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. not only is x a decreasing function of p. . Of course. Again. by Warren B. p Ú 0 that is.11/22p Or. it is called the demand function. p = 42. This relationship is called the demand equation. as p increases. x should decrease.6 Economic Functions The graph is shown in Figure. In other words. Economics. A typical example of a linear demand equation might be 2x + p = 72. it is called the Price function. When solved for x in terms of p. in the form x = P1p2. P1p2 = 36 . that is.
Gordon. their intersection is called the point of market equilibrium. It is characterized by the fact that at the equilibrium price. Inc. the most you could give away of this commodity is 36 units. there will be a shortage followed by an upward adjustment in the market. If the price goes above this value. When x = 0. The price. supply and demand will be equal. The supply equation must have positive slope since it is an increasing function. Walter O. it is easy to see that the graph is a straight line with negative slope (see Figure 4) p = 2x + 72 Figure 4: Linear Demand For this simple case of linear demand. while the demand equation has negative slope because it is a decreasing function. and demand do not provide a realistic model. Wang. would appear to be the highest price possible. In order to find this position. Economics. D1x2 = 72 .6 Economic Functions * ** 117 that is. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. For linear equations such as the ones given above. supply. would seem to be the maximum demand. Similarly. Example 1.2x.Section 1. Most economists feel that such upper and lower bounds on price. causing an oversupply and forcing the producers to lower their price. at a price greater than or equal to 72. this can be quite difficult. real markets are always changing so things are rarely stable at an equilibrium point. When supply and demand equations are plotted on the same set of axes. no one would be interested in buying this commodity. even if free. and Finance. In either form. there appear to be two significant values. although linear models are used to approximate more complex ones or to simplify computations. If the equations are not linear. Similarly. it is necessary to solve the two equations simultaneously. it is easy. Suppose the market for humidifiers is governed by the two equations Market Equilibrium Applied Calculus for Business. they should not be given much credence near their end points at the axes. This amount. p = 72. However. and April Allen Materowski. x = 36. by Warren B. in theory. Therefore. x = 36. if the price is below the equilibrium price. as will now be illustrated. the market is always trying to reach its equilibrium position. when p = 0. That is. p = 72. the supply will increase and the demand decrease. That is. We shall see that for nonlinear supply and demand equations this identification may be generalized. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. It is easy to identify the supply or demand equation when each is linear. . Of course.
Solution. at which time we will sell 6. Then. We solve simultaneously. Gordon. The graph is shown in Figure 5. Economics. we get . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. p 3x = 42 p + 2x = 72 Figure 5: Finding Market Equilibrium It might happen that neither the supply nor the demand function is linear. Solution.x 2 p = 4 + x2 Applied Calculus for Business.118 * ** Section 1. as can be verified. .) Thus. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.6 Economic Functions Supply: p . and April Allen Materowski.000 humidifiers 1x = 62.3x = 42 Demand: p + 2x = 72 where p is in dollars and demand is in thousands of humidifiers. and We can solve each equation for p. substituting into the supply (first) equation we get p .18 = 42 p = 60 (Substitution into the demand equation would also yield p = 60. Inc. as the next example illustrates.30 so x = 6. Subtracting the demand equation from the supply equation. Wang.5x = . Walter O. yielding p = 12 . by Warren B. and Finance. the market is in equilibrium when the price is $60 per humidifier.3162 = 42 p . Example 2 Suppose the demand and supply functions are as follows: Demand: p + x2 = 12 Supply: p .x2 = 4 Determine Market Equilibrium. Find the point of market equilibrium.
you multiply the number of items sold by the price per item. The price p paid for the product by the consumer is given from the demand equation p = D1x2.2x. Market Equilibrium occurs at (2. Walter O. p Ú 0 and x Ú 02 substituting gives. . did we need to specify which was the demand and supply curve? p = 4 + x2 p = 12 . suppose the demand equation is linear. and Finance. cost and profit. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. namely.Section 1. p = 4 + 1222 = 8 thus. and April Allen Materowski. Wang. the total revenue function R is Revenue. as in Example 1.x2 = 4 + x 2 or 2x2 = 8 x2 = 4 or x = 2 1remember. In the above example.6 Economic Functions * ** 119 by substitution. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Inc.x2 Figure 6: Market Equilibrium for NonLinear Demand and Supply We next examine the other common functions arising in Economics: revenue. then the Revenue function Applied Calculus for Business. Gordon. The revenue is the producer s income derived from the sale of his product. by Warren B. we have 12 . Cost and Profit Functions R = xp or (1a) R = xD1x2 (1b) For example. Thus. p = 72 . Economics. see Figure 6. 8).
In Section 1. Figure 7: R1x2 = 72 . Consider the problem when demand is nonlinear as in the next example. Looking at the graph. determine the revenue function. (If x represented the actual number of units and p was the price in dollars. Once again observe that even if the producer produces no items his cost is $100. Economics. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. suppose the cost function in dollars is given by the equation C1x2 = 2x 2 .3 we examined a linear cost function. Gordon. sketch its graph and estimate the point at which the revenue is maximized. or x 8. The graph is given in Figure 8. This makes perfectly good sense as there Applied Calculus for Business. Solution. We have already examined this particular problem in Section 1. This is an example of quadratic cost. we will learn how to use the calculus to determine this point exactly. we know its maximum occurs at the vertex which is x = . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and Finance. that is C102 = 100. Example 3 Suppose the demand equation is given as p = 28 .2x 2 So. Cost need not be linear.4.200x + 100. Since this function is not parabolic.22 = 18 at this value for x we have p = 72 . Later on in the text. .120 * ** Section 1.1722/21 .x.x This is a nonlinear function which we plot by choosing x values between 0 and 8 to calculate the corresponding Rvalues and then plot the points. For example.2x2 = 72x . Wang. Inc. for example. the best we can do now is estimate that the revenue is maximized when x is between 5 and 6. when x = 10. We observe the domain is determined by the condition that 8 . Let us assume that we are either given data by which we may determine the cost function or it is determined for us. it may take many different forms. by Warren B.000.000 when x Ú 0.6 Economic Functions R = xp = x172 . Walter O. and April Allen Materowski. then the revenue is $520.) A sketch of the revenue function is given in Figure 7. The revenue function is R = xp = x 28 . we have no simple formula to determine its turning point.2x2 A useful question to ask is when is the revenue maximized and what is the price and revenue when it is maximized.21182 = 36 and R = 181362 = 648. p = 52 and the revenue is 520.000.x Ú 0. We recognize the graph of the revenue function to be a parabola.
Example 4 Suppose the cost function is given by the equation C1x2 = 80x + 400/x + 500. Inc. it is called the average cost. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Sketch its graph and estimate the point at which the cost is minimized. Walter O.Section 1. However. Economists define a related function which averages the overhead cost among all the items produced. and Finance. Figure 9: C1x2 = 80x + 400/x + 500 From the sketch. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. x 7 0. at this time. Economics. the best we could do. A typical problem is to minimize the producer s cost. is to estimate the minimum cost. This cost is sometimes called the overhead or fixed cost. By selection a reasonable number of points (or by using the graphing capabilities of your calculator) we sketch the graph given in Figure 9. Wang. . and April Allen Materowski.x are expenses arising even before production begins. Gordon.5. it appears that the minimum occurs at an xvalue between 2 and 2. The definition is Applied Calculus for Business. Solution. as we illustrate in the next example. for example purchase of machinery and labor. We saw that the overhead figures substantially into the cost function. This particular example is quadratic so we could easily determine the minimum cost. when the cost function is not quadratic. denoted by C. by Warren B.6 Economic Functions * ** 121 Figure 8: R = xp = x 28 .
(Assume the price and cost are given in dollars) Solution. Applied Calculus for Business. Solution. and April Allen Materowski. that results in the maximization of profit. Gordon.6 Economic Functions C1x2 = C1x2 x (2) Thus. we are unable. except for very simple profit functions. we have P1x2 = R1x2 . Economics. Which of the two costs do you think is more useful to use? Why? Profit is the difference between the money you take in (revenue) and the money you expend (cost) therefore. when x = 800. and Finance. For now. the average cost is the total cost divided by the number of items produced. we shall be content with determining the profit function and estimating its maximum as illustrated in the next example. . Example 5 Determine the total and average cost of producing 50 items if the total cost is given by the equation C1x2 = 2x2 .x2 + 1000x .2x . Once again. the xvalue.C1x2 (3) Usually. Wang.218002 .122 * ** Section 1.000 while C1502 = 95000/50 = 1900. Inc. P18002 = 800 28000 .20000 Therefore. while the production cost is given by the equation C1x2 = x2 .2x .180022 + 100018002 . to determine the exact level of production. if we represent profit by P. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.000 = 95.1x2 .2x.20000 = $204. at this time.1000x + 20000.1000x + 200002 or P1x2 = x 28000 . the producer s objective is to maximize the profit.2001502 + 100. Example 6 The demand for some commodity is given by the equation p = D1x2 = 28000 .200x + 100. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.000 The price charged p = 28000 . The profit function is P1x2 = x 28000 .218002 = 26400 = $80 A sketch of the profit function is given in Figure 10. C1502 = 215022 . that is.000. Walter O. by Warren B. We shall leave that determination to later on in this text. We have. Determine the Profit function and determine the profit and price charged when the level of production is 800 items.
Table 1 Monthly Rent 800 No. We give two different approaches to the solution to this problem. Walter O.Section 1. owns a large apartment complex containing 400 identical apartments.1000 Figure 10: P1x2 = x 28000 . 2.2x . The exact value of x may be found using calculus. Inc. x. by Warren B.3n2 = . of Rented Apartments 400 800 800 800 800 + + + + 11602 21602 31602 n1602 = = = = 860 920 980 800 + 60n 400 400 400 400  1132 2132 3132 n132 = = = = 397 394 391 400 .x2 + 1000x . Economics. so we know the maximum for R occurs at its vertex which is at n = . Find an expression which may be used to represent their monthly income and determine the monthly rent to be charged to maximize their income. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.1802 = 60 Applied Calculus for Business. Wang. Observe their monthly income is the revenue derived from the rent. the graph of R is a parabola.3n Thus. However. the R = 1800 + 60n21400 . METHOD 1. Gordon. We are looking for a pattern for n monthly increases in the rent.1000 Note that our graph suggests the profit is maximized when the level of production. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. as we shall see later on in this text.x2 + 1000x . is about 550. and April Allen Materowski.21600/21 . Table 1 indicates what is happening with regard to rent and the number of rented apartments if there are 1. opening downward. for each $60 monthly increase in rent 3 apartments become vacant. . Example 7 BBC Rentals Inc. therefore. we see the monthly revenue (income) is the product of the monthly rent and number of rented apartments. the monthly income is the product of the monthly rent and the number of rented apartments.180n2 + 21600n + 320000 Fortunately for us.6 Economic Functions * ** 123 P(x)= . If the monthly rent for each apartment is $800 all the apartments are rented. and Finance. Solution. 3 increases of $60.
Similarly the marginal revenue would be the revenue derived by producing the last item. so in particular when we have the following two points on the line (400. so the marginal cost. Walter O.8002/1397 .2012202 + 8800 = $4400. by Warren B.C1x2 (4a) Marginal Functions Its interpretation is clear. Entering. we shall give another definition of a marginal function that is virtually identical with (4). This is a linear relations between the rent p and the number of rented apartments x. how is x related to n? Note that we were able to solve this problem exactly because it was a quadratic function. one is to use the solve command. Note.E1x2 (4b) Calculator Tips Later in this text. and April Allen Materowski. Wang.6 Economic Functions Thus the monthly rent to be charged is 800 + 601602 = $4. If it were not. the marginal cost is defined by MC = C1x + 12 . 860) when there is one $60 increase. Thus. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.4002 = 60/1 .20x 2 + 8800x This is a parabola opening downward so the maximum value for R occurs at its vertex which is at 8800 x = = 220 21202 thus 220 apartments are rented when the revenue is maximized and the monthly rent is p = . and Finance.32 = .3x = 42 and y + 2x = 72 (note we replaced p by y since y requires fewer keystrokes on the calculator).4002 or p = . then the best we could presently do would be to find an approximate solution using the methods described below. when we study applications of the calculus.400. In the above example. 800) the number of rented apartments when there are no increases. a function based on another function is also defined. Consider Example 1 where we needed to find the simultaneous solution to y . there are 180 vacant apartments when the monthly income is maximized.20. Using the point slope formula. Economics. METHOD 2 For every $60 increase in rent. 3 apartments become vacant. that is. . on the Home screen Applied Calculus for Business. C(x) is the cost of producing x items. the slope is 1860 . let E(x) represent the equation of any realistic economic function then its marginal value is E1x + 12 . For example. More generally. the number of rented apartments is then 400 .124 * ** Section 1.20x + 88002 = . we have p . Inc.31602 = 220. namely the marginal function. The calculator can be used for determining the intersection of two or more graphs (equations). their difference is the cost of producing the x + 1 item. Gordon.20x + 8800 The monthly revenue is R = xp = x1 . The marginal revenue. There are two approaches.800 = . cost and profit are usually considered.201x . and (397. C1x + 12 is the cost of producing x + 1 items. In Economics.
we enter solve 1y + x2 = 12 and y . Gordon. Inc. y62 (Recall the space bar is Alpha 1 . the Intersection. Pressing the F5 key gives a screen of options. and an Upper Bound.) The calculator can be very helpful in estimating the points at which functions achieve their maximum or minimum values. 5x.x2 = 4. often. then it indicates a point on the second curve.x2 x Ú 0. You should now have a picture of the graph. We can now press Graph 1* F32 to get the sketch of the two graphs. The calculator produces the intersection point on the bottom of the screen. Wang. see Figure 12. Now it asks for a Lower Bound. Similarly. We illustrate by considering the problem of estimating the minimum cost for the function defined by the equation C1x2 = 80x + 400/x + 500 with x Ú 0. Figure 13: A Sketch of the Two Graphs Figure 14 Applied Calculus for Business. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. xc = 2 and yc = 8. . press Enter again. the key is to the left of the 7 key. Economics. since we recognize these graphs as parabolas and they are also defined for negative values of x. Try this and see how well you estimate the xvalue at he minimum point. y6 x Ú 0 and y Ú 02 Recall Ú is obtained by pressing * # . Scroll down and press Enter. Later on. Note that braces enclose x and y. we solve for y and in the Y = screen we let y11x2 = 12 . In this example. by Warren B. See Figure 11. see Figure 13. Walter O. you will learn the exact method for locating such points.6 Economic Functions * ** 125 solve 1y . it may not be a very good one. this produces the desired one. if we want to solve the pair of equations in Example 2. in this case.Figure 11: Defining the Functions mine the point of intersection. a point to the left of the intersection. the calculator produced the exact point of intersection. press Enter. either by creating a table of values for the given function or by sketching the graph of the function. We then have the calculator sketch the graph. as you study the calculus. There are several ways we may obtain the approximate values. y62 You will observe the calculator also gives the negative solution for x. a point to the right of the intersection so as to sandwich in the correct intersection. 5x. it will give a numerical approximation. We inserted the condition x Ú 0. The calculator indicates a point on the first curve. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. ZOOM (press F2) and select ZOOMFIT.2). An alternate approach is to have the calculator graph the functions and then deter. see Figure 15. and April Allen Materowski. Next we check our Window 1* F22 to make sure it produces a useful sketch in the first quadrant. To do Example 2. if the window is not a good one. press Enter when you are to the left of the intersection. We enter the equation in the Y = screen. move the cursor to any point on the graph to the right of the intersection point and press Enter. and Finance. We are interested in the fifth one. you could enter instead solve 1y + x2 = 12 and y . It might be that there are several points of intersection. is that you may have more than two curves on the screen and the calculator needs to confirm which curve s intersection(s) you want to determine. and y21x2 = 4 + x2 x Ú 0.Section 1.3x = 42 and y + 2x = 72. see Figure 14. move the cursor to any point on the curve to the left of the intersection point (as you move it indicates the point on the curve on the bottom of the screen as Figure 12: Setting the Window xc and yc. 5x. To indicate that x Ú 0 and y Ú 0.x 2 = 4. NOTES: (1) The reason the calculator asks you to confirm the curves. (This is also true of the solve command. (2) It asks for a Lower Bound. but by tracing the graph (F3) you should see the lowest point on the graph is between x = 2 and 3. We can now use the calculator to determine the point of intersection. You could then refine your window and select values that give a better window and improve upon your estimate. It then asks for an Upper Bound.
the supply will go up 2. Determine (a) the overhead cost. (b) What is the lowest price above which cords will be supplied? 15. 2p .126 * ** Section 1. In a small town it has been discovered that the relationship between the number of radios demanded varies linearly with its price. If the demand equation is linear. x + 4p = 16 2. p .950 = 0 24. you are given a pair of equations. This adjustment creates a new demand curve. p + x = 100 2p . when the cord price is $100. Gordon.01 or smaller. Suppose the cost of producing x items is given by the equation C1x2 = x2 . one representing a supply curve and the other a demand curve. (c) determine the coordinates of market equilibrium.1.7p + 2x + 7 = 0. 3p + 6x2 = 12 In exercises 8 12. and Finance. 2p + x . What monthly rent should they charge if their profit is to be maximized? 28. (a) How many cords are supplied when the price per cord is $175. Find the linear supply function satisfying the following conditions: when the price is $4. Find the new demand equation. 2p + x . 12. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Find the linear supply function satisfying the following conditions: the minimum price for which there is any supply is $3. use the lower and upper bound to sandwich the minimum point on the graph and then press Enter to obtain the coordinates of the minimum. Plot the graph and determine the maximum monthly ridership if bus rides were free. When the price of a New York City bus ride was 35 cents. p = 2x + 14. In each exercise (a) sketch their graphs on the same set of axes. Suppose. ten cords are supplied. p . If the demand equation is linear. 3p + 15x . When the price was increased to 50 cents.11p = 0 2 13.3x = 17 2p + x = 30 21. Figure 15 EXERCISE SET 1. (b) Plot the graph of the given equation.5 units. ridership dropped 20%. Economics. For a demand equation. where x represents the number of items in hundreds. and C the cost in dollars.200 = 0 5p + 14x .x x + 8x + 220 . Plot both on the same set of axes and find the point of market equilibrium.2x2 = 1 p + 4x2 = 25 23. . x + 6x . $800 each month to maintain each vacant apartment. . 19. (b) the cost 8p . 400p = 1000x + 16000 6. The demand equation is 2x + 4p = 15. 1000 radios were demanded. The third method: with the graph displayed on the Y = screen.5p + 2x + 70 = 0. the number of paying riders per month was about 50 million. The supply equation for a certain commodity is x = 4p . p .384 + 12p = 0 2 17.490 = 0 p = 216 .1. (a) Determine the price per radio when 500 radios were demanded. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.120 = 0 p = x + 6 25. where p is the per unit price for x items. For every dollar increase in price. Walter O. 20. and press Enter twice. thirty cords are supplied. 10. it costs the BBC realty company. (d) determine the revenue equation and (e) determine the revenue at market equilibrium.11000 = 0 5.7x = 60 22. Find the demand equation assuming that it is linear. Wang.6 Economic Functions Alternately press APPS and select TABLE. the demand will be for 6 million bushels. find the minimum price for which there will be any supply. 18.12 = 0 4. by Warren B. For a supply equation. there will be 600 units supplied.300 = 0.3x = 16 3. parallel to the old one and such that at every price the demand is 3 units higher than previously. When the price is $11. The commodity suddenly increases in popularity which is reflected in an upward adjustment in the demand curve. 16. As before.200 = 0 2p + 5x . starting at 2 and take the change ¢ tbl to 0. Press SETUP (F2) set tblStart = 2 and ¢ tbl = . 8.8x2 = 20 7. when the price was $30.3x + 2300. find the maximum possible demand and the maximum price that can be charged. If you want to improve upon this estimate go back and redefine your table. in Example 7. The maximum possible demand for a certain commodity is 20. When the cord price is $50. (b) above what price will the demand be zero? (c) Why isn t the demand infinite when the price is zero? 14. 700 radios were demanded. Express x in millions of bushels. find the demand function and the price function. (b) identify which is the supply and demand curve and the appropriate domain.x . . The highest price for which there is any demand is $40 per ton. 1. press F5 and then scroll down and select Minimum. Does a linear model seem appropriate near p = 0? In Exercises 20 25 you are given a pair of supply and demand equations.6 In Exercises 1 7 (a) Determine if the given equation is a supply or demand equation. find the demand function and the price function.x p = 236 . and April Allen Materowski. Scrolling down the table the y1 value is minimized around x = 2. When the price of a certain farm product is 40 cents per bushel. 500p + 700x . Inc.3. If the price increases to 60 cents per bushel. on the average. When the price per radio was $15. 2p . identify which is supply and which demand.000 tons. The supply of wood to a mill is found to vary linearly with the price per cord. 2p .5x2 = 3 p + 3x2 = 75 26. Applied Calculus for Business. 9. 11.3x . there will be no supply. How does this change effect the point of market equilibrium? 27. the demand will be for 3 million bushels.
4. the monthly sales for this item at a department store is 450. How many color televisions should be sold to maximize monthly sales and what price should be changed to maximize sales? 33. (e) the average cost of producing 100 items. Determine (a) the revenue function. At this point in the text we have not yet developed the machinery to allow us to use this technique. (c) the cost of producing the 100th item (the marginal cost at x = 100). . and we have f1x2 = 12x . namely. where x is the number of items sold when the per unit price is p dollars.3213x + 22 This factored form immediately provides the xintercepts (also called the zeros) of the function. Suppose the cost. (b) the cost of producing the 50th item. where x is the number of items sold when the per unit price is p dollars. 30. Suppose the demand equation is p = 22000 . and April Allen Materowski. Of course we know this is a parabola. (b) the Profit function. (b) the domain revenue function. and can sketch its graph very well using the methods of Section 1. However. that this particular function may be easily factored. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. (c) the revenue derived from the sale of the 20th item the marginal revenue when x = 20. and the cost of producing x 1x hundred items is given by C1x2 = 5x + 10. (d) the average cost function. everywhere else it must be either positive or negative. Determine (a) the cost of producing 50 items. 29. Economics. These techniques will usually not yield all the information we require but we will resolve these deficiencies later. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 1.2/3. Wang. (f) the level of production which minimizes the cost and the minimum cost. for the moment. Suppose the demand equation is 200x + 10p = 10000. Observe. Using the sign analysis of Section 0.7 More on Functions » » » » » » » » Using the Zeros Even Functions Symmetry about the yaxis Odd Functions Symmetry about the Origin Rational Functions Vertical Asymptotes Horizontal Asymptotes Translations Calculator Tips One of the most effective techniques for sketching the graph of a function is the calculus. the monthly sales fall by 5 units. For each $5 increase in price. we can use some simple techniques like factoring and sign analysis of the function (reviewed in Section 0. Walter O. and Finance.7 of producing 100 items.5x . by Warren B. Consider the quadratic function defined by the equation f1x2 = 6x 2 . Inc. That means that the only time the value of this function is zero is at these two xvalues. pretend not to recognize this function. Determine (a) the revenue function. Suppose it has been determined that the demand (in thousands of dollars) for 20 a certain item is given by the equation p = . we have Figure 1. (d) the level of production that maximizes the revenue. and the maximum revenue. of producing x items is C1x2 = 100x + 2000/x. (d) from your estimate in (c). Gordon. Determine (a) the revenue function. (c) the average cost function. (b) the domain of the revenue function. and the maximum revenue. When the price for a color television is $240.6. (e) estimate the level of production which minimizes the cost and estimate the minimum cost. Using the Zeros Applied Calculus for Business. in dollars. what price should be charged to maximize profit? 34. 32. In Example 7.5.5x. at which profit will be maximized. Let us. (d) the average cost of producing 50 items. 31.Section 1. (c) estimate the level of production x.5) to get some information about the function. x = 3/2 and x = . (c) the revenue derived from the More on Functions * ** 127 sale of the 100th item the marginal revenue when x = 100. find the relationship between n and x in the two methods used to solve the problem. (d) estimate the level of production that maximizes the revenue. the marginal cost when x = 50.
128 * ** Section 1. Nor would we know. we analyze the sign of the function and draw a possible graphical representation. Inc. this information does not yield the coordinates of the turning point which of course. 0 and 3. Wang. The best we can do at this point is to graph a possible representation of a function. We consider a cubic equation in the next example. is the vertex. with the understanding that. This idea may be extended to higher order polynomial functions provided we can determine all the zeros of the function.7 More on Functions 0 + 2/3 0 + 3/2 x Figure 1: The sign of 12x . Once the zeros are located (meaning we can factor the polynomial). and Finance.321x + 32 Therefore. Gordon. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.9x. for example its turning points or how it increases or decreases. as your mathematical development increases. and April Allen Materowski.92 = x1x . Therefore. Solution. note the use of the word possible. a graph illustrating these properties is given in Figure 2. There is still a lot we do not know about the function.3213x + 22 Using Sign Analysis have additional turning points. We have f1x2 = x1x 2 .2/3 or greater that 3/2 and negative elsewhere. Using sign analysis we have Figure 3. Example 1 Sketch the graph of f1x2 = x3 . does it do it quickly or slowly? These questions are most effectively answered using the calculus.9x Applied Calculus for Business.3. Economics. Walter O. more information about functions will become available. However. 0 3 + 0 0 0 3 + x Figure 3: The Sign of f1x2 = x3 . This cubic may be easily factored.3213x + 22 This tell us the yvalues are positive when x is less than . by Warren B. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. . Once again. if we did not recognize this graph that it did not Figure 2: A Representation of f1x2 = 12x . the zeros of the function are at x = .
Section 1. 23. Wang. Sometimes. the calculator can be very helpful in such cases. Inc. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. What do we do when we cannot factor the polynomial? At this point. it may happen that a function has no zeros. It is flatter near the origin and rises more quickly than a parabola. Economics. and Finance. Because of the symmetry of this graph (an idea we examine next) it follows that the lowest point on this graph is at the yintercept which is (0. Consider the function defined by f1x2 = x 4 + 4x 2 + 4. and April Allen Materowski. A sketch is given in Figure 5. as we shall see later on this section.9x Once again. by Warren B. . the yvalues are negative when x 6 . Figure 4: A Representation of the Graph of f1x2 = x3 . Applied Calculus for Business. it is not.3 6 x 6 0 or x 7 3. Figure 5: f1x2 = x4 + 4x2 + 4 While this graph may look like a parabola. which may be factored and written as f1x2 = 1x2 + 222.. Walter O. A sketch of a graph satisfying these conditions is given in Figure 4. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.7 More on Functions * ** 129 Therefore. Gordon. it is clear that we cannot yet determine the exact coordinates of the turning points of this graph which we shall see occur when x = . This function is always positive it has no real zeros therefore. Therefore its graph must either be above the xaxis or below it. however. it cannot cross the xaxis. what does this mean? If it has no zeros then the sign of the function must either always be positive or always negative (why?). 4). not very much.3 or when 0 6 x 6 3 and positive when .
complete its sketch for x 6 0. Therefore. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. the portion of the graph to its left was a reflection of the graph to its right. Example 2 (a) Show the function whose equation is y = f1x2 = x 4 . (b) Show the graph of the equation y3 . Knowing a function has a symmetry is often useful in sketching its graph.130 * ** Section 1. the vertical line about which. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. we considered the axis of symmetry. functions which have this symmetry are called even functions. x must appear only to even powers.3x 2 + 12 is even.3x2y .x24 .23 = 0 which becomes y3 . for equally spaced xvalues to its left and right. If we know a function has even symmetry.x we have y 3 . We can rephrase the condition as follows: The graph of an equation is symmetric with respect to the yaxis if replacing x by .7 More on Functions Even Functions Symmetry about the yaxis When we plotted parabolic functions.3x2 + 12 = f1x2 satisfying (1).23 = 0. If a function whose equation is given by y = f1x2 is to be symmetric with respect to the yaxis.x22 + 12 = x 4 . and April Allen Materowski. the graph of the equation is symmetric with respect to the yaxis. Economics. Figure 6 Applied Calculus for Business. that means for equal and opposite xvalues on its graph. We are interested in determining under what conditions functions may have two other kinds of symmetries.31 . (a) f1 . that means we need only worry about sketching its graph for x Ú 0.31 . Do you see why we call functions which have symmetry with respect to the yaxis even functions? For polynomial functions to have this type of symmetry. However.x2 = 1 . the yvalues must be the same. Wang. Walter O. The first symmetry we examine is symmetry with respect to the yaxis. the same equation we started with. (b) If we replace x by . Inc. it had the same yvalues on the graph. by Warren B.3x 2y . and Finance. as we shall see. as we illustrate below. That is. Gordon. the rest of its graph is just its reflection about the yaxis. the axis of symmetry was like a mirror.23 = 0 is symmetric about the yaxis.x22y . . there are functions which are not polynomials that also exhibit this symmetry. Example 3 Assume the function whose graph for x Ú 0 is given in Figure 6 is even. This translates into if f1 + x2 * f1x2 then f is an even function (1) Sometimes. the equation representing the function is not given in this form. Solution.x leaves the equation unchanged.
(b) Show the graph of the equation xy . Observe that a continuous even function (by continuous.x2 = 41 .x23 . Inc. . Now if we define y by y = f1x2.x2 = f1x2 (why?).f1x2 = f1 . Note the portion drawn for x 6 0 is just the mirror image about the yaxis.2x5y 3 = 0. Thus .x21 . we mean the graph has no holes or jumps ) must have a turning point at its yintercept (why?) The other symmetry we wish to consider is symmetry with respect to the origin. Wang. functions which have this symmetry are called odd functions. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.x. Figure 7: Completion of the Graph by Symmetry Nonpolynomial functions can also exhibit even symmetry. Walter O. If a graph is symmetric with respect to the origin.21 . Gordon.f1x2 then f is an odd function (2) Odd Functions Symmetry about the Origin Sometimes. and Finance.f1x2. 8) is on the graph. Applied Calculus for Business. . We also leave as an exercise for you to verify that the product or quotient of even functions is also an even function. Solution.x and y by .x is f1 .y leaves the equation unchanged. if (x.7 More on Functions * ** 131 Solution.y23 = 0 or xy . then the ycoordinate at . in this case 1 . if the point (2. Consider the absolute value function defined by the equation y = f1x2 = x . (b) replacing x by . therefore this function is even. and April Allen Materowski. it has the required symmetry.y = f1 . the equation representing the function is not given in this format. it is symmetric with respect to the yaxis.4x 3 + 2x = . (a) f1 . then its mirror image with respect to the origin is also on the graph.x and y by . that means for example. y) is a point on the graph so too is 1 . More generally.y2 .x2 = .14x 3 .1. multiplying by . Example 3 (a) Show the function defined by the equation y = f1x2 = 4x3 . Another example is 2 the function defined by the equation f1x2 = x3.x2. it follows that f1 . we write the condition as if f1 .2x2 = .y we have 1 .21 . Economics.x2 = . Therefore.x251 . We can rephrase the condition as follows: The graph of an equation is symmetric with respect to the origin if replacing both x by . by Warren B.x2.82.x2 or . . the same equation we began with. The complete graph is given in Figure 7. that is. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.y2.2x5y 3 = 0 is symmetric with respect to the origin.2x is odd.2. You should verify this conclusion by sketching the graph of this function.Section 1.
Complete the sketch giving the graph for . Also note that the shape of the curve changes at this point as well. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 1). (1. See Figure 9. and Finance. Note that the reflection of (0. There are two questions that we shall examine: (1) Division by zero is undefined.132 * ** Section 1.5. and conversely the graph of any equation which satisfies this property is symmetric with respect to the xaxis. 12 and 1 . and April Allen Materowski. Wang.5. . Sketches of such functions illustrate their interesting features.y leaves the equation unchanged.5. 1 . p1x2 A function defined by an equation of the form r1x2 = where p(x) and q(x) are q1x2 polynomials is called a rational function. 02. 0).0. the graph of an equation which has this kind of symmetry has the property that replacing y by . . Functions cannot exhibit this property (why?). Economics. You might note we did not consider symmetry about the xaxis.12. However.7 More on Functions Example 4 The portion of the graph for some odd function is given for 0 8. We shall talk about this point more when we consider the calculus. 11. y x 2 is given in Figure Figure 8 Solution. . We need only reflect this graph about the origin to obtain the complete sketch. by Warren B. The shape is sometimes called concavity.1. Walter O.2 x 6 0. Gordon. We shall examine this more fully in the exercises. Inc.12 and (2. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2. Figure 9: Completion of the Graph by Symmetry Note that continuous odd functions pass through the origin (why?). 1 . 02. Suppose there are xvalues at which the denominator vanishes (while the Rational Functions Applied Calculus for Business. 0) are respectively 1 .1.5.
000. it is clear that this function is defined for all real numbers except x . What about negative values. Walter O. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. the denominator vanishes.50 .10.7 More on Functions * ** 133 numerator does not). however.4 x = .000.000? We shall soon consider these questions. x2 .99999 1. x suppose r1x2 = 2 .000.000 or even larger. but first observe for this particular example that first examining its symmetry reveals useful information.x2 2 x = 2 = . Such a quotient is said to be either positively or negatively infinite.1.000 Undefined 500. Suppose. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and April Allen Materowski. Inc. What happens to the behavior of the functional values (the yvalues) at xvalues near where the denominator approaches zero? (2) What happens to the functional values as x becomes a very large positive number or a very small negative number (note. and the ratio of an odd and even function is always odd. Let us now examine the first question. say .999 1. We ask you to examine this and other symmetry combinations in the exercises. We have that r1 .000.000.x2 tion is symmetric with respect to the origin. Table 1: The behavior of r1x2 = x 1. Example 5 Discuss the symmetry of the function defined by the equation r1x2 = Solution.1.0001 2.000 . to see why. suppose.100)? For example.000001 2. we substituted either of these values.x2 = 1 . and Finance. Economics.4 Note that r(x) is the ratio of two polynomials. by Warren B.4 2 x x2 .2 or 2. See Table 1. . .500 .5000 .000 5000 500 Applied Calculus for Business.2 and 2.00001 2. when x is either .4 . the result would have the form N 0 Where N is a nonzero number. The domain of this function consists of all real numbers except these two values.000 50. Wang. say 1.50.9999 1.r1x2 therefore the func4 x .4 1 . Suppose there are xvalues at which the denominator of a rational function is zero while the numerator is not zero. in the above example we examine what happens if we select xvalues near 2 and compute the corresponding yvalues (we round the yvalue to the nearest integer).Section 1. Gordon.000 or 10. its numerator is an odd function and its denominator is an even function.000 is a very small negative number compared to . it is an odd function.000 or . that is.999999 2 2. How does the function behave near these two points? What happens to the functional values as x becomes very large.99 1.500. In the previous example.001 r1x2 = x for x near 2 x . x .
999 .2 and x = 2 to show the functional values become infinite near these lines. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.5000 .000 Undefined .7 More on Functions Observe that if we take xvalues to the left of 2 and approach 2. Wang.99 .4 2 Note that we included the vertical line x = 2 in the sketch to indicate what happens as the curve approaches it. its graph is symmetric with respect to the origin).9999 . near x = . Table 2: The behavior of r1x2 = x .500. Applied Calculus for Business. Figure 11 is a sketch of the graph of the function.1.000001 .000 .000 .2. These lines are called vertical asymptotes.4 2 x x2 . see Figure 10. note we include the vertical lines x = .134 * ** Section 1. see Table 2.2 and x = 2. Walter O.2. x=2 Figure 10: The Graph of r1x2 = near x = 2 x x .2 x . that is the closer we get to these xvalues. Sometimes we say that yvalues become infinite at these points. the larger their yvalues are in absolute value.0001 . as the xvalues get close to this vertical line.001 r1x2 = x for x near . The function behaves similarly near x = .1.2. by Warren B. To illustrate graphically.1. the yvalues become very large (in absolute value).000 500.2 (which does not surprise us because the function is odd. . ultimately becoming infinite as we get closer to x = 2. consider the graph of this function near x = 2. and Finance. and April Allen Materowski.999999 2 .4 50 500 5000 50.1. As we approach 2 from the right the yvalues become larger and larger. We have a similar behavior of the function near x = . Inc.2.1.00001 . the yvalues become more and more negative and their absolute value is very large.2.50. Economics.500 Thus. Gordon. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.99999 .
3 2 Vertical Asymptotes Solution. 2x . (Alternately. observe x = .4 2 Note that the above rational function is one kind of an example of a discontinuous function. this function has separate pieces. 2x 2 . therefore the two vertical asymptotes of the given function are x = . by Warren B. Economics. .3 = 0. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. the zeros of the denominator (which are not zeros of the numerator) are the vertical asymptotes of the function. Note at either of these values the numerator is not zero. and April Allen Materowski. More generally.3211x + 12 Applied Calculus for Business. we have.x . Nor does the function have a vertical asymptote at this point. when x = 3. The denominator vanishes when 2x2 .6 . the line x = a is a vertical asymptote if the functional values become infinite near x = a. the numerator is zero when x = 3. Gordon. the yvalue is 0.1 and x = 3/2. then the line x = a is called a vertical asymptote of the function. Thus. If we factor. going from one piece to another on either side of the asymptote results in an infinite jump. given any function. or 12x . suppose when x = a the denominator vanishes and the numerator does not. Consider the rational function defined by the equation 2x + 2 f1x2 = .1 is both a zero of the numerator and denominator.321x + 12 = 0.7 More on Functions * ** 135 x= 2 x=2 Figure 11: r1x2 = x x . The zeros of the numerator provide the xintercepts or zeros of the function.) The domain of a rational function consists of all xvalues with the exception of those at which the denominator is zero. and Finance. f1x2 = 21x + 12 12x . In the previous example.Section 1. Inc. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Wang. The domain of this function is all real numbers except x = . Example 6 Determine the vertical asymptotes of the function defined by f1x2 = 2x .1 and 3/2. This yields x = .3 This point is not in the domain of the function since the denominator is undefined there. Walter O. that is.1 and x = 3/2.x .x .
Many different types of functions. no matter what the constant value of k Applied Calculus for Business. A sketch of the function is given in Figure 12.136 * ** Section 1. where k is a constant and p is any positive number. Example 7 Determine the vertical asymptotes for the function defined by f1x2 = 1x .3 Solution. have vertical asymptotes.3 Horizontal Asymptotes We now examine the question of how a rational function behaves when the xvalues are large. and Finance. then the horizontal line they approach is called a horizontal asymptote. Inc. sort of a steady state value of the function. Wang. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. by Warren B. Gordon. In fact the graph of this function has a hole or discontinuity at the point 1 .2/52. Consider k/x p. In a sense. later on in this text. We shall see there are two possibilities. the next example illustrates one such case. Walter O. the yvalues on the curve level off and approach a horizontal line or they do not. The line y = b is said to be a horizontal asymptote of a function if the functional values are near b as the x values get very large. It will be helpful to first make some observations. As x gets very large in absolute value what happens to this quotient? As the denominator gets very large. Economics.3 Note that if we did not exclude this xvalue you might be tempted to write f1 . x=3 Figure 12: f1x2 = 1x x . in absolute value. If they do.7 More on Functions While you might be tempted to cancel the common factor 1x + 12 from the numerator and denominator. thus you could write f1x2 = 2 for all x = . you may do so providing you indicate that after the cancellation x may not equal . (We discuss this notion more fully.12 = . Note that the function defined in the previous example is not a rational function as the numerator is not a polynomial. in absolute value.) We indicated that near a vertical asymptote the yvalues become infinite. .1 (because this value is not in the original function s domain). Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and April Allen Materowski. The above example illustrates that a cancelling zero of the numerator and denominator cancels the infinite behavior of the function near this xvalue. therefore x = 3 is a vertical asymptote. The domain of this function is all x Ú 0 and x = 3.1 2x . we may think of the yvalues stabilizing as the xvalues get large. . x .1.2/5. The denominator is zero when x = 3 and the numerator is not. in addition to rational functions.
01.3x + 11 6x4 + 3x 3 + 2x .3x + 11 f1x2 = = 6x4 + 3x 3 + 2x . and Finance. as x gets larger and larger.q (The arrow is to be read approaches. similarly if x is . instead of writing as x is a negative number which gets very large in absolute value we shall write x : .4999417 0. but they give a picture of what is happening to the yvalues as x gets large). .00001 and so on. by Warren B. Sometimes we say it approaches positive infinity.4b a6 + + 3 . say 1000. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.3 + 4b x x x x x x = 3 2 3 2 11 11 x4 a 6 + + 3 . Wang. for example 100/x.2x 3 . the yvalues get arbitrarily close to 1*2. It seems clear from Table 3 that as x : q . instead of stating as x gets very large.3x + 11 6x 4 + 3x 3 + 2x . the quotient becomes.3x + 11 as x gets large 6x 4 + 3x 3 + 2x .000.2x 3 . we shall write x : q . .000 (of course these are finite values.7 More on Functions * ** 137 is.000. 1. you can see what is happening. . Try large values of x like 1000.000.000 1.4b x x x x x x Applied Calculus for Business. Gordon.10. written q .1000. p 7 0 and k are constants. Walter O.4994169 0.000. the quotient gets very close to zero. There is a simple algebraic procedure by which we may come to this same conclusion.4999994 METHOD I Factor out the dominant (highest) power from both the numerator and denominator and perform any cancellation that may occur. on the other hand x11 will be negative for negative values of x. 0. Thus we have the following: If x is a large number in absolute value.3 + 4b a3 .000.1.11 Let us examine the behavior of this function as x : q (a very large positive number sometimes we will say as x becomes infinite).2x 3 .11 x4 a 3 2 3 11 2 3 11 . 0. 10. Inc. . 3x 4 . Table 3 indicates the behavior of the function as x : q . ) From now on. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. With your calculator.2x 3 . 10. similarly. We illustrate two related methods. What happens to x p as x becomes a very large positive number? It should be clear p that x is a very large positive number as well.11 3x 4 . then k/xp : 0 and xp may either : + q or . and April Allen Materowski. but its sign depends on whether or not p is an odd or even integer. then the result is infinite as well.q .000.Section 1. Consider.11 Table 3: The behavior of f1x2 = x 1000 10.000 f1x2 = 0. 1. For example x 10 will be a large positive number for a negative xvalue. 0.000 Á the quotient also approaches 0. 3x4 . When x is a negative number whose absolute value is very large. . Economics. Consider the function defined by the equation f1x2 = 3x4 .
Similarly. Applied Calculus for Business.2 + 3x 4 3x4 Yielding the same conclusion as in (a). Wang.2x 3 . That is as x : q .138 * ** Section 1. f1x2 = 3x4 3x 4 . Inc. The next example illustrates that it is possible for a function to behave differently as x : q and as x : .11 6x giving y = 1*2 as the horizontal asymptote. we already observed above that every term of the form k/xp approaches zero. as x : q or as x : . and April Allen Materowski.q .7 More on Functions as x : q . METHOD I f1x2 = 12x4 . Economics. Gordon.3x 3 + 17x + 21 Examine the behavior of the function f1x2 = as (a) x : q 5x2 .q ) or equivalently.q .q 12  (Remember.3x 3 + 17x + 21 5x2 . so we have.4 + 3 x2 x In either (a) or (b).4 + 3 b x2 x x x 1 17 21 + 3 + 4 x x x : 12/3 = 4 5 2 . the dominant term in the denominator. METHOD II Keeping the dominant terms in the numerator and denominator. all other terms are insignificant with respect to it. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. by Warren B. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.4 + 3 x4 a 2 .3x 3 + 17x + 21 12x4 : = 4 5x2 . This second method indicates that we need only keep the dominant terms in the numerator and denominator to determine if there are horizontal asymptotes.3x + 11 1 = : 4 3 4 2 6x + 3x + 2x . for very large xvalues. METHOD 2. the above analysis is identical and the curve approaches y = 1*2. As x : q . Solution.2 + 3x 4 and (b) x : . Example 8 12x 4 . . y = 4 is the horizontal asymptote as x : q or as x : .2 + 3x 4 x4 a 12 = 3 17 21 3 17 21 + 3 + 4b 12 + 3 + 4 x x x x x x = 5 2 5 2 . very large in absolute value. thus the horizontal asymptote is y = 1*2.q . is the term with the highest power. is also a horizontal asymptote when x : . Walter O. that means the only terms left in the above expression are the 3 in the numerator and the 6 in the denominator. we see that f1x2 = 12x 4 . f1x2 : 3/6 = 1*2.q . all other terms are insignificant with respect to it for very large values of x. Note that x is a negative number. that is y = 1*2. k/xp : 0 as x : q or as x : . and Finance. the dominant term in the numerator is the one with the highest power.
by Warren B.q . Using Method II. It may happen that a rational function may get infinite as x : q or as x : . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.q (x is negative) f1x2 = 4x 2x + 1 2 : 4x 2x 2 = 4x = 4 x Therefore.Section 1. as x : q . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. A sketch of this function is given in Figure 13. 0) and since the denominator is always positive. we have as x : q or as x : . y=4 y= 4 Figure 13: f1x2 = 4x 2 x2 + 1 . 4x 2x + 1 2 : 4x 2x 2 x if x Ú 0 . Inc.7 More on Functions * ** 139 Example 9 Determine the horizontal asymptotes for the function defined by f1x2 = Solution. y = 4 is a horizontal asymptote and as x : . when x : q (x is positive) f1x2 = 4x 2x + 1 2 4x 2x 2 + 1 . . and Finance. It is straightforward to sketch this function (which is odd). Wang. Applied Calculus for Business. as the next example illustrates. Gordon. which is positive for x 7 0 and negative for x 6 0. y = . and April Allen Materowski.q . this function has two different asymptotes.x if x 6 0 : 4x 2x 2 = 4x = 4 x and when x : .q f1x2 = recall that 2x 2 = e thus.4 is a horizontal asymptote. Economics. Note the two different horizontal asymptotes should not be surprising as the function in the previous example is odd. the sign of the function will be determined by the sign of the numerator. Note it passes through (0. Walter O.
as x : .11x + 21 5x x 3x 2 .q . when there is no horizontal asymptote or when the xaxis is a horizontal asymptote. what happens with regard to the relative sizes of the dominant terms in the numerator and denominator? (See Exercise 65. .q . by Warren B. Solution. Gordon.q we have f1x2 : q .2x2 + 3x + 11 f1x2 = 2x2 + 5x + 11 Example 11 Determine the behavior of the function defined by f1x2 = and as x : .) Applied Calculus for Business.axis. Note how the function increases without bound (becomes infinite) as you move to the left.2x2 + 3x + 11 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. There is no leveling off of the yvalues.7 More on Functions Example 10.q . x : q or as x : . f1x2 : . we see that a large number to a power is large and multiplying it by a negative number makes it negative. therefore f1x2 : 0.q . as x : q or as x : . We have.3x 5 . We have as x : q or as x : .2x 2 + 3x + 11 Investigate the behavior of the function defined by f1x2 = as 2x2 + 5x + 11 x : q and as x : . x : q . On the other hand. See Figure 15.2x + 9 3 3/5 3x2 = = 5 : 7 7 4 5 5x 5x .11x 4 + 21 as x : q or as x : . f1x2 = 3x2 .2x + 9 as x : q 5x7 . no horizontal asymptotes. and April Allen Materowski.3x 5 . and large in absolute value. A sketch illustrating the behavior of the function is given in Figure 14. Solution. therefore. Figure 15: 3x2 .140 * ** Section 1. y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote. that is. Economics. and decreases as you move to the right. that is.11x4 + 21 Did you observe in the last two examples.3x 5 3 3 = x : 2 2 2 2x + 5x + 11 2x as x : q . . Wang. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.q the graph approaches the x. Figure 14: .3x5 . and Finance.q . that is. Walter O. in each case.2x + 9 f1x2 = 5x7 . k/xp : 0.q f1x2 = . Inc.
) ND + 3 0 + 2 x Figure 16: Sign of f1x2 = 2x . Inc. following the procedure described in Section 0.3. we have Figure 16 where ND means not defined (a vertical asymptote. We begin our sketch in Figure 17 showing these basic facts. x + 3 Solution.4 . The graph is given in Figure 18. Economics. y = 2 is the horizontal asymptote (verify this!). The sign of the function is determined by the sign of the numerator and denominator. x + 3 We see to the left of the vertical asymptote x = .q . Wang.7 More on Functions * ** 141 Example 12 Sketch the graph of the function defined by f1x2 = 2x . y=2 x = 3 (2.5. and complete the sketch. by Warren B. and as x : q or as x : . the yvalues are approaching q (since the sign of the function is positive). Walter O.0) (0.4/32. Gordon.4/3) Figure 17: Segments of the 2x . Note that the graph does not cross the horizontal asymptote. and Finance. and April Allen Materowski.3 (why?).4 Graph of f1x2 = .4 . there are no solutions to this equation.q since the sign is negative. meaning the graph does not intersect the asymptote. 2x . or x = 2. . . We have a vertical asymptote at x = . we can verify this by trying to find those points at which f1x2 = 2 (see Exercise 71). Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. connecting the various segments of the graph. The zero of the function occurs when the numerator is zero. The yintercept is 10. to its right they are approaching . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Applied Calculus for Business.Section 1. x + 3 We now connect these segments.4 = 0. remembering that y = 2 is a horizontal asymptote.
0) (0. Walter O. x2 + 9 Solution. Inc. and also has y = 0 as x : . by Warren B.4 f1x2 = .q . . Economics. We begin our sketch in Figure 19. Example 13 Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation f1x2 = 3x . y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Wang. Figure 19: Beginning a 3x Sketch of f1x2 = 2 x + 9 Notice the piece of the graph on the right illustrating the fact that y is positive for x 7 0 and as x gets large it approaches the asymptote y = 0. Gordon. There are no vertical asymptotes because the denominator is never zero (in fact it is always positive). 0). We also know the yintercept is (0. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.142 * ** Section 1. Similarly. x + 3 Examining the sign of the function. observe that f1x2 = 3x 3x 3 : 2 = : 0 as x : q or as x : . not provide the location of the points where the graph turns. The next example illustrates the procedure. The calculus will provide those details. To find the horizontal asymptote. so its graph is symmetric with respect to the origin.7 More on Functions y=2 x = *3 (2. we can sketch rational functions. the sketch will in general. and April Allen Materowski. The graph Applied Calculus for Business. the sign of the function will be determined by the numerator which is positive for x 7 0 and negative when x 6 0. the piece on the left illustrates that y is negative when x 6 0. Since the denominator is always positive. however.q x x + 9 x 2 Thus. verify these statements. We first observe that this is an odd function. and Finance.*4/3) Figure 18: The Graph of 2x .
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. examples of which are exponential. Inc. Applied Calculus for Business. Economics. We need only connect these pieces. A function which is not algebraic is called transcendental. we do not know the coordinates of the turning points. Walter O. The calculator is also a useful tool in obtaining sketches of portions of their graphs.) Figure 20: The Graph of 3x f1x2 = 2 x + 9 Observe from Figure 21 that the graph crosses its horizontal asymptote at the origin. to the right it is positive. in fact. .Section 1. to the left it is negative. there are functions for which the graph may cross its horizontal asymptotes one or more times. but a graph can never cross its vertical asymptote (why?). by Warren B. or rational powers of polynomial functions is called an algebraic function.7 More on Functions * ** 143 passes through the origin. (At this point. We will have to wait until we study the calculus to find them. We shall see that the calculus is an essential tool in examining the behavior of such functions and sketching their graphs. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. which results in the two turning points on the graph. products. giving the middle piece. and April Allen Materowski. See Figure 20. Wang. Figure 21: A Graph Intersecting Its Horizontal Asymptote In general. logarithmic and trigonometric functions. quotients. See Figure 21. any function that can be expressed in terms of sums differences. Gordon. and Finance.
21x . consider f1x2 = x 2 . the graph representing f1x .h2? We examined this question previously for the parabola and the circle.21x .12 = 1x .12 + 3 x 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 f1x .21x . f(x) = x2*2 x + 3 f (x * 1) = (x * 1)2 *2(x * 1) + 3 Figure 22: f1x2 = x2 .2x + 3 and f1x .12 = 1x . For example. Wang.12 = 1x . and Finance. See Figure 22. .122 .12 = 1x .122 .2x + 3 x 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 f1x2 = x 2 . Gordon. Walter O.12 = 1x .12 + 3 11 6 3 2 3 6 11 Translations We observe the yvalue for each xvalue in Table 4b corresponds to an x value which is one less in Table 4a.7 More on Functions Consider the graph of the function defined by the equation y = f1x2. how is it related to the function defined by the equation y = f1x . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.122 . In other words.12 + 3 Applied Calculus for Business. Inc.2x + 3 11 6 3 2 3 6 11 Table 4b: f1x . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.12 + 3.21x .144 * ** Section 1.122 . Economics.122 .2x + 3 except it is moved one unit to the right. by Warren B.21x .12 + 3 is identical to the graph of f1x2 = x 2 .2x + 3 and f1x . and April Allen Materowski. If we construct a table of values for each what do we observe (Table 4a and Table 4b)? Table 4a: f1x2 = x 2 .
See Figure 23 where we have y = f1x2. and April Allen Materowski. except the graph on the right is positioned one unit to the right of the graph on the left. b +k) +* y = f(x) + k (a. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.k. More generally. Wang. We can now combine the two translations. b) +* y = f(x) y = f(x) k +* (a.h2 and y = f1x + h2 for h 7 0. Walter O. see Figure 24. b) +* (a h. their graphs are illustrated in Figure 25.Section 1. y = f1x2 and y = f1x2 + k for k 7 0 For example. b k) Figure 24: Vertical Translation y = f1x2 . Inc. (a.h ) Figure 23: Horizontal Translation y = f1x + h2. by Warren B. Observe that the curve on the left at x = a + h.h2 is identical to the graph of the equation y = f1x2 except each point on the first graph is translated h units to the right if h is positive and h units to the left if h is negative. consider f1x2 = x2 . Economics.b) y = f(x+h) y =f(x) y = f(x .b) +* (a. that is.h2. Note how the graph of f is translated 2 units upward to obtain the graph of g.7 More on Functions * ** 145 Observe the graphs are identical. we ask the question how do the graphs y = f1x2 and y = f1x2 + k differ? It is apparent that once again the graphs are identical with the yvalue on the second graph k units above the first if k 7 0 and k units below the first if k 6 0.h each have the same yvalue. +* (a+h. the graph given by the equation y = f1x . y = f1x2 and y = f1x .h2 + k differ from it? It should now be ap Applied Calculus for Business. the middle curve at x = a and the curve on the right at x = a . g1x2 = f1x2 + 2).2x + 5 (observe. Gordon. h 7 0 Next. and Finance.2x + 3 and g1x2 = x 2 . if we are given the graph of y = f1x2 how does the graph of y = f1x . each point on the graph on the left is translated one unit to the right. that is. . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. y = f1x .
2x + 5 We illustrate with an example. take every point on the original graph and subtract 2 from its xcoordinate and add 3 to its ycoordinate. . Gordon. That is. Applied Calculus for Business. and April Allen Materowski. Economics. sketch the graph of y = f1x + 22 + 3. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. To sketch the required graph the graph in Figure 27 needs to be move 2 units to the left and 3 units upward. f(x) = x2 * 2x + 3 g(x) = x2 * 2x + 5 Figure 25: f1x2 = x2 . See Figure 27. and Finance. (*2. by Warren B.7 More on Functions parent that each point on the second curve is translated h units horizontally (to the right if h is positive. Walter O. 2) (*3. to the left it is negative) and translated k units vertically (up if k 7 0. Inc.146 * ** Section 1. down if k 6 0). 0) (1. *2) Figure 26: y = f1x2 Solution. Example 13 Given Figure 26 which gives the graph y = f1x2. 0) (2.2x + 3 and g1x2 = f1x2 + 2 = x2 . for some function. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Wang. 0) (*1.
5 and xmax = 2.3x2 .1.5. we have z 6 1 + max5 . compute the absolute value of each coefficient and call the maximum value A) then z 6 1 + A The requirement that the coefficient of the highest term is one presents no problem as dividing a function by a constant does not change the position of its zeros. even with a calculator. For example.2x n . the window for the zeros of f are obtained from g. a 1 .2x + 3 and g1x2 = x 3 .1 . and Finance.2 . 1 . Thus.5. We first need to determine a reasonable window. See Figure 27.22 + 3 Thus. by Warren B.2. Á .5 means that . there is a theorem (whose proof requires the more advanced mathematics studied in Complex Variable Theory) that is useful in determining a reasonable window in studying graphs with a calculator. .2. Inc. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Gordon. 3/2 6 = 1 + 3/2 = 2. when we cannot easily determine the exact zeros. 3) (1. .7 More on Functions * ** 147 (4. 1) (0.2x + 3. Thus. 52 and so on for the other indicated points. 1 .1 . Given the polynomial function defined by the equation f1x2 = xn + a n . However. 3) (3. Economics. in the above example.1xn . g was obtained from f by dividing by 2. a 0 6 (that is. this theorem provides an initial window to use with our calculator.3. Walter O.5 6 z 6 2. 5) (5. 32. a2 . Sometimes this can be difficult.4. and April Allen Materowski. 1 and 3/2.3 2 x .5 This means all the zeros lie within this interval. (Note the zeros are actually x = . we choose a window such that xmin = . Polynomials whose zeros are not easily found are hard to sketch without the calculus.) Clearly. Wang. if we wanted the calculator to sketch f1x2 = 2x 3 . we see that use of this theorem gives a window for the zeros.Section 1.2 + Á + a 2x 2 + a1x + a 0 Let z be any real zero of this function and A the maximum of 5 a n .5 z 6 2. Thus.1 + a n . We state the following theorem. Calculator Tips Applied Calculus for Business.x + 2 have the same zeros. for exam3 2 ple f1x2 = 2x 3 . 22 : 1 . 3) Figure 27: y = f1x . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. a n .2.3/2 . 02 : 1 .3x 2 .
Wang. Applied Calculus for Business.5 6 z 6 5. if we need to change that part of the window. we divide by 3 to obtain g1x2 = x 5 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.3x .6. but you need to be careful near the vertical asymptotes. Therefore all zeros of g and therefore f are in the interval . Walter O. Note that we kept the default values for y.9x . so we have z 6 1 + 4 = 5.5x 2 . this can be dealt with by choosing a reasonable window in which to view the graph. Inc. Figure 28 We next have the calculator graph the function. Economics. Since the theorem requires the coefficient of the highest term be one. see Figure 30 Figure 29 (We note that the usual default window would have produced a reasonable graph.5/3x 2 . and April Allen Materowski. we can do so afterwards. Thus we choose as our window as indicated in Figure 28. and Finance.2/3x 4 + 4x 3 .2x 4 + 12x 3 . by Warren B.148 * ** Section 1.) We can also sketch rational functions with the calculator. Use your calculator to sketch the graph. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. . Gordon.2 The coefficient whose absolute value is largest is 4. but that is not always the case.7 More on Functions Example 14 Illustrate the above theorem for determining a window containing all the zeros fo the function defined by f1x2 = 3x5 . Solution.
f1x2 = 1 x . (a) Why can t such an equation represent a function? (b) In Exercise 24 29. 2x x . f1x2 = 37. An equation is symmetric with respect to the xaxis if replacing y by .3 43. 24. f1x2 = x x + 1 x x + 1 3x 2 4 5 2 2 In Exercises 31 31.x5 6.y leaves the equation unchanged. f1x2 = 2x . Gordon.4 x2 .2221x + 12 x3 + 3x + 2 12x .5 36. f1x2 = 2x2 + 7 3x + 4 21x . f1x2 = x2 .5 x + 5 x . f1x2 = 2x3 .92 8.x2 11.5 2x2 + 5 4x2 + 9 19. x2 + x2y 2 + y 2 = 4 26. f1x2 = x5 21. and Finance.3 38.3x 16. f1x2 = x2 x x 23. determine if the graph of the given equation is symmetric with respect to the yaxis. f1x2 = 40. f1x2 = 2x . f1x2 = 2x2 . f1x2 = 45. f1x2 = x . f1x2 = 33.3 x x2 + 5x + 6 2 x2 .1221x . if they exists.2x .x In Exercises 12 23 determine if the function defined by the given equation is odd.2 x2 . f1x2 = 46 determine the horizontal asymptotes.x + 3 15.9 Applied Calculus for Business. Inc. f1x2 = 48. f1x2 = 49. which of the equations has this symmetry? 3x3 + 7 3x + 2 42. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. using the sign of the function.2 3x2 35. Economics. and April Allen Materowski. . determine the zeros and then.x .12 2. f1x2 = x 21 . x2 + 4 + 3y = 0 27. f1x2 = 4x . f1x2 = 1x3 . vertical and horizontal asymptotes along with the sign of the function to sketch its graph. f1x2 = 29 . f1x2 = x4 . 12. Wang.x3 7. f1x2 = 2x2 + 1 14. Walter O. 1. x 2 + 4xy + xy 3 = 8 30. f1x2 = 18. f1x2 = 9x3 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. f1x2 = 44. f1x2 = 38 determine the vertical asymptote(s) if one exists.x 212x .x + 3 4.9 3.5 2 x . f1x2 = .2 x . f1x2 = 34. by Warren B.7 In Exercises 1 11.2 2x x + 1 x + 1 4x2 . f1x2 = 41.Section 1. f1x2 = 46. 1 x . f1x2 = 12x . draw its sketch. origin or neither. f1x2 = x314x6 + 11210 20. f1x2 = 2x + 3x .x Z 0 x In Exercises 24 29. x2 + y 2 = 5 28.3 In Exercises 39 39. f1x2 = 3 13. even or neither.7 More on Functions * ** 149 EXERCISE SET 1. f1x2 = 32. f1x2 = 17. x3 . f1x2 = x x 22.x + 32 9. 47. f1x2 = 1x x .4x2 5. f1x2 = 2x + 3 10.y 3 = 0 29.3x2214x2 .52 7x4 + 2 2x 9x2 + 1 In Exercises 47 55 use the zeros. f1x2 = 2x2 . xy = 1 25.
Show the graph of the function defined by f1x2 = horizontal asymptote. f1x2 = 56. by Warren B. Given the graph of the function y = f1x2 in Figure 31.9 3x 2 x2 . Economics. draw the graph with the corresponding points clearly labeled of (a) f1x .25231x + 725 graph cross its horizontal asymptote? 5x 225x2 + 1 5x (b) How many times does the 55.16 x31x2 . f1x2 = 52.16 4x2 x2 . f1x2 = 54. (c) f1x2 + 3. draw the graph with the corresponding points clearly labeled of (a) f1x . (c) f1x2 + 3. f1x2 = 53.x . draw the graph with the corresponding points clearly labeled of (a) f1x . (e) f1x . 63.3 (a) Determine its domain. (b) f1x + 12.36 2 More on Functions 59.150 * ** Section 1. (e) f1x . and (b) Sketch its graph clearly showing all asymptotes.22 + 1 and (f) f1x + 12 .1. (d) Using (c). Walter O. (c) Find its range by solving for x as a function of y. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and Finance. Inc. an odd with an even is odd and an even with an even is even. 57 58. Given the graph of the function y = f1x2 in Figure 32. (d) f1x2 . locate the coordinates of the turning point of the function.2 Figure 33: Ex. (b) f A x + 1*2 B .4 does not cross its x + 3 62.122 1x . (d) f1x2 .7 x x . Consider the function defined by the equation f1x2 = 1 2x2 . f1x2 = 51. 60 61. Wang. Show the product (or quotient) of an odd function with and odd function is even.1. Given the graph of the function y = f1x2 in Figure 30. 58 64. (c) f1x2 + 3.1. f1x2 = 225x2 . (c) f1x2 + 3.1. (d) f1x2 .7x + 12 6x2 . Figure 31: Ex.6x . . 59 60. (b) f1x + 12. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.22. and April Allen Materowski.1/42 + 1 and (f) f A x + 1*2 B . (e) f1x .2 50. draw the graph with the corresponding points clearly labeled of (a) f1x . Given the graph of the function y = f1x2 in Figure 33.22. 2x . (b) f1x + 12. (e) f1x . Gordon.2 Figure 30: Ex.22.1/42.22 + 1 and (f) f1x + 12 .22 + 1 and (f) f1x + 12 .1 57.2 Figure 32: Ex. (a) f1x2 = x2 . Does there exist a function which is both odd and even? Applied Calculus for Business.9241x .4221x2 . (d) f1x2 .
1xn . In the previous exercise. . determine the vertical asymptote of the function defined in Example 11. (b) n = m. f1x2 = 70. do m and n have to be integers. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. However. (a) f102 = 1.12x + 5 2x + 5 4x3 . (b) h h 67. show f1x + h2 .f1x2 f1h2 . almost look linear. must f be a rational function? Suppose the rational function r1x2 = q1x2 + l1x2 where l(x) approaches 0 as x approaches + q or . 69. find all the asymptotes and plot the graph of the given function. Gordon. do they exhibit any other kinds of symmetry? 66. Suppose f is not a constant function with f1x + y2 = f1x2f1y2. yn2 and seeks to determine a relationship between their x and y coordinates. y12. (c) n 7 m. 1x2. Note how the graph approaches the line y = 2x + 4 as x gets large. When presented with a real set of data. by Warren B. 72. Walter O. other cases will be considered at the end of this section.9 71. Therefore y = 2x + 4 is an asymptote for r(x).1 + Á + b1x + b0 2x2 + 6x + 8 x + 1 and its Slanted Asymptote Figure 34: r1x2 = y = 2x + 4 In Exercises 69 70.1 = f1x2 a b. y32. then r1x2 : q1x2 as x approaches + q or .1 + Á + a 1x + a 0 .1x m .q . called a scatter plot. g1x2 = 4x2 . and if there are. 1xn. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Á . r1x2 = 4 2x + 6x + 8 = 2x + 4 + x + 1 x + 1 2 as x approaches + q or . 68. other times quadratic or perhaps some other shape. if these points were taken from measurements. and Finance. Show that the graph of the function defined in Example 12 does not cross its horizontal asymptote. or we say r(x) is asymptotic to q(x). In the real world. Do there exist graphs of equations which are symmetric with respect to the yaxis and origin.q . when plotted. that is. 4/1x + 12 : 0. one is given a number of data points 1x1. it would be almost miraculous for a set of many pairs of points to lie exactly on the same line even when the underlying model is exactly linear. and April Allen Materowski.5 Determine the horizontal asymptotes (if they exist) if (a) n 6 m. Sometimes the points. We first consider the case when the data appears linear. y22.8 65.Section 1.8 Regression » » » » » Scatter Plot Line of Best Fit Linear Regression Correlation Coefficient NonLinear Regression Calculator Tips In applications. so r1x2 : 2x + 4. When l(x) is linear it is called a slant or oblique asymptote. Inc. when the model is linear or when the data appears to lie close to Scatter Plot Applied Calculus for Business.q . Economics. Given the function defined by the equation Regression * ** 151 y = 2x + 4 f1x2 = a nx n + a n . one is faced with the problem of finding a line that best fits the data. 1x3. For example. 1. Wang. bmx m + bm .2x2 + 3x . A sketch is given is Figure 34. Using your calculator. due to experimental or measurement errors. x2 .
In order to avoid this. We plot these points and see that they lie roughly along a nonvertical straight line. Walter O. positive and negative errors would then cancel out and the fit might be very bad. y1) yi . y22. Let us write y = ax + b for the equation of the line. yn) (x3. y2) (x1.1axi + b2 is known as the error at x = xi.8 Regression some straight line. but let us look at the idea behind it. (xn.152 * ** Section 1. Inc. Now for each xvalue.1axi + b222. it is actually very simple. That is. that is y = axi + b (see Figure 1). 1x3. by Warren B. This difference yi . One looks at the sum of these numbers for all the points and tries to determine the values of a and b that minimizes this sum. xi. one looks at the sum of the squares of the errors. there is a standard technique to find the socalled line of best fit or the regression equation. yi) (x2. . 1x2. y12. Á . and the value of y predicted by the equation. 1xn. Wang. and Finance. Economics. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. However. The proof of the technique is considered later in the study of calculus. We define the terms needed in this section. and April Allen Materowski. Although this may sound almost impossible. Suppose that we have n data points 1x1. yn2. Gordon. It does require us to use some new notation. x1 + x2 + Á + xn 1average of the x values2 n y1 + y2 + Á + yn 1average of the yvalues2 y = n sx = x1 2 + x2 2 + Á + xn 2 1sum of the squares of the xvalues2 sx 1average of the sum of the squares of the xvalues2 sx = n sy = y1 2 + y2 2 + Á + yn 2 1sum of the squares of the yvalues2 sy 1average of the sum of the squares of the yvalues2 sy = n = x1y1 + x2y2 + x3y3 + Á + xnyn 1sum of the products of the x and y values2 x = sxy Applied Calculus for Business.(axi + b) = Error at xi Figure 1: A Scatter Plot and Regression Line What we would like to do is to pick the line so as to minimize the total error over all points. y32. y3) (xi. yi. the squared error at a given xi is 1yi . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. there is the observed yvalue.
4.x 2 and b = y . Gordon.6. The sum of the yvalues is 23433 + 24580 + 25948 + 27144 + 28236 + 29744 = 159085 and their average is y = 159085/6. measure x in years and y in dollars. The sum of the products sxy = 1121234332 + 1221245802 + 1321259482 + 1421271442 + 1521282362 + 1621297442 = 578657 and the average is sxy = 578657/6. Economics. For simplicity. and Finance.. The points and the best fit line (regression line) are shown in Figure 2.11249. Table 1: Median Annual Income 1982 1987 Year Income 1982 23433 1983 24580 1984 25948 1985 27144 1986 28236 1987 29744 Solution. that is. for 1991.e. in the United States for the six year period from 1982 to 1987 is given in Table 1. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. We shall show how the calculator finds the regression line very quickly at the end of this section Example 1 Median family income per year. Substituting into the formula we have a = [578657/6 .3.112121/62 = 22142. let 1982 be year 1. Therefore. and sxy sums the products of the x and y. i. Wang.3 Rounding these numbers to the nearest integer. Therefore. Inc. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Use the line to predict the median family income for 1991.121/621159085/62]/[91/6 .629 per year. the regression line has the equation y = ax + b where a = sxy x#y sx .11 b = 159085/6 .121/622] = 1249. divide by n. sx = 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 + 2 5 + 62 = 91 and the average. Applied Calculus for Business. in dollars. Plot this data and find and plot the line of best fit. we have y = 1249x + 22142 as the line of best fit. Walter O. Next we need the sum of the squares of the xvalues. and April Allen Materowski.17.ax (1) (2) Line of Best Fit Linear Regression It is clear that the calculations can be tedious and a calculator is useful.2. by Warren B. we set x = 10 (remember we are counting years from 1982 as 1) and we forecast that the median family income at that time will be y = 1124921102 + 22142 = 34629.) Using calculus. it can be shown that the line of best fit. so n = 6. the letter s is to remind you that you are summing squares of the variable in the subscript. $34. The years are now 1. the notation is easy to remember as follows: a bar above any symbol means it is an average.8 Regression * ** 153 and sxy = sxy n 1average of the sum of the products2 (Note. is given by x = 21/6. the sum of the x values is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 = 21 and the average x. sx = 91/6 = 15. .Section 1.5.
of Deaths 1978 13690 1979 13216 1980 13294 1981 12628 1982 12077 Find the line of best fit and plot it.381.8 Regression y = 1249x + 22142 Figure 2: The Best Fit Line for Example 1 In the preceding example. and substituting.2. Solution. sxy = 38180.2 Therefore. Walter O. Why do you think falls should be an exception? Applied Calculus for Business. and Finance. sx = 11. we find a = . rounding off. of course. Economics. Again. some trends are linear but it is difficult to find a simple explanation for the observed phenomena. Inc. y = 12981. Notice that this result predicts that the number of deaths by falls seems to be declining at a rate of about 381 per year.154 * ** Section 1. we measure x in years and let the first year (in this case 1978) be x = 1. by Warren B. Table 2 shows the number of deaths by falls in the United States over a five year period from 1978 through 1982. must be balanced by an increase in salaries and other forms of earnings. . we saw the process of inflation in the American economy. Wang. which. The median family income going up is a reflection of the general increase in the costs of goods and services.381x + 14125. Table 2: Deaths by Falls over a Five Year Period Year No. On the other hand. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. What might be surprising is that the increase was so close to being perfectly linear during the mid1980 s. we have y = . Gordon. We let y be the number of deaths and find that x = 3. Consider the following example.4 and b = 14125. Example 2. One would expect mortality numbers to increase with increasing population. even though the population of the United States is growing. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and April Allen Materowski. The results are graphed in Figure 3.
so the quotient is dimensionless. Note that in this translated coordinate system. Inc. if r is near . the closer the points are to a straight line. y2 in the original coordinate system.x. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.1 or r = 1. Economics. We divide s XY by 2sXsY. if the points do appear to be linear then they will be mostly in quadrants I and III or in quadrants II and IV (why?). In this new XY coordinate system. r. this product has the same units as sXY.Section 1.1 or 1 then the Applied Calculus for Business. Fortunately.nx221sy . To free the measure from units we divide the sum of products by another product of the same units. especially if the data set is large. and their magnitudes will depend on these units. We. If r is near zero then there is no linear relationship between x and y. define the correlation coefficient with respect to these translated variables as r = sXY 2sXsY (3a) Correlation Coefficient however. and Finance. . However. x and y have units in which they are measured. we can show that) r = sxy . Linearity is unaffected by the position of the coordinate axis.ny22 (3b) Either of these expressions may be used to compute the correlation coefficient. therefore.8 Regression * ** 155 y = *381x +14125 Figure 3: The Best Fit Line for Example 2 Given a scatter plot we need a measure to determine if the correlation between the variables is indeed linear.nx y 21sx . or as we shall see at the end of the section with our calculator. the sum of the products will be positive if most of the points are in quadrants I and III. and negative if they are in quadrants II and IV. so without loss of generality.y. Walter O. It can be shown that if r = . by Warren B. Thus. Wang. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. we can automate the calculations using a spreadsheet like Excel. the points lie on a straight line. it is useful in making comparisons to have a measure which is independent of units. and April Allen Materowski. Gordon. assume the coordinate axes are translated so the origin corresponds to the point 1x. It is clear that both involve some elementary but tedious computations. if we now return to variables in the original coordinate system (where X = x . and Y = y . It is therefore reasonable to conclude that the larger sXY is in absolute value.
In Example 1.3611111 27348356. we Applied Calculus for Business.5 2. and d. suggesting a strong linear correlation between x and y.5 L 0. sX = 17.8333333. Suppose the data now appears parabolic.566.8333 X2 6. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.2.58333333333 21859.y .6 A 6 B Note that r is close to one.694444446 396690. c.0.5 .5 . we have sXY = 21859. and L 0. we may use (3b) which uses the original variables. n = 6.02777779 3741000.167 . What if the scatter plot looks like a cubic equation? Then we would expect a regression curve of the form y = ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d.1.8333333 XY 7702. sx = 91 and sy = 234332 + 245802 + 259482 + 271442 + 282362 + 297442 = 424534561. Gordon. b. by Warren B. and = sY 27348356.916666666666 2582.) Using these values. (Note that from our discussion above r has the same sign as a. in the quadratic case we need to find a. and April Allen Materowski.027777776 2964710. the slope of the regression line. If we use (3a) we need to use the translated variables X and Y. Walter O.167 629. we shall show below. Either way.91666666667 2901. the computations are summarized in Table 3.5 1.8 Regression correlation between the points is linear.25 283. a and b had to be determined. x = 21/6 = 3.83333 218595.) Example 3 Determine the correlation coefficient in Example 1. r = 159085 578657 .156 * ** Section 1. We may use either (3a) or (3b) to compute the correlation coefficient.5. and c so that the parabola y = ax2 + bx + c best fits the data points.5 2.8333 1721.75 8074. Inc. and leave the determination of the explicit formulas to you until after you study the calculus.999207 Table 3: Computing r in Example 1 x 1 2 3 4 5 6 21 3.1666667.25 17. and Finance. .083333333334 314. and we need to find a.1934.167 .5.6 A 21 6 B B 14245354561 .25 2. how to obtain the required equation and curve using the calculator.5 0. Basically.x . and if it near zero the relationship is not linear. Similarly. giving r = sXY 2sXsY = 217. We shall use the data from Example 1 to illustrate.5 Y2 9493588.25 0. That is.16667 X = x . Instead of writing down the formulas for these coefficients.69444445 320544. The formulas are messier than the linear case (that is to be expected).5 # 27348356. Our goal should be to find the parabola that best fits the data. y = 1599085/6 = 26514. b and c. b.5 y 23433 24580 25948 27144 28236 29744 159085 26514. we found sxy = 578657. Economics.6 A 21 6 6 B 2A 6 91 NonLinear Regression Calculator Tips We shall see at the end of the section that these calculations are done almost automatically for us with the calculator. (We actually generated the Table 3 using Excel. In the linear case. x and y.5.5 Sum Mean Alternately.02777777 10431823.8333 3229. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.999207 159085 2 2 . suppose we want to find a. the computations are straightforward.2.25 6. Solution. The first thing we must do when determining a regression equation with the calculator is input the data.3081. Wang.25 0.5 Y = y .
this tells the calculator to name the first column in the data set x. Wang. We proceed as follows: 1. the second column y. change Calculation Type to LinReg (scroll down). Gordon. and in C2 the yvalues. (Note that Figure 5 shows only four of the entries. by Warren B. Also. Inc. Figure 6: Naming the Columns Applied Calculus for Business. select New. enter y1 for RegEq. and Finance. Scroll down to Variable and give it a name and press Enter twice. . and select Data/Matrix Editor. Enter in C1 (column 1) the xvalues. and it stores the regression equation in memory as y1. Make sure Type is set to Data. see Figure 4. name x C1 and y C2. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. all six have been entered. Figure 4: Naming the Data You now see a new screen (the Data/Matrix Screen) that looks like a table. We will name it xx . Press the APPS (applications) button. Economics. and April Allen Materowski. Press the MODE button on your calculator and check that the first line indicates FUNCTION as the Graph. see Figure 6. see Figure 5. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Press F5 (Calculate).) Figure 5: Entering the Data After you enter all the data. Walter O.Section 1.8 Regression * ** 157 input a table for the given data sets and then will have the calculator compute the equation of the regression line and the correlation coefficient. Press Enter twice.
Close the screen by pressing Enter. press Delete and then Enter. Figure 8: Defining the Scatter Plot Display the Y = Editor for y1(x). by Warren B. Figure 7: The Regression Equation and Correlation Coefficient Note we have the slope of the regression line.and then we obtain Figure 9. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. you may delete it by selecting VarLink (2nd) scroll down to xx press F1(Manage). a = 1249. as do the values for a and b as well as the correlation coefficient and its square. Moreover. Next. press F2(Zoom) and select ZoomData. the only difference between what is given here and the manual is that we did not select MedMed as the Calculation Type we selected LinReg and we stored the equation as y1(x) not y2(x). Economics. its yintercept. press F1 to define Plot 1. Press F2 to display the Plot Set up Screen. See Figure 7. and Finance. Set Plot Type to Scatter. the scatter plot and regression line. 1press * F12 and then select Style (2nd F1) set the Display Style to DOT and press Enter. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Scroll up to highlight Plot 1.114286. Save by pressing Enter twice. The information we entered is still stored in the calculator s memory. You may proceed as follows: Figure 9: The Scatter Plot and Regression Line Applied Calculus for Business.266667 and the correlation coefficient. However. Mark to Box. Gordon. x = C1 and y = C2. Press F5 (Calculate) and make sure all the settings are as before including Store RegEq which should be set to y1(x). Wang. and April Allen Materowski.8 Regression The information required for the regression line now appears.158 * ** Section 1. Inc. See Figure 8.. Note that these directions can be found in the TI 89/92 Plus Manual beginning on page 83. the calculator can also provide the scatter plot along with the regression line. .999207 (the last value is the square of the correlation coefficient). r = 0. Walter O. There is an alternative way of obtaining the same results with your calculator. b = 22142.
Since the curve is nonlinear. then press Zoom (F2). and Finance. we will choose QuadReg instead of LinReg. C1 and C2 for x and y respectively and store RegEQ to y1(x). 25948. we enter the data and then when we Calculate: we choose QuadReg (for quadratic regression). by Warren B. 4. In principle. t1. 297446 STO t2 press ENTER Make sure you are using curly braces to enclose these two lists (2) Next enter on the entry line of the HOME screen (use the Catalog or type) LinReg t1. the mathematics used to find the regression curve is the same as the linear case. (The regression line is now drawn. enter on the entry line in the HOME screen. see Figure 11. as follows: 51. let 1991 correspond to year 1. Consider the following: Table 4 indicates the number of students who worked fulltime while attending classes at a small urban university. 1991 1997 No. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Inc. Table 4: Students Working Full Time. t2 and press ENTER then ShowStat and press ENTER (This produces Figure 7) (3) To draw the regression line. 3.Section 1. of Students Year 1023 1991 475 1992 430 1993 304 1994 411 1995 531 1996 982 1997 Find the parabola (quadratic regression curve) that best fits this data and estimate the number of students who will work fulltime in 2004. Walter O. Applied Calculus for Business. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and April Allen Materowski. where we name the variable zz1 Figure 10: Naming the data As before. As before. . 28236. We enter this data into the calculator. Wang. namely. 5. Regeq(x) STO y1(x) and press Enter (This stores the regression equation as y1(x)) then enter on the entry line NewPlot 1. there will be more equations to solve to determine the coefficients (which will involve more complicated algebraic expressions). 2. 27144. In some cases. The calculator steps will be almost identical to the linear example considered above with one exception. data may resemble nonlinear curves. and scroll down and select ZOOMDATA (or press 9). to minimize the square of the error between the data points and the best fit curve. see Figure 10. you may need to press *F3) Often.8 Regression * ** 159 (1) Store the xcoordinates and ycoordinates as lists named t1 and t2. the calculator automates the determination of the regression curve. Economics. Gordon. Nevertheless. 24580. t2 and press ENTER Choose WINDOW 1*F22. 66 STO t1 press ENTER 523433. that is.1.
Wang. see Figure 12. . by Warren B.600x + 1496.767. In particular. Gordon.8 Regression Figure 11: Defining the Columns Pressing Enter twice gives the required information. Applied Calculus for Business. Inc. and April Allen Materowski. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. see Figure 13. our estimate for the number of students who work in 2004 (year 14) is y11142 = 7. with QuadReg replacing LinReg. and Finance. the parabola of best fit is y = 75x2 . the alternative method may be used to produce the above. Walter O. Economics. Figure 12: The Quadratic Regression Curve Rounding to the nearest integers. Figure 13: Quadratic Regression Curve and Scatter Plot As with linear regression. we have the commands CubicReg and QuartReg for cubic and quartic regression curves. As before. Likewise. we can have the calculator draw the scatter plot and the regression curve.160 * ** Section 1. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.
other considerations come into play. Sometimes.Section 1. You may be asking yourself the question that if there are several possible regression curves for the same scatter plot.0 5.8 (Note. in dollars. 1218.0 5. 393 in 1975. If you know something else about the data.2). 1981. 670 in 1985. Economics.8 Regression * ** 161 Other types of regression equations may be calculated the same way and will leave their examination to the exercises. then it is clear that this is the regression curve to use. 700 in 1986. . (b) Roughly speaking.256 . y) pairs give the advertising dollars (in millions) spent on direct mail and newspaper advertisements respectively for the same years. Table 8 contains the data for the sixteen National League teams in the 2002 season. and (b) the regression coefficient. (a) Find the line of best fit.5. we shall assume that the first year for which data is given is labeled as year 1. What is your conclusion? 2. 6.7 4. and it suggests that quadratic regression best fits the model. The amount of popcorn consumed in the United States (in millions of pounds) was: 353 in 1970.16. (a) Find the line of best fit and the regression coefficient.7). (4.9 5. how do the two expenditures relate to one another? (c) Do you think that advertising people believe that one of these forms of advertising can substitute for the other. (2. and April Allen Materowski. Baseball experts believe that there is a strong linear correlation between the number of games a team wins in a seasons and the teams batting average. and 1983 were 1833. Walter O. in the answers.8.5 3. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2 5. Table 8 Team Arizona Atlanta Chicago Cincinnati Colorado Florida Houston Los Angeles Milwaukee Montreal New York Philadelphia Pittsburgh San Diego San Francisco St. and 872 in 1989. Louis No. (b) What is the slope of this line? (c) Does it predict that the earnings gap is widening or shrinking? 4. (The actual figure was 4488. Table 6 shows the median incomes.5). (a) Find and (b) plot the line of best fit and (c) determine the regression coefficient.1 4.6 4. (d) Is the gap widening or shrinking? (e) What would this data predict about the earnings gap in 1986? (The actual gap in 1986 was 25.5.8. (c) Does this indicate anything about the attractiveness of American investments to citizens of other countries? 5. (7. Gordon.9.14. (c) From the equation of the line. (a) Use the data from Exercise 2 to find the line of best fit for men s income as a function of women s income.8. Wang.1. (b) Plot the line. by Warren B. 8. (a)Find the line of best fit for this data. 1982.6.) 1. The divorce rate (number of divorces per thousand couples) in the United States for the decade of the 1970 s is given Table 7. The numbers of foreign investors in American enterprises for the years 1980. Table 5 shows the gross national product (GNP) of the United States in billions of dollars for the years 1978 through 1983. predict the gross national product in 1987.4 4. (8.16.7). 568 in 1980. 1521. 741 in 1987. of men and women in the United States for the years 1974 through 1980. and 632 respectively. 807 in 1988.3.) Table 7 Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 Rate 3. (c) Plot both lines on the same set of axes. Data: (10.7). and Finance.232 = 9024). of Wins 98 101 67 78 73 79 64 92 56 83 75 80 72 66 95 97 Team Batting Average 267 260 246 253 274 261 262 264 253 261 258 259 244 253 267 268 Table 6 Median Income Year 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 Women 6970 7504 8099 8618 9350 10169 11197 Men 11889 12758 13455 14626 15730 17045 18612 3. which one do we use? The answer is not always obvious. EXERCISE SET 1. (c) In what year would you expect consumption to first exceed one billion pounds? Applied Calculus for Business. (a) Find the line of best fit for women s incomes versus time and (b) the line of best fit for men s income versus time. 7. The following (x. (1.8).4 Table 5 Year GNP 1978 2128 1979 2414 1980 2626 1981 2926 1082 3073 1983 3311 (d) What would this line predict about the divorce rate in 1987? See Exercise 11 for a continuation.17. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. (a) Find a line of best fit for this data and (b) use it to project the popcorn consumption in 1999.3. Inc.
5. The revenue (in thousands of dollars) resulting from the demand for a given item is indicated in Table 13. 3. (c) Does this indicate any significant change in people s behavior? 12. the other from 1983 through 1987.8).2).4 147. 10.0 4. 9.01. The graph is easily visualized as two straight lines: one from 1977 to 1982.932. 30.9.1 132.82.92. (2.3 5.0.0 4. (6.2). (c) cubic.92. (5. 15.162 * ** Chapter Review (a) Find the line of best fit for this data (label 1980 year 11 so as to continue with Exercise 5).9 152. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.1 700 1.1). it appears to be piecewise linear. The numbers of federal officials convicted of corruption in the period 1977 to 1986 is given in Table 9. Over the 9 year period. (a) Fit a piecewise linear graph to this data.1).8). .01. (3. (4.6 600 4. (b) Combine this with the result of Exercise 5 to obtain a piecewise linear function that describes the American divorce rate over the eighteen year period.1. . Since 1979 the divorce rate statistics (see Exercise 5) are given in Table 11. .0. Walter O.1.9. 16. (1. (3.8 300 5. Gordon. find the quartic of best fit.8 134. Inc.10. .7 147. 12. and April Allen Materowski. Cost and Profit Functions Marginal Functions Using the Zeros Even Functions Symmetry about the yaxis Odd Functions Symmetry about the origin Rational Functions Vertical Asymptotes Horizontal Asymptotes Translations Regression Applied Calculus for Business. (5.7 400 7. 14. (b) Can you conclude anything? Sometimes when one plots a set of data. by Warren B. Given the data set 10. .022. Table 9 Year 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 91 115 131 159 147 424 429 470 523 Number 94 Table 12 Year 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 Number 141.8 200 3. (d) quartic. Which best fits the data? 15. the numbers of cyclists (not motorcyclists) killed in accidents with automobiles is given in Table 10. Wang. and Finance. Given the data set 1 . Economics.9). .2 5.1 11.9). Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Find the equation of the best fit quartic for this data. (c) Does this information say anything about the safety of riding a bicycle? Table 10 Year 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1982 1984 1985 680 780 1000 1200 1100 1100 1100 Number 460 Table 13 Demand Revenue 100 0. the number of legal abortions (in thousands) performed in Bulgaria are given in the Table 12. Given the data set (1. Consider Exercises 9 12. 2.05. Find the lines of best fit for the data as so divided. 9.2 500 5.9 155. .8 4.9 5.5). (a) Is there any obvious place where the data breaks into two straight lines? (b) Fit a piecewise linear function to the data. 14. (2. 1977 through 1985. Table 11 Year Rate 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 5.05. 10.12. 13.95.3). 6. causing one to ponder an explanation for the change in pattern at the corner(s). find the best fit cubic.8 CHAPTER REVIEW Key Ideas Two Dimensional Coordinate System Horizontal and Vertical Lines The Slope Intercept Form Graphing The PointSlope Equation The Slope Formula Economic Applications The General Linear Equation Definition of a Function Functional Notation Difference Quotient Domain and Range Dependent and Independent Variables Vertical Line Test Combining Functions Composition Functions of Several Variables BreakEven Analysis Depreciation Piecewise Linear Functions Scaling Vertical Translation Axis of a Parabola Horizontal Translation Locating the Vertex Graphing a Parabola in the form y = ax 2 + bx + c Applications to Optimization Definition of a Circle Equation of a Circle Graphing a Circle Tangent Line The Ellipse Supply Function Demand Function Market Equilibrium Revenue. 4.1.12.7 147.16. (b) quadratic.1 5.9. Find the best fit regression (a) line.0 13.2 131. 0.92. (7. For the United States. 11. 146).
32. (c) for what x values is (b) not defined? (d) for which xvalues in g(x)/f(x) not defined? f13 + h2 . Sketch this circle. Sketch the line (a) x = . 3x . 42 and 1 .13x + 6 25 + 2x 15. find them exactly and compare.3x + 9. and g1x2 = 4 + 3x. (b) estimate where the turning points are on the graph.4. . determine (a) f(x)g(x). determine the cost of producing the 99th item.2x2 .32 5. (a) Determine the coordinate of the vertex of the parabola y = . determine (a) f(g(x)). (b) g(1). indicate all asymptotes and zeros.2 and p = 28 . . determine f(2. 12). . 24.12 . 72. 11.2x if if if if x 1 1 6 x 6 3 3 6 x 4 x 7 4 2 + x . 25. Sketch the graph of the ellipse with equation + = 1. x + 9 36. 19.4x. (a) Determine the domain of the function defined by f1x2 = 23 .2. 20. (f) y = f1x + 22 + 4. 8) and (6. (b) From your sketch. Determine the domain of the function defined by f1x2 = 2 . Wang.200x + 6000. Gordon. 26. in tabular form. y. 27. for which 3 . and April Allen Materowski. Given f1x2 = 2x2 .2x 1 * ** 163 22. Determine the symmetry of the function defined by (a) f1x2 = 5x3 .5.32 and radius 4. (b) f(x)/g(x).22 and (a) parallel. (b) quadratic of best fit.32 and 1 .intercepts of the line 2x .122. and g1x2 = 3 . (b) perpendicular to the line 3x . Sketch the graph of f1x2 = 2x2 + 5x . determine the (a) line of best fit.y 2 = 6 define a function? Explain. (b) Compare the yvalues on the circle with the yvalues on the tangent line when x = .2. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. determine (a) f(3). . 35.4 x2 .Chapter Review 1. (c) y = f1x2 + 2. Determine the equation of the ellipse centered at the origin with one xintercept at (4. Determine the equation of the line passing through 13. (c) y = 4. determine the number of items to be produced to minimize the cost as well as giving the minimum cost.4x + 6y . The cost of producing xitems is given by the equation C1x2 = 2x2 . . (c) f1x2 = x3 . (b) g(f(x)). Determine the coordinates of the center of the circle and determine its radius if its equation is x2 + y2 . 0) and one yintercept at 10. 29. Determine the equation of the circle with center at 12.2221x + 32312x + 52. 30. Applied Calculus for Business.7x + 12 2 + x 16. Given a function defined by Table 1. (d) f1x2 = .x. 2. Give a better description of this circle. (3. Given the data set (1.4y = 15. 3 . (b) Sketch its graph and (c) determine its range. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2x.f122 f1x + h2 . (d) 3y + 9 = 6.4x + 6y + 13 = 0. (b) y = f1x + 22. (e) f1x2 = x2 x 3 . .f1x2 (b) . 81). (2. 9. 5). 42 with slope 2/3. (e) y = f1x . (b) Over what domain are they defined? (c) Determine the coordinates of market equilibrium. Sketch the graph of the ellipse whose equation is 4x2 + 3y 2 + 8x . y2 = x3/4y 1/4. 8. (c) From your sketch.222 1y + 422 31. and Finance.x x3 . What is its value at the end of (a) two years. 7. 5).7x.2x2 . determine.2. 33. 6. determine f(16. Given f1x2 = (c) f1g1 .12 x2 . Given f1x2 = . (c) . 3). x . 6x2 . 3. 28.1 .2x xvalues is it not defined. (d) Substitute x = 2 and then h h x = 3 into (c) any observations? 13. (4.4x + 8 = 6. .22. 34.4x + 8 and sketch its graph.6.5. 4. 1. Plot the points 11. at which time it is has a scrap value of $50. h f12 + h2 . Determine the equation of the line with slope . Determine the equation of the line passing through 1 . Economics.22. (a) Determine the x and y. Determine the domain and sketch the graph of the function defined by 3x .12y + 4 = 0. and then determine the average cost of producing the 99th item.22 + 3. Walter O.*2 and passing through the point 10. (b) Determine the average cost function. For the functions defined in the previous exercise. for which xvalues is it not defined? 14. (d) y = f1x2 . Given f1x. (a) Given p = 2x . (a) Give a qualitative sketch of the graph of the polynomial whose equation is f1x2 = x1x . z2 = 2xyz + 3x2y3 + 9y2z2. each of the following: (a) y = f1x . Given f1x.52. 1 . identify which of these could represent a demand function and which a supply function. 12). determine the graph s approximate intercepts. Determine the coordinates of the center of the circle and determine its radius if its equation is x2 + y2 . (b) four years? 21. (a) Determine the equation of the tangent line to the circle of radius 13 centered at the point (*5. Determine the domain of the function defined by f1x2 = 17.3. 18. Inc. Determine the equation of the line with xintercept 3and yintercept . 4 3 32.3y = 7 and (b) sketch its graph. and compare your approximate solutions with the exact solution.200x + 6000. by Warren B. A $1200 computer depreciates linearly of five years. 1x . Determine the equation of the line passing through the points 12. x2 (b) f1x2 = 2 . 2). Table 1 x f(x) 2 3 1 4 0 2 1 3 2 1 3 4 4 7 5 9 23. (c) cubic of best fit. determine the approximate solution of . 10.f132 12. Give its sketch. (b) 3x = 12.01.2 f1x2 = d 7 15 . (a) The cost of producing xitems is given by the equation C1x2 = 2x2 . . Does the equation 4x .12 = 0. determine (a) .
Applied Calculus for Business. Wang. Gordon. and April Allen Materowski. Economics. . Inc. and Finance. Walter O. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. by Warren B. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.
. by Warren B. we begin the study of the differential calculus of one variable. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. we shall define the slope of a general curve as a function of x. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Economics.2 An Introduction to Calculus In this chapter. and then learn how to find the derivative of functions defined implicitly. Walter O. Applied Calculus for Business. Wang. and April Allen Materowski. we show that the derivative can also be interpreted as a rate of change and look at some applications of that interpretation. Next. and Finance. The last section shows how the tangent line can be used to approximate the zeros of a function Newton s Method. Starting with the notion of the slope of a straight line. We describe the fundamental method of finding this socalled derivative function from the definition and then develop the simplified rules for rapid calculation of derivatives that have been discovered by earlier generations of mathematicians. Gordon. Inc.
In classical geometry a tangent line to a circle is a line that touches the circle in only one point. A positive slope indicates that as x increases so does y. that is as the line among all possible lines. the line is vertical. Even though the road may be curving. and x is constant. Take a ruler and try to place it at the point P(x. or the change in y with respect to a change in x. Gordon. A zero slope tells us that the line is horizontal and y is constant. f(x)) so that it approximates the shape of the curve at this point. we resort to a physical notion. Consider the function whose graph is sketched in Figure 1. we could define the tangent line as the best linear approximation to the curve near the point of tangency. and Finance. it is the slope of the line which gives us most of the information about the behavior of the function. By the slope of the curve at the point P(x. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Therefore.1 » » » » » » » Slope of a Curve Slope of a Tangent Line The Slope as a Limit Slope of a Curve Equation of a Tangent Line A Place Where No Tangent Exists The Derivative Calculator Tips We have seen that when x and y are linearly related. and April Allen Materowski. Our object here is to generalize the notion of slope. When the slope is undefined. Applied Calculus for Business. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. touching the curve in only one point. In fact. That is. for a linear function. These include tax rate. It is easy to pick out the tangent line. What do we mean by a tangent line? For a circle.166 * ** Section 2. When the slope is negative the yvalues decrease as x increases. we mean the slope of the tangent line to the curve at this point. whose yvalues are closest to the yvalues along the curve near the point P. as you will see. Figure 2 shows the curve with several lines drawn at the point P. In that case. f(x)). It is possible for a line to meet the intuitive sense of tangency. for a tangent line to cross the curve at the point of tangency. rate of depreciation. Moreover. However. at any instant you are looking in some direction that you think of as straight ahead. Economics. that is easy. Walter O. It is even possible. this definition must produce the slope of the line. Inc. Of course. cross it again elsewhere. y is not a function of x. the tangent line at any point is the line that approximates the direction of the curve at that point. locally but. among others. No other line touching the curve at this point. of course. for arbitrary curves this definition will not suffice. and marginal cost. Think of the curve in Figure 1 as a road and imagine yourself driving along the road. We shall define the slope of an arbitrary curve and see how this concept can be used.1 Slope of a Curve 2. Wang. by Warren B. Let us see how we should define the slope of a curve. slope has different interpretations which depend upon the context. It is that straight line that we would call the tangent to the curve. . This line is the tangent line. The slope itself can be thought of as the rise of a line divided by its run. will parallel the curve as well as the tangent line.
f(x)) Figure 1: Tangent Line at P y = f(x) P(x. Wang. by Warren B. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Now remember. Notice that the slope of the curve is different at each of these points. Q. You should recall that the graph of this function is a parabola. Gordon. and S. So. f(x)) +* Figure 2: The Tangent Line and Other Lines through P For a linear function the slope is constant. R. Consider the function defined by the equation f1x2 = x 2 + 1. and Finance. we have drawn tangent lines to the curve at each of the points P. To indicate that the slope of the curve depends upon the point P(x. how do we find the slope of a tangent line? Before getting to the general definition. Walter O. let us first look at a specific example. However. Inc. Economics. We would like to find the slope of this curve (the slope of the tangent line to Applied Calculus for Business. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.1 Slope of a Curve * ** 167 Tangent line at P y = f(x) +* P(x. f(x)) we write it as mtan1x2. and April Allen Materowski. you would not expect the slope of a curve to be constant.Section 2. In Figure 3. . we said that we would define the slope of a curve at a point to be the slope of its tangent line.
Unfortunately. To find the slope of the line exactly. let the xcoordinate of Q be 2 + 0. our measurement of the slope will be at best an approximation.168 * ** Section 2. and call it Q. and the point Q may be labeled Q(2. Let us choose Q to be just to the right of P. Wang.1 Slope of a Curve Q P R S Figure 3: The Slope of the Tangent Line at Different Points along the Curve this curve) at the point P(2. Applied Calculus for Business.0012 = 12.00122 + 1 = 5. the ycoordinate of Q is f12. Using a ruler. Since f1x2 = x 2 + 1. . Imagine that we have magnified our sketch and that Figure 5 reflects this magnification. Actually. we could try to draw the tangent line at this point. Make sure that this point is very close to the point P. we shall proceed as follows.5). Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. unless the graphs of the curve and tangent line are drawn exactly. by Warren B. Inc. In fact. Gordon. and Finance.001.5) In Figure 4.5).001. Choose a point on the graph either to the left or to the right of the point P. find the coordinates of two points on the line and then compute the slope. and April Allen Materowski. f(x) = x2+1 Tangent Line Figure 4: f1x2 = x2 + 1 and the Tangent Line at P (2.004001).001 = 2. Economics. as an exercise. Nevertheless. Walter O. we have a sketch of the curve and its tangent line at (2. Q is so close to P that you really could not tell them apart unless the graph was greatly magnified. you should try this approach and compare your answer to the one we obtain below (see Exercises 1 3).004001. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.5.
9999.Section 2.000122 + 1 = 5. Points to the left produced slopes just a little less than 4. suppose we took a point just to the left of P.f122 4h + h2 5 + 4h + h2 . you have probably guessed the slope of the tangent line at the point P(2.004001) msec This slope is nearly equal to the slope of the tangent line.0001? We find the corresponding ycoordinate to be 12. msec = 5. it is expected to be close to the tangent line.0001.00040001. we do the following: 1. with xcoordinate 2 + 1 . We could. Choose a point Q.5 = = 12 + h2 . Similarly. denoted by mtan122 Mathematicians have a special way of writing the instruction given in Step 3. Summarizing. Call the xcoordinate of Q. 5. The basic idea is that as we take the points closer and closer to P. That is. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. the limit as h approaches zero of 14 + h2. (When Q is just to the right of P.5). and April Allen Materowski. In fact. msec = f12 + h2 . combine the instructions into one by writing. and Finance. the slope is clearly approaching the value 4. and the slope of the secant line connecting this point to P turns out to be 3.004001 .0. 2 + h. Compute the slope of the secant line through the two points P and Q.1 Slope of a Curve * ** 169 We next draw a line connecting Q to P. We can compute the slope of this secant line which we shall denote by msec. h is a small negative number.2 h h P(2. say with an xcoordinate 2 + 0. msec = 4h + h2 = 4 + h h 3. Thus. Inc. It is due to the magnification that we are able to see any difference at all. we probably could not tell them apart. Letting h approach zero. As we let the points get closer and closer to P. Its ycoordinate computes to 4. They write mtan122 = lim msec = lim 14 + h2 h :0 h :0 The symbol lim is read the limit as h approaches zero of . using this notation. Gordon. . we have the slope of the tangent line at P. by Warren B.) The ycoordinate of Q is f12 + h2 = 12 + h22 + 1 = 4 + 4h + h2 + 1 = 5 + 4h + h2 2. . the slope of the h :0 tangent line is the limit as h approaches zero of the slope of the secant line. h is a small positive number.9999. 5). and the slope of the secant line connecting this point to P will turn out to be 4. Using points just to the right of P. we obtained secant lines with slopes just a little more than 4.5 = 4. which is very close to P(2. 5) Figure 5: The Points P and Q on the Magnified Curve Slope of a Tangent Line Note that the difference in the xcoordinates is h. This is not the tangent line but. Can we do better? Why not take a point even closer to P.99960001. Let us call the line connecting P to Q a secant line. .001 2. Economics. thus. in the unmagnified state. Letting h approach zero 14 + h2 becomes 4. Walter O. we should get better and better approximations to the slope of the tangent line. When Q is to the left of P. In fact.2 Q(2. It is this socalled limiting value that we shall define to be the slope of the tangent line.00012 = 1. Now let Q get even closer to P by letting h approach 0. Wang. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.001. Thus. Now we can simplify by dividing by h. mtan122 = lim msec = lim h :0 f12 + h2 .001 . .f122 h :0 h Applied Calculus for Business. It is just the difference of the yvalues divided by the difference of their xvalues.
and the limit is just 10.170 Section 2. we will obtain an expression of the form 0/0. (Do you see that the last term. (b) As in part (a).1 Slope of a Curve In fact. However. (a) As h approaches zero. which is indeterminate. if we let h approach zero.6. let us generalize this with the following definition: The Slope as a Limit DEFINITION 1 The slope of the tangent line (when it exists) to the function defined by the equation y = f1x2 at the point P(x. In general. what is h2?) The denominator is h. (d) If we try to let h approach zero as this expression now stands. and Finance. only after the possibility of getting 0/0 eliminated do we let h approach zero.001. we did not let h approach zero until after there was a cancellation of the common factor h in the numerator and the denominator. is given by mtan1x2 = lim f1x + h2 . . In fact. f(x)). (c) Both 6xh and 3h are multiples of h. When the calculations were done in our first example. Therefore. Now we can cancel the common factor h in numerator and denominator. lim 110 + h2 = 10. Inc. both these terms go to zero and the limit is just x2 + 2. That is. 4h must approach zero. 4h (which is simply 4 times h) must also approach zero. If we do it immediately.6.6 changes as h approaches zero and the limit is 3x . Thus. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. that is.6xh + 3h + 22 (d) lim x 2h + 4xh + 3h + h2 h :0 h Solution. Walter O. also must go to zero? If h is a number like 0. so that also goes to zero and we have the form 0/0. in this exercise. we must be very careful when we let h approach zero. by Warren B. Compute (a) lim 110 + 4h2 h :0 h :0 h :0 (b) lim 13x + 4h . Here are some examples of limits taken as h approaches zero.3. Wang. all the terms in the numerator are multiples of h and will go to zero. Since 10 is a constant. Therefore. 3x is a variable but it does not depend upon h. Example 1. lim 13x + 4h .f1x2 h:0 h (1) In trying to apply this definition. it does not change.62 (c) lim 1x 2 . 6x does not change as h changes.62 = 3x . h :0 h :0 h :0 lim 1x 2 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. We give a more detailed examination of limits in Section 3.6xh + 3h + 22 = x2 + 2. neither 3x nor . which is an indeterminate form and always requires more investigation. we can factor an h from each term in the numerator to get h1x2 + 4x + 3 + h2. h1x 2 + 4x + 3 + h2 x 2h + 4xh + 3h + h2 = lim h:0 h:0 h h = lim 1x 2 + 4x + 3 + h2 = x 2 + 4x + 3 lim h:0 Applied Calculus for Business. Thus. any constant multiple of h will approach zero. Gordon. Economics. Although x is a variable. h2. and April Allen Materowski. so we can treat it as a constant.
Economics. Walter O. We can now answer the questions. We use Definition 1 to compute mtan1x2 as a function of x and then substitute the various values for x.2. (b) x = 0. and April Allen Materowski. . (d) mtan112 = 2112 .1 Slope of a Curve 171 We remark that this method may not always yield a real value for the slope. when we let h approach zero.2h 3.2 = . and cancel it with the one in the denominator. (d) x = 1 Solution.2 = .f1x2 h = h12x + h . we compute the slope in four steps. Gordon. Take the difference to complete the numerator. 1.2h = h:0 h h = lim 12x + h . We see that there are two terms in the numerator of (1) and we must compute their difference.2 = 0 Example 3 Determine the equation of the tangent line to the curve y = x 2 .2x . a function may have points at which the tangent line is vertical. anticipating the next step.2 h h 4.22 2xh + h2 . which is to simplify algebraically.f1x2 lim h:0 h h12x + h .1. Now form the quotient.21x + h2 + 1 = x 2 + 2xh + h2 . (b) mtan102 = 2102 .2x + 1 Slope of a Curve Notice that we line up similar terms. f1x + h2 . factor out h in the numerator. 2x + h . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2x + 1 at each of the points indicated in Example 2.2 became simply 2x .2h + 1 f1x2 = x2 .2. Example 2 Determine the slope of the curve defined by the equation f1x2 = x2 .f1x2 = 2xh + h2 . 2. In addition. We know that the slope of a vertical line is undefined. Inc. (c) mtan1 .) To avoid any algebraic errors.2 = 4. Take the limit as h : 0. For example. some functions (such as piecewise linear functions. so at such points our method is doomed to failure. mtan1x2 = lim h:0 f1x + h2 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Wang. but since the computation for each one is the same.2x + 1 when (a) x = 3. f1x + h2 = 1x + h22 .22 = lim 2xh + h2 .12 . Just as we saw above. Equation of a Tangent Line Applied Calculus for Business.Section 2. it makes sense to compute the slope of the curve at an arbitrary point x and then substitute for x at the end. and Finance.12 = 21 . We compute the two terms in the numerator. (We could compute each problem separately. f1x + h2 .4. (c) x = .22 = 2x .2 h:0 Check that last step. (a) mtan132 = 2132 . at the points where the pieces join) may have other peculiarities that will make it impossible to define a tangent line at one or more points in their domain. by Warren B.2h = = 2x + h .
32 or y = 4x . the equation of the tangent line is y .2 = mtan1321x .0 = 01x . Therefore. Therefore. we shall replace x by 3 in equation (1).122 or y = . by Warren B.2 3. y = f1 . The equation of any line may be found using the point slope formula which was derived in Chapter 1.2102 + 1 = 1.2112 + 1 = 0. before we allowed h to approach zero. we had to factor and reduce the fraction in order to insure that we did not get the form 0/0.0.f132 = 24 + h .1 = .4 = 41x .x12.2. If we try h = .12 = . We feel safe in asserting that mtan132 = 1/4 and the equation of the tangent line is Applied Calculus for Business. We found in Example 2 that mtan122 = 4. We found in Example 2 that mtan102 = . Therefore.01 and . We found in Example 2 that mtan1 .4x. and Finance. the equation of the tangent line is y . If we allowed h to approach zero. (b) When x = 0.25001 respectively. (a) When x = 3.25158. y = f102 = 1022 . Again the same limit as h approaches zero from the left (through negative values). Example 4 Determine the equation of the tangent line to the curve defined by the equation f1x2 = 2x + 1 when x = 3.001 we obtain 0.01. Solution.1 .1. We first note that f132 = 23 + 1 = 2. It is y .001.4. We found in Example 2 that mtan112 = 0.8. and 0. We cannot let h = 0. the equation of the tangent line is y . .2 = h h Note that now there is no obvious cancellation.21 .0. Economics. See Table 1. We proceed as follows: 1. Inc. we would have the form 0/0.25 = 1/4.41x . Thus the equation of the tangent line is y . However.172 Section 2. It certainly appears that the limit as h approaches zero will be 0.12 = 1 . f13 + h2 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. y = f132 = 1322 .12 + 1 = 4.25016. But what happens if we cannot factor and reduce the fraction? Let us take a look at such a situation. Walter O.21x . . f13 + h2 . Therefore.2132 + 1 = 4.02 or y = 0.32.02 or y = .f132 24 + h . What remains is to determine the slope of the curve at x = 3. Wang. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. but we can let h be close to zero. (What kind of line is this?) We emphasize that whenever we try to find mtan1x2.4 = .122 . and substitute into the above equation.2x + 1. y = f112 = 1122 . Gordon. (d) When x = 1. 0. let us see if a calculator will help. and April Allen Materowski. So we try calculating the value of the fraction when h is 0.0.1.1 Slope of a Curve Solution.1.y1 = m1x . the equation of the tangent line is y . (c) When x = . f13 + h2 = 213 + h2 + 1 = 24 + h f132 = 2 2. 0. Since we want the slope at a particular point. and 0.
However. Wang.Section 2. Solution. Thus.2 B A 24 + h + 2 B h # A 24 + h + 2 B = 14 + h2 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2 h 0.1 Slope of a Curve 173 Table 1: Calculating the Difference Quotient for Small h h .c 2d B = a2b . we have A a 2b + c 2d B A A a 2b . producing a rational expression.001 0.0. we can get the appropriate cancellation by means of multiplying the numerator and denominator of the fraction by the conjugate of the numerator. rationalizing the numerator.4 h A 24 + h + 2 B = h h A 24 + h + 2 B = 1 24 + h + 2 Therefore. The multiplication of these conjugates results in the clearing of all radicals. Gordon. Recall that when the two following binomial expressions are multiplied.001 0. In Example 4 we had f13 + h2 .2 = 1*41x . and April Allen Materowski. Example 5 Use rationalization to find the equation of the tangent line to the curve defined by the equation f1x2 = 2x + 1 when x = 3. If we allow h to approach zero.2 = h h There is no obvious cancellation of h.32.x + 4y = 5 Although this is correct. The algebraic device used in such problems is rationalization.f132 1 1 1 = lim = = h :0 h : 0 24 + h + 2 h 4 24 + 2 lim Thus. Applied Calculus for Business. by Warren B.25016 . yielding y .c2d Note that the binomial expressions are identical with the exception of the connecting sign and are called conjugates of each other.0.32. Economics.1 .24984 0. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.f132 24 + h .01 0. and Finance. Walter O. A 24 + h .2 = 1*41x .25158 0.0.250016 0.24845 y . which is equivalent to the equation found above. Step 4. Inc. .01 . f13 + h2 .24998 0. let us see that we could actually have found the limit by algebra without resorting to the calculator.1 f13 + h2 .f132 h = 24 + h . which can be simplified to . we have. we would have the form 0/0. mtan122 = 1*4. It is precisely this observation which allows us to perform the cancellation needed in the previous example. that is.
that is. it might be that the tangent line to the curve is vertical. Wang. given any linear function in the form f1x2 = mx + b. Thus. the limiting value for the slope will not be the same as when we approach it from the right. For example. the algebraic steps needed to determine the slope of the curve using (1) are not immediately obvious. and equals the slope of the line. we choose a point Q either to the left or right of P and draw the secant line connecting P to Q. That is. x if x Ú 0 . the limiting value for the slope of the secant line is the slope of the tangent line. you can see that if we approach P from the left. The points where the slope changes are sharp points. and April Allen Materowski. At a sharp point this is not the case. mtan1x2 = m. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Remember. We indicated above that the slope of a curve might not exist at every point on the curve.174 * ** Section 2. the slope of the tangent line is the same at each point. and draw its tangent line. by Warren B. . it must not matter which side of P it is on. Some curves with corners and sharp points are sketched in Figure 5. Why is this so? Choose any point on the line. Generally speaking. It is important to observe that the equation of the tangent line to each point along the graph of the linear function f1x2 = mx + b is. Thus. Gordon. y y P P x x Figure 5: Curves Which Are Not Smooth at P What makes a point a corner? Remember how we proceed when trying to find the slope of the tangent line at a point P. In Figure 5. Inc. The linear function is the only function which has this property. However. it may be possible to get around this difficulty by using a calculator. As another example. sometimes guessing the answer this way will help you to find the right trick. we shall usually choose it over a numerical one. But what does smooth mean? In words. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. As we have seen. As we let h approach zero. the result may only be as accurate as the accuracy of the calculator used. a graph is smooth if it has no corners or sharp points . if a curve is smooth then the tangent line will exist at each point. in fact. This observation gives us a whole class of examples of curves with sharp points. there are other possibilities. y = mx + b. consider the absolute value function. However. The tangent line is precisely the line itself.x if x 6 0 A Place Where No Tangent Exists Applied Calculus for Business. Consider any of the piecewise linear functions discussed in Chapter 1. If there is a simple algebraic technique.1 Slope of a Curve Sometimes. Example 6 Show that the absolute value function f1x2 = x = e has no tangent line at x = 0. the slope of the tangent line at this point is not welldefined. and Finance. as Q approaches P. At such points the graph will not have a tangent line. Nevertheless. Walter O. if there is a tangent line at a point on the curve it must be unique. When we pick Q. Economics.
compute lim . Wang. f ¿ 1 x2 dy dx y ¿ 1 x2 d [f1x2] dx 1read fprime of x2 1read dydx not dy over dx2 1read y prime of x2 1read the derivative of f1x22 Applied Calculus for Business. if f represents total cost of producing x items. the slope of the tangent line does not exist at (0. the slope of the tangent line is + 1.). The interpretation depends upon what the function is modeling. but if we approach P from the right. we list the most commonly used ones. Inc. Each of the different interpretations of the derivative may be thought of as a particular brand name for the generic item. .f1x2 represents the slope of the tangent line at x.f1x2 the same thing that is.Section 2. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. The expression lim h :0 The Derivative NOTATIONS: If y = f1x2 then each of the following may be used to represent the derivative at x (the full name is the derivative of f with respect to x. We h shall soon see that this expression may also have other meanings which depend upon the interpretation of the function. For example.0). and April Allen Materowski. whether you are asked to find the slope of a curve. the slope coming from the right is not the same as the slope coming from the left. or the marginal cost. a generic name is assigned to this expression. The derivative will be defined precisely in Definition 2.0). Gordon. and Finance. Or. 0) Figure 6: f1x2 = x f1x + h2 . Thus. 0) from the left. We shall use them interchangeably.1 Slope of a Curve 175 Solution. then the expression will represent the marginal cost of producing one more item. by Warren B. Therefore. Walter O. we see that if we approach P(0. the tangent line has slope . Referring to Figure 6. Since at (0.1. if f represents position and x time. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Below. h :0 h There are various symbols that are used to represent the derivative. y = *x y=x P(0. you would do f1x + h2 . the velocity of a particle. we shall see that the expression is to be interpreted as a velocity. Economics. It is called the derivative.
f1x2 h:0 h (2) Notice that although we used the f ¿ 1x2 notation in (2). f1x + h2 . (a) We must find the derivative of the given function. Gordon. y11x2 = x 2 + 1 and want to draw the tangent line at x = 2. . we have as the derivative. instead of saying find the derivative of the function . 1. Thus.f1x2 h13x 2 + 3xh + h22 3x2h + 3xh2 + h3 = = 3x 2 + 3xh + h2 = h h h f1x + h2 . f1x + h2 . any of the alternatives would have been equally acceptable. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Example 7 (a) Differentiate the function f1x2 = x 3. d 3 1x 2 (c) Find dx Solution. we say differentiate the function. We may now rewrite Definition1 as follows: DEFINITION 2 The derivative (when it exists) of the function defined by the equation y = f1x2 at the point P(x. [f ¿ 1x2] x = a. (b) The slope of the tangent line at x = 2 is f ¿ 122 = 31222 = 12. f(x)) is given by f ¿ 1x2 = lim f1x + h2 . Economics. we say that it is differentiable at that point. Next press the math key (F5) and scroll down to the Tangent option and press Enter. f1x + h2 = 1x + h23 = x 3 + 3x 2h + 3xh2 + h3 f1x2 = x3 2. Inc. f ¿ 1x2 = 3x2.176 Section 2. We proceed as follows: let the calculator draw the graph in the standard window. Similarly. (b) Determine the slope of the curve defined by f1x2 = x 3 at x = 2. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. to indicate the slope of the tangent line at dx x = a dx x = 3. If we want to indicate the derivative at x = a. (c) This is just another way of phrasing (a). by Warren B.f1x2 = 3x2h + 3xh2 + h3 3. So without additional work. and Finance. Suppose we have entered on the Y = screen.1 Slope of a Curve Note that the various alternatives allow f(x) and y to be used interchangeably. dx Calculator Tips The calculator can be used to visually illustrate the concept of a tangent line. y ¿ 1a2. f ¿ 1a2. Walter O. we may write any of the following: dy d ` . and April Allen Materowski. We use (2). Next Applied Calculus for Business. Sometimes. d 3 1x 2 = 3x 2.f1x2 = lim 13x 2 + 3xh + h22 = 3x2 h:0 h:0 h 4. f ¿ 1x2 = lim Thus. we could write f ¿ 132. Wang. if a function has a derivative at a point.
and press Enter. and the tangent line is drawn and its equation is given. . that is. In each case. scroll down to the Tangent option press Enter. 2. 6) P(8. y = 4x + 3 It is also a simple matter to compute the derivative. press F5.Section 2. and April Allen Materowski. Gordon. via its definition. 0). using the calculator. just repeat the process. by Warren B. In the Calculator Tips Section 2. h. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Walter O. 1. x. Figure 7: The tangent line to y11x2 = x2 + 1 at x = 2. see Figure 7 If you want to show additional tangent lines at other points. 9. Inc. and Finance. enter the xvalue of the point where you want the tangent line.1 Exercises 1 3 refer to Figures 8.7 we illustrate that avgRC(f(x). x. Economics. 5) Figure 8: Ex 1 Figure 9: Ex 2 Applied Calculus for Business. h). choose another point on the tangent line to determine the slope of the curve at P. Wang. and 10. then the derivative is nothing more than the limit of this quotient as h approaches zero.1 Slope of a Curve * ** 177 enter 2 (for x = 2) and press Enter. that is limit(avgRC(f(x). Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. h) gives the difference quotient. P(4. EXERCISE SET 2.
f(x) as defined in Exercise 6. (b) Determine f ¿ 1x2 if x 6 1. 22. Given the curve whose equation is f1x2 = x2 + 3. f1x2 = 1x 26. (b) have slope 15. 7) Figure 10: Ex 3 In Exercises 4 8. 12 P13.9999. Given f1x2 = 3x2 . (a) Determine the slope of the secant line joining P to Q.4). and then draw the tangent line at the point P.1). Let P be the point (1. (b) Using your sketch.9999. (c) have slope 36? 30.01 (ii) 5. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.001 (iii) 1.11.1. (c) . f1x2 = e 4x . f1x2 = 3/x 24.9999. P(8. 6. (b) What limiting value does the slope of the secant line appear to be approaching as Q approaches P? 11.0001 (iv) 4.178 3.1 9. Given the curve whose equation is f1x2 = x 0. x In Exercises 26 and 27.00001 (iii) 0. f(x) as defined in Exercise 7. 15.99 (v) 0. (b) 6. and April Allen Materowski. 13. Use this information to sketch the curve. 21. f(x) as defined in Exercise 5. f1x2 = 3 . 4. (c) Use (1) to determine the exact value of the slope at P. f1x2 = . 18. approximate the slope of the curve at P. 14. . 8. 5. 42 P12. short segments of the tangent lines are given at various points along a curve. (b) What limiting value does the slope of the secant line appear to be approaching as Q approaches P? In Exercises 12 17. Gordon. f1x2 = .001 (iii) 5.2x2 + 3x + 3 Figure 11: Ex. 19.2x .3). 27 28. 25.999 (vi) 4. f1x2 = 1x 20. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.6? 29. 17.999 (iv) 0.12x.99 (v) 4. At which point will the curve have slope (a) 0. Given f1x2 = x3 .25. * ** Section 2. (c) Determine f ¿ 1x2 if x 7 1 (d) What can you conclude about f ¿ 112? x2 if x Ú 0 x if x 6 0 32.3. See Figure 12. Given f1x2 = 1x (a) At which point will the tangent line be vertical? (b) What can you say about the derivative at this point? 31.2 if x 1 x + 1 if x 7 1 (a) Sketch the graph of this function. f1x2 = . Inc. Wang. determine the derivative at the given point on the curve using equation (2).7x + 9.0001 (iv) 0.x2 + 2x . Let P be the point (1. Economics. (a) f1x2 = 53 (b) Give a geometric explanation for your result. if Q has as its xcoordinate: (i) 1.999 (vi) 0. and Finance. (a) sketch the graph of the given function. See Figure 11. 42. (a) Determine the slope of the secant line joining P to Q. 02 27.1 Slope of a Curve 23. Find f ¿ 1x2 in Exercises 18 . f1x2 = 2x2 . f1x2 = mx + b Figure 12: Ex.001 (ii) 1.01 (ii) 1. 26 f1x2 = . At which points will its tangent line (a) be horizontal. (b) What limiting value does the slope of the secant line appear to be approaching as Q approaches P? 10.2/x 2 (compare with exercises 19 and 24). 7. 22 P12. Walter O. Given the curve whose equation is f1x2 = 2x + 4.12x + 5. 82 P11. f1x2 = x2 + 3 f1x2 = 2x + 1 f1x2 = x 3 P11. f1x2 = e Applied Calculus for Business. y = x2 at the point (3. f(x) as defined in Exercise 4.x 2 at the point 1 . 16. Let P be the point (5.9). 12. if Q has as its xcoordinate: (i) 5. if Q has as its xcoordinate: (i) 1. (a) Determine the slope of the secant line joining P to Q. by Warren B.3x2 + 7x .
determine the equation of the secant line through each of the following xvalues and x * 2: (a) x = 2. Our objective in this section is to begin to determine those rules that will let us calculate derivatives without using the definition. 0)? Why not? (b) Now repeat the process for g(x).0.05. . This followed directly from the interpretation of the derivative as the slope of a tangent line. to compute f ¿ 1x2 for the function defined in: (a) Exercise 21. Derivative of a Linear Function Applied Calculus for Business.Section 2. Of course. Walter O. Suppose that. Does mtan1x2 exist at (0. the justification for these rules will rest upon the definition.5 . (d) Exercise 24. (b) Determine f ¿ 1x2 if x 6 0 (c) Determine f ¿ 1x2 if x 7 0 (d) What can you say about f ¿ 102? 33. Using h = . and April Allen Materowski.001 and . (as h approaches 0 from the left). (c) Exercise 23.2 (a) Sketch the graph of this function. call the equation y4(x) and enter it the Y = screen (d) choose an appropriate window so the curve and all these secant lines can be seen.1. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. .1.0) for the two functions? 3 38. call the equation y3(x) and enter it the Y = screen (c) x = 2.8) crosses the curve. A collection of simple rules for producing derivatives. when you realize that the calculus has been used for over three centuries. Wang. 0. in the development of the definition of the derivative. have been developed. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. If nothing else. equation (2) of the previous section. . (You may want to use the result of Exercise 17. .0) and Q(h. f1x2 = e 9x + 5 if x Ú 1 (a) What is f ¿ 1x2 if x 7 1? (b) What is x2 + 7x + 6 if x 6 1 f ¿ 1x2 if x 6 1? (c) What is the slope of the curve just to the left of x = 1? Derivative Rules 1 * ** 179 37. We call this special case Rule 2. Let us state this as a rule. We have seen that in order to apply the definition. RULE 1 THE DERIVATIVE OF A LINEAR FUNCTION d 1mx + b2 = m dx Note that in the special case in which m = 0. without resorting to the definition. Given f1x2 = 2x . f(h)).1. What is happening to the secant lines as x approaches 2? 2. the only way that we can compute the derivative is by applying the definition. In fact. Inc. as you were asked to do in the preceding exercise set.025. you must expect that some shortcuts would have been discovered. you would assume that tables of derivatives would have been put together by working mathematicians.0. Find the point on the curve y = x at which the tangent line at (2. (b) Exercise 22. the line is horizontal (it has zero slope) and the derivative is zero. 39. (e) Have the calculator add the tangent line at x = 2. Find the slope of the secant lines passing through P(0.) 36. f1x22 for Q instead of 1x + h. it may be necessary to go through a great deal of algebraic manipulation.0. Gordon. In the previous section we indicated that the derivative of a linear function is its slope.x x2 : x (d) What is f ¿ 112? 35. Show that the definition of the derivative will then have the following alternate form: f ¿ 1x2 = lim f1x22 . and h = 0.0. and Finance. we wrote (x2. Use the alternate form of the derivative given in Exercise 37.001 and 0. call the equation y2(x) and enter it the Y = screen (b) x = 2. However.2 » » » » » Derivative Rules 1 Derivative of a Linear Function The Simple Power Rule The Constant Multiplier Rule The Sum Rule Calculator Tips At this point. by Warren B. (a) At what point is the function not differentiable? (b) What is the derivative to the left of this point? (c) What is the derivative to the right of this point? 34. What is the difference in the behavior at P(0.01.0001 (as h approaches 0 from the right). Of course.f1x2 x2 . Let y11x2 = x2 + 1. something better has been done. f1x + h2). this may be also be proved from equation (2) of the previous section.0.0001. Consider the two functions: f1x2 = x1/3 and g1x2 = x4/3 near x = 0.01. Economics..
where T4 = 16x2 + 4xh + h22 Do you see the developing pattern? In general. by Warren B. We apply the definition and obtain f ¿ 1x2 = lim 1x + h2100 . you know the exact form of TN. RULE 3 THE SIMPLE POWER RULE d N 1x 2 = Nx N . Using the definition of the derivative. You may recognize (1) as another way of writing the binomial expansion of 1x + h2N. and Finance. since we have Rule 1.180 * ** Section 2.x N h :0 h We now use (1) from above to replace the first term in the numerator and obtain. .1 where N is any real number. (2) of the previous section. So far. we have. Otherwise. how will we be able to let h approach zero without encountering the form 0/0 ? Of course. Inc. f ¿ 1x2 = lim 1x + h2N . (Actually. with f1x2 = xN. dx We prove this rule in the special case in which N is a nonnegative integer.1h + h2TN (1) The Simple Power Rule where TN is a polynomial in x and h. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. we need only consider N 7 1. Gordon. Thus. If N = 3. Wang. we have that 1x + h2N = x N + Nx N . Economics. where N is a positive integer. and develop a derivative formula for these functions. we have not really expanded our knowledge.2 Derivative Rules 1 RULE 2 THE DERIVATIVE OF A CONSTANT d 1b2 = 0 dx In words.) If N = 2. and April Allen Materowski. We already know that Rule 3 is correct in the case N = 0. Walter O. we want more than the solution to this specific problem. Consider expressions of the form 1x + h2N. Let us now look at some simple nonlinear functions. In which case. the derivative of a constant is zero. we need only prove it for any integer N Ú 2. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Rules 1 and 2 just summarized our observation that the slope of a curve reduces to the slope of the line if the function is linear. so good but.x 100 h :0 h We must expand the first expression in the numerator and cancel the h from the denominator. We would like to be able to determine the derivative of any function whose equation is of the form f1x2 = xN. If N = 4. or N = 1 (why?). 1x + h22 = x 2 + 2xh + h2 1x + h23 = x 3 + 3x 2h + 3xh2 + h3 = x3 + 3x 2h + h213x + h2 = x3 + 3x2h + h2T3 where T3 = 13x + h2 1x + h24 = x 4 + 4x 3h + 6x 2h2 + 4xh3 + h4 = x 4 + 4x 3h + h2T4. Consider the problem of finding the derivative of the function whose equation is f1x2 = x100. Applied Calculus for Business.
which is a polynomial in x and h. suppose we multiply this function by a constant C. Also note the form of our answers.we usually leave the answer in radical form. Table 1: Review of the Laws of Exponents bn = b # b Á b 1bm2n = bm n 1ab2n = a nbn b n = 1 bn b m # b n = bm + n b0 = 1 bm/n = 2bm = A 2b B m n n # bm = bm . Inc. Example 1 Determine f ¿ 1x2 for each of the following. We illustrate its use in the following example.1 = .1 + hTN2 lim = lim 1Nx N . How will the derivative of Cf(x) be related to the derivative of f(x)? Rule 4 answers this question. Gordon.x N Nx N .2 = = 1/2 dx dx 2 2 2 1x 2x d 1 d 2 2 (d) a b = 1x 2 = . d 43 1x 2 = 43x 43 . by Warren B. The Constant Multiplier Rule RULE 4 THE CONSTANT MULTIPLIER RULE d 1Cf1x22 = Cf ¿ 1x2 dx Applied Calculus for Business.1h + h2TN . 5 5 dx 5x 2/5 d d 1/2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 (c) 1 1x2 = 1x 2 = x 2 .2 Derivative Rules 1 181 f ¿ 1x2 = lim x N + Nx N .1 + hTN2 = Nx N . .1 h:0 h:0 h Notice that because TN. we rarely leave answers with negative exponents as in (d). as in (c). is multiplied by h. similarly.Section 2. Walter O.1h + h2TN = lim = h:0 h:0 h h h1NxN . (a) f1x2 = x43 (b) f1x2 = x 3/5 1 (c) f1x2 = 1x (d) f1x2 = 2 . and Finance.1 = 43x 42 dx d 3/5 3 3 5 3 2 3 (b) 1x 2 = x 5 .n bn a n an a b = n b b Given the differentiable function defined by y * f(x). Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. that entire term goes to zero as h goes to zero. assume its truth for any constant N.5 = x 5 = . if we start with a radical. and April Allen Materowski. x Solution. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Wang. For now.2x 2 . Economics.2x 3 = .3 dx x 2 dx x (a) Notice that in (c) and (d) we used various rules involving exponents and rewriting radicals in terms of fractional exponents.2 = x . It might be a good idea for you to review these rules which are summarized in Table 1. In later sections we shall show why this rule is valid for values of N which are not nonnegative integers.
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. This rule generalizes to more than two functions and we may restate it in words by stating that the derivative of a sum of functions is the sum of their derivatives. the derivative of a constant times a function is the constant times the derivative of the function. which in the limit becomes the sum of the individual derivatives. you should find yourself doing the intermediate steps mentally and writing d 15x 72 = 5 # 7x 6 = 35x 6. Therefore.g1x22 = f ¿ 1x2 .g1x2].s1x2 = f1x + h2 + g1x + h2 . for a given xvalue. this rule states that the derivative of a sum is the sum of the derivatives and the derivative of the difference is the difference of the derivatives. Gordon. s1x2 = f1x2 + g1x2. the yvalue of the sum is the sum of the two individual yvalues. called the sum. It is not hard to see why this rule is true. Certainly s132 = 5 + 7 = 12. Multiplying a function by a constant means that each yvalue is multiplied by the constant. Thus. The denominator remains simply h. The details of the formal proof are given at the end of Section 3. dx dx d 15x 72. We can form a new function. we may handle f1x2 . dx After doing a few examples using this rule. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. the numerator of equation (2) of Section 2. Walter O.Cf1x2 = C[f1x + h2 .12g1x2 and applying the constant multiple rule.3. Thus the quotient becomes a sum of the individual components. and April Allen Materowski. Applied Calculus for Business.g1x2 = Cf1x + h2 .1 becomes s1x + h2 . Is that clear? Suppose f132 = 5 and g132 = 7.2 Derivative Rules 1 In words.182 Section 2. Wang. A little thought should indicate why this rule is true. by Warren B.g1x2 = f1x2 + 1 . Of course. Economics. the entire numerator of the difference quotient in equation (2) of the previous section is multiplied by C (without any change in the denominator) resulting in the derivative being multiplied by C.f1x2] + [g1x + h2 . then g1x + h2 .[f1x2 + g1x2] = [f1x + h2 . Inc. if g1x2 = Cf1x2. RULE 5 THE SUM RULE d 1f1x2 + g1x22 = f ¿ 1x2 + g ¿ 1x2 dx d 1f1x2 . Applying Rule 4. When we sum two functions.g ¿ 1x2 dx In words. Example 2 Determine Solution.f1x2] Thus. The next rule shows how the derivative of s(x) is related to the derivative of the two component functions.g1x2 by simply noting that f1x2 . and Finance. we have d d 15x 72 = 5 1x 72 = 517x 62 = 35x 6. s1x2 = f1x2 + g1x2. dx The Sum Rule Suppose we have two differentiable functions f(x) and g(x). .
On the curve. y = 1323 . . so. we have mtan132 = 31322 . For this we need the derivative. and Finance. mtan182 = 41821/3 = 4/2 = 2. then on the curve.52%.32 = 14x . The error in the approximation is 0. Since we are given the point (8. 4. Find the equation of the tangent line to y = 6x 2/3 at the point (8. Walter O. Inc.2 Derivative Rules 1 183 Example 3 If f1x2 = 5x4 + 2x 3.2! Let us look at some applications of these rules. Economics. and decreased the power of x by 1. the point of tangency is (3. reducing the number .9605 (to four decimal places on a calculator).6x + 5. an error of less than 2 parts per hundred was a small price to pay for the greater simplicity of computing the value on the tangent line function rather than the value of f(x).82.0395. Hence.Section 2. y = 14x . Applied Calculus for Business. Solution.24 = 21x . Solution. Therefore.3 by 1. To find the slope. 9). The derivative is.6x 4 dx dx dx Note that in applying Rule 3 to the first term.1 that the tangent line is the straight line that best approximates the curve near the point of tangency.33 Example 5 We remarked in Section 3. we have y = 61922/3 = 25. we need the derivative. Remember. 5.4 not . 24). At y = 9. f ¿ 1 x2 = d d d 15x4 + 2x 32 = 15x 42 + 12x 32 = 4 # 5x3 . Find the error and the percent error that you have by using the straight line approximation. the equation of the tangent line is y . yields . which represents a percent error of 10. Example 4 Find the equation of the line tangent to y = x3 . Gordon. If x = 3.42. we have y = 2192 + 8 = 26.3x 2 + 5x . Wang. Using our new rules. rather than writing it out in detail. find f ¿ 1x2.6132 + 5 = 14. on the tangent line. The point is easy to find. 24) on the curve. in the days before calculators. we need only find the slope of the tangent line in order to get its equation. y ¿ = 3x 2 . by the power of x. we multiplied the coefficient. and April Allen Materowski. we need the slope and one point. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. The second term was handled similarly.3 # 2x 4 = 20x3 . y ¿ = 612/32x2/3 . At x = 8. Find the exact value of y at x = 9 on the curve and on the tangent line. y = 2x + 8.31322 + 5132 .960521100%2 = 1. As you can see. we have y . In order to find the equation of the line. Substituting this information into the pointslope equation for the line.6.0395/25. Solution.9 = 141x . by Warren B. at the point where x = 3.1 = 4x 1/3.6 = 9. At the point with x = 3.
Only the d above the number 8 key is used for differentiation. you press the 2nd key followed by the number 8. Figure 2: Finding the Derivative on the TI 89 Figure 3: Computing the Value of a Derivative with the TI 89 Be careful. above the number 8. . Economics. For example d 15x 82 x = 2 is illustrated in Figure 3. Figure 1: Using the TI 89 to Find Derivatives Pressing Enter gives the result as seen in Figure 2. Doing so presents on the screen d( which means the derivative of . On the keypad. and Finance. by Warren B. Using the with key we can have the calculator compute the value of the derivative at a given value for x. Walter O. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and the closing parenthesis. Inc. and April Allen Materowski. the d used for differentiation is above the number 8 key (and first requires you press the 2nd key). the variable we are d differentiating with respect to.2 Derivative Rules 1 Calculator Tips The TI 89 can find derivatives very easily. Gordon. . To access this d. Note the with key is the symbol located to the dx left of 7 on the keypad. For example. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. We must add the function we want the derivative of. Our notation for derivative is d/dx (f(x)) which tells us to take the derivative of f with respect to x. in orange is the letter d. x2 as in Figure 1. . 15x 82 would dx be entered as d15x ¿8. The TI 89 does it a little differently. .184 * ** Section 2. is different from the alphabetical d which requires you first press the alpha key and then the comma key. the alphabetic d will not work! Applied Calculus for Business. Wang.
10) (b) (4. y = 4x + 2/x .20. Find the points on the curve y = x . Suppose that M = 4. find ds .9. by Warren B. h 2/3 2/3 1x + h2 . Find the slope of the chord (see Exercises 34 and 35) connecting the points with xcoordinates r and s. 34. lim 27.) 19. y = x2 + 3x . Walter O.2x3/2 . suppose you do not have a calculator and want to approximate f(7. Hint: Divide first.7x + 9. 13) on the curve. Find the point(s) on the curve y = 6x1/3 at which (a) the slope is 1*2. 6. x4 x 7. 13. s = . (c) Compare your result with the answer given by your calculator. (b) Find the drop in ridership if the price is raised to $2. (a) Find the slope of the line connecting the points (1. f1x2 = 2 3x . (b) Find the point on the curve at which the slope of the tangent line is the same as the slope of the chord. find .3x4 + 2/x2 . find f ¿ 1 . (d) Use the value of x on the straight line to find the approximate drop in ridership if the price is raised to $2.2x 2 + 7. h 17 17 12 + h2 . (a) Find the slope of the line connecting the points 11. f1x2 = 3x2 64 x = 2 h:0 . where p is the price of a commodity and x is the quantity of the commodity that can be sold. Let y = ax2 + bx + c. 4 2 2x + h . Economics. k 7 0 and the coordinate axes is a constant. (b) Compute the yvalue on the tangent line at x = 7. dt dw . use the appropriate rules to determine the derivative.9). 33. y = 3x2 . lim h:0 2 38 + h . . (b) the tangent line is vertical.13) to the curve y = 4 .  1 x2 .12 and (3. lim 1x + h22 h h:0 2. (c) Compare the slopes of the tangent and the chord. 18. Use your knowledge of the derivative to compute the limit given in Exercises 26 31. 3. 12. This line is called a chord.2 In Exercises 1 11. (a) Find the equation of the tangent line at x = 8. Consider the function defined by f1x2 = x4 + 8x3. (c) Find the equation of the tangent line to the demand curve at p = 2. y = . y = 3x2/3 . using the method of the previous exercise. y = 3x4 . Find the xcoordinate on the parabola where the tangent line to the curve has the same slope as the chord. Find the point on the parabola y = ax2 + bx + c where the tangent line is horizontal.99). x = 2 16. lim 1x + h257 .25. 4).1x . if f1x2 = x2/5. f1x2 = 1x . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. y = x2.7 dr 10. Inc. f1x2 = 2x7 8. Recall that lines are perpendicular if the product of their slopes is . (b) Find the slope of the tangent line to the curve at (2. lim 29. 26. Consider f1x2 = 4x2/3. d 7 a 3x5 .2x + 1. 1) and (3. In Exercises 12 15. Approximate.25. Show that the area of the triangle in the first quadrant formed by the tangent line to any point on the curve y = k/x. 3 u 4 du h:0 11.1. 20. find 3 dy dx ` x=2 23.7x 2 + 2 5. find y ¿ .8x + 3 at which the tangent line is horizontal. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.16t2 + 256t + 128. 24.221x + 22. find f ¿ 1x2. find u 5 3u . + 2 3 x + 2. and April Allen Materowski. .Section 2. lim . Determine the equations of the tangent lines from the point (0. x = 8 x2 14. (e) Find the ratio of the value found in (d) to the change in price. r = + . Determine the equations of the tangent lines from the point (a) (1.7. 36. y = 2 3 x + 2x . Compute 3 7 + 3/4 + 5. Given the parabola. p is the price per ride on a New York City subway.x h 1 28. 17. w = 32v1/4 16 v2 + 7v2 + 2. 35. h:0 h h:0 31.12. h 32. determine the equation of the tangent line at the indicated xvalue. x = 8 15. 9) on the curve. find f ¿ 1x2.2 Derivative Rules 1 * ** 185 EXERCISE SET 2. k = 1/2. find f ¿ 1x2. (a) Find the ridership when the price is two dollars.2 30. dv 9. dx 3x3 4. One of the most commonly used mathematical models for a demand function in microeconomics is x = Mp k.54x + 1 at which the tangent line is horizontal.2 . This is called the marginal demand.x2. Wang.17) to the curve y = 2x . (Note that this exercise gives an alternative method for locating the vertex of a parabola. and x is the number of riders per day (in millions).x 57 .5.x + 1 at x = 2. 25.x2. 1. find . (a) For what values of x is f ¿ 1x2 7 0? (b) For what values is f ¿ 1x2 6 0? (c) At which point(s) will the tangent line be horizontal? 21. 22. and Finance.1. Applied Calculus for Business. Find the points on the curve y = 2x3 .5 + 293 b dx x dy 3x5 . f(31.1 4 x + 7x + 32x4 + 71. Gordon. Find the equation of the line perpendicular to the tangent line to the curve y = x3 . Given the parabola. f1x2 = 3x .
These terms will all be illustrated in the examples. You might be asking yourself why not just substitute x = 3 into the expression and obtain the value 10 for the limit? In many cases. In more advanced courses.3 Limits and Continuity 2. by Warren B. Therefore. very close. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. when the xvalues are very close to 3. 10 is that unique number that the yvalues are very close to.0002. is read the limit of f(x) as x approaches a is L. . and the rule changes at the point x = a. either just to its left or just to its right. as well as the meaning of the words very near.00002. Thus. In these or other situations.9992 + 3 = 9. and even know how to determine limits in many cases. Economics. Let us consider examples that illustrate these cases. Example 1 Find lim 12x + 42. Wang. Now you are probably wondering what this means. However.00001. that is all you have to do to get the correct answer. Other times the function is defined in pieces. and so on. Inc.999. In the preceding two sections. If x = 3.9992 = 212. Now f12. The closer the xvalues are to 3 (either just to its left. f13. special care must be taken. x :3 lim 12x + 42 = 10. If x is 2.0001.186 Section 2. we assume y is a function of x and given by the equation y = f1x2. Remember. Applied Calculus for Business. f12. Gordon. and April Allen Materowski. it will only be necessary for us to understand it intuitively. you have already seen one of its applications. We want to find the y value that f1x2 = 2x + 4 is very near when x is very near 3. division by zero is always undefined. once you understand what they mean intuitively. x :3 The Limit Solution. For example.00012 = 10. However. or just to its right). At this level. Of particular concern are fractions in which the denominator is zero. there are times when the function is not defined at the point at which x = a. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.9999. and Finance. We leave its formal definition to more advanced courses. So we pick some values of x that we would think of as very near 3.3 » » » » » » » » Limits and Continuity The Limit Limits by Substitution One Sided Limits Jumps and Holes Continuity Removable Discontinuities Differentiability and Continuity Calculator Tips The limit is one of the most commonly used tools of the calculus.000012 = 10. A few examples should illustrate the meaning of the definition. these terms are more carefully defined.9998.99992 = 9. Walter O. DEFINITION 1 x :a lim f1x2 = L. the closer the yvalues get to 10. f13. just to the right or just to the left. suppose x is 2. If x = 3. L (when it exists) is the unique number that the yvalues are very near when the xvalues are very close to a.998. the transition to a more rigorous definition is not very difficult. In the following definition.
the problem reduces to the kind of situation considered in Example 1. by Warren B. Gordon. you would obtain the form 0/0 . We show our results in Table 1. At x = 3. the function is undefined.3 Limits and Continuity 187 Example 2 x2 . We will discover that nice usually means that the function has no Applied Calculus for Business. refer to the Calculator Tips in Section 1. let us proceed as above. (The entries in the y1 column are the yvalues corresponding to the xvalues in the first column. . It did not matter that the function was not defined at x = 3. The form 0/0 is called an indeterminate form and requires closer examination.9 Find lim . x . (Why? Because the denominator of the fraction is zero!) If you tried to substitute x = 3 directly into this expression.3 1x . you see that substitution (in this case. x is near but never equal to 3. However. But observe that 1x .3 x :3 lim Thus.Section 2. the limit is 6. x + 3 is near 6. (Note: For details in setting up a Table. all that matters in determining the limit is what happens to the yvalues near x = 3. x :3 x . Again. after the quotient is simplified) gives us the correct answer. When x is near 3. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.32. Economics. Wang.3 = 0 and we could not cancel the common factor 1x .5) You might be convinced that substituting x = 3 directly into the given expression in the previous example is not useful and you would be correct. and Finance. Therefore. In fact. x2 .9 = lim 1x + 32 x :3 x . Inc. and April Allen Materowski. If the function is nice . the limit would remain 6. when we consider the limit. For example. the cancellation is valid. it will usually turn out that all you have to do is substitute to determine the limit. the values of f(x) get very close to 6. Therefore. Therefore.9 = = x + 3 x . since.3 Solution. if we were to define f132 = 21. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.) Table 1: Examining the Value of the Function Near x = 3 Observe that as x approaches 3 from either direction.32 If we let x = 3. it would not change the limit. Walter O.321x + 32 x2 . the function could have been defined to have any yvalue at all at x = 3. choosing values of x just to the left and right of 3.
3 Limits and Continuity jumps or holes . and use the definition of the limit. Applied Calculus for Business. and April Allen Materowski. 6 x=3 x Figure 1: f1x2 = x2 . the following is true: If the function defined by the equation y = f1x2 is a nice function.) THEOREM 3 If k is a constant. the limit of a constant is the constant itself. THEOREM 1 x :a lim c = c In words. Except at the point x = 3.6) (see Figure 1). Inc. THEOREM 2 x :a lim x = a (To see why these two limits are true. the function is defined by the equation y = x + 3. draw the graph of y = c and y = x. x :a lim kf1x2 = k lim f1x2 = kL x :a In words. In all of these theorems. there is a hole in its graph at the point (3. All of these theorems should seem obvious. We again stress that most functions that you shall encounter in this text will be nice except at an occasional isolated point. To see what we mean by nice . and Finance.188 * ** Section 2. the limit of a constant times a function is the constant times the limit of the function. and lim g1x2 = M x :a each exist. although the proofs of some of them require several steps. Wang. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. then lim f1x2 = f1a2. Walter O. we assume that x :a lim f1x2 = L. However. let us state x :a some theorems (without proof) that will make the notion more precise. by Warren B. Suppose that we try to sketch the graph of y = f1x2 from Example 2. . The graph of this function is simply a straight line of slope 1 with yintercept 3. when x is close to x = 3. Gordon. Economics. the yvalues are all close to 6. we see that since the function is not defined at x = 3.3 Limits by Substitution In general.9 = x + 3 if x Z 3 x . and that is the limit as x approaches 3. Nonetheless.
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THEOREM 4
x :a
lim 1f1x2 ; g1x22 = lim f1x2 ; lim g1x2 = L ; M
x :a x :a
In words, the limit of a sum (difference) is the sum (difference) of the limits.
THEOREM 5
x :a
lim f1x2g1x2 = A lim f1x2 B A lim g1x2 B = LM
x :a x :a
In words, the limit of a product is the product of the limits.
THEOREM 6
If M Z 0, lim lim f1x2 f1x2 L x :a = = x : a g1x2 lim g1x2 M
x :a
In words, the limit of a quotient is the quotient of the limits, as long as M Z 0.
THEOREM 7
If N is any real number, lim 1f1x22N = A lim f1x2 B N = LN
x :a x :a
(if L 6 0, and if N = p/q where q is even, then L is not a real number. Therefore, we exclude this case from the theorem.) In words, the limit of a function (raised) to a power is the power of the limit (subject to the restrictions indicated above). Let us look at some examples of how these theorems could be used. Example 3 Apply Theorems 1 through 7 to evaluate the following limits. (a) lim 6x
x :2
N
(b) lim 1x 2  32
x :2
(c) lim 16x1x 2  322
x :2
(d) lim 1x + 42
x :2
(e) lim
6x1x 2  32 x :2 x + 4
Solution. (a) lim 6x = 6 # lim x (Theorem 3)
x :2 x :2
6122 = 12 (Theorem 2) (b) lim 1x2  32 + lim x 2  lim 3 (Theorem 4)
x :2 x :2 x :2 x :2 2
lim x = 4 (Theorem 7), and lim 3 = 3 (Theorem 1)
x :2 2 x :2
thus, lim 1x  32 = 4  3 = 1 (Theorem 4) (c) lim 16x1x 2  322 = lim 6x # lim 1x 2  32 1Theorem 52 = 12 # 1 = 12
x :2 x :2 x :2
(d) lim 1x + 42 = 6 (Theorems 1, 2 and 4)
x :2
(e) In part (c) we found the limit of the numerator is 12. In part (d) we found the limit of the denominator is 6. Therefore, by Theorem 6, the limit of the quotient is 2.
The point of the last example is to evaluate the limit in part (e). It seems like a lot of steps to find the limit of one function. However, every algebraic function is defined by a similar
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series of component steps. All of these steps are made up of the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, powers, and roots. Therefore, by application of these seven theorems, any algebraic function is nice. The limit as x approaches a of f(x) will be just f(a) as long as nothing special (such as division by zero) occurs at x = a. Thus, we could have simply evaluated the limit in part (e) above by just substituting 2 directly for x wherever it appeared in the fraction. Example 2 above is a bit more complicated because of the appearance of a zero denominator. However, once we cancelled the 0/0 term, substitution was appropriate. This is a good trick to look for. Any time you are faced with an expression in which substitution yields something of the form 0/0 , try some algebraic manipulations first, and then substitute. Example 4 Compute lim
h :0
29 + h  3 . h
Solution. If we try to substitute 0 for h in the expression, we obtain the form 0/0 . Instead, we first perform some algebraic manipulations rationalizing the numerator by multiplying by the conjugate. Observe that a 19 + h2  9 29 + h  3 29 + h + 3 ba b = h 29 + h + 3 h A 29 + h + 3 B = Therefore, we have,
h :0
h h A 29 + h + 3 B
=
1 29 + h + 3
lim
29 + h  3 1 1 = lim = . h : 0 29 + h + 3 h 6
In finding limits we often use this technique. (We could have also taken values for h just to the left and right of 0 and constructed a table to estimate the limit.)
One Sided Limits
When considering a limit, we need to consider what happens just to the left and right of the point in questions. It proves useful to introduce symbols which represent the behavior of the function to the left and right of the point. Again, assuming y = f1x2, we define lim f1x2 read the limit of f(x) as x approaches a from its left the lefthanded limit, x : awhich, when it exists, is the unique number that the yvalues are very near when the xvalues are just to the left of a, and lim+ f1x2, read the limit of f(x) as x approaches a from its x :a right the righthanded limit, which, when it exists, is the unique number that the yvalues are very near when the xvalues are just to the right of a. It then follows from the definition of the limit, that the limit exits at a if and only if these two one sided limits are equal to each other, that is lim f1x2 exits if and only if lim f1x2 = lim+ f1x2. x :a x :a x :a Our next example illustrates onesided limit through the use of the notion of piecewise linear functions. Example 5 Given f1x2 = e  2x + 6 3x + 1 Determine lim f1x2.
x :1
if x 6 1 if x Ú 1
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Solution. If x is just to the left of 1, then x 6 1, and we are on the piece of the function defined by f1x2 =  2x + 6. Just to the left of x = 1, we have lim f1x2 = lim1  2x + 62 = 4. Similarly, if x is just to the right of 1, then x 7 1,
x:1 x:1
and we are on the piece of the function defined by f1x2 = 3x + 1, so we have lim+ f1x2 = lim+ 13x + 12 = 4, Since the left and right handed limits are the same,
x:1 x:1
number, we have lim f1x2 = 4. Figure 2 illustrates graphically why the limit is 4.
x :1
y=4 x=2
Figure 2: f1x2 = e
 2x + 6 3x + 1
if x 6 1 if x Ú 1
The next example illustrates the notion of a jump in a function. You will see that when a function has a jump, it is impossible for the yvalues just to the left of the jump to be near the yvalues just to its right. Therefore, the limit does not exist. Example 6 Given, f1x2 = e  2x + 6 if x 6 2 3x + 4 if x Ú 2 Determine lim f1x2, if it exists.
x :2
Jumps and Holes
Solution. Just to the left of x = 2, we are on the piece of the function defined by f1x2 =  2x + 6. Therefore the lefthand limit, lim f1x2 = lim 1  2x + 62 = 2. Just
x :2 x :2
to the right of x = 2, we are on the piece of the function defined by f1x2 = 3x + 4, and the right hand limit, lim+ f1x2 = lim+ 13x + 42 = 10. Since we are not close to the
x :2 x :2
same yvalue on either side of x = 2, that is, the left and right handed limits are not equal, the limit does not exist. From Figure 3 it is evident why the limit does not exist at x = 2. There is a jump in the yvalue at x = 2.
In general, at any point in the domain of the function at which it has a jump, the limit does not exist. However, there is a difference between a jump and a hole. Example 2 has a hole, but the limit exists because the limiting yvalues on either side of the hole are the same. In general, a function will have a limit at any point at which its graph has a hole. In fact, the limit is precisely the yvalue needed to plug the hole.
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y = 10 x=2 y=2
Figure 3: f1x2 = e
 2x + 6 3x + 4
if x 6 2 if x Ú 2
The next example illustrates how to determine a limit when there are no obvious ways of cancelling the 0/0 term. It requires the use of the calculator. Example 7 3x  1 . x x :0
Determine lim
Solution. If you try to substitute x = 0 into this expression, you will find that we obtain the indeterminate form 0/0. There are no obvious algebraic tricks to try, so we resort to the definition, and use the calculator. We shall choose xvalues just to the right and just to the left of x = 0, to see what yvalue, if any, we are near. We summarize our calculations in Table 2. We see from Table 2, that as x gets very close to 0, (on either side), the yvalue gets very close to 1.099 (to three decimal places). In fact, we shall see, the exact answer is ln 3, the natural logarithm of 3, which is 1.098612289 to 9 decimal places.
3x  1 Table 2: lim . x:0 x
Since a numerical approach is not a rigorous proof, whenever possible we shall show how to determine a limit algebraically and use the calculator as a check. However, when we are not able to handle the problem algebraically, a numerical approach may be very useful
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* **
193
and will usually suffice for our needs. In more advanced courses, techniques are developed so that one could actually prove the validity of such numerical results. Essentially, we have demonstrated that to compute a limit, when there are no jumps, substitution is an effective method. But, you must be careful when to substitute if you obtain the form 0/0. There are functions which do not have limits for reasons other than jumps but they will not be considered here. As we indicated earlier, if f(x) is a nice function, for example, a polynomial, or a rational function (the ratio of two polynomials), or a radical function, then lim f1x2 = f1a2. In the case of a rational function, we assume that x :a the denominator is nonzero at x = a. In the case of a function that involves a radical with an even index, we assume that any expression under the radical is nonnegative. (In Exercise 27 of Section 3.5, we consider another method for determining the limit when you obtain the indeterminate form 0/0 it is called L Hôpital s rule.) The time has come to attach the correct name to a nice function. The kind of function that we have in mind is what we call a continuous function. Roughly speaking, any function whose graph is without holes or jumps is a continuous function. Any point in the domain at which there is a hole or jump in the function is called a discontinuity. There are other types of discontinuities, a discussion of them is left to more advanced courses.
Continuity
Figure 4: Illustrating Discontinuities
Since polynomials are functions without holes or jumps, they are functions which are continuous everywhere. Similarly, at any point at which its denominator is nonzero, a rational function is continuous. To illustrate a discontinuous function, we need only construct a function which has either a hole or a jump at some point in its domain. In Figure 4, we have a function which is undefined at x = 1, has a hole at x = 2, and has a jump at x = 4. At each of these xvalues, the function is discontinuous. Thus, if we have a function without undefined points, holes, or jumps, we have a continuous function. Now that we have a feel for the physical definition of continuity, we give a formal definition.
DEFINITION 2 A function defined by the equation y = f1x2 is continuous at x = a, if the following three conditions are all satisfied:
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(1) f(a) is defined (2) lim f1x2 = L exists
x:a
(3) f1a2 = L Condition (1) means that at x = a, we know how to compute the corresponding yvalue, f(a). Condition (2) implies that there is no jump in the graph at x = a, and Condition (3) means that there is no hole at x = a. Many texts shorten the definition of continuity at x = a by just writing that the function is continuous at x = a, if lim f1x2 = f1a2. The x :a assumption being that by writing f(a) and its limit, we understand that both are defined. We could replace the statement of continuity at a
x :a
lim f1x2 = f1a2
by the equivalent statement
h :0
lim f1a + h2 = f1a2
If h is near zero, (that is, a + h is near a) the yvalues are near f(a); so the limit is f(a). We leave the verification of their equivalence as an exercise. Now that we have a formal definition of continuity at a point, we can say that a function is continuous on a given interval if it is continuous at every point of the interval. Let us apply the definition to a function to determine where it is or is not continuous. Example 8 Determine those points, if any, at which the function defined by y = f1x2 = e is not continuous. Solution. For x 2, the rule is y = x 2 + 1, which is a polynomial and therefore continuous. Similarly, for x 7 2, the graph is a line and therefore continuous. The only questionable point is at x = 2. Let us check the three conditions that must be satisfied in order that the function be continuous at x = 2. 1. f122 = 1222 + 1 = 5. 2. lim f1x2 = 5. (Did you check the limit from both sides?)
x:2
x2 + 1 3x  1
if x 2 if x 7 2
3. f122 = lim f1x2.
x:2
Thus, the three conditions are satisfied and the function is continuous at x = 2, and therefore continuous for all x. Figure 5, is a calculator sketch of the graph, it is not always clear from such sketches if the function has a hole or not at a given point.
Example 9 Consider the function defined by the equation x if x Z 0 x f1x2 = d 3 if x = 0
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Figure 5: The Graph of x2 + 1 if x 2 y = f1x2 = e 3x  1 if x 7 2 At what values, if any, is it discontinuous. Solution. We have that Recalling that x = e  x if x 6 0 x if x Ú 0
x  1 if x 6 0 = e x 1 if x 7 0 We now may write f1x2 = x = c x  1 if x 6 0 3 if x = 0 1 if x 7 0
The only point at which continuity is questionable is at x = 0 (why?). Since f102 = 3, the function is defined at x = 3. However, just to the left of x = 0, the yvalues are  1, and just to its right the yvalues are + 1. Thus, there is no common yvalue that both are near and so the limit does not exist. Condition 2 is violated, so the function is not continuous at x = 0. Note that the geometrical evidence for the discontinuity is the jump in the graph at x = 0 (see Figure 6).
(0,3) +*
Figure 6: f1x2 = c
1 3 1
if x 6 0 if x = 0 if x 7 0
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x 2  16 Determine what f(4) should be if for x Z 4 if the function defined by f1x2 = is x  4 to be continuous. Solution. If x Z 4 f1x2 may be rewritten as f1x2 = x + 4, (Why?). It then follows that for continuity, we must satisfy condition(3), lim f1x2 = lim 1x + 42 = 8, therex :4 x :4 fore, for continuity, we need f142 = 8.
Example 10
Removable Discontinuities
Differentiability and Continuity
Hole discontinuities are often called removable discontinuities, because defining or redefining the function at the hole so that its yvalue equals the limit at the point eliminates the hole. All other types of discontinuities are called nonremovable. For example, in the last example by defining y to be equal to 8 at x = 4, that is, f142 = 8. The function becomes continuous because the hole that would have appeared without this definition is removed. The following theorem is an immediate consequence of the alternate formulation and the definition of differentiability.
THEOREM 9 At any point in its domain at which a function is differentiable, it is continuous. PROOF Because f(x) is differentiable at x = a, we know that f ¿1a2 = lim f(a + h) f(a) exists. This implies that f(a) exists. We need only show that h:0 h lim f1a + h2 = f1a2 to prove that the function is continuous at x = a. We proceed with
h:0
the following observation: f1a + h2 = a f1a + h2  f1a2 h b h + f1a2
We take the limit of each side as h approaches zero to obtain,
h:0
lim f1a + h2 = lim a c
h:0
f1a + h2  f1a2 d h + f1a2b h
= lim c
h:0
f1a + h2  f1a2 d lim h + lim f1a2 h:0 h:0 h
(Note the application of the product and sum rule for limits.) The first limit on the right is f ¿ 1a2 the second is 0, and the limit of a constant is the constant. Thus, we have lim f1a + h2 = f1a2 # 0 + f1a2 or, lim f1a + h2 = f1a2, h :0 h :0 and by the alternate formulation of continuity, we have that at any point at which the function is differentiable, the function is continuous.
Theorem 9 gives a quick method of determining if a function is continuous. If you can determine its derivative, then it is continuous. The rules developed in the previous section of this chapter may prove useful in this connection, as the next example illustrates. Example 11 Prove the quartic function defined by f1x2 = 3x 4 + 2x 3  5x 2 + 8x + 12 is everywhere continuous.
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Solution. We have f ¿ 1x2 = 12x 3 + 6x 2  10x + 8. That is, the derivative exists for every value of x, therefore the function is everywhere continuous.
However, you must be warned that the converse of the theorem is not true. That is, a function may be continuous but not differentiable. We have already considered examples of this in Section 3.1, where we observed that a sharp point on a curve (a function is continuous at a sharp point), the derivative does not exist, consider the next example. Example 12 x  3 (a) At what points is f discontinuous? (b) One point is a removable x2  3x discontinuity. How would you define y at that point so as to remove the discontinuity? (c) At what points does f not have a derivative? (d) If you redefine f so as to remove the removable discontinuity, is the function differentiable there? Let f1x2 = Solution. (a) The denominator is x 2  3x = x1x  32. This is equal to zero at x = 0 and x = 3. So the function is discontinuous at x = 0 and x = 3 because it is undefined at these two places. (b) No matter what you do as x approaches 0, f(x) increases without bound. For example at x = 0.0001, f10.0012 = 1000, as x gets closer to 0, the yvalues grow even larger. Therefore, there is no way to define f(0) that will make the function continuous. However, the discontinuity at x = 3 is removable. If we simply divide out the factor 1x  32 from numerator and denominator, we have f1x2 = 1/x, for x Z 3. Hence, lim f1x2 = 1/3. If we define f132 = 1/3, the function as redefined is continuous at x = 3.
x :3
(c) The function is not differentiable at x = 0 or x = 3 because it is not continuous at these two points. (d) Once the value has been properly defined at x = 3, we have simply f1x2 = 1/x = x 1, which has derivative f ¿ 1x2 =  x 2 =  1/x 2, except at x = 0 where f remains undefined and, therefore, neither continuous nor differentiable. Before you jump to any conclusions, let us say that it is not automatic that when a discontinuity is removed the function becomes differentiable at that point. In fact, examples to the contrary may be found in the exercises.
As one further indication of how the limit definitions may be used, we give a formal proof of Rule 5, Section 2.2, the Sum Rule. We are given that f(x) and g(x) have f ¿ 1x2 and g ¿ 1x2 as their respective derivatives. We must show that s1x2 = f1x2 + g1x2 has derivative s ¿ 1x2 = f ¿ 1x2 + g ¿ 1x2. We use the definition of the derivative. It is useful to note that s1 2 = f1 2 + g1 2, therefore, 1. s1x + h2 = f1x + h2 + g1x + h2 g1x2 s1x2 = f1x2 + 2. s1x + h2  s1x2 = f1x + h2  f1x2 + g1x + h2  g1x2 Therefore, s1x + h2  s1x2 f1x + h2  f1x2 + g1x + h2  g1x2 = h h f1x + h2  f1x2 g1x + h2  g1x2 = + h h s1x + h2  s1x2 4. s ¿ 1x2 = lim h:0 h 3.
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f1x + h2  f1x2 g1x + h2  g1x2 + lim = f ¿ 1x2 + g ¿ 1x2. h:0 h:0 h h Note that the proof really follows directly from the fact that the limit of a sum is equal to the sum of the limits. = lim
We can compute limits with functions of several variables, consider the next example. Example 13 Given f1x, y2 = 2x 2y 3 determine f1x + h, y2  f1x, y2 (a) lim , h :0 h f1x, y + k2  f1x, y2 (b) lim . k :0 k Solution. f1x + h, y2  f1x, y2 21x + h22y 3  2x 2y 3 (a) lim = lim = h:0 h:0 h h 2 3 3 2 2 3 2x y + 4xhy + 2h y  2x y lim = h:0 h h14xy 3 + 2hy 32 4xhy 3 + 2h2y 3 = lim 14xy 3 + 2hy 32 = 4xy 3 lim = lim h:0 h:0 h:0 h h f1x, y + k2  f1x, y2 2x 21y + k23  2x 2y 3 = lim (b) lim = k:0 k:0 k k 2x21y 3 + 3y 2k + 3yk2 + k32  22y 3 lim = k:0 k 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2x y + 6x y k + 6x yk + 2x k  2x2y 3 lim = k:0 k 6x2y 2k + 6x2yk2 + 2x 2k3 lim = k:0 k 2 2 2 2 2 k16x y + 6x yk + 2x k 2 = lim 16x 2y 2 + 6x 2yk + 2x 2k22 = 6x 2y 2 lim k :0 k :0 k
Calculator Tips
Notice in the above example that the limit requested in (a) looks almost like a derivative with respect to x. In fact, observe that if you look at the expression, y does not change, so if you treated y as a constant it looks like the derivative with respect to the variable x. Similarly, the limit in (b) looks almost like a derivative with respect to y. We will have more to say about this when we study differentiation of functions of two or more variables. The TI 89 calculator can compute limits directly, but some care needs to be taken. The syntax for having the calculator compute a limit is limit (expression, variable, point [, direction]). The [,direction] portion of the command is optional and is only used for onesided limit. For example, to compute 3x  1 x x :0 lim we enter limit 113¿x  12/x, x, 02, Figure 7 indicates the input and result. The calculator gives the answer as ln(3), which we shall see is the natural logarithm of 3, which is approximately 1.09861 (press * Enter).
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Section 2.3
Limits and Continuity
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199
Figure 7: Computing Limits with the Calculator To determine a onesided limit we need to add the direction option,  1 for a leftx handed limit and + 1 for a righthanded limit. For example, to compute lim , we prox:0 x ceed as in Figure 8 (note abs(x) is the way we enter x on the calculator).
Figure 8: A One Sided Limit Using the Calculator
EXERCISE SET 2.3
In Exercises 1 26, find the indicated limit. 1. lim 5 2. lim 9
x:7 x:0
8. lim 13x2  72 9. lim 14x3 + 9x2 + 52
x:1 x:2
3.
x : 1 x:2 x:0 x:2
lim a 5x +
1 b 2
10. Let f1x2 =
x:3
x2  4 , determine each of the following limits: (a) lim f1x2, x:2 x + 2
x : 2
4. lim 17.1  3.4x2 5. lim 1x + 5x + 32 6. lim 12x 2  3x + 52 7.
x : 2 2
(b) lim f1x2, (c) lim f1x2. x2  9 11. Let f1x2 = , determine each of the following limits: (a) lim f1x2, x : 3 x  3 (b) lim f1x2.
x:3
lim 12x2 + 6x  112
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x
Limits and Continuity
6x  5 x2 36. If f1x2 = d 5x + 14 70
x:5
12. lim
+ 5x2 a2 + 5 13. lim a:2 a
x:1 3
14. f1x2 = 7x2 + 2h  3, determine (a) lim f1x2 (b) lim f1x2. 15. lim 16. lim x2  7x + 12 x:3 x  3 2t2 + 1
t : 2 3t2 h:0 x:0
if if if if
x:5
x 6 5 5 6 x 6 7 x 9 7 x 7 9
x:7 x : 77
Determine (a) lim f1x2 (b) lim+ f1x2 (c) lim f1x2 (d) lim + f1x2 (e) lim f1x2 (f) lim+ f1x2 (g) at which xvalues is f discontinuous, and classify
x:9 x:9
the discontinuities. (h) graph the function. In Exercises 37 39, decide whether the function whose graph is shown is continuous. If it is not continuous, identify the xvalues at which it is discontinuous and classify the discontinuity.
+ 1 1x  3 17. lim x:9 x  9 18. lim
a:9
2a  5 a  5 x2 + 5x + 2
19. lim
+ 2x + 1 23 + h  23 20. lim h:0 h
2 21. lim A 1 2 t + 1t B t:0
x : 0 2x2
22. lim
1t + 1221t  227 1t + 222 1x + 2h22  x 2 2h
t:3
23. lim
h:0
21 + x + h  21 + x 24. lim h:0 h 25. f1x2 = x , determine (a) lim f1x2 (b) lim f1x2 (c) lim f1x2 26. f1x2 = x , determine (a) lim f1x2 (b) lim f1x2 (c) lim f1x2 x:4 x : 4 x : a x (d) lim f1x2 where a 7 0.
x:a x:1 x:0 x : 1
Figure 9: Ex. 37
Figure 10: Ex. 38
27. (a) Draw the graph of a function which is continuous at each point in its domain. (b) Draw the graph of a function which is continuous at every point in its domain but is not differentiable at x = 0. 28. Determine any function which is discontinuous at x = 1 and x = 5 but which has a derivative at every other point. 29. Where is the function f1x2 = 1/1x  52 discontinuous. Why? 1 if x 0 30. (a) Graph the function defined by f1x2 = e 2 if x 7 0 (b) Where is the function discontinuous? Why? 31. Is the function defined by f1x2 = e x 1 (b) x = 0?
1
Figure 11: Ex. 39
37. Figure 9 38. Figure 10 39. Figure 11 In Exercises 40 46 decide whether or not the function is continuous. If it is not continuous, identify the points at which it is discontinuous. 40. f1x2 = x2 + 2x + 5 41. f1x2 = x2  3 x + 2
1 x
if x Z 0 continuous at (a) x = 2? if x = 0 2 if x 6 1 4 if x = 1 3  x if x 7 1
32. (a) Graph the function defined by f1x2 = c (b) Where is it discontinuous?
42. f1x2 = x2 + 43. f1x2 = e 44. f1x2 = e
(c) What kind of discontinuities does it have? 33. Discuss the continuity of the function defined by f1x2 = 34. Determine (a) lim+
x:3
x if x 6 5 x2 if x Ú 5 0 if x 6 0 x if x Ú 0
x2  9 x  3
x  3 x  3 x  a x  a (b) lim(c) lim(d) lim+ x:3 x  3 x:a x  a x:a x  a x  3 x3 x (b) limx:0
45. f1x2 = x 46. f1x2 = x  5 47. Given f1x2 = c 1 if x 6 1 5 if x = 1 2  x if x 7 1
35. Determine (a) lim+
x:0
x3 x
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Section 2.3
(a) Sketch the graph of the function. (b) Where is it discontinuous? (c) Redefine the function so as to remove the discontinuity. (d) Is the function as redefined differentiable at this point? In Exercises 48 52, each function is discontinuous at x = a. If the discontinuity may be removed, redefine the function so as to make it continuous at x = a and decide if the function as redefined is differentiable at x = a. 48. f1x2 = x2  4 x  2 a = 2 a = 2 a = 2
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201
64. Suppose f1x, y2 = 3x2 + 2y2 + 5x  11y + 7, determine f1x + h, y2  f1x, y2 f1x, y + k2  f1x, y2 . (a) lim (b) lim h:0 k:0 h k 65. (a) Give an example of a function which is defined for all values of x except x = 1 and x = 2; and discontinuous at x = 1 and x = 2. (b) Give an example if both discontinuities are removable. 66. Can a jump discontinuity be removed? Explain! 67. Suppose f is continuous at x = a and that f1a2 7 0. Show, by means of a sketch, that f1x2 7 0 in some vicinity of x = a. If f is not continuous at x = a, show the conclusion need not be true. 68. Discuss the discontinuities of D1x2 = e 0 1 if x is irrational if x is rational
49. f1x2 = 1/1x  22 50. f1x2 = c
x2 if x 6 2 3 if x = 2 6  x if x 7 2
if x 6 3 x3 51. f1x2 = c 15 if x = 3 5x + 12 if x 6 3
a = 3
x2  5x + 6 52. f1x2 = a = 2 x  2 In Exercises 53 62, discuss (i) the continuity and; (ii) the differentiability of the given function. (iii) If a discontinuity is removable, redefine the function so as to make it continuous there. (iv) Is it now differentiable? x2  9 53. (a) f1x2 = x  3 x + 3 (b) g1x2 = e 4 if x 2 if 2 6 x if x 7 4 if x Z 3 if x = 3 (c) h1x2 = x + 3.
69. (a) Suppose f is continuous on 1 x 3, with f112 = 7, and f132 = 12. Show that every yvalue between 7 and 12 is assumed at least once. (Hint: draw a sketch) (b) More generally, if f is continuous on a x b, with f1a2 = M, and f1b2 = N, then each yvalue between M and N is assumed at least once. (This is known as the Intermediate Value Theorem.) 70. (a) Using the previous exercise, prove that there is some xvalue between 2 and 3 at which f1x2 = x2  1 equals 6. (b) Find this value of x. 71. Using Exercise 69, prove that x 5 + x  5 = 0 has a root between x = 1 and x = 2. 72. On July 2, Sam weighed 120 lbs. On August 2, he weighed 130 lbs. (a) Prove that at some time between these two dates his weight was 125 lbs. (b) Could his weight ever have been 135 lbs between those dates? 73. At 7 AM the outdoor temperature was 68*F and at 11 AM the temperature was 76*F, is there a time between 7 and 11 AM when the temperature was (a) 73*F? (b) 71*F? (c) 65*F?
1 54. w1x2 = c 3 2 55. r1x2  1/x2
4
56. (a) L1x2 = e
x  1 2 x  1 2
if x 6 3 if x 7 3 if x 3 if x 7 3
(b) M1x2 = c
x  1 1 2
if x 6 3 if x = 3 if x 7 3 if x 6 3 if x Ú 3
(c) N1x2 = e
(d) P1x2 = e
x  1 2
74. Mary begins her climb at the bottom of the mountain at 8 AM Monday morning and reaches the top of the mountain at 1 PM that afternoon. She camps there overnight and begins her descent on Tuesday at 8 AM and reaches the bottom of the mountain at 1 PM that afternoon. Is there a common time on each day when she is at the same elevation on the mountain? Explain. x b. Show that the function attains both a 75. Suppose f is continuous for a maximum and minimum value. That is, there are at least two numbers, c1 and c2, between a and b, such that, f1c12 = M and f1c22 = N, where f1x2 M, and f1x2 Ú N, for all x such that a x b. This is called the Extreme Value Theorem x 3. (a) What is the maximum value 76. Consider f1x2 = x2  1 on  2 that this function attains? (b) Its minimum? (c) For which xvalues does it attain the maximum and minimum? 77. A manufacturer estimates that his daily cost, in dollars, of producing x television sets is C1x2 = 2000 + 500x + 8000/x. He must manufacture at least 2 sets, and due to storage limitations, he cannot produce more than 250 sets. Prove, by using Exercise 75 that there is some number of sets which will minimize his cost. x b. 78. Suppose y = f1x2 is a nonconstant continuous function on a Also suppose that f1a2 = f1b2. Why must the graph of this function have at least one turning point between a and b?
57. f1x2 =
x2  2 x  5 x x2 if x 6 1 x3 (b) g1x2 = e 2 if x Ú 1 x if x 6 2 if x Ú 2
58. (a) f1x2 = e 59. f1x2 =
1 + 1x x2 60. t1s2  21  s2 61. d1x2 = e 24  x 2 x + 2 if x 6 0 if x 7 0 if x 3 if 3 6 x 6 4 if x Ú 4 f1x + h, y2  f1x, y2 h
2x + 1 62. g1x2 = c 3x  7 4
63. Suppose f1x, y2 = 3x2y 2 determine (a) lim (b) lim f1x, y + k2  f1x, y2 k
k:0
h:0
.
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82. (a) Show lim x2 = 4. How close to 2 should the xvalues be chosen to guarantee that the yvalues are (b) between 4  0.1 and 4 + 0.1? (c) between 4  .01 and 4 + .01? (d) between 4  H and 4 + P? where P is any positive number less than 4. 83. Show lim f1x2 = f1a2 is equivalent to lim f1a + h2 = f1a2.
x:a h:0 x:2
79. Show that an alternate definition for the derivative at a is given by f ¿ (x) = lim f1x2  f1a2 x  a
x:a
. Hint: let a = x + h in the definition given for
the derivative. 80. Using the alternate definition of the derivative from the preceding exercise, compute determine the derivative of each of the following: (a) f1x2 = 2x2 (b) f1x2 = 4/x. 81. Suppose in Example 2 we want to select xvalues so the yvalues lie (a) between 6  .01 and 6 + .01, (b) between 6  .001 and 6 + .001, (c) between 6  P and 6 + P, where P is any positive number less than 6, determine how close to 3 the xvalues need to be?
(Hint: let x = a + h.)
2.4
» » » » » »
Limits at Infinity, Infinite Limits and Asymptotes
Limits at Infinity Dominant Terms Horizontal Asymptotes Infinite Limits Vertical Asymptotes Calculator Tips
Limits at Infinity
In this section, we shall reexamine the notion of a rational function which was discussed in Section 1.7, using the limit as a means of defining a horizontal and vertical asymptote. In Section 1.7, we saw that much of the information about such graphs can be determined by examining two facets of its behavior; the behavior of the function as the xvalues get very large (in absolute value), and considering its values near the zeros of both its numerator and denominator. We saw that this investigation coupled with the sign analysis of the function itself will reveal the essential shape of the graph. Recall that a rational function has the form r1x2 = p1x2/q1x2, where both p and q 5x4  2x 3  7 are polynomials. For example, r1x2 = is a rational function. 3x7 + 8x 2  11 We begin with the investigation of the behavior of a function for large values of x. For example, what happens to the values of the function whose equation is f1x2 = 3x 2  7 2x2 + 1
as x assumes arbitrarily large values? This question is reduced in mathematical shorthand to, What is lim f1x2? Here, to say that lim f1x2 = L, means that L is the unique x:q x:q number (if one exists) that the yvalues get very near, when the xvalues get arbitrarily large. If the values of f(x) become unbounded, we say that the limit is infinite. Let us examine 3x 2  7 x : q 2x 2 + 1 lim for large values of x. Consider Table 1 which examines what happens to the yvalues as the xvalues get large. As x becomes arbitrarily large, the yvalues approach 1.5, therefore,
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Section 2.4
Limits at Infinity, Infinite Limits and Asymptotes
203
L = 1.5. We remark that for larger values of x, say 100,000 or higher, most calculators will give 1.5 as the answer! In fact, as far as your calculator is concerned, when it does the calculations for large values of x, the 7 in the numerator is Table 1: Examination of the Behavior as x Becomes Large
x f(x) 100 1.4996 1000 1.499996 10000 1.49999996
insignificant compared to the term 3x 2. Similarly, in the denominator the 1 is negligible compared to the 2x 2 term. Hence the calculator is eventually just evaluating 3x2/2x 2 = 3/2 = 1.5. The following observation gives us a very simple method for computing limits, often called limits at infinity of rational functions (when they exist). When x is very large only the terms having the largest exponents in the numerator and denominator have any effect upon the limit. In Section 1.7, we referred to these terms as the dominant or leading terms. (Sometimes we shall say for x being infinite when we mean for x very large or arbitrarily large.) We illustrate this observation with several examples. Example 1 8x 3  2x + 3 . x : q 4x3  5x 2 + 1
Dominant Terms
Evaluate lim Solution.
The dominant term in the numerator is 8x3, and the dominant term in the 8x 3 = 2. denominator is 4x3. Thus, the problem reduces to computing lim x : q 4x 3 It is important to realize that only the dominant term matters when x becomes arbitrarily large. All other terms, no matter how large their coefficients may be, are insignificant in comparison to the dominant term when x is large. Example 2 Evaluate lim Solution. 5x2  300  3x3 + 2
x : q 2x5
.
Ignoring all but the dominant terms, we have lim 5x2  300
5 3
x : q 2x
 3x + 2
= lim
5x 2
5
x : q 2x
= lim
5 . x : q 2x 3
As x becomes arbitrarily large, the denominator gets very large, the entire fraction gets arbitrarily close to zero, and the given limit is zero.
The observation made in the preceding example generalizes, and we have the following:
THEOREM 1
lim k
p
x:q x
= 0
where k is a constant and p is a positive constant.
The above theorem, which is nothing more than a limit formulation of an observation we made in Section 1.7, provides an alternative method for computing limits as x becomes
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Section 2.4
Limits at Infinity, Infinite Limits and Asymptotes
large. To compute such limits, factor the dominant term from both the numerator and denominator and then apply Theorem 1. In Example 1, we may write 2 3 2 + 3b 8  2 + 2 8x  2x + 3 x x x lim = lim = lim x : q 4x3  5x 2 + 1 x:q x:q 5 1 5 4 + + 3b x3 a 4 x x x
3
x3 a 8 
3 x3 1 x3
Using Theorem 1, we see that the second and third terms in both the numerator and denominator approach zero and the limit is 8/4 = 2. Example 3
Evaluate lim Solution.
2x 3  5x + 3 . x:q 3x2 + 5 Looking only at the dominant terms, we have 2x 3  5x + 3 2x . = lim x:q x:q 3 3x2 + 5 lim
As x becomes arbitrarily large, 2x/3 is itself unbounded. That is, it too becomes arbitrarily large number. Furthermore, it is always positive. We indicate this behavior by saying that the limit is plus infinity 1 + q 2. Thus, the required limit is + q . When we write + q for a limit, it means that the function is increasing without bound. In other words, the limit does not exist. When a limit does exist, it means that when x becomes arbitrarily large, the yvalues tend to stabilize, or approach a finite equilibrium value. This equilibrium value is the limit. We shall call this the limit at infinity. Conversely, when the function has no limit as x takes on arbitrarily large values, it means that the function does not stabilize to an equilibrium value. Sometimes we find different behavior for a function as x decreases to  q . That is, when x takes on negative values which are, in absolute value, arbitrarily large. If f is such a function, and we want to examine such a limit, we write, lim f1x2. However, the procedure for finding such limits is x: q exactly the same as when x is a large positive number. Example 4 Evaluate lim Solution. 3x 2  x . x :  q 2x2 + 1 Keeping the dominant terms, we have, 3x2  x = x :  q 2x 2 + 1 lim 3x 2 = 3/2. x :  q 2x 2 lim
We summarize the results found in the above examples with the following theorem which generalizes Theorem 1
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Section 2.4
Limits at Infinity, Infinite Limits and Asymptotes
205
THEOREM 2
a nx n + a n  1 x n  1 bkx k + bk  1x k  1 an bn + Á + a0 = d0 + Á + b0 ;q if k = n if k 7 n if k 6 n
x: ; q
lim
where n and k are positive integers. Note that the theorem tells us that the limit at infinity of the ratio of two polynomials is determined by the degrees of the polynomials. Remember, the degree of the polynomial is just the exponent of the dominant term. Thus, that if the numerator and denominator are of the same degree, then for (absolutely) large x the limit is the ratio of the coefficients of the dominant terms. If the denominator is of higher degree than the numerator, the limit is 0. Finally, if the degree of the numerator exceeds the degree of the denominator, then the limit is infinite. The sign depends upon the sign of the coefficients of the dominant terms, whether k  n is an odd or even integer, and whether x is positively large or is an absolutely large negative number. The eight possibilities are examined in Exercise 37. It can be shown that, under appropriate conditions, the theorem generalizes, and is true even when n and k are not integers. Example 5 Let P be the population of a certain species of fish. P is a function of time, t. When t is measured in months and P in hundreds of thousands, P is given by the equation P = f1t2 8t2 + 3 = 2 . Determine the equilibrium population of the fish, that is, the limiting popula4t + 9 tion of the fish. By the equilibrium or limiting population, we mean the population after 8t2 + 3 many months. That is, when t is arbitrarily large. We have, lim 2 = 2. Thus, the t : q 4t + 9 limiting or equilibrium population is two hundred thousand fish. Solution.
For simplicity, in what follows we shall use the expression x gets large to mean x gets large in absolute value . Where there is a difference in behavior for positive and negative values of x, we shall point it out carefully. With that understanding, let us examine the behavior of a function as its xvalues get large and see how its graph looks. In Example 1 we found that lim 8x 3  2x + 3 8x 3  2x + 3 Similarly, lim = 2. = 2. This means x : q 4x3  5x 2 + 1 x :  q 4x3  5x 2 + 1 that in a sketch of the function, when x is any very large value, the associated yvalue must be essentially equal to the equilibrium value of 2. That is, the graph should begin to look like the line y = 2. We recall, from Section 1.7 that the horizontal line y = 2 is called a horizontal asymptote for the curve. In Figure 1 the horizontal asymptote y = 2 is drawn as a dashed line. Note that the graph is sketched only for large values of x. (The connection of the various component pieces is accomplished using the method of Section 1.7.) We can now redefine a horizontal asymptote using the limit.
Horizontal Asymptotes
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y=2
Figure 1: 8x3  2x + 3 f1x2 = for Large x 4x3  5x2 + 1
DEFINITION 1 Suppose L and M are finite numbers. If lim f1x2 = L, then y = L is
x:q
a horizontal asymptote of f as x approaches q . If lim f1x2 = N, then y = N is a horix:q zontal asymptote of f as x approaches  q . = 0. As x approaches  q we ob 3x + 2 tain the same limit. (See Theorem 2.) This means that as x gets arbitrarily large the xvalues approach 0. That is, y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. Figure 2 gives a sketch of the graph of the function for absolutely large values of x, Figure 2a gives a sketch as x approaches  q , and Figure 2b gives a sketch as x approaches q ; note that in each case, the curve approaches the xaxis  y = 0, as the horizontal asymptote. To join these two components into one graph, you will need to determine the vertical asymptote and zeros, and proceed as in Section 1.6. This will be left to the exercises, where you will need a calculator to help you determine the approximate location of the vertical asymptote. A reasonable question at this time is, how do we know whether the curve is approaching the horizontal asymptote from above or below? Choosing a large positive (negative) number and then calculating the yvalue at this number will indicate the direction. For example, in Figure 2, choose x = 100 and use your calculator to show that the corresponding yvalue is about 2.0253. In Example 2 we found that lim
x : q 2x 5
5x 2  3
Figure 2a: As x Approaches  q
Figure 2b: As x Approaches q 5x2  3 2x5  3x + 2
Figure 2: The Behavior of f1x2 =
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Limits at Infinity, Infinite Limits and Asymptotes
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This means that the curve is a little above the asymptote. Similarly, if we let x =  100 in Figure 3 we find that x is about  0.0000025, just below the asymptote y = 0. The next question we examine in this section is, What happens if we seek a limit for a function which, after substitution, has the form N/0 and N is not zero? To understand what happens, we need to consider several examples. We shall see that the limit is undefined (sometimes said to be infinite). By infinite or undefined, we shall mean that the value of the function is (in absolute value) arbitrarily large. 1 Consider, for example, lim . Clearly the function is undefined at x = 2. Let x :2 x  2 us examine the behavior of the function just to the right of x = 2. Suppose we choose x to be 2 + .01. Substituting, we obtain y = 1/12 + .01  22 = 100. Similarly, if we choose a number even closer to 2, say 2 + .00001, we get y = 10,000 as the result. Thus, if we choose any number just to the right of 2, the result is an arbitrarily large positive number, which we write as + q . Thus, we write, lim 1 = + q.  2
Infinite Limits
x : 2+ x
That is, if we approach 2 from the right, (indicated by 2+), then the yvalues obtained are arbitrarily large positive numbers, indicated by + q . Actually, our reasoning goes something like this. The numerator is always 1. If x is slightly larger than 2, then x  2 is a very small positive number. Now 1 divided by a very small number gives a very large result. Since both the numerator and denominator are positive, we say that the limit is + q . Similarly, if we choose a number just to the left of 2, say 1.99999, we obtain  100,000 as our result. Hence, as we approach 2 just from the left, (indicated by 2) we 1 =  q . Since the problem asks us what happens as x approaches 2, have, limx :2 x  2 without regard to direction, we say the limit does not exist. If the direction was indicated, say as x approached 2+, then we would indicate the limit by + q . Visualizing what is happening is easy. Since x = 2 is not in the domain of the function, its graph may not cross the vertical line x = 2. (If it did, at the crossing, there would be a yvalue defined for x = 2.) To the left of this line, the yvalues are arbitrarily large and negative, while to the right of x = 2 the yvalues are arbitrarily large and positive. The line x = 2, which is drawn as a dotted line in Figure 3 is recognized to be a vertical asymptote. Note that to the left of x = 2 the yvalues are negative and (absolutely) large, while to its right the yvalues are positively large. More formally, we may redefine a vertical asymptote as follows:
Vertical Asymptotes
DEFINITION 2 If lim+ f1x2 = ; q or if lim f1x2 = ; q , then the function f has a
x :a x :a
vertical asymptote at x = a. Note that those xvalues at which the denominator is zero (and the numerator is not zero) usually produce the vertical asymptotes. Therefore, particular attention must be paid to the zeros of the denominator. Example 6 Determine lim+
x :3
x . x  3
Solution. Choose a value just to the right of 3, say 3.00001. We have, upon substitution, 3.00001/13.00001  32 = 300,001. This is a large positive number. Thus, we con
Figure 3: The Vertical Asymptote of 1 f1x2 = x  2
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208
Section 2.4
Limits at Infinity, Infinite Limits and Asymptotes
lude that, lim+
x :3
x = + q . It follows from Definition 2 that x = 3 is a vertical asx  3
mptote.
We may generalize the above example to obtain the following theorem, in which we assume n is a positive integer.
THEOREM 3
1 q n = + x : a 1x  a2 1 + q if n is an even integer limn = e q x : a 1x  a2 if n is an odd integer lim+ With appropriate modifications, the various methods used for evaluation of limits are valid for infinite limits and limits at infinity. However, it should be clear that for continuous functions, such as polynomials, one can calculate the limits intuitively as follows: Suppose f1x2 = P1x2/Q1x2, and P1a2 = N Z 0 while Q1a2 = 0. If we try to evaluate lim f1x2 by substitution we will have something of the form N/0. This really means that x :a in the limit, we are dividing a nonzero number very close to zero. This will give a result of very large magnitude. Hence we need only determine the sign of the quotient to know if the limit is + q or  q . Example 7 Determine:
0.5x
(a) lim+
x :2
1 ; 1x  223
(b) lim+
x :2
x ; 1x  223
(c) lim x : 4/3
2x  7 1  3x + 425
.
Figure 4: Illustrating an Incorrect Result Provided by the Calculator
Solution. (a) This follows immediately from Theorem 3 and we conclude that the limit is + q . (b) As x approaches 2+, the numerator approaches  2. The denominator is 1x  223, which must be positive since x 7 2. Therefore, we have  2 divided by a very small positive number. The quotient is negative and, hence, the limit is  q . (c) As x approaches 4/3, the numerator approaches  13/3. The denominator is 1  3x + 425, which is positive since x 6 4/3. Therefore, we have a negative number divided by a very small positive number, and the quotient is negative. The limit is thus  q.
Calculator Tips
Using horizontal an vertical asymptotes, along with the zeros and sign of the function we were able to produce a rough sketch of the graph of the function. However, missing from this sketch are the determination of any turning points of the functions, its peaks and valleys. We shall examine how to include such points, when they exist, in the next chapter. The Calculator can be used to determine limits, even as x becomes infinite (note that the q symbol is inserted by pressing *CATALOG). However, you need to be careful, as sometimes the calculator may give the wrong answer. Consider the following limit, lim 11 + .07/x20.5x. Using the calculator, we enter the limit and press Enter, see Figure 4. Note the calculator gives zero as the incorrect answer, the correct answer is approximately, 1.4191. How could you check to see if the calculator gives the correct result?
x: q
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Section 2.4
Limits at Infinity, Infinite Limits and Asymptotes
* **
209
EXERCISE SET 2.4
In Exercises 1 19 compute the indicated limit. 1. lim 2. lim 3x  7x 2x  3 5x2 + x + 3 6x2 + 7 3x4 + 7x  11
2 2 x: q
26. f1x2 = x/1x2  12 27. f1x2 = x/11 + x22 28. f1x2 = 4x2/1x2 + 42 29. f1x2 = 4x2/1x2  42 30. f1x2 = 3x2/1x + 122 In Exercises 3132 compute the indicated limit. 31. (a) lim 2x 2x 2 + 8 2x 2  1 x + 3
x: q
x: q
3. lim
5x5  3x + 2 2x3  7 4. lim x: q x + 1
x: q
(b) lim (b) lim
2x 2x 2 + 8
x: q
. (Hint: 2x2 =  x if x 6 0.)
5. (a) lim x2
x: q
(b) lim x 2
x: q 3
(c) lim x3
x: q
(d) lim x 3
x: q 3
6. (a) lim 7. lim 8.
 5x + x + 3
x: q
6x2 + 7 3 5x  2x + 1 2x  4 3x5  7x + 2 x  7 2x8 + 3x5 + 7x 5x
14 4 3
(b) lim
 5x + x + 3 6x2 + 7
32. (a) lim
x: q
x: q
2x 2  1 . x + 3
x: q
x: q
In Exercises 3336: (a) Find the xintercept(s); (b) Find the vertical asymptotes; (c) Find the horizontal asymptotes. (d) Sketch the graph 33. f1x2 = 13x  2212x + 322
x: q
lim
9. (a) lim
x: q
+ 7x + 2
9
(b) lim
2x8 + 3x 5 + 7x 5x14 + 7x9 + 2
x: q
10. lim 11. lim 12. lim
14x  3221x  12  121x + 122 x . + x2 12x  123  1221x + 52 1 x3 (b) limx:0
x : q 12x
x215x  32 2x 34. f1x2 = . 2x 2 + 1 2x 35. f1x2 = . 2x 2  1 1x  121x + 2221x  322 . 36. f1x2 = 1x + 12212x  323 37. Normally if we say a limit L exists, we mean that L is a finite number. In what follows, we allow L to stand for either + q or  q . Let anxn + a n  1xn  1 + Á + a 0 lim = L If the integer n  k 7 0, show q x : bkx k + bk  1x k  1 + Á + b0 that L is as given in Table 2 for each of the eight cases indicated:
x: q 1
x : q 13x
13. (a) lim+
x:0
1 x3
. 1 1x  322 x 1x  22
2
14. (a) lim+
x:3
1 1x  322 x 1x  22  32
2
(b) limx:3
.
Table 2
.
15. (a) lim+
x:2
(b) limx:2
n  k
even even even even odd odd odd odd
Sign of a nbk
positive positive negative negative positive positive negative negative
x approaches
+q q +q q +q q +q q
L
+q +q q q +q q q +q
16.
x : 3  1x
lim
1x + 22
x2  11x + 30 x2  11x + 30 17. (a) lim+ (b) lim + x:5 x : 5 x + 5 x + 5 1 1 . 18. (a) lim+ (b) lim + x : 5 1x + 523 x :  5 1x + 523 19.
x:2
lim
x  2 x2  4
In Exercises 20 30: (a) Find the xintercept(s); (b) Find the vertical asymptotes; (c) Find the horizontal asymptotes. (d) Sketch the graph. 20. f1x2 = 2x/1x  12 21. f1x2 = 12  x2/1x + 12 22. f1x2 = 12x  32/1x  12 23. f1x2 = 11 + 2x2/1x  32 24. f1x2 = 12x + 42/14  x2 25. f1x2 = x/12x  32 38. (a) Determine the xintercepts, (b) the vertical asymptotes, (c) the horizontal asymptotes and (d) Sketch the graph of the function whose equation is 8x3  2x + 3 f1x2 = . 4x3  5x2 + 1
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
210
* **
Section 2.5
Derivative Rules 2
yields f1x2 = 2x  4 + 14x2  44x + 5 2x3  7x + 9
39. (a) Determine the xintercepts, (b) the vertical asymptotes, (c) the horizontal asymptotes and (d) Sketch the graph of the function whose equation is 5x2  3 f1x2 = . You ll need to use your calculator to determine the 2x5  3x + 2 vertical asymptotes. Exercises 40 44 deal with oblique asymptotes. The line y = mx + b is called a slant or oblique linear asymptote of the function whose equation is y = f1x2 if either
x: q
This implies that the oblique asymptote is y = 2x  4. Using long division, find the oblique asymptotes in Exercises 41 42. 41. f1x2 = 12x2 + x  62/1x  12 42. f1x2 = 13x4  2x3 + 2x2  3x + 22/1x 3  12 43. Sketch the graph of the function in Exercise 41. 44. Sketch the graph of the function in Exercise 42. 45. The calculator gave the wrong limit for lim 11 + .07/x25x, how could you obtain an approximately accurate result?
x: q
lim 5f1x2  1mx + b26 = 0
or
x: q
lim 5f1x2  1mx + b26 = 0
40. Show that the given linear equation is a slant asymptote of y = f1x2 for (a) f1x2 = x2/1x + 12, y = x  1; (b) f1x2 = 1x3 + 2x + 32/ 1x2 + 5x  32, y = x  5 Long division of polynomials may be used to determine the oblique asymptotes of a rational function in which the degree of the numerator exceeds the degree of the denominator by one. For example, performing long division on f1x2 = 4x4  8x 3 + 2x + 5 2x3  7x + 9
46. Find the xvalues at which the graph in Exercise 33 crosses its horizontal asymptote. 47. Find the xvalues at which the graph in Exercise 36 crosses its horizontal asymptote.
2.5
» » »
Derivative Rules 2
The Product Rule The Quotient Rule Calculator Tips
The Product Rule
In Section 2.2, we began to develop the rules for finding the derivatives of simple functions. We can find the derivatives of powers of x and constant multiples of these powers. We can also handle sums and differences of functions whose derivatives we know. We shall now consider finding the derivatives of products and quotients of functions. Unlike the derivative of a sum, the derivative of a product is not the product of the derivatives nor is the derivative of a quotient the quotient of the derivatives. For example, consider y = x2. We know that y ¿ = 2x. However, we could write y = x2 = xx. If the derivative of the product were the product of the derivatives, then y ¿ = 1 # 1 = 1, which is clearly wrong. Therefore, let us start with the product rule. Assume that we have two differentiable functions, F(x) and S(x). (F for first , S for second .)
RULE 6 THE PRODUCT RULE
d 1F1x2S1x22 = F1x2S ¿ 1x2 + S1x2F ¿ 1x2 dx In words, the derivative of a product is the first (function) times the derivative of the second (function) plus the second times the derivative of the first. (The proof of the product rule can be found at the end of this section.)
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Section 2.5
Derivative Rules 2
211
Example 1 Find f ¿ 1x2 if f1x2 = x512x 3 + 12 Solution. We do not have to use the product rule to find f ¿ 1x2, all we need do is distribute the x5 term and use the rules developed in Section 2.2. As an exercise, you should do it that way and compare your solution to the one obtained using the product rule. f ¿ 1 x2 = x 5 d d 12x 3 + 12 + 12x 3 + 12 1x 52 = x5[6x 2] + 12x3 + 12[5x 4] dx dx
(We enclose the factor that was differentiated in square brackets [...], for easy detection.) Now simplifying, we have f ¿ 1x2 = 6x 7 + 10x 7 + 5x 4 = 16x7 + 5x 4.
As we already mentioned, Example 1 could have been done without using the product rule. However, there are products which can not be done any other way, as we shall soon see. Beginners often confuse the product rule with the constant multiplier rule. While it is true that you may apply the product rule in finding the derivative of an expression like 3x5, it should not be done. By the constant multiplier rule and power rule, its derivative is simply 5 # 3x 4 = 15x 4. The product rule is meant to be applied when both factors involve the variable. If one of the factors is a constant, use the constant multiplier rule! Let us now consider the quotient rule. Again, assume that we have two differentiable functions, N(x) and D(x)
The Quotient Rule
RULE 7 THE QUOTIENT RULE
D1x2N ¿ 1x2  N1x2D ¿ 1x2 d N1x2 a b = dx D1x2 [D1x2]2 In words, the quotient rule says the derivative of the quotient is the bottom (denominator) times the derivative of the top (numerator) minus the top times the derivative of the bottom divided by the bottom squared. (The proof of the quotient rule is left for you as an exercise.) Example 2 Find f ¿ 1x2 if f1x2 = Solution. 3x  2 4x  5
Applying the quotient rule, we have, 14x  52[3]  13x  22[4] 14x  52
2
f ¿ 1x2 =
=
12x  15  12x + 8 7 = 2 14x  52 14x  522
(Again note that the square brackets [ ] indicate the expression that was differentiated.) Note that the sign in front of the 8 is + . To avoid any distribution errors, observe that  13x  22142 =  413x  22. It is absolutely essential that each term be enclosed within its own parenthesis. Not doing so is incorrect, and will often result in algebraic errors.
Example 3 Find f ¿ 1x2 if f1x2 =
x2 . 4x 2 + 1
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
212
Section 2.5
Derivative Rules 2
Solution.
Applying the quotient rule, we have, 14x2 + 12[2x]  1x 22[8x] 14x2 + 122 = 8x 3 + 2x  8x 3 2x = 2 2 2 14x + 12 14x + 122
f ¿ 1x2 =
(Again note that the square brackets [ ] indicate the expression that was differentiated.)
Example 4 1x2  621x  32 Find the equation of the line tangent to y = at the point when x = 4. 2 1x + 1 Solution. First, substitution of x = 4, yields y = 2. Now take the derivative to find the slope of the tangent line. Notice that the numerator of the fraction is itself a product. First use the quotient rule, 52 1x + 16 y¿ = d d 51x 2  621x  326  1x 2  621x  32 52 1x + 16 dx dx 12 1x + 122
Now, the first term in the numerator has a factor that is the derivative of a product. For this we need the product rule. In addition, in order to take the derivative of +x, in the second 1/2 . numerator term, remember that 1x = x1/2. Thus, 1 1x2 ¿ = 1 2x Thus, y ¿ 1x2 = 12 1x + 1251x2  62[1] + 1x  32[2x]6  51x 2  621x  326[x 1/2] 12 1x + 122
We would ordinarily simplify this expression algebraically, but here we only need the value of the derivative at x = 4. Since it is easier to do arithmetic than algebra, let us sub1 stitute x = 4 directly. Note that 24 = 2 and 4 *2 = 1/ 24 = 1*2. mtan142 = 5152[1102 + 112182]  A 1*2 B 11021126/1522 = 85/25 = 17/5 Hence, the equation of the tangent line is y  2 = 117/521x  42 or 5y = 17x  58.
d 2 2 1x 2 =  2x 3 = 3 however, dx x we have not yet proven the power rule when the power is negative. We can use the quotient rule along with the power rule for positive powers to establish its validity. In this particular case, We know, by direct application of the power rule, that d 2 x2[0]  1[2x] d 1  2x 2 1x 2 = a 2b = = =  2x 3 = 3 4 4 dx dx x x x x More generally, let N be any positive integer, then we shall show, that d N 1x 2 =  Nx N  1 dx That is, we bring down the power and decrease the power by one.
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Section 2.5
Derivative Rules 2
213
x N[0]  1[Nx N  1] d N d 1 1x 2 = a Nb = dx dx x 1xN22 =  NxN  1 =  Nx N  1  2N =  Nx N  1 x 2N
When the power rule was applied, it was on the denominator term, xN, which has a posibM tive exponent. In the next to the last step we used the law of exponents N = bM  N. b
Thus, we have proven that the power rule is valid for any integer. We have yet to show that it is true for all rational and irrational powers. Example 5 x4  2x 5 + 7 , find f ¿ 1x2. If f1x2 = 3x2 Solution. We could apply the quotient rule, but it is not necessary. x4 2x 5 7 2 3 7 2 2 + = 1 3x  3x + 3x 2 2 3x 3x 3x 2
14 3 3 x
Observe that we may write f1x2 = so
2 f ¿ 1 x2 = 2 3 x  2x 
Alternately, by combining fractions, we may write f ¿ 1x2 = 2x 4  6x 5  14 . 3x3
The quotient rule is usually applied when the denominator is a sum (or difference) of two or more terms. If the denominator consists of one term, as in the above example, it is often more efficient to rewrite the expression and apply the other rules. We conclude this section with a derivation of the product rule. The proof uses the definition along with a very clever trick of adding and subtracting a function that gives us recognizable difference quotients. The same kind of trick may be used to prove the quotient rule, which we leave to the exercises. Consider P1x2 = F1x2S1x2, that is, P12 = F12S12. Then: Step 1. P1x + h2 = F1x + h2S1x + h2 P1x2 = F1x2S1x2 Step 2. P1x + h2  P1x2 = F1x + h2S1x + h2  F1x2S1x2 Step 3. P1x + h2  P1x2 F1x + h2S1x + h2  F1x2S1x2 = h h
We do not yet recognize the difference quotient. However, if we add zero written as the terms  F1x + h2S1x2 + F1x + h2S1x2 then we may rewrite the numerator of the difference quotient as
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
214
* **
Section 2.5
Derivative Rules 2
F1x + h2S1x + h2  F1x + h2S1x2 + F1x + h2S1x2  F1x2S1x2. Factoring we have the numerator as, F1x + h25S1x + h2  S1x26 + S1x25F1x + h2  F1x26 Dividing the numerator by h, we have, F1x + h2 a S1x + h2  S1x2 h b + S1x2a F1x + h2  F1x2 b h
If we now allow h to approach zero, then the difference quotients enclosed in the large parentheses become S ¿ 1x2 and F ¿ 1x2 respectively. Since F is continuous, F1x + h2 approaches F(x) as h approaches 0, thus, Step 4. P ¿ 1x2 = F1x2S ¿ 1x2 + S1x2F ¿ 1x2. * It certainly was a clever trick to add on and subtract off the term F1x + h2S1x2. It is surprising how often mathematical proofs hinge upon just such tricks. However, we shall see another way of deriving this result when we study logarithmic differentiation. It may happen that your answer for a derivative appears different from the answer given in the text. Sometimes it may take some clever algebraic manipulations to show the answers are equivalent. There is a way around this using your calculator, using the solve command. Suppose text answer is the answer given by the text, and your answer is the one you obtained. We assume the independent variable is x. Enter solve1text answer = your answer, x2 If, after pressing Enter, the calculator responds with TRUE then you know the answers are equivalent, if it responds FALSE then they are not. For example, suppose your an1x + 122 1 s answer is swer is and the text , then we need only enter x  1 1x + 123/21x  121/2 Ax + 1 solve11x + 12¿122/*11x  12/1x + 122 = 1/1x + 12¿13/22*1x  12¿11/22, x2 If this is entered properly the TI 89 responds with TRUE.
Calculator Tips
EXERCISE SET 2.5
1. f1x2 = 17x3213x4  92. Find f ¿ 1x2 in two different ways. 2. f1x2 = 15x + 2212x + 92. Find f ¿ 1x2 in two different ways. 3. f1x2 = 1x2 + 221x4  72. Find f ¿ 1x2 in two different ways. 4. f1x2 = x612x4  3x + 42. Find f ¿ 1x2 in two different ways. 5. Find f ¿ 1x2 if f1x2 = 6. Find y ¿ if y = dy x2
2 6 4
8. Find y ¿ if y = 9. Find 10. Find
4x3 + 5 2x2 + 7
.
d 3 a b by (a) using the power rule and; (b) using the quotient rule. dx x2
2x + 3 3x  2
d x5  2x 2 + 3 a b by: (a) writing it as a sum of powers and; 4x dx (b) using the quotient rule. d 4x6 + 3x 3  8x a b by: (a) writing it as a sum of powers and; dx 6x5 (b) using the quotient rule.
x + 1 3  5x 7. Find if y = . dx x + 3
11. Find
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
use them to get an idea of the shape of the graph of y = f1x2 between x = 0 and x = 4. This two stage process is typical of a composite function. T and W are each differentiable functions. that is. what do you think y ¿ is. (c) Write the expression x3 . 17. Observe that N1x2 = N1x2 d N1x2 D1x2a b .1 29. x to a power. F(x) can be thought of as [g1x2]34. if y = [F1x2]N. A cubic equation of the form y = ax3 + bx 2 + cx + d having three distinct roots (xintercepts) x1. for: (a) f1x2 = x 1 *2/1x + 12.4x in factored form and find the roots of x3 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. S. f1x2 = x = 1. by Warren B. . x2.6 In Exercises 12 15. find the derivative of this expression. Let y = x3 . x2 . may be written as y = a1x . Now differentiate both sides and solve for a b. where g1x2 = 2x3 + 5. the point where the x : a g1x2 provided g ¿ (a) Z 0. where F.3 1x + 121x2 . Applied Calculus for Business.3x + 22 x4 + 1 4 x + 3x2 . (b) Find the equations of the tangent lines at x = 0.8 x2 + 3 The Chain Rule * ** 215 line crosses the xaxis. Use the results of the previous exercise to compute each of the following limx3 . 21. x = 1. 16. x = 2. where 1x0. Show that in words it says: to multiply two factors by the derivative of the third factor. We can only handle functions like x N or sums. f1x2 = 13. y02 is midway between two successive roots.1. and do this in all three possible ways and add the results.1 . remember that A2 = A # A. f1x2 = 1x4 . Explain the relationship between the answers in parts (a) and (b) of Exercises 16 and 17. Economics. 12. x3 + 12 15. 2. x3.] 19. . (a) Show that lim f1x2 = f ¿ 1a2 g ¿ 1a2 18.3. to compute F(x).] (c) Guess the product rule for y = F1x2S1x2T1x2W1x2. x = 2 x = 2 x = 1 14.4x. has the third root as its xintercept. Thus. Find all points at which the derivative of y = 1x2 . This exercise illustrates how derivatives may be used to compute limits in one f1x2 very special and important case. 1. That is. Consider lim . Show that the tangent line to the curve at 1x0. and then raise the result to the 34th power. 20. (b) f1x2 = 1x + 12/x 1 *2. 25. (b) Show that if the derivatives of both f and g are continuous functions then the above result may be written as x : a g1x2 lim f1x2 = lim f ¿ 1x2 x : a g ¿ 1x2 This result is a special case of a theorem known as L Hôpital s rule. and T are each differentiable functions. f1x2 = x2 a b. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. (b)Find the xintercept of the tangent line. 26. Wang. It is not simply of the form.x32 (why?). where f and g are differx : a g1x2 entiable functions with f1a2 = g1a2 = 0. its: (a) lim (b) lim x:2 x . (a) Find the equation of the line tangent to this curve at x = 1.x12 1x .Section 2. However. (d) Rewrite (b) if F = S = T. you first find 2x 3 + 5. Gordon. products and quotients of such functions. 28.x221x . y02. determine the equation of the tangent line to the given curve at the indicated xvalue. (e) Using (c). and Finance. as yet. and x = 3. we are severely limited in the types of functions that we can differentiate. Explain where the fact that a differentiable function must be continuous was assumed in the proof of the product rule for derivatives. where F. Here is another way to derive the quotient rule.422 is equal to zero.] 24. Prove the quotient rule using the same kind of trick that was used for the product rule. D1x2 dx D1x2 22.8 x4 . Repeat Exercise 16. where N is a positive integer? 23. 27. (b) Verify the result obtained in Exercise 24 for the tangent lines drawn to the curve at x = 3 and x = . (a) What happens to the product rule if F1x2 = S1x2? (b) Derive a product rule for y = F1x2S1x2T1x2.4x = 0.2 x:1 x . [Hint: To find the derivative. S.2x2 + 321x3 + 12. [Hint: Consider 5F1x2S1x26T1x2 and apply the product rule twice. Find those points at which the tangent line to y = f1x2 is horizontal for: (a) f1x2 = x/1x2 + 12.1. Do you see any relationship between these roots and the intercept of the tangent line? [See Exercise 24 below. how do we find the derivative of F1x2 = 12x3 + 5234? It is important that you understand why we cannot. Hint: Use the alternate definition of the derivative as given in Exercise 37 in Section 3. it is an expression raised to a power. and 5 and f102 = 30. . (a) Find the cubic y = f1x2 with roots .3x . (c) Sketch short segments of the tangent lines found in (b). Inc. Walter O.6 The Chain Rule » » » The Chain Rule The General Power Rule Calculator Tips Even with the product and quotient rules. For the function y = x/1x2 + 12: (a) Find the derivative. and April Allen Materowski. Hint: let g1x2 = 1/f1x2 and find g ¿ 1x2 using the quotient rule.
For example. . we would obtain a different composite function. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Walter O. But. namely y = g1f1x22. In our example. Inc. and so. It is easy to determine the composite function once we are given the component functions. y = g1x2 and we represent the process by boxlike figures which are attached in series as in Figure 2. to find g(f(x)). x goes into the gbox and 2x 3 + 5 comes out. Solution. which is called a composite function. To find f(g(x)). The boxlike figure indicates the rule or correspondence used in determining y. we review the notion of a composite function as discussed in Section 1. x+ + f(x) = y Figure 1: Function Diagram y = f1x2 Thus. by Warren B. Wang. we fill the parentheses in g() with f(x). Example 1 Find the composite functions f(g(x)) and g(f(x)) if: (a) f1x2 = x23 and g1x2 = x 3 + 11. f1g1x22 = 1x3 + 11223. All such x will give us the domain of the combined function y = f1g1x22. x must be such that it is in the domain of g. we know that g1x2 = x 3 + 11. g1f1x22 = 1f1x223 + 11 = 1x2323 + 11 = x69 + 11. Notice the answers are not the same. the f box first followed by the g box. and April Allen Materowski. We note that if the boxes were switched. we might have f1x2 = x34. Economics. and Finance. Similarly. the corresponding range value is y = f1x2.) x+ g (x) + f(g(x)) + g f Figure 2: Composite Function Box Diagram for f(g(x)) We note that in order to obtain the final output. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Suppose now that we have a second function. (For example. and g(x) is in the domain of f. g1x2 = 2x3 + 5. as the next example illustrates.216 * ** Section 2. This then goes into the fbox and comes out 12x3 + 5234. Thus. we fill the parentheses in f() with g(x). if x is in the domain. Thus f1g1x22 = 1g1x2223. (b) f1x2 = 1x and g1x2 = 3x2 + 5.6 The Chain Rule Before we give the rule which will enable us to differentiate such functions. Gordon. (a) f12 = 1223 and g12 = 123 + 11.2 where we saw that it is sometimes convenient to represent a function by a diagram as given in Figure 1. Applied Calculus for Business.
for now. If we have a function H(x) that we want to decompose as f(g(x)). given the function H1x2 = 1x2 + 9234.2. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. it is more useful to think of this one as T1x2 = f1g1x22 + 5h1g1x22. Inc. Gordon. where g1x2 = x2 + 9. Let u = g1x2. If we let g1x2 = x3 . f1x2 = x 2 and h1x2 = x 6 The choice of decomposition soon becomes very natural. the outer function. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. f12 = 212 and g12 = 3122 + 5. then we could choose f1x2 = *x and g1x2 = 1x 2 + 2216.2. Of course. (a) D1x2 = 134x 3 + 9x + 11254 (b) T1x2 = 1x3 . Economics. this kind of decomposition is not a natural one.2. Now. and April Allen Materowski. We assume that all component functions are differentiable over common domains. that is g1x2 = 34x3 + 9x + 11 and f1x2 = x54. consider the function H1x2 = 1x2 + 228 we could write this as 21x 2 + 2216. We shall sometimes refer to g(x) as the core or inner function. For example. f1g1x22 = 21g1x2) = 213x2 + 112. We shall give a rule that will enable us to determine the derivative of the composite function by thinking of it in terms of its components. that is. then H ¿ 1x2 = f ¿ 1g1x22g ¿ (x) Sometimes the chain rule is written a little differently. the expression being g(x) and the power function being f(x).Section 2. f(x) is the power function. (b) Inspection of T(x) shows that it is the sum of two terms. g1f1x22 = 31f1x222 + 5 = 31*x22 + 5 = 3x + 5 Now we can pose the reverse question. RULE 8 THE CHAIN RULE Given H1x2 = f1g1x22. you should look for the natural decomposition. Since we can handle the derivatives of sums of functions independently. as in (b) above but they are not very helpful. Each term involves within the parentheses. D1x2 = f1g1x22. (a) D(x) looks like something to the 54th power so we call the expression within the parentheses. choose f(x) to be a simple function and g(x) to be the messy or inner part. As a guideline. That is. Think of H1x2 = f1g1x22. where g1x2 = x3 . For example. but this will not be a problem for us. We will indicate why this is so shortly. try the following. Example 2 Rewrite each function as the composition of two functions. the natural decomposition is f1x2 = x 8 and g1x2 = x2 + 2. you will soon see that for purposes of finding derivatives. Similarly. . Then we may write dy dy du dH = = dx dx du dx The Chain Rule Applied Calculus for Business.222 + 51x 3 . It was very natural to choose this as the decomposition. The rule is called the chain rule. In fact. the expression x 3 . Functions defined by expressions such as 12x 3 + 5234. but it could be done. and y = H1x2 = f1u2. since the function H(x) was some expression to a power. Now we can return to the original question posed at the opening of this section. Wang. but the decomposition may not be unique. the only good choice for f(x). g(x).6 The Chain Rule 217 (b) In this case. Hence. by Warren B. and T1x2 = f1g1x22.226 Solution. then T1x2 = [g1x2]2 + 5[g1x2]6. will be the power function x N. so let f12 = 1234. and Finance. then H1x2 = 1g1x2234. Walter O. given a composite function. This is not the natural thing to do. There are other decompositions that one could choose. can we decompose it into its component functions? The answer is yes. Even when using the power function. There is almost always a natural or suggested decomposition that will be obvious. Now. f1x2 = x 34. we can write H(x) as the composition of two very simple functions. we let f1x2 = x 2 + 5x6. that we want to be able to differentiate are composite functions.
since f is a composite function. Economics. In addition. To find the slope we must find the derivative.121 and use the chain rule. that is bring down the power and decrease the power by one and then multiply this expression by the derivative of the inner part. We illustrate the chain rule (general power rule) with several examples. By the general power rule y ¿ = 1 . Thus. we need to find m. Thus. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. we have: The General Power Rule RULE 8A THE GENERAL POWER RULE If H1x2 = 1g1x22N then H ¿ 1x2 = N1g1x22N . f ¿ 1x2 = 23x22. let us rewrite it as y = 413x . # # # Example 4 Find the equation of the line tangent to y = 4 at the point where x = 1. we could think of the function as a quotient and use the quotient rule. Therefore. Gordon. It is derived by simply letting f1x2 = xN. which is g ¿ 1x2. Now.4213x . y = . Note that we never really need to do the decomposition in this detail. Since f ¿ 1x2 = Nx N . Wang. The required equation is then y . Instead. We must multiply by a correction factor.1. H ¿ 1x2 = 2313x 2 + 7222 6x = 138x13x 2 + 7222. f ¿ 1g1x22 = 231g1x2222 = 2313x 2 + 7222. thus we immediately have. However. we have H ¿ 1x2 = f ¿ 1g1x22 g ¿ 1x2 = 2313x 2 + 7222 6x = 138x13x 2 + 7222. the general power rule states that we use the simple rule on the power. Walter O. by Warren B. this is not all there is to it. the most important application of the chain rule is to functions of the form [g1x2]N. Thus. Example 3 Find H ¿ 1x2 if H1x2 = 13x2 + 7223 Solution.2 = m1x . We may write H1x2 = f1g1x22 where f1x2 = x23 and g1x2 = 3x2 + 7.12. and Finance.122 Applied Calculus for Business.6 The Chain Rule The chain rule states the following: To find the derivative of a composite function. the derivative of the core function. This is known as the General Power Rule. g ¿ 1x2 = 6x.1213x . Of course. Basically. Inc. where the factor 3 is the derivative of the inner or core function 3x .1 Solution. you first apply the usual rule on f. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.1 dx dx where u is a differentiable function of x.1g ¿ 1x2 or more simply as du d N u = NuN . At this point.12 13x . and April Allen Materowski. the slope of the tangent line. .218 Section 2. we find y = 2 (verify!).1.122132. when x = 1. 3x .122 = .
Wang. you might want to know where the derivative is equal to zero.6 The Chain Rule 219 At x = 1. However. and April Allen Materowski. Thus. d 2 d 1x + 3x + 525 + 1x 2 + 3x + 525 1x 42 dx dx f ¿ 1x2 = x4 Applying the chain rule (general power rule) to the derivative of S(x). we may use it along with some of the other rules to differentiate more complicated functions. find f ¿ 112. The more complicated part could well be performing the algebraic simplifications. reduces the expression to f ¿ 1x2 = 2x31x2 + 3x + 524114x2 + 27x + 202.Section 2.31x . You might even need to know the derivative of the derivative function. Factoring the common factor x31x2 + 3x + 524. consider the next example. yields f ¿ 1x2 = x31x 2 + 3x + 52455x12x + 32 + 41x 2 + 3x + 526. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and factoring out a 2. asking us to compute the derivative.2 = . therefore.12/22 = .3. we have Applying the product rule with F1x2 = x4 and S1x2 = 1x2 + 3x + 525. Of course. by the chain rule. by Warren B. Example 5 If f1x2 = x41x 2 + 3x + 525.3x + 5 Now that we have the chain rule. The application of the various differentiation rules is usually the easier part. or to determine the equation of the tangent line at a particular point. mtan112 = . Example 6 If f1x2 = Solution. if the problem is numerical. Gordon. In such cases. x2 + 8 Applied Calculus for Business. find f ¿ 1x2. then the algebra is not necessary. you would have to simplify f ¿ 1x2. To show you how easy it is to find the derivative of a complicated expression if it is to be evaluated at a particular point. All that has to be done is to use the appropriate rules and then substitute a number for the independent variable immediately after the differentiation. in many problems. Inc.12 or y = . as you will see in the following chapters. we get f ¿ 1x2 = x4 51x 2 + 3x + 524 12x + 32 + 1x 2 + 3x + 525 4x 3. # # # The algebra probably takes as least as long as the differentiation. Walter O. x2 + 3 . Distributing the 5x. the equation of the tangent line is y . We have concluded the calculus portion of the problem. we have. For example. you will be doing the differentiation part of the problem very quickly. and Finance. that is. combining like terms within the braces. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. We illustrate both approaches in the next few examples. . you might need to work with the derivative function. Economics. With practice. Solution. Let us do that now. B x2 + 8 We write f1x2 = a x 2 + 3 1/2 b .
To differentiate y 5 properly. if the differentiation were with respect to any other variable. whenever the inner expression is different from the independent variable. there is no question that the chain rule is not applied because we are differentiatdx ing xN with respect to x. if we want to determine 1y 2. as usual. then we would need to use the chain rule.1x + 32[2x] a 2 a b b 2 x + 8 1x2 + 822 We may now substitute x = 1 to find. if we want to differentiate f(g(x)) with respect to x. Example 7 Determine: (a) d 16 + 2x2 + y 52 dx (b) d 2 3 1x y 2 dx Solution. f ¿ 112 + 1 4 1/2 9122 . We want to find the derivative. Economics. remember that y is some function of x and use the chain rule. and Finance. the chain rule must be applied. d Consider 1x22. .4122 1 9 10 1 3 10 5 a b a b = a b = = . we have dy d N 1y 2 = Ny N . dy d 16 + 2x 2 + y 52 = 4x + 5y 4 dx dx Applied Calculus for Business.220 Section 2. f ¿ 1x2 = 1 x 2 + 3 1/2 # d x 2 + 3 a a b b dx x2 + 8 2 x2 + 8 2 2 1 x2 + 3 1/2 1x + 82[2x] . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. therefore. Thus. as the derivative. However. that is. Inc. More dx generally. but that would have involved steps that are not needed in determining the derivative at the given xvalue. any time we take the derivative of a variable that is different from x. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. of dt x2. the chain rule must be dt dx dy applied since the variables are not in agreement.1 dx dx we recognize this derivative as a restatement of the extended power rule. Similarly. but the derivative of y5 is not simply 5y 4. then the chain rule must be applied whenever g1x2 Z x. Wang. Walter O. the chain rule must be applied and dx d 5 the derivative is 2x . We have. There is another way of describing when the chain rule must be applied. More precisely.6 The Chain Rule f ¿ 1x2 = Using the quotient rule. Observe that we are differentiating with respect to the variable x. Consider d N 1x 2. It is understood that x is a function of t. 5y 4 . Gordon. with respect to the variable t. and April Allen Materowski. (a) The derivative of 6 will be zero and the derivative of 2x 2 is 4x. by Warren B. 2 2 A 4 81 2 2 81 54 2 9 9 We could have simplified before we did the evaluation. the chain rule must be applied.
we can find its derivative with respect to x without any thought to the process using the calculator.6 The Chain Rule 221 (b) In this case. 29. y = .Section 2. The answer it gives may not always be in the form we want it.2. . 2x . . h1x2 = 12x . Find f ¿ 1x2 if f1x2 = 22x3 + 3x + 2. 1x + 123 2 2 2 20. g1x2 = 1/x. dy (b) d 7 1y 2. thinking of x 2 as F(x) and y3 as S(x).6x + 223. Find dw/dr if w = 15r2 . Find y ¿ if y = 1x . f1x2 = g1x2 = 5. f1x2 = 3x . Inc. whose composition f(g(x)) will result in the given function h(x). 8. 1x2 + 123 27. 4. 24. variable) where d is the derivative symbol above the number 8. 9. 22. As we mentioned before.123 19. 25u2 + 9 18. h1x2 = a 2x + 3 3 b . y = 13t2 + 2t21/2. find the equation of the tangent line to the curve at the given xvalue. Consider x2 + 3 d a b . 6. Given any differentiable function. g1x2 = x 1 . The key idea is the following: if you are differentiating a function of one variable with respect to a different variable. h1x2 = 15x . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. where we will want to find the slope of a curve whose equation is not in the explicit form y = f1x2.729. the calculator can differentiate functions very easily. h1x2 = 13x2 .121/2. Ax . dy dy d d d 2 3 1x y 2 = x 2 1y 32 + y 3 1x22 = x 23y 2 + y 32x = 3x2y 2 + 2xy 3 dx dx dx dx dx Calculator Tips We shall have a lot more to say about this in Section 2. 17. f1x2 = x3.1 7. 4 . The syntax is d(expression.222/31r2 . Find dy/dx if y = x61x2 . dx B x2 + 8 Figure 3: Differentiation Using the TI 89 EXERCISE SET 2.123. Find y ¿ if y = 2 . x . 2x2 + 4 13. find: (a) f(g(x)) and. y = 15x2 . Walter O.7x + 1241 . and Finance. find dy/dx.3x + 7.6t + 127. Find ds/dt if s = 13t2 + 1221t3 . g1x2 = 2x3 . Wang. expression is the function to be differentiated.32 1x + 2x + 828. find dy/dt.2 . it does all the work for us. Applied Calculus for Business.122 + 5. x . 16. f1x2 = 1/x. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. dx (c) x = 2 x = 1. x = 0 x = 0 d A 1x5 + 12y7 B dx 1 x . y = 1x + 822/315x3 . and April Allen Materowski. find f ¿ 1x2. 2. x + 4 g1x2 = x 2.1 25. by Warren B. 23.928. Economics. Find dr/du if r = 21. Find dv/dt if v = t2 # 2 3 12t + 822 In Exercises 26 29. 1x + 124 28. 1x2 . and variable is the differentiation variable. Compute: (a) d 7 1y 2.x In Exercises 8 12. Find dy/dx if y = x + 1 .7x + 1621/2 30. 10.7x + 223/4. f1x2 = 1x2 + 3x + 1217. f1x2 = x + 5. f1x2 = .1 3. 1 . y = 1x2 . Gordon. 15. y = 12x2 . 12. 1. then the chain rule must be applied.4 3 3/5 11. g1x2 = x. (b) g(f(x)). but that can be easily resolved.123 + 512x .1 20 .6 In Exercises 1 7. find two functions f and g. f1x2 = x2 + 2x + 1. we must start with the product rule. h1x2 = 14.7x + 32 . Find dv/dt if v = t # 2 3 t2 . 26.8. g1x2 = 1x. see Figure 3.
We will first examine how the derivative is used in microeconomics. what can you say about the points of horizontal tangency of f(x) and [f1x2]N? 41. In many disciplines. (b) Repeat for f1x2 = x 2 . determine A L1x2 + 12 B . (a) Given f1x2 = x2 . 45. 38. Walter O.42106 *2. dx 43. Gordon. That is. the total cost will not be a linear function. that for a manufacturer.1. Suppose you are given a function defined by the equation y = T1x2 whose d derivative T ¿ 1x2 = S21x2. A man sells pretzels at a small refreshment stand in a shopping mall. where x = the number of pretels that he buys. Hint: let y = 12x + x422. of producing x items is given by the equation C1x2 = x 2 + 70x + 2000. The slope is known as the marginal cost.3x + 2 and g1x2 = 1x2 . Suppose y = L1x2 where d d 1E1x22 = E1x2. (b) Find the derivative. Wang. is a constant. for more complex situations.222 * ** Section 2. try to find f(x) by guessing. Given f ¿ 1x2 = 18x13x2 + 922. Let us begin by looking at a very simple. $800. Inc. Thus. (c) What can you deduce about the relationship of the zeroes of f(x) and g(x) and the zeroes of their derivatives? (d) In general. dx x dx 33. This expression is called a linear total cost function. 5 dx 1x + 12 1 31. and other fixed costs total $800 per month. Given H1x2 = 551x2 . dx dx 37. 1*2. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. the slope and hence the marginal cost. and y = f1x22. dx du dx 44. his total cost. try to find f(x) by guessing. His rent for the stall. of course. determine A E1x22 B . Later on in the text. He buys the pretzels from a wholesaler for 50¢ or 1*2 dollar apiece. producing) one additional item. Given f ¿ 1x2 = 6x 51x 6 + 5210. Find the points of horizontal tangency for f(x) and g(x). 39. find dy/dx. determine A T1x22 B . (c) Find a general rule for the derivative of this. you will find the derivative being used as a quantitative tool. but possible. If f ¿ 1u2 = u2 . Find B 1x2 + 227 2. Find d A 32x + 23x + 14x B . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. d d 36. is the slope. u + 1 While we have stated the chain rule. insurance.4210. dy d 3 1y + 3y2 + 4210 dx u2 . (a) Rewrite H(x) in the form f(g(h(x))). of doing business each month is given by the function C1x2 = 1*2 x + 800. for the most part we examined the special case of the generalized power rule. Compute (c) d 3 1y + 3y2 + 42. dx 40. Suppose. You can see that his overhead. try to find f(x) by guessing. Given f ¿ 1x2 = 48x31x 4 + 5212. u = x3 dy dy du and use = .1 2 32. Suppose y = E1x2 where 35. In Exercises 34 36 we anticipate other applications of the chain rule. economic situation. For the linear function. dx 3 2 5 3 d 13x + 122 12x . it costs the producer money even if he Applied Calculus for Business. find A T12x32 B . if f(x) is any function. by Warren B. 34. triple composition. he or she is doing nothing more than examining the derivative of a function. dx dx d d 1 A L1x2 B = . socalled. You will see that when an economist discusses marginal functions. and April Allen Materowski. as we have been dealing only with algebraic type functions. If f ¿ 1u2 = .7 » » » » » Marginal Functions and Rates of Change Marginal Functions Average Cost Velocity Average and Instantaneous Rates of Change Calculator Tips Marginal Functions The slope of a curve is only one interpretation of the derivative.4. utility bills. the total cost. It is the cost of acquiring (or in the case of a manufacturer. and g1x2 = 1x2 . Economics.423 + 1x2 . for example. Differentiate 12x + x422 with respect to x3.3x + 2215. such as in the natural or social sciences. and y = f1x32. . is the yintercept and the cost per item. 42. and Finance. in dollars. However. in dollars. Suppose y = T1x2 where A T1x2 B = S21x2. find dy/dx. Notice that the overhead cost is C102 = $2000. we shall consider other kinds of functions which will utilize the chain rule.7 (a) Marginal Functions and Rates of Change (b) d 3 1y + 3y 2 + 42.92 + * when x = 1.
then we have the following definition.C1992. which is $19. that is.000.C1992. R1x + 12 . by Warren B. (b) Find C ¿ 11002 and interpret this derivative. the revenue derived by the producer when x + 1 items are sold. E ¿ 1x2. is approximately equal to the marginal function at level x or level x . and the total profit function by P(x).12 1 Thus. while the cost of producing 99 items is C1992 = 992 + 701992 + 2000 = $18. then we would obtain the approximation. If we let E(x) represent any of these economic functions.E1x2 h:0 h E1x + h2 . the marginal revenue is approximately equal to the derivative of the revenue function.000 . We should also observe that if we allow h = . in dollars. the total revenue function by R(x). Example 1 Given that the cost.E1x2 = E1x2 .E1x2 L E ¿ 1x2.731 = $269.731. we have E ¿ 1x2 L E1x + 12 . If we denote the total cost function by C(x). P1x + 12 . (ii) the 101st radio. and the marginal profit is approximately equal to the derivative of the profit function. and Finance. E ¿ 1x2 L E1x . is called the marginal profit at x. DEFINITION 1 C1x + 12 . Gordon.E1x . Thus. the derivative of the economic function is approximately equal to the marginal function.1 (remember.$18.Section 2. (a)(i) We need to compute C11002 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Inc. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. E1x + 12 . then we have. Wang. Economics. then we shall show that the marginal economic function.1. and April Allen Materowski. the marginal cost is approximately equal to the derivative of the cost function.7 Marginal Functions and Rates of Change * ** 223 does not produce anything.C1x2.R1x2. of producing x short wave radios is C1x2 = x2 + 80x + 3500. Assuming that each of these economic functions is differentiable. the cost of producing the x + 1st item. we can approach the point on the curve from either the left or right). Applied Calculus for Business. the producers profit due to the x + 1st item. is called the marginal cost at production level x. then E ¿ 1x2 L In most real cases it happens that h = 1 makes this approximation valid.E1x2 That is.12 . Consider the expression C11002 .500. It represents the cost of producing the 100th item. Walter O. the derivative. .E1x2 h Now suppose that h is sufficiently small. Solution. is called the marginal revenue at x. (a) Find the cost of producing: (i) the 100th radio. The cost of producing 100 items is C11002 = 1002 + 7011002 + 2000 = $19. Economists call this difference the marginal cost when the production level is 99. C11002 = 1002 + 8011002 + 3500 = 21. from the definition of the derivative that E ¿ 1x2 = lim E1x + h2 .P1x2.
by Warren B. (Notice.E1x . where p is the per unit price in dollars. and C ¿ 1x2 the marginal average cost at x.C11002 = $281. The percent error in the approximation is less than 0. What does this profit represent? (g) What can you conclude about the profit at the price obtained in (e)? Solution. Economics. from Chapter 1 that the total revenue. Thus. We shall answer these questions in the next chapter. C ¿ 11002 = 280. the marginal cost at level 99 is C11002 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.4%. If the producer s cost is C1x2 = 600x + 3000: (a) Determine the revenue function. we have the following definition.E1x2. while there are others that you seek to maximize (revenue and profit). denoted by C1x2 is defined as. or level 100. Applied Calculus for Business. DEFINITION 2 The average cost function.0. drawing the tangent line when the marginal profit is zero. C11012 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. (or for E1x2 . Average Cost C1x2 = C1x2 x There are natural questions that can be posed at this time.7 Marginal Functions and Rates of Change C1992 = 992 + 801992 + 3500 = 21. (b) Determine the marginal revenue function. (d) Determine the marginal profit function. C11012 = 21. C ¿ 1x2 = 2x + 80. we shall call C ¿ 1x2 the marginal cost at x. C ¿ 11002 may be used to approximate the marginal cost at level 99. R ¿ 1x2 the marginal revenue at x. Therefore.000. Thus.C11002.224 Section 2. (a) If we solve the demand equation for price. We shall assume that the derivative E ¿ 1x2 is such a good approximation for the marginal function E1x + 12 . Example 2 below examines one such question when the demand and cost functions are linear. . what should the level of production be to minimize your total cost? How do you maximize your revenue? How do you maximize your profit? How do you minimize your average cost? Notice that there are certain functions that you want to minimize (cost and average cost). P ¿ 1x2 the marginal profit at x.12) that we shall not distinguish between them. we found that the cost of producing 100 radios was $21. (c) Determine the profit function. Wang. What is the average cost per radio? All we have to do is to divide the total cost by 100 to obtain the average cost per radio as $215. (e) What is the price for each color television when the marginal profit is zero? (f) Sketch the profit function.) In the above example.00. That is. and April Allen Materowski. More generally. R1x2 = 1price per item2 # 1number of items2 = p # x Example 2 Suppose that the relationship between price of and demand for a certain type of large color television set is given by the demand equation 10p + x = 10. If you were a producer. and Finance. the marginal cost at production level 100 is $281.221. Gordon.500.781. and x is the number of sets demanded. (ii) We need to compute C11012 . (b) Now. Thus.1x + 1000.C1992 = $279. Walter O. that the error in either case is $1. we find p = . Inc. Recall.
R ¿ 1x2 .4. we have .2x + 1000. Let us now consider an application of the derivative that occurs in the natural sciences.000) Figure 1: P1x2 = .0.3000. R ¿ 1x2 = .0. When the marginal cost becomes equal to the marginal revenue.1x 2 + 1000x. In other words. the point at which the marginal profit 1P ¿ 1x22 is zero.0. or x = 400/0.C ¿ 1x2 = 0.1120002 + 1000 = 800. Economics.1x2 + 1000x . in general for all parabolas. and the corresponding price per color television is p = . That is. R ¿ 1x2 = C ¿ 1x2. 397. there is no gain to be made by making the next item.0. That means that the cost of producing one more item exactly equals the revenue obtained by producing it. We sketch the parabola in Figure 1. Thus the production level when the marginal profit is zero is 2000. (2000. and Finance.1x2 + 400x . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.0.0. we recognize it to be a parabola opening downwards.7 Marginal Functions and Rates of Change 225 Therefore. and April Allen Materowski.000. it is time to stop. when x = 2000 and p = 800.3000 Do you think that is an accident that the profit is maximized where the marginal profit is zero? Since the profit is P1x2 = R1x2 . the marginal revenue equals the marginal cost. When R ¿ 1x2 = 0. (d) P ¿ 1x2 = .1x 2 + 400x . the profit is maximized.0.C ¿ 1x2.0.1600x + 30002 = . That is. (c) The profit function. the price per color television is $800.C1x2 = . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. In words. Walter O. P1x2 = R1x2 . (f) Since the profit function is P1x2 = .0. Wang.2x + 400. (b) The marginal revenue function. by Warren B.2 = 2000. .3000.1x 2 + 400x .2x + 400 = 0.1x + 10002x = .0. it pays to keep producing more items.C1x2. R1x2 = p # x = 1 .) At the vertex.Section 2. Gordon. As long as marginal cost is less than marginal revenue. Its maximum value is P120002 = $397. (g) Observe that the vertex (turning point) of the parabola occurs at the point at which the tangent line is horizontal. We are interested in those values of x in its domain for which x Ú 0 (why?). (e) When P ¿ 1x2 = 0. see Section 1. the marginal profit is P ¿ 1x2 = R ¿ 1x2 . Inc. We shall see that the derivative may be interpreted as an instantaneous rate of Velocity Applied Calculus for Business. (This is true.
That is. Wang.1 You are probably anticipating our next step. More specifically. Applied Calculus for Business.f112 h:0 h This is recognized to be the derivative at t = 1. f11. That is. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.f112 = 576 . f11.01 0.560 = 16 feet.1 Does this difference quotient look familiar? By writing f11 + 0. Let us determine the average velocity during this onetenth of a second interval.f112 2 . Walter O. 1.1].84 ft/sec 0. In this application. 2] to [1. 1 + h]. The distance of the particle measured from some fixed point.161122 + 64112 + 512 = 560 feet. v112 = lim f11 + h2 .f112 560.12 .2]. Therefore.04 . from t = 1 to t = 2. it should be clear how we proceed. We let h approach zero in the above difference quotient. from the ledge of a building 512 feet high. That is. say 0. [1. is f122 .12 .560 = 16 ft/sec. At the end of two seconds.12 + 512 = 563. that the time interval is [1. 1.226 * ** Section 2.01 Suppose now. from a time interval of length one second to one of length onetenth of a second. the time interval is h seconds. Inc. We shall later show that its height s at time t is governed by the equation. Economics. Its average velocity during this one second time interval is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed. where s is position and t is time.560 = = 31. s = f1t2.1 Suppose we reduce the time interval from [1.122 + 6411.f112 564.4 ft/sec.12 = . assume a ball is thrown vertically upwards with an initial velocity of 64 feet per second.7 Marginal Functions and Rates of Change change.1611.012 . The average velocity over this h second time interval is f11 + h2 .f112 0. we assume that a particle is moving along a straight line.1] is. then the average velocity over this time interval is f11 + 0. and April Allen Materowski.3184 . f122 . the average velocity over the onetenth of a second time interval [1.560 = = 30. 2 . the instantaneous velocity when t = 1. by Warren B. That is. Gordon. the height is f122 = . At the end of one second. 0. the height of the ball is f112 = . To begin.01 of a second.1 0.16t2 + 64t + 512. that is.04.1 = 576 . Suppose we make the time interval even smaller. is given by the equation.f112 h If we ask what the velocity of the ball is at the instant when t = 1. That is.1) we have the average velocity over this onetenth of a second time interval as f11 + 0. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. .161222 + 64122 + 512 = 576 feet. The distance traveled during the time interval [1. That is. and Finance. s = f1t2 = .12 in place of f(1. 1.01].
Thus.161222 + 64122 + 512 = 576 ft. If the velocity were positive. (That is. and April Allen Materowski. we may interpret a derivative as an instantaneous rate of change. Thus. the maximum height. by Warren B.161322 + 64132 + 512 = 560 ft. when we ask for a rate of change. we mean the instantaneous velocity. and the instantaneous velocity corresponds to the slope of the tangent line. is s122 = . Solution. The height is governed by the equation s1t2 = . we find that t = 2 sec. the average rate of change of the function on the interval [x. Inc.16t2 + 64t + 512. (b)The velocity is v1t2 = s ¿ 1t2 = . Gordon. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. the ball will reach its maximum height at the instant when its velocity is zero. (c) At what time will its velocity be zero? (d) What is the maximum altitude reached by the ball? (e) At what time will its height be zero? (f) What is the impact velocity of the ball when it hits the ground. Therefore. The negative sign indicates that the ball is moving downward. (e) To determine when the height is zero. we may interpret the slope of the secant line as the average rate of change of y with respect to x on the interval [x.32132 + 64 = . (d) A positive velocity means it is moving upward. we have the following. (c) If the velocity is zero we have 0 = .7 Marginal Functions and Rates of Change * ** 227 v112 = ds = f ¿ 112 ` dt t = 1 f1t + h2 . Economics. x + h] is yavg = f1x + h2 . This is such a useful interpretation that we often delete the adjective instantaneous. Similarly. Example 3 A ball is thrown vertically upwards with an initial velocity of 64 ft/sec from the top of a building 512 feet high. Therefore. if s = f1t2 then the average velocity over the time interval [t. it is at its maximum height when t = 2. f ¿ 1x2. when we ask for velocity. we set s = 0 and solve the quadratic equation Applied Calculus for Business.16t2 + 64t + 512.32 ft/sec. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. . Similarly. the ball would continue to rise.Section 2. A negative velocity means that it is moving downward. and Finance.f1t2 h:0 h Average and Instantaneous Rates of Change More generally. we mean the instantaneous rate of change (the derivative).f1x2 h the (instantaneous) rate of change at x is the derivative. its velocity is v132 = . what is its velocity the instant before it strikes?) (g) Sketch the graph of s. That is. t + h] is vavg = and the instantaneous velocity at time t is v1t2 = s ¿ 1t2 = lim Observe that in the above example.f1t2 h f1t + h2 . DEFINITION 3 Given the differentiable function defined by the equation y = f1x2. which occurs when v = 0. (a) Determine the height at the end of 3 seconds. we may interpret the marginal cost as the instantaneous rate of change of cost with respect to production level. and the slope of the tangent line as the instantaneous rate of change of y with respect to x. At the end of 3 seconds. or t = 2. Summarizing.32t + 64. In general.32t + 64. Wang. x + h]. (b) Determine its velocity at the end of 3 seconds. Solving for t. (a) The height at the end of 3 seconds is s132 = . Walter O. the average velocity over the h second time interval corresponds to the slope of the secant line. Assume the altitude of the ball (measured in feet) at time t (in seconds) is governed by the equation s1t2 = .
we have 1t . if t is between 0 and 2. or using metric units. the velocity when s = 0. Economics. Since s ¿ 1t2 = 3t2 . and an initial height s0.16t2 + 64t + 512 = 0. For what values of t is it moving in the positive direction? Solution. and for t 7 2 the product will be positive. thus s is moving in the positive direction when t 7 2.6t.3t2 for t 7 0 yavg = f1x + h2 . that is. while v0 is negative if the object is projected downward. The impact velocity. Wang. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. the solution is t = 8. we shall show that the height. One additional remark. with an initial velocity v0. Figure 3 shows the path of the particle along the saxis.228 Section 2. is v182 = .16t2 + 64t + 512 When we study integral calculus.2 will be negative. we obtain. For positive values of t. Again.16. when t = 8.4t . Consider the following example. Therefore. s(t). .6t 7 0 3t1t .3t2 for t 7 0. You may assume equation (1) in the exercises. of any object that moves vertically. x + h] was defined as Figure 3: s1t2 = t3 . s ¿ 1t2.821t + 42 = 0.32 = 0. t2 .f1x2 h Applied Calculus for Business. the negative sign indicates that the ball is moving downward. v0 is positive. The average rate of change on the interval [x. (1) The constant g is called the acceleration due to gravity and is approximately equal to 32 ft/sec 2. we need only determine where 3t2 .32182 + 64 = . the product of 3t and t . Example 4 The location s of a certain particle from its starting position is given by the equation s1t2 = t3 .5). Why?) Thus. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. (We reject the root t = .4. is positive.192 ft/sec. by Warren B. subject only to the force of gravity. Dividing each side of the equation by .22 7 0 The inequality is solved easily using sign analysis (see Section 0.8 meters/sec 2. Factoring. it is possible for s(t) to take different forms. (f) The velocity at any time is v1t2 = . Inc. is given by the equation s1t2 = . and Finance. particles may move in many other ways. That is. (g) The graph of s versus t is a parabola and is given in Figure 2. Walter O. Of course. and April Allen Materowski.7 Marginal Functions and Rates of Change .32t + 64. it takes the ball 8 seconds to reach the ground. The particle is moving in the positive direction when the velocity. 9. Gordon. Figure 2: s1t2 = . If the object is projected upwards.1*2 gt2 + v0t + s0.
Section 2.7
Marginal Functions and Rates of Change
* **
229
suppose we rename the interval [a, b], that is, we set x = a and x + h = b then h = b  a and we have yavg f1b2  f1a2 = b  a
Calculator Tips
This is called the average rate of change of the function over the interval [a, b]. We have seen that the difference quotient has various interpretations. Geometrically, it represents the slope of the secant line, and in this section, it was interpreted as an average rate of change. We can use the calculator to compute the difference quotient by pressing the Catalog key and scrolling to avgRC (which stands for average rate of change). The syntax is avgRC(expression, var, h). Suppose y11x2 = 3x 2  4x + 7, has been entered in the Y = screen, then avgRC(y1(x), x, h) returns 6x + 3h  4, as it should, see Figure 3. (Note that h is optional, if it is omitted, the calculator assumes you are using h = 0.001.)
Figure 4: avgRC to Compute the Difference Quotient
EXERCISE SET 2.7
1. The cost, in dollars, of producing x bicycles is given by C1x2 = 60 + 10x + 1000/x 1x Ú 102. (a) What does it cost to produce: (i) 99; (ii) 100 bicycles? (b) What is the cost of producing the 100th bicycle? (i) Find it exactly; (ii) Use the derivative to find it approximately. (c) What is the error in using the derivative to approximate the marginal cost of the 100th bicycle? (d) What is the average cost per bicycle when producing the 100 bicycles? 2. Let C1x2 = 2x2 + 300x + 50 be the cost of producing x items. What is the cost of producing the 89th item? Give both the exact and approximate answers. 3. Let 10p + x = 100 be the demand equation, where p is the price per item when x items are demanded. (a) Find the total revenue when the level of production is: (i) 40; (ii) 41; (b) Find the exact revenue derived from the 41st item. (c) Find the approximate revenue derived from the 41st item. (d) What is the error if the derivative is used to approximate the marginal revenue? 4. Suppose that the number of riders per day on the New York City subway system is 4 (million) when the fare is $2.00. Suppose that the ridership will drop to 3.8 (million) when the fare is raised to $2.25. Assuming that the relationship between demand and price is linear: (a) Find the demand equation. (b) Find the revenue and marginal revenue functions. (c) Graph the revenue function and show that the maximum revenue is at the point where the marginal revenue is zero. (d) Find the price and number of riders that will maximize the total revenue. In Exercises 5 and 6, the cost and demand equations are given. (a) Determine the profit function. (b) What is the profit when the level of production is 100? (c) Find the marginal profit function. (d) What is the price per item when the marginal profit is zero? (e) Sketch the profit function. (f) What is the level of production when the marginal profit is zero? What does it represent? 5. C1x2 = 20x + 500, 20p + x = 1000. 6. C1x2 = 30x + 1000, 10p + x = 700. In Exercises 7 and 8, find the average velocity over the given time interval, if s = f1t2 is the equation of height as a function of time. 7. s =  16t2 + 128t: (a) [0, 3]; (b) [3, 4]; (c) [0, 4]. 8. s =  16t2 + 160t: (a) [0, 3]; (b) [3, 6]; (c) [3, 10]. 9. A ball is thrown vertically upward from the ground with an initial velocity of 176 ft/sec. (a) Determine its height s, as a function of time (use equation (1)). (b) Find the average velocity of the ball during the 2 second time interval [1, 3]. (c) Find the distance traveled over the time interval [t, t + h]. (d) Find the average velocity during the time interval [t, t + h]. (e) What limiting average velocity do you obtain if h approaches zero in (e)? (f) What is the velocity when: (i) t = 1? (ii) t = 3? (g) When will the velocity be zero? What does this mean? (h) How high will the ball go? 10. Suppose in Exercise 9, the ball was thrown vertically upward from a ledge 192 feet high. (a) How high will the ball go? (b) How long does it take for the ball to hit the ground? (c) What is its impact velocity with the ground? 11. A rocket is launched vertically upward with an initial velocity of 6400 ft/sec. (a) When will the velocity of the rocket be zero? (b) What is the maximum altitude the rocket will attain? 12. A ball is thrown vertically upward from the ledge of a building 256 feet high with an initial velocity of 16 ft/sec. What is the ball s impact velocity with the ground? 13. A helicopter is stationary at an altitude of 512 feet. A package falls vertically from it. Determine the time it takes the package to hit the ground and its impact velocity with the ground. In Exercises 14 17, find the average rate of change of y with respect to x on the given interval. 14. y = 3x + 2 (a) [0, 1]; (b) [3, 5]; (c) [x1, x2] interpret this answer 15. y = mx + b;
2
[x1, x2], interpret this answer.
16. y = 2x  7x + 2; [2, 3]. 17. y = 3x2  7x  5; [3, 6]. In Exercises 18 22, find the instantaneous rate of change of y with respect to x at the given xvalue 18. y = 3x + 2; 19. y = mx + b; x = 5 x = a x = 2
20. y = 3x2  7x + 2;
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
230
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Section 2.8
Implicit Differentiation
31. If y = 13x2 + 923/2, find the rate of change of y with respect to (a) x; 3x (b) 2 . x  1 32. If y = 1x3  122, find the rate of change of y with respect to (a) 2x; 2x (b) mx + b; (c) 2 . x  1 33. Find the rate of change of the volume of a cube with side x with respect to (a) a side; (b) its (surface) area. 34. Find the rate of change of the area of an equilateral triangle of side x with rex2 spect to its: (a) side; (b) perimeter. (Hint: A = 23 ) 4 The relative rate of change of y = f1x2 with respect to x at x = a is defined by f ¿ 1a2 . Find the relative rate of change of f(x) with respect to x, (or f(t) with respect f1a2 to t) in Exercises 35 38. 35. f1t2 = 3t3  4t2  9; 36. f1t2 =  16t2  128t; x + 3 ; Ax  2 a = 2. a = 8. a = 0.
21. y =
x + 3 ; Ax  2
x = 6 x = 0
22. y = 1x2  1221x 2  3x + 123
In Exercises 23 25, (a) Find the instantaneous rate of change of s as a function of t. (b) Find the value(s) of t for which the instantaneous rate of change is positive. 23. s1t2 = 3t2  12t 24. s1t2 = 4t2  8t 25. s1t2 = t3  3t2  9t 26. Let C1x2 = ax2 + bx + d represent the cost of producing x items. Find the error if C ¿ 1x2 is used for the marginal cost of the xth item. 27. Given the demand equation p + mx = b 1m 7 0, b 7 02. (a) On the same set of axes, graph the demand and revenue equations. (b) Show that the xintercept of the marginal revenue function occurs at that xvalue for which the revenue is maximum and is 1*2 the xintercept of the demand equation. 28. An object is thrown vertically upward with an initial velocity v0 from a height s0. (a) Show that it takes the object the same time to go from s0 to its maximum height as to fall from its maximum height to s0. (b) Show that the velocity of the object when it returns to height s0 is  v0. (c) Why must (a) and (b) be true physically? (d) Give an expression for the maximum height assuming that v0 7 0. 29. A ball is to thrown vertically upward from the ground so that it may be caught by an individual on a ledge 128 feet high. What is the minimum initial velocity with which it may be thrown? 30. With what initial velocity must an object be projected vertically upward from the ground to reach a height of 600 feet?
37. f1x2 = 1x2  1221x2  3x + 123; 38. f1x2 = a = 6.
39. Suppose the horizontal position x a particle has traveled in t seconds, 0 t 5 is given by the equation x = 5  25  t. (a) How far will the particle have traveled when t = 1? (b) What is the velocity of the particle after t seconds? (c) What happens to the velocity as t gets close to 5?
2.8
» » »
Implicit Differentiation
Finding a Tangent Line Finding the Derivative Calculator Tips
With the exception of some of the examples on related rates, we have only determined the derivative of functions of the form y = f1x2. That is, we have y explicitly as a function of x. What if x and y are related by some equation for which it is not possible or desirable to write y as a function of x. For example, suppose we have x = y3 + y + 1 In this case, x is a function of y. You may draw its graph by substituting values for y and finding the corresponding xvalues, see Figure 1. From the graph you can see that y is also a function of x. But could you solve this equation for y in terms of x? Probably not.* However, for each x, it is possible to determine y graphically or by various numerical schemes. The important question is, can we easily determine the derivative dy/dx? The answer is yes. How? By the chain rule! Recall, from Section 3.6, when the dependent and independent variables are the same, there is no need for the chain rule, but when they are different,
*There is a formula by which one can solve a cubic, but it is very cumbersome to use in practice.
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Section 2.8
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d 5 1x 2 = 5x 4 (note the independent and dependent variwe must use it. For example, dx ables agree),
Figure 1: x = y3 + y + 1 dy d 5 1y 2 = 5y 4 . So, how do we find dy/dx dx dx when we do not have y explicitly in terms of x? The idea behind the method is simple. Even though we may not be able to solve for y in terms of x, we assume that y is a function of x. Then we differentiate the equation that gives the relationship between x and y, and solve for the derivative. This method is called implicit differentiation. One main difference is that when we find the derivative, it will usually be a function of both x and y, unlike the explicit case, where the derivative is obtained as a function of x alone. Remember, the purpose of the derivative is to determine the slope of a curve, the velocity, or a particular marginal value. To compute the numerical value of the derivative we only need to substitute. It should not bother us that we are substituting for both x and y. The next examples illustrates the idea. but if y is a function of x then by the chain rule, Example 1 Find dy /dx if x = y3 + y + 1 Solution. Since the two sides of the equation are equal to one another, their derivatives must be equal. We take the derivative of both sides with respect to x. On the left side we have just x, and the derivative of x with respect to x is 1. However, on the right side, we have an expression in y, not x. Remember that y is a function of x even though we do not know its exact form. Thus, we must use the chain rule on the right hand side, and get 1 = 3y 2 dy dy + dx dx
(Do you see what happened on the right? The derivative of y3 is 3y 2 dy/dx by the chain rule. The derivative of y is just dy/dx and the derivative of 1 is zero.) Now we solve for dy/dx. Factoring the dy/dx, gives 1 = 13y 2 + 12 and dividing by 13y 2 + 12 yields dy dx
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dy 1 = 2 dx 3y + 1 In this case, it happens that the derivative is entirely in terms of y.
Finding a Tangent Line
Example 2 Given the equation x3 + 3y 5 + 2x = 3y 7 + 2x 2 + 4. Determine the equation of the tangent line to the curve defined by this equation at the point (2, 1). Solution. We know that the answer to the problem is y  1 = m1x  22, where m, the slope of the tangent line is the derivative at the point (2, 1). Since we have the equation relating x and y, all we have to do is differentiate each side of the equation to find an equation involving x, y, and dy/dx from which we can determine the derivative. Differentiating each term of the equation we have, 3x2 + 15y 4 dy dy + 2 = 21y 6 + 4x dx dx
(Do you understand why the derivative factor is present after differentiating each term involving y? y is a function of x, so the chain rule had to be applied.) To complete the solution, we need only substitute x = 2 and y = 1. We obtain, 31222 + 151124 dy dy + 2 = 211126 + 4122 dx dx
Simplifying, combining like terms, and transposing, we have,  6dy/dx =  6, or dy/dx = 1 Thus, the equation of the tangent line is y  1 = 11x  22, or y = x  1
Finding the Derivative
Example 2 was a numerical problem. In any numerical problem, where you are given a point at which to compute the derivative (slope, velocity, or marginal value) substitute immediately after the differentiation step, that will make the computations the simplest. Suppose you choose instead, to find the derivative in terms of x and y, and then substitute afterwards. Then you must first group together all terms involving the derivative on one side of the equation, and everything else on the other side of the equation. Example 3 Find dy/dx for the function in Example 2. Solution. Let us save some writing by using y ¿ for dy/dx. In the above example, we would obtain, (writing y ¿ instead of dy/dx). 15y4y ¿  21y 6y ¿ = 4x  3x 2  2 Factoring the left hand side of the equation, we obtain 115y 4  21y 62y ¿ = 4x  3x 2  2 dividing by the term in parentheses, yields, y¿ = dy 4x  3x2  2 = dx 15y4  21y 6
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If you now substitute x = 2 and y = 1, you will find, as before, that y ¿ = 1.
As you can see, it is far easier to do the substitution immediately after the differentiation, rather than after the algebra. However, if you need to find the derivative at several points, or to find a general expression for the derivative, then perform the algebraic manipulations. The next example illustrates the use of the product rule in finding the derivative implicitly. We will use y ¿ to indicate dy/dx whenever we find it convenient to do so. Example 4 Find y ¿ if 3x2y 4  2x 2 + 3y 5 = 17. Solution. We differentiate each side of the equation. Note that the first term involves a product, so the product (and chain rule) must be applied. We have, 3x2[4y 3y ¿ ] + y 4[6x]  4x + 15y 4y ¿ = 0. or, y ¿ 112x 2y 3 + 15y 42 = 4x  6xy 4. Dividing, we find that y¿ = 4x  6xy4 12x2y3 + 15y4
Even when we can solve for y in terms of x, we may prefer to find the derivative by implicit differentiation. The next example illustrates this. Example 5 The equation x2 + p2 = 25 represents a demand equation when x and p are each in the first quadrant, that is, x Ú 0, and p Ú 0. Find: (a) dp/dx; (b) dx/dp; (c) dR/dx (d) dR/dp. Solution. We could solve for p as a function of x and find p = 225  x 2, and then differentiate with respect to x. It is simpler to use implicit differentiation. (a) Differentiating with respect to x, we have, 2x + 2p dp/dx = 0, or dp/dx =  x/p (b) Differentiating with respect to p, we have, 2x dx/dp + 2p = 0, or dx/dp =  p/x (c) The revenue function is R = xp; therefore, by the product rule, dR/dx = x dp/dx + p. Substituting from (a) for dp/dx, we have, dR/dx = x1  x/p2 + p = 1p2  x22/p. (d) To find dR/dp. we again use the product rule. R = xp, dR/dp = x + p dx/dp. Substituting from (b) for dx/dp, we have dR/dp = x + p1  p/x2 = 1x 2  p22/x
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Note that dx/dp = 1/1dp/dx2. This will always be true as long as neither of these derivatives is zero. The reason is very simple. If we think of p as a function of x, say p = P1x2, then dp/dx represents the slope of the curve at the point (x, p). If we take the same curve and think of x as a function of p, say x = D1p2, then the slope is the same. But now suppose we think of x as the vertical axis, then the slope at the point (p, x) is dx/dp. Since slope is change in y divided by change in x, interchanging the axes makes the slope into the change in x divided by change in y. Thus, interchanging axes has the effect of taking the reciprocal of the slope. Hence, the derivatives are reciprocals. Now go back and look at the solution to Example 1. Compare the result there to what you would get by just taking dx/dy. We close this section with a proof of the power rule for rational exponents. To this point, we have proved the rule only for positive and negative integers.
POWER RULE FOR RATIONAL EXPONENTS
d m Axn B = dx where m and n are integers.
m m n 1 nx
PROOF Let y = x m/n, then, yn = 1x m/n2n or yn = x m.
Differentiate each side of this equation with respect to x, giving, nyn  1y ¿ = mxm  1. Solving for y ¿ , we have, y¿ = Substitute for y, using, y = xm/n, we have, y¿ = * bM # = bM  N and 1bM2N = bM N.) N b Thus, once again, we have shown that the power rule states that to find the derivative of x to a power, multiply by the power and decrease the power by one, that is for any rational (Note the two rules of exponents that were used, d r 1x 2 = rx r  1. We shall examine the case when the exponent is irrational dx when we consider logarithmic and exponential functions. The TI 89 can find the derivative, implicitly, but we have to do it two stages. First, when the equation is entered, we need to let the calculator know that y is a function of x so we must always write y(x) in place of y, wherever it appears. Thus, if we wanted to find dy/dx when the equation is x2 + y 2 = 9, we would enter d1x ¿2 + y1x2¿2 = 9, x2 and then press enter, what the screen displays is the equation differentiated, see Figure 2. We can now have the calculator solve this equation for the derivative, but we need to give the derivative a new name otherwise an error message is produced. Suppose we call the derivative D, then we enter number r, solve12y*D + 2x = 0, D2 This is indicated in Figure 3, along with the solution.
m m xm  1 m xm  1 m m m = = x m  1  Am  n B = x n  1 m n A x n B 1n  12 n xm  m n n n
m xm  1 . n yn  1
Calculator Tips
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Figure 2: Find the Derivative Implicitly Using the TI 89
Figure 3: Finding the Derivative Thus, we have dy/dx =  x/y. (Be careful, the D entered as uppercase and exhibited on the screen as lowercase is the letter D located above the comma key and requires the pressing the alpha key first. This is different from the d used for differentiation which is above the number 8 key and requires pressing the 2nd key first.)
EXERCISE SET 2.8
In Exercises 1 4, find dy/dx at the indicated point in two different ways: (a) Solve for y as a function of x and differentiate; (b) Differentiate implicitly. 1. y2 = 3x + 1; 3. x2y + 1 = 2x; 15,  42 12, 12 11, 12 2. 3x2  4xy  4 = 0; 10. x2/3 + y 2/3 = 1 11. 3x2y  4y2x + 7 = 2x3y3 12. 2/x  3/y = x 2y2 = 2x + y3 x2 + y2 14. 3x 3/4  2y 2/3 + 7y2  3x = 9x2  5y 4 13. 15. 2 1x + y  1x  y = 2. Find dy dx x2  y2
4. 2x2  3xy + 4y2  5y = 2; 11, 22 (Hint: Use the quadratic formula to solve for y.) In Exercises 5 14 find dy/dx using any method. 5. x3 + y 3 = 10 6.
x2 9 y2 4
` 14,02
16. 5s21v3  12 = 7. Find (a) ds/dv; (b) dv/ds. 17. 1/t + 1/s = 1. Find (a) ds/dt; (b) dt/ds, (c) Show that 1ds/dt21dt/ds2 = 1. 18. 1x + y + 1x  y = to the curve at (5/2, 3/2). x2 y3 + 31 . Determine the equation of the tangent line 27

= 1
7. xy = 7 8. x  xy + 7 = 0 9. 5x 2 + 6x2y 2 = y 2 + 15
2
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23. (a) Determine the equation of the tangent line at any point (h, k) which lies on the curve x2/3 + y2/3 = a 2/3 1a 7 02. (b) Let the tangent line to this curve intersect the x and y axes at the points 1x1, 02 and 10, y12 respectively. Show that the length of the line segment joining these two points is a constant. 24. Show that the tangent line to any point on the circle x2 + y 2 = a 2 is always perpendicular to the radius drawn to the point of tangency.
19. x2 + y 2 = 25. (a) Determine the equation of the tangent line at each of the following points: (i) (3, 4); (ii) 13,  42; (b) Find the equation of the tangent line at (3, 4) by finding the equation of the line passing through (3, 4) which is perpendicular to the (radius) line segment whose end points are (0, 0) and (3, 4). 20. 2x2 + 3y 2 = 14. Determine the equation of the tangent line at each of the following points: (a) (1, 2); (b) 11,  22. 21. A demand equation is given by p = 29  x, where p is the price per item when x items are demanded. Find dR/dx when x = 1. 22. (a) Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve x3 + 3y2  12x  1 = 0 at (1, 2). (b) At what point(s) on the curve will the tangent line be horizontal? (c) Show that the tangent line is vertical for some x0 where 3 6 x0 6 4.
2.9
» » » » »
Elements of Geometry
Vertical Angles Parallel Lines Similarity Congruence Midpoint Formula
This section examines some of the elementary geometric concepts that may arise while solving applied problems in the calculus. Consider the angle illustrated in Figure 1, As OA rotates counterclockwise, the angle increases. When AOB becomes a line, the angle is said to be a straight angle whose measure is 180*, the symbol for degree is *.
A A
O
B
O
B
A __________________ B O
Figure 1 Consider Figure 2, where two straight lines intersect at E.
A C B E D
Figure 2: The Intersection of Two Lines
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Since CD is a straight line, in degrees, the measure of 1 AED + 1 AEC = 180° ( 1 is the symbol for the measure of an angle, also note that when three letters are used to describe the angle, the middle letter will always represent the vertex of the angle.) similarly, since AB is a straight line 1 AEC + 1 CEB = 180° so it follows that 1 AED = 1 CEB and similarly, 1 AEC = 1 BED These equal pairs of angles are sometimes called vertical angles. Thus, when two lines intersect, their vertical angles are equal. We also note that when two angles sum to 180*, the angles are said to be supplementary angles. Thus, the equality of vertical angles is a consequence of the fact that supplements of equal angles are equal to each other. In Section 1.1, we discussed equations of parallel lines from an intuitive point of view. More precisely, two nonvertical lines are said to be parallel if the angle they make with the positive xaxis is the same. This angle is sometimes called the inclination of the line. See Figure 3, where lines L1 and L2 intersect the xaxis at the same angle a, and are therefore parallel. (Note that a 6 180°) 0
L1 L2
Vertical Angles
Parallel Lines
+
+
xaxis
Figure 3: Parallel Lines Let us now examine Figure 4, where the parallel lines L1 and L2 are intersected by the line T
L2 L1 T
, . 0 /
+  * 2
Figure 4: Parallel Lines Intersected by a Transversal
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Since the lines are parallel the angles measured by a and b are the same. To convince yourself, rotate the figure so the line T, sometimes called a transversal, is horizontal (i.e., is the xaxis), then these angles are the inclination angles and since the lines L1 and L2 are parallel, they must be the same. Since T is a straight line, it then follows that angles g and d are also equal. Thus, when two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, the corresponding angles are equal, that is, in Figure 2, 0a 0g 0m 0P = = = = 0b 0d 0s 0h
The angles m and d are called alternate interior angles as are a and h. It is easy to see that as a consequence of vertical angles being equal as well as the supplements of two equal angles are equal, that when two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, the alternate interior angles are equal, that is 0m = 0d and 0a = 0h Example 1 Given the parallel lines in Figure 5, and the given angle, determine remaining angles. Solution.
L2 L1
140o
T
, / .
+  * 1
Figure 5: Determining the Angles We have, 140 + 0 b = 180, therefore, 0 b = 40° a is a corresponding angle to b , h, P are vertical angles, therefore 0 a = 0 P = 0 h = 40° g is an angle corresponding to the 140° angle, m is its vertical angle, and s its corresponding angle, thus,
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* g = * m = * s = 140°
The next notion we discuss is similarity of triangles. Two triangles are said to be similar if two angles of one triangle are equal to two of the other. For example, in Figure 6, given the triangles joining the vertices A, B and C, and A ¿ , B ¿ and C ¿ written ¢ ABC and ¢ A ¿ B ¿ C ¿ , suppose the angle at vertex A equals the angle at vertex A ¿ and the angle at vertex B equals the angle at vertex B ¿ then the triangles are similar, sometimes written as ¢ ABC ' ¢ A ¿ B ¿ C ¿ . It follows from the fact that the sum of the three angles in any triangles is 180* that the remaining two angles are also equal to each other.
B B'
Similarity
A' A C
C'
Figure 6: Similar Triangles Essentially, two triangles are similar to each other if one is a reduced version of the other, or one can be obtained from the other by a uniform compression without distorting any of its angles. Consider Figure 7,
A C' B'
C
B
A'
Figure 7: Similar Triangles Assume the angles at vertices A and A ¿ equal each other and the angles at vertices at C and C ¿ are also equal. Then these two triangles are similar to each other. Note that one is a uniform compression of the other, the fact that one is also rotated in no way changes the fact that they are similar. Thus, physically, we can describe similarity of triangles (or of any geometric figure) as a uniform compression, possibly along with a rotation, or reflection of one figure. One would expect similar figures to have other related geometric properties as well. The fact that one is a uniform compression of the other, implies that there is a simple relationship between their sides. Consider the two triangles in Figure 8 Assuming the angles at vertices A, B (and C) equal the angles at vertices A ¿ , B ¿ , (and C ¿ ), then the lengths of their corresponding sides, a, b, c, and a ¿ , b ¿ , and c ¿ are in proportion, that is, a b c = = a¿ b¿ c¿ This follows intuitively from the visualization of one triangle being a uniform compression of the other. Since the triangle is being compressed uniformly, it follows that the
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B c' c A b a A' C
B' a' C' b'
Figure 8: Similar Triangles and Corresponding Sides
sides are as well, resulting in the ratio of corresponding sides being in proportion. (This can be proven formally using the notions of parallelism. We omit the details.) The fact that corresponding sides of similar triangles are in proportion is a very useful property that may be used in a variety of applications. Jules Verne, in his novel The Mysterious Island, has the engineer, Cyrus Harding, use this property to compute the height of a cliff.
Example 2 Cyrus Harding had provided himself with a straight stick, twelve feet long, which he had measured as exactly as possible by comparing it with his own height, which he knew to a hair. Herbert carried a plumbline which Harding had given him, that is to say, a simple stone fastened to the end of a flexible fiber. Having reached a spot about twenty feet from the edge of the beach, and nearly five hundred feet from the cliff, which rose perpendicularly, Harding thrust the pole two feet into the sand, and wedging it up carefully, he managed, by means of the plumbline, to erect it perpendicularly with the plane of the horizon. That done, he retired the necessary distance, when, lying on the sand, his eye glanced at the same time at the top of the pole and the crest of the cliff. He carefully marked the place with a little stick. Then addressing Herbert Do you know the first principles of geometry? he asked. Slightly, captain, replied Herbert, who did not wish to put himself forward. You remember what are the properties of two similar triangles? Yes, replied Herbert; their homologous sides are proportional. Well, my boy, I have just constructed two similar rightangled triangles; the first, the smallest, has for its sides the perpendicular pole, the distance which separates the little stick from the foot of the pole and my visual ray for hypothenuse; the second has for its sides the perpendicular cliff, the height of which we wish to measure, the distance which separates the little stick from the bottom of the cliff, and my visual ray also forms its hypothenuse, which proves to be prolongation of that of the first triangle. Ah, captain, I understand! cried Herbert. As the distance from the stick to the pole is to the distance from the stick to the base of the cliff, so is the height of the pole to the height of the cliff. Just so, Herbert, replied the engineer; and when we have measured the two first distances, knowing the height of the pole, we shall only have a sum in proportion to do, which will give us the height of the cliff, and will save us the trouble of measuring it directly. The two horizontal distances were found out by means of the pole, whose length above the sand was exactly ten feet. The first distance was fifteen feet between the stick and the place where the pole was thrust into the sand. The second distance between the stick and the bottom of the cliff was five hundred feet. These measurements finished, Cyrus Harding and the lad returned to the Chimneys. The engineer then took a flat stone which he had brought back from one of his previous excursions, a sort of slate, on which it was easy to trace figures with a sharp shell. He then proved the following proportions: 15:500 * 10:x From which it was proved that the granite cliff measured 333 feet in height.
Verify Harding s calculation.
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Solution. The engineer made some obvious approximations, but the result certainly produced an approximate determination of the cliff s height. Pictorially, the situation is illustrated in Figure 9.
B x (Cliff s Height) D 10 A 15 E  500  C
Figure 9: Harding s Determination of the Cliff s Height Note that angle at vertex A in ¢ ABC is the same angle in ¢ ADE, and each triangle has a right angle, so the two triangles are similar. Therefore, their corresponding sides are similar, so we have 15 10 = x 500 Giving, 15x = 5000 or to the nearest foot, x = 333 feet.
Example 3 A water tank in the shape of a right circular cone is 20 feet high, with base radius 4 feet (see Figure 10). Water is entering the tank at some given rate. When the water depth is 12 feet, determine the radius at the top of the water. Solution.
8 x 12 4 20
Figure 10: Determining the Radius of the Water
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Figure 10, which is not drawn to scale, illustrates the water tank and all given information. By similarity (Verify!), we have 8 20 = x 4 20x = 32 x = 1.6 feet
Congruence
If two triangles are similar, and if in addition the connecting side in one triangle is equal to the corresponding connecting side in the other, then the triangles are said to be congruent. Therefore, it follows that if two triangles are congruent, their corresponding sides (and angles) are equal to each other (the similarity constant of proportionality is one). It turns out that we can prove two triangles to be congruent with less information. For example, if three sides of one triangle are equal to three sides of another triangle they are congruent, or if two angles and their connecting side in one triangle are equal two angles and their connecting side in another triangle, then the triangles are congruent. We can use the geometric concepts developed above to determine the midpoint of any line segment. Suppose we wish to determine the midpoint of the line AB joining the points 1x1, y12 to 1x2, y22. We proceed as in Figure 11.
B(x2, y2) M
D
A(x1, y1)
 x1
E
C(x2, y1)
Figure 11: Determining the Midpoint Coordinates
Midpoint Formula
Let the midpoint of the line be denoted by 1x, y2. We draw the dotted lines as indicated and label the points as shown (verify!). Since M is the midpoint of AB, it follows that AM = MB. Moreover, ¢ AME is similar to ¢ MBD (verify this hint: use parallel lines.) Thus, we have two similar triangles with corresponding connecting sides equal to each other 1AM = MB2, therefore these triangles are congruent. It then follows that corresponding sides are equal, giving x2  x = x  x1 solving for x, we have x = similarly y2  y = y  y1 x1 + x2 2
Applied Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance, by Warren B. Gordon, Walter O. Wang, and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
. Find the sides of a similar triangle if the side corresponding to the 6inch side of the given triangle is 9 inches. which shows the intersection of two lines.192 10. Determine the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the line joining the points 11. 152. Given the triangle with vertices A(1. . Show that a line parallel to the base of a triangle intersecting the other two sides. If the corresponding side of the other triangle is 12. The shadow of a tree is 40 feet long at the same time that the shadow of a 4foot flag pole is 2 feet long. 13). 11) and 116. Figure 14 Applied Calculus for Business. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Determine the indicated angles. Find all the indicated angles. 1). 0). 120o .Section 2. which shows the intersection of two lines. (a) How long is his shadow when he is 8 feet from the pole? (b) What is the distance from the base of the pole to the tip of his shadow? 12.12. Walter O. and Finance. An architect is drawing a scale drawing of the lot with 1 inch representing 50 yards. The two parallel lines L and M are intersected by T. B(3. 0). * EXERCISE SET 2. Economics. 52 and (6. 12 and 15 inches. y12 and B is the point 1x2. forms a traingle similar to the given triangle.282. what is its area? 8. Determine the coordinates of the midpoint of the line segment joining the points (a) (9. 150 yards and 200 yards. 14. 65o / * + . A 6 foot man walks away from a light sitting atop a pole 16 feet above ground. 6.4) and B is the point (5. Inc. 7. show that the line segment joining the midpoints of any two sides is equal in length to onehalf the third side. (b) Determine the length of each median. The sides of a triangular parking lot are 120 yards. the medians intersect in a point which is 2/3 of the way from each vertex to the opposite side. Show that for any triangle. Determine the coordinates of the point P which divides the line segment AB where A is the point 1x1. Determine the coordinates of the midpoint of the line segment joining the points (a) 1 .9 1. Suppose two triangles are similar to each other and the first triangle has a side of length 8 inches and its area is 24 square inches. (b) 1 . 9. you obtain midpoint formula. 16. (b) 13. Wang. . and April Allen Materowski. 13. see Figure 14. 132 and 12. The sides of a triangle measure 9. (a) Determine the equation of the three lines drawn from each vertex to the midpoint on the opposite side. Verify that in the case m = n. Consider Figure 12. * + 11. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 17. 70o + * . and C(9. (b. 8). the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segment is the average of the coordinates of the endpoints. . Determine the coordinates of the point P which divides the line segment AB where A is the point (2. These lines are called the medians of the triangle.9 Elements of Geometry * ** 243 and we have y = y1 + y2 2 Thus. Figure 12 2. 7). 15.  L M 18.5. . (c) show these medians intersect in a point which is 2/3 of the way from each vertex to the opposite side. Gordon. by Warren B.3). For the triangle given in the previous example. The sides of a triangle measure 5.72 and 1 . y22 so that AP/PB = m/n. What is the height of the tree. 4. c) and (a. 5. Find the sides of a similar triangle if the side corresponding to the 15inch side of the given triangle is 5 inches. determine the scaled measurements of the drawing. Hint: Choose the vertices of the triangle to be (0.32 and (7.12) so that AP/PB = 2/3. Consider Figure 13. Figure 13 3.2. Determine the indicated angles. 6 and 8 inches.
(a) Show that * PSR = * TSW. C/B) R S O T W Ax + By + C = 0 Figure 16 2. y12 to the line Ax + By + C = 0. 5) (a) find the equation of the medians and (b) show they intersect in a single point. if the dependent variable represents position (distance). 9) and C(9. (If either was zero. In particular. to show that d = Ax1 + By + C 2A2 + B2 (Note. Inc.10 Related Rates Assume neither A nor B is zero. drawn to the hypothenuse of a right triangle (the line drawn from the right angle and perpendicular to the hypothenuse) is the mean proportional between the two segments along the hypothenuse. and the independent variable represents time. 19.) . and April Allen Materowski. conclude that d PR = OW QW (e) Substitute for these distances and simplify. by Warren B. and Finance. Economics. . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Show that the altitude h. Since the variables are related their rates of change will Applied Calculus for Business. proceed as follows: Consider Figure 15. Figure 15 20. we shall encounter cases in which several variables are related to each other and are also changing with time. To determine the distance d from the point P1x1. Gordon. Walter O. the problem is trivial. then the rate of change may be viewed as velocity. W and S. For the triangle with vertices at A(1. Show that the slope of a line is independent of the points on the line used to compute it. (d) Find the coordinates of Q. (c) Show that ¢ PRS is similar to triangle ¢ WOQ. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. In many real situations. 3).244 * ** Section 2. Show the statement of the preceding exercise is true for any triangle. that is c1/h = h/c2. why?) Draw the vertical line from P to T. B(5. y1) d Q(0. P(x1. The medians of a triangle are the lines drawn from a vertex to the opposite sides which it bisects. (b) Show that * RPS = * SWT.10 Related Rates » » » » A Geometric Example An Ecological Example An Economic Example Using Similarity In preceding sections we saw that a derivative may be interpreted as a rate of change. see Figure 15 c1 h c2 21. (e) By similarity. Wang. the absolute value was included as distance must always be positive. Determine this point. 22. 23.
Determine an equation that relates the variables in general. y. and z are not independent of one another. It is a good idea to reformulate the problem as follows: Given: dz/dt = 8 mi/sec. Economics. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Inc. Differentiating this equation with respect to t. Walter O. and z the distance from launch at time t.Section 2. requiring the application of the chain rule. Consequently. we let x be the range. and dx/dt = 3 mi/sec. are all changing with time. 2. Substitute the specific numerical data to solve for any unknown quantity. we have a right triangle. Wang. and April Allen Materowski. we find that 2x dy dx dz + 2y = 2z dt dt dt (1) Applied Calculus for Business. z. In other words. A Geometric Example Find: dy/dt when z = 1500 miles and y = 900 miles. In order to fix the central ideas. after the launch. 3. their rates of change. In Figure 1. 2. Looking at Figure 1. Suppose that a space shuttle S is launched from Cape Canaveral. It is important for you to observe that we attack the problem in three distinct steps: 1. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Using Figure 1. Gordon. by Warren B. each variable is now a function of t. y the altitude. We have the relationship x 2 + y 2 = z2. y. Example 1 A space shuttle is launched and is moving away from the launch site with a constant velocity of 8 miles per second. t. we see that at any time t. The following specific example will illustrate the way in which the variables and their velocities are related. dx/dt. y. We need a relationship among the three variables. and dz/dt are not all independent either. its range (ground distance from the launch site). . x. x. Suppose that the range is increasing at the rate of 3 miles per second. that x. At what rate is the altitude changing when the shuttle is 1500 miles from the launch site and at an altitude of 900 miles? Solution. Its altitude. and straight line distance from the launch site. Thus. 1. let us consider a typical case. and z are all functions of t.10 Related Rates * ** 245 be related and hence problems of this type are usually referred to as related rates problems. S z (distance from Launch) y (altitude) L (Launch Site) x (Range) Figure 1: Shuttle Location at time t It should be obvious from the geometry of the problem. Remember. Differentiate each side of the equation to obtain an equation relating their rates. and Finance. dy/dt. We may differentiate the equation x2 + y 2 = z2 to find the relationship between the velocities. we see a diagram showing the location of the shuttle at some time.
. Differentiating the equation N = 13a2 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.x2 = 0 where p is the price per gallon. Wang. For example.20[5] + 262316 # 5 # 2 . dN/dt when a = 5 lb. are each functions of time. 2. N and a. Example 3 The retail price per gallon of gasoline is increasing at $0.10 Related Rates Notice that each term is multiplied by a derivative term which resulted from the application of the chain rule. x = 215002 . Find. we must use the physical nature of a problem to determine a necessary equation relating the variables. Economics. when Applied Calculus for Business. The next example illustrates such a case. this is the case. in dollars.2356 . Gordon. Example 2 The fish population. the altitude is increasing at a rate of 9 1 3 mi/sec. When the equation was differentiated. Given. The equation is given by N = 13a2 . and profits are related to one another and are always changing with time. The demand equation is given by 10p . 3. and April Allen Materowski. a. Substituting a = 5 and da/dt = 2. That is. Walter O. What does this suggest to you about the amount of algae in the stream and about its rate of increase? An Economic Example Economic problems often fall into this category. it gave their related rates. Step 1 has already been completed.9002 = 1200. we needed to use the geometry of the problem to find an equation which related the variables. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. the fish population is increasing by 80 per week at the instant when the stream contains 5 lb of algae.20a + 2624. An Ecological Example da/dt = 2 lb/week. in a small pond depends upon the number of pounds of algae. cost. at what rate is the fish population changing when the pond contains 5 lb of algae? Solution. That is.20a + 2624.80 per week Thus. Often. we have that dN/dt = 413[5]2 . using the chain rule. and Finance. dN/dt = 413a2 . If the quantity of algae is increasing at a rate of 2 lb/week.02 per week.20a + 262316a # da/dt . We note that when z = 1500 and y = 900.20 # 22 = . revenue.20 # da/dt2 3. it contains. Sometimes the equation is given. N. since we have been given the relationship between N and a. Substitution into (1) yields 2112002132 + 219002 dy/dt = 2115002182 or dy/dt = 9 1 3 mi/sec. we have. In the above example. We may now complete the problem.246 Section 2. as the next ecological example illustrates. by Warren B. Inc.
Our last example in this section is typical of this type. thus.02 dollars per week Find: dR/dt when x = 10 million gallons.10 Related Rates 247 x million gallons are demanded. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 1. and Finance. we solve the demand equation for p. finding p = when x = 10 p = 1/10125621/2 = 1. We find dx/dt by differentiating the demand equation.0. Here y is the girl s distance from the base of the lamppost and x is the length of her shadow. Substituting.x 221/2 a . substitute into (2) and have R in terms of x. Economics. The triangles ABC and AED are similar. The total revenue in millions of dollars is given by the equation R = xp (2) We could solve the demand equation for p in terms of x. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. dp 1 1 dx = 1356 . Note that Using Similarity There is a large class of geometricallybased related rates problems that use the properties of similar triangles as examined in Section 2. A fivefoottall girl is walking in a straight line away from the light at a rate of 6 feet/sec. 12x = 5x + 5y.0.61 .02 and x = 10. In symbols.0.6. (The negative sign indicates that the demand is decreasing).32 million gallons per week. . by Warren B. Let us differentiate using the product rule.8. However. x + y x = 5 12 Crossmultiplying. Wang. Gordon. the ratio of x to 5 is the same as the ratio of 1x + y2 to 12. 12 5 C y D x A E Figure 2: Girl Walking away from a Lamppost Applied Calculus for Business. 3. At what rate is the revenue changing when 10 million gallons are demanded? Solution.022 + 1. Therefore.2x b dt 10 2 dt Thus. How is the length of her shadow changing? Solution.Section 2. B (Top of Lamppost) Example 4 There is a light atop a 12 foot high lamppost.31 million dollars per week. Given: dp/dt = 0. their sides are in proportion. let us take a different tack. when dp/dt = 0. Walter O. the revenue is decreasing by about 0. we have. That is. We may now complete the solution. Inc.322 = . and April Allen Materowski. Using the chain rule. dR/dt = x dp/dt + p dx/dt Now. Figure 2 shows the essential features of the problem. 1 10 1356 . we have that dR/dt = 1010.x21/2. 2. we find that dx/dt = .312 That is.
Find dx/dt at (1. find dy/dt when x = 5 and dx/dt = . A large cube of ice is melting uniformly at the rate of 6 cubic inches per second. find dx/dt when x = 8 and dy/dt = 64. we have the relationship between x and y. and 1 millimeter = 106 kilometer. 2). we see that the shadow is getting longer at a rate of 30/7 feet/sec. (a) Find the number sold in 1990. Suppose that Q = x y . determine dx/dt when x = 2 and dy/dt = 4. Finding the derivative. and Finance. At what rate is the depth of the water in the reservoir changing when the water is 10 feet deep? (The volume 2 of a cone is 1 3 pr h. when the demand is 10 pounds? (Can you solve (b) by inspection?) 17.) 23. If y = 23x2 . 1994. EXERCISE SET 2. and 2000. Two cars leave an intersection at the same time. with 1990 being t = 0. A point moves along the circle x2 + y2 = 5 in such a way that the distance from the point (4. At what rate is a side changing when it is 1 inch long? 11. 1994.3x. (a) describe how the rate at which the cars are separating is related to the rates at which they are traveling.10 1. and the other travels east at 30 miles per hour. 1994. 18.) 21.248 Section 2. It is usually very easy to determine the given rates in a specific example. and substituting dy/dt = 6 3. 7. and 2000. (b) Find the rate of change of total revenue for 1990. find dy/dt when x = 2 and dx/dt = . and April Allen Materowski. For example. The radius of a circle is increasing at the rate of 1 inch per hour. (The 3 volume V of a sphere of radius r is given by the formula V = 4 3 pr .3. 1994.) Suppose that the average price of a VCR during the same time period was governed by the rule p = 820 . where P is the pressure in pounds per square inch (psi) and V is the volume of the gas.000 psi. 3. If x2 + y2 = 169. when the side is 6 inches long? 12. 7x = 5y 2. dx/dt = 30/7 Since x is the length of the shadow. by Warren B. 5. (b) At what rate is the distance between the two cars changing at the end of two hours? 9. 8. find the rate at which the pressure is changing when the pressure is 20. Inc. (ii) 5 inches? 10. A 26 foot ladder is leaning against a vertical wall and its base is on level ground. At what rate is the area of the circle changing when the radius is 12 feet? 2 3 3 2 16.) 13. At the instant when the radius of the oil slick is 15 kilometers: (a) Determine the rate at which the spill is flowing out of the ship. If y = x3 . at what rate is the: (a) demand changing.000 psi. 20. dollars per month etc. and 2000. Walter O. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. miles per hour.22x. The area of a square is increasing at the rate of 1 square inch per minute. Economics. At what rate is the bottom of the ladder moving away from the wall when the top of the ladder is 10 feet above the ground? 15. (b) revenue changing. 1. If z represents the distance between the cars. at the rate of 16 cubic feet per second. (Continuation of previous exercise. Suppose that the oil spill from the damaged hull of a ship forms a circular slick whose thickness is uniformly 1 millimeter and whose radius is increasing at a rate of 20 kilometers per day. find dy/dt when x = 2 and y = 1. At what rate is the: (a) side of the square changing.2. 22. 6) is increasing at a rate of 7 units per second. gallons per week. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 19. Wang. determine dy/dt when x = 2 and dx/dt = 3. at what rate is the string being paid out when its length is 130 feet? 14. and 2000. find dx/dt and dy/dt if dQ/dt = . If the volume is increasing at 8 cubic inches per second.10 Related Rates 7x = 5y Hence. If the price is increasing at a rate of $0. A pebble thrown into a pond creates a circular ripple whose radius is increasing at 2 feet per second. (a) Find the price and total revenue from sales for 1990. Assume that there is no slack in the kitestring. Notice that a rate has units that are per unit time. Boyle s law for gasses states that PV = constant. N (in million) of VCR s sold in the United States for the years 1990 to 2001 may be approximated by the formula N = 112t + 12/1t + 22. where r is the radius and h its height. (b) diagonal changing. Gordon. (b) Find the rate of change of sales in 1990. If y = 2x . The top of the ladder slides down the wall at a rate of 2 feet per minute. A spherical balloon is being deflated at a rate of 10 cubic feet per second. where x is the number of pounds demanded and p is the price per pound.3 and dR/dt = 9. (b) What effect does a 12 hour time delay in plugging the leak have on the spill? (Note: the volume of a circular disc of radius r and thickness d is p r2d. 7 dx/dt = 152162. At what rate is the tip of his shadow moving towards the lamppost when he is 5 feet from the lamppost? Applied Calculus for Business. If y = x3 .50t. where t is the time in years. A kite maintains a constant altitude of 50 feet and is moving horizontally at the rate of 2 feet per second. (a) At what rate is the area of the circle changing when the radius is 4 inches? (b) At what rate is the circumference changing when the radius is: (i) 4 inches.25 per week. . Water is flowing into a conical reservoir 50 feet high with a top radius of 10 feet. At what rate is the radius of the balloon changing when the radius is 2 feet. 2. If dQ/dt = 6 and dx/dt = 2. For a particular gas it is known that when the pressure is 10. 4.6 6. cubic feet per minute. The number. If Q = x/y and R = xy. One travels north at 40 miles per hour. its volume is 4 cubic inches. feet per second. A 6 foot tall man is walking towards a 24foot lamppost at the rate of 8 feet per second. 7 dx/dt = 5 dy/dt. when x = 6 and y = 3. The demand for apples is given by the equation xp = 150.
f1x022 is given by the equation. called the first iterate. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Now. We begin by selecting any value that is near a root (xintercept) and call this value x0. Are they growing or shrinking? Newtons Method * ** 249 27. Inc. To solve the equation f1x2 = 0 we need only find those xvalues at which y = 0. find the rate at which the length of the man s shadow is changing. Are they growing or shrinking? 26. Consider the smooth function defined by the equation y = f1x2. Is it getting longer or shorter? 25. Walter O. Economics. Its area is growing at the rate of 10 cm2/sec. by Warren B. At a certain time one side is 50 cm long and the other side is 20 cm long. x1 is found by setting y = 0 (see Figure 1). Use the method developed in the previous exercise to find the equation of the line tangent to x2y 2 . The perimeter of a rectangle is growing at the rate of 6 cm/sec. use the fact that dy dt = dy dx dx dt (a) Solve for dy/dx.Section 2. At a certain time one side is 4 m long and the other side is 3 m long.11 24. this tangent line has no xintercept. Gordon. 2. Find the rate of change of each side. For the case described in the previous exercise. (This first choice may be obtained from a sketch of the curve y = f1x2 and choosing x0 as the approximation to the actual intercept. that is the xintercepts of the curve. why?) Newton s Method y y = f( x ) r x3 x2 x1 x0 x Figure 1: Illustrating Newton s Method Applied Calculus for Business. find the relationship between the rates of change of x and y as in the previous section. . An alternative way to do implicit differentiation is to introduce a mythical extra variable t.4xy + 7y3 = 5 at 12. (c) Use the result of parts (a) and (b) to find y ¿ . 28.) The equation of the tangent line to the curve at the point 1x0. Find the rate of change of each side. . we obtain x1 = x0 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Its diagonal is growing at the rate of 4 m/sec. Wang. Think of x and y as both functions of t. and April Allen Materowski. The perimeter of a rectangle is growing at the rate of 12 m/sec.12.x02 + f1x02 The xintercept of this line.11 » » Newton s Method Newton s Method Calculator Tips This section deals with Newton s Method for determining the roots of the equation f1x2 = 0. and Finance. (b) For the equation x2 + y 3 = 6.f1x02/f ¿ 1x02 (Note that if f ¿ 1x02 = 0. y = f ¿ 1x021x .
Wang.2. the cell C4 is x0. the next iterate (approximation). Inc. that is to how many decimal places do we want the approximate root? Suppose we want the root to five decimal places. Notice. so the easiest way of performing the calculations is with a calculator or even more easily with a spreadsheet.5. We copy this formula to the succeeding cells in its column to automate the process.22/12*C42. it can be shown in a more advanced course that this method will produce a root f1x2f 1x2 if ` ` 6 1 near the root. generating a sequence of xintercepts (iterates). We obtain y = f ¿ 1x121x . We illustrate the method in the following example. Walter O.2 = 0.250 * ** Section 2.11 Newtons Method Now we determine the equation of the tangent line to the curve passing through the point 1x1. the formula (1) in the form * C4 .1 x2 N1 . then we stop when the sixth decimal place no longer changes with the next iteration.1C4¿2 . x1 is obtained by entering in the spread sheet in the cell C5. Gordon. This is a repetitive process. Example 1 Determine the positive root of the equation x 2 .f1x12/f ¿ 1x12 We repeat (iterate) this process. the calculation is identical to the one above with x0 being replaced by x1. the second iterate. and Finance.41412356. x0 = 1. f1x122. x2. . (called 1f1x222 the second derivative).1 Suppose we choose as our first guess. x2 is x2 = x1 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. xN where xN = xN .x12 + f1x12 and its xintercept. the zero is 1.12 (1) For many well behaved functions xN is an excellent approximation to the root of f1x2 = 0.2 2xN . by Warren B. where f 1x2 is the derivative of the derivative. x3. we need to decide when to stop. Note that when N = 3 the fifth decimal place no longer changes. where we can copy one row to the next and automate the calculations. like Excel. When the sequence of iterates approaches the root (converges). then we have f ¿ 1x2 = 2x and (1) becomes xN = xN .) Applied Calculus for Business. and April Allen Materowski.4142. (Note that we just computed the square root of 2. thus to four places. Solution. Economics.12/f ¿ 1xN . x1. Á . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. In fact. Let f1x2 = x2 . It is clear that an excellent approximation to the zero of the equation is 1. then we generate the following spreadsheet indicated in Table 1.f1xN .1 .
11 Newtons Method 251 Table 1: Using Newton s Method to Approximate the Positive Root of f1x2 = x 2 . again not approaching a root. see Table 2. Economics.21 Newton s method may be used directly on the calculator by realizing that each iterate is a composition of the previous.14xN .6x N . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.7*C4¿2 + 11*C4 . the root is 1. so there must be a root between 1 and 2 (why?). Walter O. It can also happen that the sequence cycles.2x 3 .1 . We examine these cases in the exercises. Gordon.2*C4¿3 . Sometimes.212/ 120*C4¿3 .Section 2. define y1(x) as Applied Calculus for Business.7x 2 + 11x .15*C4¿4 . we leave it as an exercise for you to locate it using Newton s method. we shall locate it below using the TI 89.1 .6x 2 . by Warren B. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.2x 3 . We choose x0 = 1.7x N .2x N . and April Allen Materowski. Table 2: Finding a Root of f1x2 = 5x 4 .1 .5367405 The function defined in Example 2 also has a negative root. Newton s method doesn t always work. Wang.6*C4¿2 . the sequence generated by the method moves away from the root.1 .21 2 20x3 N . and Finance. to seven decimal places.1 + 11xN . .21. Thus.14 and f122 = 37. Solution.14x + 11 so we have 3 2 5x4 N . f ¿ 1x2 = 20x3 .7x 2 + 11x . In Example 2. Note that the entry which does all the calculations is cell C5 its formula is = C4 .1 .1 + 11 xN = xN . Observe. We need a first guess. This entry is then copied into the cells beneath it. f112 = . rather than towards it.1  (1) We put this into a spreadsheet. we have.14*C4 + 112. Inc.2 Example 2 Determine the positive root of f1x2 = 5x4 .
11 1.1 (secant) line through the points 1xN.12 for N Ú 1 Note that this means we need two starting values near the root. and then press F5 to locate the required zero. we have xN + 1 = xN f1xN21xN . For example. Consider f1x2 = 1x . Hint: find a zero of x 4 . Use this observation to compute (a) 1/6.21. suppose you take x0 = 2.f1xN12 . A variation of Newton s Method is called the Secant Method. that is. f1xN . Continuing this way will improve the accuracy of the iterates to the root. to six decimal places. the derivative is replaced by the slope of the f ¿ (xN) L xN .3x 3 .7032256.xN . Wang. However.2x ¿3 .2x . 4. after a few seconds be patient it can take a few seconds (or longer) for more complicated functions. Find the fourth root of 7 to six decimal places.7x2 + 11x .000 car loan is paid off with $250 monthly payments over three years. by Warren B. and Finance. that is.3 to six decimal places. . Determine the root of this function. 14. Find the roots of f1x2 = x4 + x . but this will not always be the case.14x + 11 this is essentially (1) with the subscripts deleted. Walter O.1. if you forget to enter the with condition. Explain why x0 = 3 will not produce a root of f1x2 = x 3 .21 = 0. Applied Calculus for Business. x0 is actually the root of f(x).122. (c) Determine the equation of the tangent line to the curve at the xintercept found in (b) and determine the xintercept of this tangent line. to six decimal places. what monthly interest rate r is the bank charging? It can be shown that this problem translates into the equation 8000 = 250 a 1 . f1xN2 .2x 3 . 3). It is usually a good idea to have it sketch the graph first to get a visual location of the root you want to find and then use the solve command along with the with feature to obtain the desired root.2. obviously. The TI 89 has a variation of Newton s method built into its solve command.b. (b) Using the roots. f1x2 = x3 . 6.7x 2 + 11x .7x ¿2 + 11x .2x 3 . you need to be careful that it locates the root you are looking for. (b) Determine the equation of the tangent line to this curve at x = 2. 12. . and April Allen Materowski. and determine its xintercept. compare with the results in Exercise 5. what happens why? Suppose you take x0 7 2 what happens. Find the fifth root of 25. What happens to the successive iterates? 10. Gordon.1.121/3.3. x2 = y11y111. Another way of using the calculator to locate the root is to first have it sketch the graph.xN . why? Find its root.21 20x3 . where r = 12i. f1x2 = 5x4 . Inc. and for upper bound you move the cursor to the right of the desired root and press enter.. Newton s method can be used to approximate reciprocals. Suppose you want to approximate 1/b. suppose we want to find the negative root of the function given in Example 2. An $8. Thus. 11.7. then x1 = y111. 13. Find all the roots of f1x2 = x3 + 3x2 . Suppose you make a lucky starting choice. Why does this produce the root? 3.1. 8. (a) Find all the roots of f1x2 = 5x4 . What seems to be happening? Try to explain it.9x2 + 27x + 5. they each need to be determined.11 + i236 i b.7. 7. (d) Determine the equation of the tangent line to the curve at the xintercept found in (c) and its xintercept. x2 x 6 0 The calculator gives.22.20x2 + 4x + 1 to four decimal places.4x + 3.11 Newtons Method Calculator Tips y11x2 = x  5x 4 . Then if x0 = 1. you move the cursor to the left of the desired root and press enter. x3 = y11y11y111222 and so on. EXERCISE SET 2. Try Newton s method with x0 = 1. give an approximate factoring of the quartic polynomial. it produces both roots.10. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. It avoids the use of the derivative. Given f1x2 = x2 . with x = 1 + i.3 to six decimal places. what happens if you try to use x0 = 2 to locate the root of this function. It replaces the derivative by the approximation. what if x0 6 2? 9. Use the Secant Method to find the roots of the function of f1x2 = x3 + 3x2 . to six decimal places.252 * ** Section 2.6x 2 . For the lower bound. 5. then let f1x2 = 1/x . x = 1 is the root. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.f1xN .12 f1xN2 . (c) 1/13. f1xN22 and 1xN . see Figure 2. Economics. (a) show that a root of this function lies in the interval (1. Actually. x0 and x1. Observe that this function has more than one root. Find r. The required approximation to the root is then displayed. 2. Hint: rewrite the above expression as a polynomial. Let f1x2 = x3 . (b) 1/9. We enter Figure 2: Newton s Method and the TI 89 solve15x ¿4 . that is.6x2 + 12x . (e) Continue the above and produce a root of the given function to six decimal places.
x . (b) lim 2 x:5 x + 5 x + 1 x 2 + 3x 4 .1. where p is in hundreds of dollars: (a) Find the total revenue function. If the position of a particle at time t is given by the equation s1t2 = 6 + 3t2 .x 5 x2 (b) Find the equation of the tan 5 x4 . Calculate the indicated limits: (a) lim x + 2 x . Find the equation of the tangent line to x 2y .2x + 4y = 15 at the point (3. At what rate is his shadow changing when he is 15 feet from the lamp post? 18. (a) By using the definition of the derivative.82 3 x + 12 (b) Find the equation of the tangent 8. Using Newton s Method. (a) Find f ¿ 1x2 if f1x2 = (b) Find the equation of the tangent 2x + 10 line to the curve at the point where x = . x:2 2 3 4 (b) Find the x + 1 13.1). A 20 foot high grain silo in the shape of a cone. (b) lim 2 x : 3 x . When the radius of the enclosed grain is 8 feet. find the root of f1x2 = 3x5 . Economics. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. by Warren B. If a ball is thrown upward with initial velocity 28 feet/sec. (a) Find y ¿ for y = line at (1. 3 x2 9. Applied Calculus for Business. and Finance.2x2. 9) and B( 12. 12. Find the derivative of the indicated function.3xy 2 = y 3 . find the approximate cost of producing the 30th toasteroven. Inc. how high is the grain piled? 15. (c) Find the point(s) at which the tangent line is horizontal. 4. 3. 22.15 to five decimal places.2x . redefine the function at that point to make it continuous and determine whether the function as so redefined is differentiable at that point. and it strikes the ground 10 seconds later: (a) How far above the ground was the ball when it was first thrown? (b) What was the highest point the ball ever reached? (c) How fast was the ball moving when it hit the ground? 14. If the total cost of producing x toasterovens is given by the formula C1x2 = 40 + 12x + 0. 23. where x is the number of items sold at price p. 10. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.2 7. f1x2 = c 2x . At what rate is the top of the ladder descending when the top of the ladder is 12 feet above the ground? 17. 2.x2 6.9 x 20. (b) Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve at the point (1. find y ¿ if y = equation of the tangent line to the curve at the point (3. has a 10 foot base radius. f1x2 = c 0 1 . (a) Find y ¿ for y = 2x4 . 4). Wang.1 x2 21. 16. (b) Find the approximate revenue obtained by producing and selling the 7th VCR. find y ¿ if y = 6 . Gordon. (c) Find those values of t for which the velocity is positive. and April Allen Materowski.22. A 61*2 foot tall man is walking away a 13foot lamp post at the rate of 5 feet per second. A 15 foot ladder is leaning against a vertical wall and its base is on level ground. find the coordinates of the point P. (b) Find the times and locations at which the velocity is zero. (a) Find f ¿ 1x2 if f1x2 = x2 2x 3 + 1 (b) Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve at the point where x = 2. Calculate the indicated limits: (a) lim 2 . 19.Chapter Review * ** 253 CHAPTER REVIEW Key Ideas Slope of a curve Tangent Line Derivative Constant Multiplier Rule Sum Rule Product Rule Quotient Rule Limit Continuity Discontinuity Removable Discontinuity Differentiable Composite Function Chain Rule Extended Power Rule Marginal Function Geometric Concepts Rate of Change Related Rates Implicit Differentiation Newton s Method 1. .3x2 + 1x gent line at 11. (a) By using the definition of the derivative. 20) is to be divided at a point P so that the ratio of the distances AP/BP is 5/8.x2. .4t3: (a) Find the velocity as a function of time. If the demand for VCR s is described by the equation 5p + 3x = 60. Walter O. The line segment connecting the points A(5. ( a) g1x2 = (b) h1x2 = 1x . Find the equation of the tangent line to 1x2 + y221/2 . 3). . The bottom of the ladder is being pulled away from the wall at a rate of 4 feet per minute. 11.52. g1x2 = x + 3 if if if if if x 6 1 1 6 x x 0 0 6 x 6 1 1 x x2 .9 x:2 x .24 at the point 12.2x4 + 4x 3 7x 2 + 11x . (b) For what values of x is the function discontinuous? (c) For what values of x is the function not differentiable? (d) If any point of discontinuity is removable.12 13x + 42 2 5 6 x3 + 1 B 2x3 + 5 .9). 5. In Exercises 19 21: (a) Sketch the graph of the given function.
Economics. Wang. and April Allen Materowski.Applied Calculus for Business. . Walter O. Inc. and Finance. Gordon. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. by Warren B. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.
we introduce the notion of the differential and see how it is used for approximations. Walter O. we shall be concerned with finding extreme values. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and April Allen Materowski.6. These methods will be applied to geometric problems and examples from Economics and Finance. by Warren B. Gordon. . Applied Calculus for Business. and Finance. Economics.3 Applications of the Derivative In Chapter 2. Wang. In particular. In Section 3. That is. We shall also see how limits and derivatives can be used to help us in curve sketching. Inc. we begin a more detailed investigation of some of these applications. we developed rules for finding the derivatives and began to see some of the uses to which the derivative may be put. we shall be looking for ways to find the largest and smallest possible values attained by a given function. In this chapter.
we have a function which has a hole at x = 2. .256 * ** Section 3. We shall discover that once we model an application by a mathematical equation. Gordon. At 2 4 Figure 1: A Discontinuous Function with a Hole at x = 2 and a Jump at x = 4 Applied Calculus for Business. and April Allen Materowski. In this section. a rational function (the quotient of two polynomials) is continuous at every point at which its denominator is not zero.1 Extrema of a Function 3. Later. we shall generalize the problem of optimization to cases in which a function may depend upon several variables. Similarly. we need only construct a function which has either a hole or a jump at some point in its domain. Before we begin it is useful for us to recall what is meant by a continuous function. To illustrate a discontinuous function. In the business world it is usually desirable to maximize profit and/or minimize cost. we shall consider the problem of optimizing a nonlinear function of a single variable. it is often a straightforward matter to determine the optimal solution. To optimize a function means to find its largest or smallest possible value. To optimize is to find an optimum or optimal value. It is sufficient for this chapter to think of a continuous function as one whose graph has no holes or jumps. For example. Economics. Inc. Since polynomials are functions without holes or jumps.3 a precise definition was given. In Figure 1. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. We must first develop the necessary tools with which to perform the analysis. they are everywhere continuous functions. There are numerous applications of optimization. and Finance. Wang. one would want to use the least amount of material.1 Extrema of a Function » » » » » » Continuity Maximum and Minimum Values Extreme Value Theorem Relative Maxima and Minima Critical Numbers and Critical Points Calculator Tips Continuity The dictionary defines optimum to be the best or most favorable degree or amount. Each point in the domain at which there is a hole or jump in the function s graph is called a discontinuity. In Section 2. Walter O. and a jump at x = 4. by Warren B. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. in designing containers of fixed volume.
Not every function has a maximum and/or minimum value. but it never attains the yvalue 2. f(a) is the highest yvalue attained by the function. it attains any yvalue with as many zeros as you like after the decimal point followed by a 1. f(a)).000000000001. intuitively. Walter O. Economics. f (g)) Figure 2: Illustrating Maximum and Minimum Values DEFINITION 1 A function f has f (a) as its maximum value if f1a2 Ú f1x2 for all x in its domain. when we want to refer to either a maximum or minimum we use the term extremum. f(g)). E(e. and Finance. by Warren B. but never there. and April Allen Materowski. we shall make a small change in Definition 1. This may at first surprise you. It gets arbitrarily close. f (e)) D(d. if f1g2 f1x2 for all x in this interval. we shall not do so here. and in fact. For simplicity we shall state the revised definition for an open interval.00000001 and 2. Inc. f (d )) G(g. Similarly. f (a)) B(b. Consider f1x2 = 2x2 on the open interval 1 6 x 6 2. Note that this interval does not contain x = 1 or 2. When can we be certain that a function will actually attain both its extrema? The above example Applied Calculus for Business. but it is possible that a function may never achieve its extrema. Similarly. In order for y to reach 2. It gets very close. . f (b)) C(c. For such cases. we have the following definition. the minimum value is the smallest possible yvalue attained by the function over its domain. The interval may be open or closed. f (c)) E(e. you see why this happens. Thus. However. Notice that we have labeled the points A(a. (The plural of extremum is extrema. Its maximum value is f(a) and its minimum is f(g). A function f has f (g) as its minimum value if f1g2 f1x2 for all x in its domain. and f(g) the lowest yvalue. We sketch this function in Figure 3. for example it attains the yvalues 2. this function never attains the yvalue 8. but it is not defined at either end point. We say that this function has its maximum value occurring at x = a and its minimum value at x = g. More generally. Wang. A function f has f(g) as its minimum value on the interval a 6 x 6 b. or halfopen. Consider the graph of the function given in Figure 2. continuity is a simple notion. Of course. f(b)).Section 3. Therefore. to distinguish an extremum from a relative extremum (which we consider below). The function is defined and continuous on the open interval. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. if f1c2 Ú f1x2 for all x in this interval. There are cases in which we shall be concerned with the extrema of a function on some interval not necessarily the entire domain of the function. Its precise mathematical definition may seem confusing at first. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.1 Extrema of a Function * ** 257 each of these xvalues. Gordon. DEFINITION 2 A function f has f(c) as its maximum value on the interval a 6 x 6 b. You can see that A is the highest point on the graph and G is the lowest. we would have to have x be 1 but then x would not be in the interval. the function is discontinuous. Maximum and Minimum Values A(a. f(c)).) We note that some texts use the terminology absolute extrema. that is. between 1 and 2. This means that the maximum value is the largest possible yvalue attained by the function over its domain. C(c. Sometimes. D(d. B(b. f(d)). this function never attains a yvalue of two. f(e)) and G(g.
Example 1 Show that the function f1x2 = 1 . Applied Calculus for Business.1) 1 2 1 0 1 2 3 0 x 1 2 Extreme Value Theorem Figure 4: f1x2 = 1 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. bounded interval a x b. This theorem says there are xvalues between a and b. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. We need to keep the function continuous and include the end points of the interval. or possibly a or b themselves. THEOREM 1: THE EXTREME VALUE THEOREM If the function defined by y = f1x2 is continuous on the closed. only that they exist. which is the parabola in Figure 4. That is.x2 It is clear from our sketch. Gordon. by Warren B. Inc. at which the function has a maximum and a minimum. and Finance. Economics. This suggests the following theorem. We shall soon see that they are easily found. 2) o Figure 3: f1x2 = 2x2 on 1 6 x 6 2 indicates the answer. then it attains both a maximum and minimum value on this interval. that is. f has its maximum value. V(0.1 Extrema of a Function o (2. 8) (1. known as the Extreme Value Theorem.258 * ** Section 3. close the interval.1). . and April Allen Materowski. Note that this function does not have a minimum. It does not tell us how to find the extreme values.x2 has a maximum value. Walter O. Wang. Solution We sketch the function. that at the vertex of the parabola V(0. its maximum value is 1.
f(c) is locally a maximum. there may be someone at a higher elevation. Gordon. its yvalues Applied Calculus for Business. sufficient conditions to guarantee extrema. and f1c2 f1x2 for all x in this interval. and at any point at which it has a valley it has a relative minimum. Wang. Points C and E resemble mountain peaks. each of the points B and D is a relative minimum. nearby (locally). Near C. by Warren B. A function may even be discontinuous on an open interval and yet attain a maximum and minimum. we must first examine Figure 2 a little more closely and introduce a few more definitions. In other words. it just tells us what conditions are needed to guarantee attainment of the extreme values. Recall that a function is said to increase on an interval. if we wish to refer to either a relative maximum or relative minimum we shall use the term relative extremum. . no one is higher than you. Walter O. As above. Thus. at any point at which the function has a peak. Similarly. if as we move from left to right on that interval. While the function is everywhere continuous. We would really like to have a simpler way to pin down relative extrema. as asserted by Theorem 1. and April Allen Materowski. and Finance. Similarly. If the conditions of the theorem are not met. the function also has a relative maximum at E. Perhaps the easiest way to do this is by noticing where a function is increasing or decreasing.1 Extrema of a Function * ** 259 Why not? Note that the Extreme Value Theorem is not applicable here. and f1c2 Ú f1x2 for all x in this interval. A B Figure 5: A Discontinuous Function with a Maximum and Minimum We would like to find those points at which the function attains its extrema. because each is the lowest point in some vicinity of itself. then the function may or may not attain extreme values. It has a relative minimum value at f(c) if there is an open interval a 6 x 6 b which contains c. get larger). since locally or relative to its neighboring points. its yvalues increase (that is. Economics. if you were standing on top of a mountain. Before we can. a function is said to decrease on an interval. its domain is not a closed interval. Theorem 1 does not exclude such situations.Section 3. further away. However. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. The function in Figure 2 is said to have a relative maximum at C. Relative Maximum and Minimum Values DEFINITION 3 A function defined by the equation y = f1x2 has f(c) as a relative maximum value if there is an open interval a 6 x 6 b which contains c. Following the same reasoning. it has a relative maximum. Inc. it is the highest point. For example. The function whose graph is given in Figure 5 attains its maximum value at its turning point A and its minimum at its endpoint B. The precise definition of relative extrema for a function defined on a 6 x 6 b follows. if as we move from left to right on that interval.
5 1 x 1. get smaller). it is the way most of us think of them. by Warren B. Gordon. a glance at Figure 7a. or c reveals that they may also occur at interior points of the interval. and Finance. and between D and E. However. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. as asserted by the Extreme Value Theorem. Indeed. The function has a relative minimum at (m. b.1 Extrema of a Function decrease (that is. on its left it is decreasing and increasing on its right. 4 5 4 3 2 2 1 1 0 y 2 1 0 5 4 3 3 0 0 1 2 x 3 4 0 0.260 * ** Section 3. In Figure 2. and April Allen Materowski. Notice that just to the left of a peak the function is increasing. f(m)) if the function is decreasing just to the left of m and increasing just to the right of m. (Why must we exclude functions with plateaus?) A B Figure 6: A Function with a Plateau Now that we have defined a relative extremum we may reexamine Theorem 1. At a valley . If an extremum occurs at an interior point. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Inc. . and between E and G. RULE OF THUMB A function defined by the equation y = f1x2 has a relative maximum at (M. the function is decreasing between A and B. Where may the extrema of a continuous function occur? From Figure 2 we see that they may occur at the end points of its interval of definition. this Rule of Thumb could serve as an equivalent definition of a relative maximum and a relative minimum. Except for extraordinary cases where the graph actually has a plateau. Walter O. we need only examine the yvalues at the endpoints and at the relative extrema. to find the maximum and minimum values of a continuous function over a closed interval. It is increasing between B and C. and just to its right it is decreasing.5 2 0 1 2 x 3 4 Figure 7a Figure 7b Figure 7c Applied Calculus for Business. Wang. then it will also be a relative extremum. Economics. the reverse occurs. between C and D. f(M)) if the function is increasing just to the left of M and decreasing just to the right of M. Thus. such as in Figure 6 .
5 2 2.9 = 31x2 . .6x .5 8 4 0 4 8 0 0. At the point P in Figure 8c the derivative fails to exist.1 or 3. it is a simple matter to check the end points. and P is a relative extremum. It follows from this definition that every relative extremum is a critical point. The tangent line is horizontal at any point where the derivative is zero.Section 3.6x .5 1 P 0 0. we have 3x2 . and P is not a relative extremum. At the point P in Figure 8b the function has a vertical tangent line.5 2 2. all is not lost. by Warren B. or. These are the critical numbers. and April Allen Materowski. and P is not a relative extremum.32 = 31x .2x . Inc. the curve has a sharp corner where a tangent line does not exist. Economics. we need only examine those points to determine if they are relative extrema. The tangent line is vertical or does not exist at any point where the derivative fails to exist. This will be zero if x = . Figure 8 illustrates the contrary. as at points D and E (Figure 2). Since the derivative always exists we need only find those points at which it is zero. They are the xcoordinates at the critical points. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.5 P 2 1. 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 4 3. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. However.1 Extrema of a Function * ** 261 If we know the interval. f(c)) is called a critical point.5 3 2.3x2 . Wang. If c is a critical number for the function defined by y = f1x2 then the point (c. and Finance. Then.321x + 12. However.9. To find the ycoordinates. we must not conclude that all such points are relative extrema. First we shall locate all points where the derivative is zero or fails to exist. we must substitute each xvalue into 2 Critical Numbers and Critical Points Applied Calculus for Business. as at points B and C (Figure 2). as we shall see.5 1 1. Example 2 Find the critical points of f1x2 = x3 . In fact.5 3 Figure 8a 6 4 2 P Figure 8b 0 2 4 6 Figure 8c DEFINITION 4 Any number in the domain of the function at which the derivative is either zero or fails to exist is called a critical number.9x + 15 Solution f ¿ 1x2 = 3x . Walter O. Factoring.5 1 1. However. Gordon. from Figure 8 we see that not every critical point is a relative extremum. But how do we find the relative extrema? Observe that at a relative extremum one of two things occurs: The tangent line is horizontal. The function in Figure 8a has a horizontal tangent line at the point P.
122 Since the numerator is a constant.4 Here the derivative is a fraction. Solution Writing f1x2 = 1x2 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. that occurs when x = 0. we 3 find f ¿ 1x2 = .1 Solution The domain of this function is all x except x = 1. The derivative will fail to exist at those xvalues at which the denominator is zero. The denominator is positive for all x in its domain. f1c22. . and 2. we determine those values at which it is zero by setting the numerator equal to zero. Now that we can locate critical points we may finally give a procedure with which to obtain the extrema of a continuous function on the closed interval a x b. or x = . 0). cn 3. 202 and 13. c2. Compute the yvalues at each of these critical numbers obtaining. c3.values at each of these points and compare to determine which is the maximum and which is the minimum. Therefore.421/2 # 2x = 2 2 2x . 1x .421/2. and Finance. Á . Procedure for Determining the Extreme Values for a Continuous Function on [a.122. (why?). In this case. Economics. the function has no critical points. the critical points of the given function are 1 .4 = 0. We find f1 . Gordon. and f132 = . Compute f(a) and f(b).22 = 0 and f122 = 0. b] 1.12 = 20. we need only compute the y. Thus.12. 02 and (2. Observe that the maximum and minimum values of a continuous function on a closed interval can occur either at an endpoint of the interval or at critical point. when x2 .262 * ** Section 3. Thus.4. Example 3 Find the critical points of f1x2 = 2x2 . x . Wang. whenever f ¿ 1x2 is a quotient. 2. this function can never be zero. Inc. c1. A fraction can only be zero when the numerator is zero and its denominator is not zero. it is rejected from consideration. f1cn2 4.2 or x = 2.2. Example 4 Find the critical points of f1x2 = x + 2 . Thus the critical points are 1 .1. therefore.2. f1c32. Using the quotient rule. we take its derivative using the chain rule. f1c12. by Warren B. However. In this example. the smallest is the minimum value. Therefore. . Differentiate and determine the critical numbers. Applied Calculus for Business. we have two critical numbers: x = . and April Allen Materowski. We have that f1x2 = 1 2 x 1x . The corresponding yvalues are f1 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. The largest yvalue in Steps 1 and 3 is the maximum value. Walter O. Therefore. x = 0 is not in the domain of the given function.1 Extrema of a Function the original equation. Á .
15)).3x2 . Since it is the only critical point. then it is the minimum for the function. The largest of the yvalues in steps 1 and 2 is 15 and the smallest is .1 Extrema of a Function * ** 263 Example 5 Find the extrema of f1x2 = x3 . If it did.5 Figure 9a Figure 9b Figure 9: Illustrating The Only Critical Point Test Applied Calculus for Business.122). Gordon. f132 = . Q is a relative maximum. What if the interval is not closed or even unbounded? What should we do then? In such situations there is no guarantee that the function has extrema. Similarly. (This theorem can be 5 4 3 8 Q 6 P 4 2 1 0 2 0. Economics. there is one case that often arises in applications for which the question is easily resolved. 3. and x = c is the only critical number for this function.5 0 0 0. we need only examine Figure 9b which shows a relative minimum at P. then f(c) is the extremum of the function. Thus. since the function is assumed differentiable it is also continuous. This theorem applies to any case in which end points are not present. . the curve cannot turn around and go lower than it is at P. In addition.9x + 15 on 0 x 4. 4. Inc. Thus.5 2 2.12.5. We see that if we have a continuous function defined on a closed interval we can easily determine the extrema.Section 3. and the minimum is .1 or x = 3. Theorem 2 says that if the only critical point is a relative maximum. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. . They are x = . Solution 1.12 (the extreme point is 13. THEOREM 2: THE ONLY CRITICAL POINT TEST Suppose the differentiable function defined on an open or unbounded interval by the equation y = f1x2 and it has a relative extremum at x = c. There can be no higher point on the curve since it is the only critical point.5 1 1. it cannot jump up or down to a new extreme value. x = .5 0. However. Thus the maximum is 15 (the extreme point is (0. x = 3 is the only critical number. if the only critical point is a relative minimum.1 is rejected since it lies outside the given domain. in Figure 9a. Wang. To understand why the theorem is true. Walter O. It says that any time a function has exactly one critical point which is a relative extremum it is the (only) extremum.12. and Finance.5 0 0. The critical numbers were found in Example 2. it would have to have another critical point. and April Allen Materowski. then it is the maximum for the function. 2. Similarly. the function has a minimum at P.5 1 1. Thus. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. by Warren B. We find f102 = 15 and f142 = . We shall refer to the key notion as The Only Critical Point Test.5 2 2.
Economics. (Recall the Ú is obtained by pressing *) See Figure 10. both the numerator of this function (and the denominator) are never negative.264 * ** Section 3. and by the Only One Critical Point Test. the minimum of this function is 0. and Finance. Instead of writing a x b. and April Allen Materowski. Walter O. Gordon.5). In place of a 6 x 6 b we often use (a. (a. This function is entered as y1(x) and the with command is used to include its domain. 1 . Moreover. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. (which occurs when x = 0). it will be zero only when x = 0.x2 = 0. The TI 89 calculator can locate relative extrema. x: q x + 1 Therefore. This notation will be used in the exercises. and the graph of this function lies entirely in the first quadrant.) Example 6 x on [0.1 is not in our domain.1 or 1 Since . we have a single critical number at x = 1. Thus. . y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote. Observe that the bracket indicates inclusion of the end point. it is common to write [a. it is a maximum. b] would stand for a 6 x b. the maximum of this function is 1*2. as x gets large. From the discussion above. this derivative is zero only when the numerator is The derivative is f ¿ 1x2 = 2 1x + 122 zero. b]. Exercise 38. 1*2 B the graph has a relative maximum. We close this section with a reminder of some notation used to represent intervals (see Section 0. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. thus. Does it have a minimum? Show that the function defined by the equation f1x2 = 2 Solution Note that since the domain of the function is x Ú 0. namely 1 . the graph begins at (0. while a parenthesis indicates exclusion of the end point. or x = . Thus. 0) rises and must turn at least once at some critical point (which is necessarily a relative maximum) and eventually approach the xaxis as its horizontal asymptote. x We also note that lim 2 = 0. it is clear that at the critical point A 1. by Warren B.x2 . Wang. b). q 2 has a single x + 1 critical point which is a maximum. therefore. Suppose the function is stored as y1(x).1 Extrema of a Function generalized to the case of a continuous function where the derivative fails to exist at the single critical point. We illustrate with the function of Example 6. Calculator Tips Figure 10: Defining y11x2 = x x2 + 1 Applied Calculus for Business. Inc. we can easily answer the second question.
(b) What must be true about the yvalues at the maxima? 9. Inc. Sketch the graph of a continuous function increasing on . number 3 is MINIMUM and number 4 is MAXIMUM. f1x2 = 22.3t2 + 5 D B E A C G F 20. Which of the points in Figure 12 are: (a) maxima? (b) minima? (c) relative maxima? (d) relative minima? 8. 6. it then asks for an Upper Bound. 4. increasing to its right and passes through 10. Indicate the point m on your graph which is a relative minimum.x22 *2 18.Section 3. 7. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. EXERCISE SET 3.x . move the cursor to any point to the left of the maximum and press enter.9t2 . Walter O.5 6 x 6 3 and increasing on 3 6 x 6 7. Economics.2x + 3 12.3.1241t + 323 21. The TI asks you for a Lower Bound.60t + 5 15. 3. f1x2 = x2 . w1x2 = 23. Gordon.5 at the point (1. f1x2 = 4x5 13. r1x2 = 4x3/4 + 2 19. see Figure 11.1 Extrema of a Function * ** 265 We next have the TI 89 plot the graph for us.52 and a maximum at 1 .1 6 x 6 2 and decreasing on 2 6 x 6 4.5. 5. Draw the graph of a function such that the maximum is also a relative maximum. h1x2 = x + 3 . Wang. f1x2 = 2x4 + 2x3 . Figure 11: The Graph of y11x2 = x x2 + 1 We now press the MATH (F5) key which gives us various options. It then gives xc: 1. s1t2 = 1t . Sketch the graph of a continuous function defined on . We choose maximum. (we choose a window containing our domain).12 and 1x = 32 and a relative minimum at (x = 0). g1x2 = ax2 + bx + c 14. . that has relative maxima at 1x = . Sketch the graph of a continuous function decreasing on . Draw the graph of a function such that the minimum is also a relative minimum.5 x 3. and Finance. Sketch the graph of a continuous function that has a relative maximum at A 1. 11. (a) Draw the graph of a function which has two maxima and two relative maxima. h1x2 = 4x3 . 4x2 + 9 1 x2 .13x2 + 12x + 9 16. 2. 0. Indicate the point M on your graph which is a relative maximum. 12. Applied Calculus for Business. h1x2 = 112 . In each of Exercises 11 27 locate all critical points.2.3 3x . Yc: .32. v1t2 = t6 . and April Allen Materowski. Sketch the graph of a function which is increasing to the left of x = 1 and decreasing to its right. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. x .1 1. . 1*2 B a minimum at 1 .7 17.2 1 Figure 12 . . that is the maximum is 0. move the cursor to any point to the right of the maximum and press enter.x2 . Sketch the graph of a function which is decreasing to the left of x = 1. by Warren B.5). s1t2 = 2t3 . 10.
as we shall see. wherever the derivative is pos*It is possible for a function to be increasing (or decreasing) on an interval and yet have its derivative equal to zero at one or more points on the interval. Determine the extrema of the function defined by the equation x on 1 . Recall that it is generally the case that just to the left of a relative maximum the function is increasing and just to the right it is decreasing. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. In Figure 1 we show the graph of an increasing function. 35. 2]. (c) (2. 2] 34.266 * ** Section 3. 0]. f1x2 = 4 . q 2. f1x2 = 3x + 9 on: (a) [ . Walter O. and Finance. at every point where a function is increasing and the derivative exists it is nonnegative*. 3] 30. The function is increasing on any interval containing x = 0. (b) [ .q . g1x2 = 2 . Notice that each tangent line has positive slope. Fortunately. (b) [ . (b) [2. 3] 31. We have indicated the tangent lines at a few points on the graph.x on [0. Let f1x2 = x. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Let f(x) be defined on the closed interval [0. (a) Determine the extrema of the function defined by the equation x2 f(x) = 3 on [0.*2 on the interval (0. which has f ¿ 102 = 0. In Exercises 28 34 determine the extrema on the given interval. Gordon. (b) (0. 1]? (b) Is this a violation of Theorem 1? 3. 2]. 2). Let us now consider the question of how to classify the critical points. . that if a continuous function with a single critical point that is a relative extremum. (b) 1 . x + 1 (b) Does this function have extrema on 1 . f1x2 = x2 . 32 29.1.2 The First Derivative Test » » » » Increasing and Decreasing Functions The First Derivative Test Sign Diagrams Calculator Tips Increasing and Decreasing Functions In the preceding section we defined a critical point as any point in the domain of the function at which the derivative of the function is zero or does not exist. 0]? 1 24. a relative minimum. Consider f1x2 = x3. 3/2]. Economics.2. f1x2 = 4x3/4 + 2 on: (a) [0. 25. then this critical point is also an extremum. f1x2 = x4 . Such critical points pose no problem. There is one problem that we have not resolved. (a) Does f have extrema on [0.4 x2 26. (c) [0. f1x2 = x/1x2 + 12 on: (a) [0. 16) 32. Justify your conclusions. (d) 1 . 22 33.x2/3.2. 1]. 16). 3]. 2]. 8]. Does f have extrema on this interval? 38. by means of a sketch. 1] by the rule: f1x2 = b 2x2 1 if 0 6 x 6 1 if x = 0 or x = 1 .9 27.q .3. We shall see that we need only examine the sign of the derivative.2 The First Derivative Test 36. At a relative minimum the reverse occurs. and April Allen Materowski. How do we classify a critical point? For example. there is a simple procedure by which we may make the classification. (a) Does f satisfy the conditions of Theorem 1? (b) Does it have a maximum value? (c) Does it have a minimum value? 37. the Only Critical Point Test requires that we classify the critical point as either a relative maximum or relative minimum before it can be applied.5. f1x2 = 1x2 .1. 39. by Warren B. 16]. there are three possibilities: The point is a relative maximum.6 on: (a) [ . Show. Of course.1. 28. Inc. The function is decreasing as we approach the minimum from the left and increasing to its right.1.12x . More importantly for our purposes. f1x2 = 2x3 + 3x2 . x . Applied Calculus for Business.922/3. or neither. 2]. That is. (c) (0. Justify your conclusions. (b) [ . f1x2 = x 22 .6x3 + 12x2 + 2 on: (a) [1. w1x2 = x 2x . f(x) = 2 x + 1 40. 2]. 3].2x + 3 on: (a) [0. Let f1x2 = x2/3 on the interval [ . Wang.
2 The First Derivative Test * * * 267 itive the function is increasing. Similarly. and so the function is decreasing.Section 3. Wang.) THEOREM 1 In any interval on which f ¿ 1x2 7 0 the function is increasing. what does this tell us about relative maxima and minima? It means that if M is a relative maximum. But. Figure 2 is the graph of a function whose derivative is always negative. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and in any interval on which f ¿ 1x2 = 0 the function is constant. Inc. Figure 1: An Increasing Function Figure 2: A Decreasing Function These observations give rise to the following theorem. the derivative is negative just to its left and positive just to its right (Figure 3b). Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. If a function is neither increasing nor decreasing. the derivative of the function is positive just to its left and negative just to its right (Figure 3a). Applied Calculus for Business. if m is a relative minimum. Walter O. Gordon. . (We assume f is a differentiable function on a given domain. The First Derivative Test M m Figure 3a and b: Derivatives near a Relative Maximum **With the exception of certain singular functions which are analyzed in more advanced courses. in any interval on which f ¿ 1x2 6 0 the function is decreasing. then it is a constant. and Finance. by Warren B. We summarize this in the following theorem known as The First Derivative Test. and April Allen Materowski. Similarly. where we assume f is continuous at the critical point. Observe that its tangent line has negative slope at each point at which it exists. We know that the derivative of a constant is zero everywhere and it can be shown that the converse is true**. Economics.
5 we give a detailed discussion of this procedure and recommend you review it before proceeding. f ¿ 1x2 = 21x .6132 = .9. we immediately conclude that f(3) is a relative minimum. then f(M) is a relative maximum. (2) Suppose m is a critical number for f. Consider Example 1 below. Wang. . the graph of y = f1x2 is a parabola opening upward. Walter O.32. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. This theorem is graphically illustrated by the sign diagrams of Figure 4. Now factoring f ¿ 1x2.92 and this is a relative minimum. We shall examine the sign of the derivative by using a sign diagram.6 Since this exists for all x. Applied Calculus for Business. yields x = 3 as the only critical number.6x. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and Finance. by Warren B. Hence. . and April Allen Materowski. the critical point is 13. we have reduced the classification of relative extrema to examination of the sign of the derivative. and f ¿ 1x2 is positive just to the left of M and negative just to the right of M. the only critical points are where f ¿ 1x2 = 0.9.2 The First Derivative Test THEOREM 2: THE FIRST DERIVATIVE TEST (1) Suppose M is a critical number for f. we have. Since f132 = 32 . then f(m) is a relative minimum. f is increasing + M f is decreasing sign of f '(x) Figure 4a: M is a relative maximum f is decreasing sign of f '(x) m f is increasing + Figure 4b: m is a relative minimum The First Derivative Test when used in conjunction with The Only Critical Point Test can be an extremely powerful tool for analyzing the behavior of a function. we now know that the minimum value for f1x2 = x2 . Gordon. An abridged discussion follows. By The Only Critical Point Test.32 is negative if x 6 3 and 21x . Solution We find the derivative f ¿ 1x2 = 2x . Economics. In Section 0. (Of course. Inc.268 * ** Section 3. and f ¿ 1x2 is negative just to the left of m and positive just to the right of m.6 = 0. It is not hard to see that 21x . Example 1 Find and classify the critical point(s) of f1x2 = x2 . Putting 2x .) Thus.6x is .32 is positive if x 7 3. (3) If c is a critical number of f and f ¿ 1x2 does not change its sign around c then f(c) is neither a relative maximum nor a relative minimum.
Factoring. Use this information to classify its critical points and sketch its graph. Suppose we indicate these key numbers on the number line (Figure 4). . The quotient can change sign only where one of the three is zero. Example 2 Determine where f1x2 = x3 . the quotient is negative.22 is negative the other factors are positive. and the sign of the quotient is negative.22/1x + 32 Observe that for any x 6 .3 (choose any number you wish as long as it is less than . Thus. Again.3x2 .6x .1 and x = 3.Section 3. The zero of the denominator (that is.9. f ¿ 1x2 = 31x2 . and April Allen Materowski. 1x . As you can see. + 5/3 2 + Figure 4c: sign of 13x .521x .321x + 12 There are two critical numbers.2 The First Derivative Test * ** 269 Consider the quotient 13x .5. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. the value at which the quotient is undefined) is x = .9x + 15 is increasing and decreasing. Let us look at some examples that involve curve sketching. Observe that the sign of the quotient is determined by the signs of the three expressions: 13x . Draw them on the number line and test any point between each pair of successive key numbers to determine the sign of the function at the test point. 1x .3 and 5/3 (say 0) both factors in the numerator are negative and the denominator is positive.32 = 31x . We shall refer to these as key numbers. otherwise the sign of the quotient is positive.22. (The critical numbers are the zeros of the derivative. The sign of the quotient in each interval is indicated in Figure 4. all factors are positive and the sign of the quotient is positive. by Warren B. Now that we are able to determine the sign of a function it is a simple matter to classify critical points. and 1x + 32. once we test any point in an interval between the key numbers. If an odd number of these are negative then the sign of the quotient is negative.3. Economics. say . usually. we have.521x . Thus.9). If x is any number between . Locate the key numbers of the function 2.3. The classification follows immediately from the first derivative test and analysis of the sign diagram of the derivative. those values of x at which the quotient becomes zero) are x = 5/3 and x = 2.2x . This method is quite general and we use it to draw the sign diagram for any function whose key numbers have been determined. Gordon.52. the critical numbers correspond to the key numbers for f ¿ 1x2. Inc. we have determined the sign of the function throughout the interval.) Applied Calculus for Business. Solution We must first determine the critical numbers f ¿ 1x2 = 3x2 . Wang. resulting in a positive quotient. Record its sign on the number line. Sign Diagrams DETERMINING A SIGN DIAGRAM FOR A FUNCTION 1. If x is any number larger than 2 (say 5).) each factor is negative. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Walter O.22/1x + 32. note that the possible sign changes of the function can occur only at these key numbers. If x is any number between 5/3 and 2 (say 1. they occur at x = . The zeros of the numerator (that is. and Finance.
) The sign is positive. + 0 *1 0 3 + Figure 5b: sign of f ¿ 1x2 = 31x 2 . (You may substitute into either the factored or nonfactored form of the derivative. 20) m(3. the tangent line is horizontal at these values of x). To the left of x = 3 the function is decreasing and to its right it is increasing. by Warren B. To sketch the curve we begin by drawing Figure 6a which illustrates that the tangent line is horizontal both at the peak (M) and the valley (m).122 is the relative minimum. Choosing any number larger than 3 (say 4) we find the sign is now positive. In Figure 6b.1 or x 7 3. it is decreasing when f ¿ 1x2 6 0. *12) Figure 6a: A Partial Sketch Figure 6b: Completing the Sketch Figure 6: A Sketch of the Graph f1x2 = x3 . . which occurs when . Thus.12 we conclude that M1 . See Figure 5a.321x + 12 The function is increasing over any interval on which its derivative is positive. 202 is the relative maximum and m13. Figure 5b indicates that the function is increasing to the left of x = .1 and decreasing to its right. Inc. (We remind you that the ycoordinate of any point on a graph is obtained by substituting the appropriate xcoordinate into the equation of the function. Since f1 .1 the function has a relative maximum.321x + 12 Choose any number less than . Economics. Draw the number line indicating the critical numbers. and April Allen Materowski. *12) m(3.9x + 15 Applied Calculus for Business. We record the signs giving Figure 5b. the function has a relative minimum at x = 3.3x2 .1 and 3 (say 0).2x . Similarly. the sign of the derivative is negative. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. it does not matter which is used. 15) which is the yintercept of the function.2x . 20) M(*1. Gordon. (0.32 = 31x .32 = 31x .12 = 20 and f132 = .2) and evaluate the sign of the derivative at this value of x. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Thus. Choose any number between . Therefore.) M(*1. the sketch is completed by joining the relative extrema with a continuous curve. and Finance. It is found by setting x = 0. Place a 0 above each critical number to remind us that the derivative is zero at that value of x (that is.1. Walter O. from Figure 5b we see that the function is increasing if x 6 . Note that we have labeled an additional point.2 The First Derivative Test We proceed as follows: 1.1 (say . at x = .270 * ** Section 3. . Wang.1 6 x 6 3. 0 *1 0 3 Figure 5a: sign of f ¿ 1x2 = 31x2 . that is f102 = 15.
625.32 Choosing any number less than 0. Label the intervals on which it is increasing and decreasing. We record this information and obtain Figure 7b. 7) m(3/2. The function is increasing if x 7 3/2. .2 The First Derivative Test * ** 271 Example 3 Sketch the graph of f1x2 = 2x4 .12x2 = 4x212x . 29/8) Figure 8a: A Partial Sketch Figure 8b: Completing the Sketch Figure 8: A Sketch of the Graph of f 1x2 = 2x 4 . Note that f102 = 7 and f13/22 = 29/8 = 3. indicating its relative extrema.32 The critical numbers occur where the derivative is zero.4x3 + 7. that is. 0 0 0 3/2 + Figure 7b: sign of f ¿ 1x2 = 8x 3 . by Warren B. Inc. Since f ¿ 1x2 does not change sign at x = 0. Wang. Choosing any number greater than 3/2. At x = 3/2 the function has a relative minimum since at this point it changes from a decreasing to increasing function. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. We label both these points in Figure 8a.12x 2 = 4x 212x . f ¿ 1x2 = 8x3 . Walter O. (0. We complete the sketch in Figure 8b. the tangent line is horizontal at this point. it is neither a relative maximum nor a relative minimum. Nevertheless. we find that f ¿ 1x2 6 0. 29/8) m(3/2.32 The function is decreasing if x 6 0 or if 0 6 x 6 3/2. Gordon. 7) (0. 0 0 0 3/2 Figure 7a: sign of f ¿ 1x2 = 8x3 . we find that f ¿ 1x2 7 0.Section 3. Solution We start with the derivative. Choosing any number between 0 and 3/2 we find that f ¿ 1x2 6 0 on this interval as well. and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. We label these critical numbers on the number line as indicated in Figure 7a. Economics. when x = 0 or x = 3/2. also indicating that we have a valley at x = 3/2. and Finance.12x2 = 4x212x .4x 3 + 7 Applied Calculus for Business.
0) and (8. because the tangent line is vertical there. 0) m(0. First. Second. and Finance.2x Applied Calculus for Business. by Warren B. 0) Figure 10a: A Partial Sketch Figure 10b: Completing the Sketch Figure 10: A Sketch of the Graph of f1x2 = 6x2/3 . the derivative does not exist at x = 0.x1/32/x From Figure 9 we see that the function has a relative maximum at x = 8 and a relative minimum at x = 0. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. DNE 0 + 0 8 Figure 9: sign of f ¿ 1x2 = 212 . x = 23 = 8 Since f102 = 0 and f182 = 8. we see that the derivative fails to exist at the zero of the denominator.2 = 212 . Solution f ¿ 1x2 = 4x1/3 . Note that f102 = 0 and f182 = 8. 8). Example 4 Sketch the graph of f1x2 = 6x2/3 .2x1/3 2 = = x1/3 x1/3 x1/3 This function has two critical numbers. we place DNE (Does Not Exist) above it in the sign diagram. Walter O. the sign of the derivative is negative (remember the cube root of a negative number is negative). and April Allen Materowski.2x.2 The First Derivative Test Note in the previous example. If any number greater than 8 is tested the sign is negative. 29/8 is the minimum of this function. In this case. when x1/3 2 . If any number less than 0 is tested. Economics. . Wang. the sign of the derivative is positive. Gordon. 8) M(8. M (8. the derivative is zero at the zero of the numerator. 8) m(0. This information is summarized in Figure 9. If any number between 0 and 8 is tested. We first sketch Figure 10a and then complete the sketch in Figure 10b. Since the derivative does not exist at x = 0. x = 0.x1/32 4 4 .272 * ** Section 3. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. the critical points are (0.x1/3 = 0 = 2. Figure 9. Inc.
Therefore. (Figure 11) + 0 200 Figure 11: Sign of R ¿ 1x2 = . After all. The maximum revenue is $120. otherwise the radicand would be negative. or x = 200. Wang. At one end point.00. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Example 5 Suppose that the relationship between price and demand for a certain brand of color television set is given by the equation p = .3x2 + 1200x. The revenue is maximized when the cost for each set is $600.6x + 1200 Thus. where p is the price per bicycle in dollars when x bicycles are demanded. Example 6 The price of a bicycle is given by the equation p = 91300 . Using sign analysis on R ¿ 1x2 we obtain the following sign diagram. Its graph is a parabola opening downward. the first at the origin and the second not shown on the sketch. By the Applied Calculus for Business. .6x + 1200 = 0.000. x = 0.10x21/2. Since x stands for the number of bicycles. R1x2 = xp = 9x1300 . we find R ¿ 1x2 = . This is a continuous function defined on a closed interval. Now. The critical number occurs when . Therefore. For x = 200. Differentiating. where p is the price of a set in dollars and x is the number of sets demanded. that is the demand is zero and there is no revenue. the maximum revenue is at the highest point on the parabola. and April Allen Materowski. Economics. At the other end point x = 400 gives p = 0. by Warren B. at its vertex. However. which is similar to the previous one except that the demand equation is no longer linear. p = . Here the price is zero so there is no revenue.3x + 1200.10x21/2 where 0 x 30. Thus. If the total revenue is to be maximized. What price should be charged per set if the total revenue is to be maximized? Solution The total revenue is given by R = xp = x1 . How could you determine that this second root is x = 27? We next consider some examples from Economics. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Gordon.6x + 1200. it is not always an easy algebraic matter to determine the highest or lowest point on a curve. This is the only critical number.2 The First Derivative Test * ** 273 Note that the above graph has two roots. the total revenue equation is R1x2 = .312002 + 1200 = $ 600. Now you might be thinking that the calculus was not needed to solve this example. we must have 0 x 400. and Finance. Inc. the revenue has a relative maximum when x = 200 (200 television sets are demanded). it is the value that maximizes the revenue. we must have x Ú 0. Consider the following example.3x + 12002 or R = . what price should be charged for each bicycle? Solution Observe that x 30.3x2 + 1200x. Walter O.Section 3. in order that neither x nor p be negative (verify this!).
s1t2 = t2 + 4t .10x That is. As mentioned before. f1x2 = mx + b. The ycoordinates of the critical points are obtained by substituting the critical numbers just found into y1(x). Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. then we enter solve1y21x2 = 0. the relative maxima and minima may be found by having the calculator graph y1(x).) The other critical point occurs when R ¿ 1x2 = 0.2 The First Derivative Test Extreme Value Theorem. x = 20.) Applied Calculus for Business. The problem with this approach is that the window used to display the graph may not clearly show all the relative extrema.5x + 3 2.2 In Exercises 1 14 use the first derivative to determine where the given function is increasing and decreasing. Alternately. EXERCISE SET 3. x). h1x2 = 2x2 . Now. To find the points at which the derivative does not exist.10x + 9 2300 . we find 300 . the maximum must occur at either a critical point or an end point.101202 = $ 90. Economics. enter an appropriate lower and upper bound. 0).45x 2300 . the maximum must occur at a critical point. To determine the xcoordinates where the derivative is zero. . g1x2 = .24x2 + 36x + 96 8. we first determine d(y1(x). but it means you have to have the graph displayed. and Finance.18 6.10x = 5x.10x 2300 . Since R102 = R1302 = 0. Walter O. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. the TI 89 can differentiate functions using the d key (located above the number 8). Calculator Tips We shall examine additional applications of the derivative to optimization theory in Section 3. Thus. if: (a) m 7 0. Using the chain rule.10x = 45x 2300 .a21x2 + ax + a22.10x The derivative fails to exist at x = 30. that is. Inc. and April Allen Materowski. (b) m 6 0 3. choose maximum (or minimum) and for each relative extremum. x2.10x21/2 # 9 2 . Suppose the equation of the function is already stored as y1(x) in the calculator. . r1t2 = 4t3 . that a maximum occurs when x = 20. 1. The price per bicycle is then p = 9 2300 . x2.2x + 1 2 4. g1x2 = 4x3 . R1202 = 200. q1x2 = x4 . when 9 2300 . Gordon.1 5. we have that 1 R ¿ 1x2 = 9x # 1300 . we can solve for the zeros of the denominator of the derivative. (The tangent line to the curve is vertical at (30.32x (Hint: x3 .4. by Warren B.15t2 + 18t + 2 9. Both the x and ycoordinates are found this way.a3 = 1x .21 7. we need only enter solve1d1y11x2. f1x2 = 3x .10x21/21 .45x R ¿ 1x2 = + 9 2300 . g1t2 = t2 . It follows from the Extreme Value Theorem. Wang. x2 = 0. or 15x = 300. v1x2 = x4 + 5 10. suppose we then save its denominator as y2(x).274 * ** Section 3. press F5.102 + 1300 . This means the TI 89 can determine the critical points of a function.10x = 0 Clearing fractions and dividing by 9.
b). suppose that f1a2 = f1b2. Inc. Walter O. Justify your conclusion! 37.0. then their difference. Exercise 21. f1x2 = 2x4 + 2x3 . 43. f(b)) is horizontal. show D ¿ 1x2 = 0 on the interval and then deduce the result as a consequence of the first derivative test. 29. Show that the objective function P = Ax + By + C is either increasing. in cents. Suppose a function is continuous on [a. and April Allen Materowski.g1x2. 30. Suppose that a function satisfies the same conditions as in the previous exercise. then the rotated figure satisfies all the conditions of Rolle s Theorem. Apply the Mean Value Theorem using these points to deduce that f1x22 . Hint: let x1 6 x2 be any two points in the interval in question. Therefore.4ac 6 0. f1x2 = 3x . The price of a magazine.60t + 5 19. f1x2 . a 6 c 6 b. One such function is illustrated in Figure 12. Exercise 11. such that the tangent line at x = c is parallel to the xaxis 1f ¿ 1c2 = 02. Show that if the figure is rotated so that the dotted line joining A(a. This result is known as the Mean Value b . s1t2 = 2t3 . such that the tangent line at x = c is parallel to the line joining A to B. is given by the equation p = 101147 . determine the frame s dimensions if the total cost is to be minimized. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. h1x2 = 112 . there must be at least one point c. What should the price be to maximize the publisher s total revenue? Justify your conclusion! 39.13x2 + 12x + 9 20. 34.x221/2 22. f1x2 = 1x2 . by Warren B. r1x2 = 4x3/4 + 2 23. . j1x2 = 28 .02x21/2. Applied Calculus for Business.12/1x + 12 13. Thus. 40. where a 6 c 6 b. Justify your conclusion! 38. Exercise 7. v1t2 = t6 .1241t + 323 In Exercises 25 35 sketch the graph of the function defined in the given exercise.2x 14. A rectangular picture frame is to enclose an area of 72 in2.x12f ¿ 1c2. Show from your graphs that there must be some point c.7 21. f1x2 = x/1x2 + 12 36.9t2 . or The Law of the Mean. Sketch various possibilities for the graph of f. b] and differentiable on (a.g1x2 = constant on the interval. 42. where x is the number of magazines demanded. p1x2 = 1x . decreasing or remains the same when it is evaluated along the line B(b. show that the price at which the total revenue is maximized is independent of b. 28. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. f (b)) A (a. 32. f1x2 = x 2x + 1 The First Derivative Test * ** 275 y = mx + b.922/3 35. Additionally. 44. Exercise 20. Show that if two functions f and g have the same derivative on the same interval.a Theorem. 33. This result is known as Rolle s Theorem.) 41. f(a)) to B(b.2 11. Wang. 31.f1a2 show that f ¿ 1c2 = . Find two numbers whose sum is 100 such that their product is as large as possible.bx21/2. 15. Gordon. Hint: Define D1x2 = f1x2 . Economics. h1x2 = 4x3 . Exercise 8. and Finance. Exercise 24. except that f1a2 Z f1b2. f1x2 = x2 . In Exercises 15 24 classify all critical points. s1t2 = 1t . Exercise 22. f (a)) Figure 12 45. Exercise 15. For the demand equation p = 1a . g1x2 = ax2 + bx + c 18.x2 .3t2 + 5 24. Use the Mean Value Theorem to prove the First Derivative Test. If the cost of the top and bottom is twice the cost of the sides. Exercise 23. 25. Use all the information obtained from the first derivative. with a 7 0 and b 7 0.x1/3 12.Section 3. f1b2 .2x + 3 16. f1x2 = 4x5 17. 27. (Hint: Substitute for y in the objective function and apply the first derivative test. 26. Show that ax2 + bx + c always has the same sign as the constant term c if b2 .f1x12 = 1x2 .
P Figure 1 But. by Warren B. and Finance.72 = 24x . The following symd2y bols are commonly used to denote the second derivative: f 1x2. It is d 112x2 . and April Allen Materowski. We now ask. dy Suppose y = f1x2 = 4x3 . Thus.276 * ** Section 3. To analyze this behavior. Furthermore.7. it may be decreasing very quickly. What it does not do is tell us how the curve increases or decreases. Inc.4x . 2 . what is the derivative of the derivative? The answer is very simple. then f ¿1x2 = = 12x2 . Economics.3 Concavity and the Second Derivative » » » » » » » » The Second Derivative Higher Order Derivatives Velocity and Acceleration Concavity The Second Derivative Test for Concavity The Second Derivative Test for Relative Extrema Implicit Differentiation and Curve Sketching Calculator Tips We have learned how examination of the first derivative can help us to sketch a curve. At first. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. as it nears the low point.7x + 9. it is a differentiable function. y .3 Concavity and the Second Derivative 3. we need to discuss the notion of higher order derivatives. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. its rate of decrease must slow until it stops decreasing altogether at the minimum. It tells us where the curve is increasing and decreasing and allows us to classify the critical points. Wang. the function must begin to increase. think about the way a curve looks as the function nears its minimum (for example. . dx The derivative of the derivative is called the second derivative. first slowly and then more rapidly. Walter O. For example.4x .2x2 . at point P in Figure 1). Gordon.4. After passing the minimum. dx We see that f ¿ 1x2 is itself a function of x. (You might be dx The Second Derivative Applied Calculus for Business. its rate of change is itself changing.
More generally. Instead we would indicate it by f12721x2 or y1272. fifth. and April Allen Materowski. The reason is that the second derivative is d1dy2 dy d2y d dy a b . Walter O. Wang. (For our example the fourth and higher order derivatives are all zero.100x6 1Second derivative. It is denoted by f 1x2 = y = . Solution Applying the quotient rule once again. the 27th derivative it would not be wise to write f with 27 primes.*212x2 = x1x2 + 12.3 Concavity and the Second Derivative * ** 277 wondering about the appearance of the 2 in nonsymmetrical positions in 2 d2y dx2 .x12x2 1x2 + 122 = 1 . fourth or even higher order derivatives. It has the form or . we need the product rule and the chain rule. y ¿ = 20x4 + 20x5 1First derivative. In the above example suppose we want the derivative of the second derivative.*2[1] f 1x2 = x21x2 + 123/2 + 1x2 + 12. and even higher order derivatives. dx dx dx dx 1dx22 dx2 We may extend the above notion and ask for third. dx Example 1 Find the first three derivatives for y = 4x5 . for instance. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2 Higher Order Derivatives Example 2 1 Find the second derivative of f1x2 = 1x2 + 12 *2 Solution For the first derivative. 1x + 123/2 2 1 1 1 1 Example 3 Find f 1x2 if f1x2 = x/1x2 + 12.2 y = 240x2 + 600x7 1Third derivative. and Finance. we have. f 1x2 = x C A . y1n2.x2 .*2 For the second derivative. or n . We could go on in this manner defining fourth.*2 Factoring out 1x2 + 123/2. dx3 f 1x2 = 24. we need the chain rule. The nth order derivative of y = f1x2 is denoted dny by any of the following: f1n21x2. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. written as . by Warren B. the following notation is used.5x4 Solution The derivatives are taken successively by the usual rules. In our example. we have f 1x2 = 1x2 + 123/2[x2 + 1x2 + 12] = 1 .) However. f ¿ 1x2 = 1*21x2 + 12. d3y which is called the third derivative. Gordon. 1x2 + 122 Applied Calculus for Business. in general. . f ¿ 1x2 = 1x2 + 12 . Economics.1*2 B 1x2 + 123/212x2 D + 1x2 + 12.2 y = 80x3 .Section 3. Inc. if we wanted to indicate.
48 cm/sec. dt dt Example 4 The position (in centimeters) of a particle as a function of t (in seconds).x22[21x2 + 12[2x]] 1x2 + 122 = . which is the absolute value of velocity.2852 gives the minimum velocity. You should notice that when a1t2 = 0. Economics. is the instantaneous rate of change of dt dt velocity with respect to time.93 cm/sec. The acceleration is a122 = 6122 . we consider s = f1t2. (b) The acceleration is zero when 6t . Now the derivative of velocity. we have a critical point for v(t). Applied Calculus for Business. along with the chain rule. which means the velocity is decreasing. That is. the more involved it is to find the various derivatives.601102 + 15 = . its speed. (a) Find the velocity and acceleration of the particle at time t = 2.60 = 0. v = v1t2 = s ¿ = 3t2 . is getting larger. where s is position and t is time. . (c) At t = 10. is given by the equation s = t3 . actually the particle is going faster.285 cm/sec. by Warren B. We know v. The acceleration measures how velocity changes with time. and Finance. You should verify that this point 110.x22] 1x2 + 124 = . it is becoming more negative. Inc.2x1x2 + 12[1x2 + 12 + 211 . What about higher order derivatives? We shall only be concerned with two interpretations of the second derivative. (c) What is the velocity at that time? Solution We find the first two derivatives.2 Thus. Wang. Gordon. . First.60 = . . at t = 10 sec. Walter O. We have several interpretations for the (first) derivative.60 (a) At t = 2.3 Concavity and the Second Derivative f 1x2 = 1x2 + 122[ .60122 + 15 = . To find the second derivative in Example 3 required a double application of the quotient rule. the velocity is v122 = 31222 .2x13 .11 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.278 * ** Section 3.30t2 + 15t + 23. So we say that the velocity is decreasing but.60t + 15 a = a1t2 = v ¿ = s = 6t . Notice this interpretation. The acceleration is also negative. The particle is moving in the negative direction. is the instantaneous rate of change of position with respect to time and dv ds v = s ¿ 1t2 = .2x] . The velocity of the particle is becoming more negative.x22 1x2 + 123 Velocity and Acceleration The more complex the original function. That is. (b) Find the time at which the acceleration is zero. The first deals with particle motion and the second with curve sketching. the velocity. the velocity is negative. This derivative is called the acceleration. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and April Allen Materowski. and we write dv d2s a = = 2 . the velocity is v1102 = 311022 .
Concavity C G B D F E A Figure 2: Illustrating Concavity Consider the function whose graph is sketched in Figure 2. the way it increases is different. the tangent line lies beneath the graph. Economics. You might be wondering what those points are called at which the curve changes its concavity. Walter O. from C to D it is upside down Ushaped. and Finance. in any interval on which the function is concave downward the tangent line lies above the graph. We know what an inflection point is. the function in Figure 2 is concave upward from A to B. we have the following definition. Mathematicians use the term concavity to indicate how the curve is shaped. while from B to C the graph is upside down Ushaped. and from D to F. P Q Figure 3: Concavity and Tangent Lines DEFINITION 1 Any point on the graph of a function at which the concavity changes is called an inflection point. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. From A to B the graph is Ushaped. However. They are called inflection points. where the graph is concave upward at P and concave downward at Q. Wang. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.3 Concavity and the Second Derivative * ** 279 What about the geometric interpretation of the second derivative? What shall see that it determines the shape or concavity of a function. how do we determine the concavity of the function? We shall see that the answer to this question is analogous to the determination of where a function increases or decreases. More precisely. Between C and E the function is decreasing. and April Allen Materowski. Thus. Inc. Observe that the graph is increasing from A to C as well as from E to G. but how do we locate it? That is.2. It should be pointed out that at any point in an interval on which the graph is concave upward. See Figure 3. by Warren B. and from D to E it is Ushaped. Similarly. Similarly between E and F it is Ushaped and between F and G it is upside down Ushaped.Section 3. We now have a similar situation to the one we had in Section 3. Gordon. It is concave downward from B to D and from F to G. Applied Calculus for Business. .
Consider the concave upward function whose graph is given in Figure 4a.280 * ** Section 3. as we move from left to right on the concave downward function in Figure 4b. Notice that as we follow the graph from left to right the slope of the tangent lines drawn at P. However. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. the sign of the first derivative indicates where the function is increasing and decreasing. Wang. and Finance. Economics. Therefore. If the function is concave upward at x = c. It can be shown that the condx verse. Thus we see that if we have a point at which f ¿ 1x2 = 0. and April Allen Materowski. Walter O. the major focus of the previous two sections was the location of extrema. Point C is a relative maximum. Thus f ¿ 1x2 is an increasing function. After all. the function is concave upward. by Warren B. Applied Calculus for Business. But the slope is the derivative. and if we can determine the concavity at that point. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. If the function is concave downward at x = c. Inc. then we can classify the critical point by its concavity. we need only examine the sign of the appropriate derivative. d 1f ¿ 1x22 7 0. In each. Gordon. if we follow the slope of the tangent lines. how can concavity aid us? Another look at Figure 2 should convince you otherwise. or f 1x2 7 0. the function is concave upward. Let us now look at the relationship between the second derivative and concavity. the function is concave downward. a relative minimum. while the sign of the second derivative reveals where the function is concave upward or downward. . THEOREM 1(PRELIMINARY VERSION) Suppose f is a differentiable function with f ¿ 1c2 = 0. by the first derivative test its derivative is positive. while being a nice geometrical property. We have the following preliminary theorem. Thus. that is.3 Concavity and the Second Derivative You might be thinking that concavity. then the function has a relative maximum at x = c. is also true. at E. which is called the Second Derivative Test for Concavity. along this curve. dx Similarly. is not very useful. we see that the slope is decreasing (the tangent lines become less steep). Note how similar the uses of the first and second derivatives are. then the function has a relative minimum at x = c. THEOREM 2: THE SECOND DERIVATIVE TEST FOR CONCAVITY In any interval on which f 1x2 7 0. In any interval on which f 1x2 6 0. R P Q Q P Figure 4a: Slope of the Tangent Line Increases as x Increases Figure 4b: Slope of Tangent Line Decreases as x Increases d 1f ¿ 1x22 6 0 or f 1x2 6 0 along this curve. the slope is an increasing function (the slope increases). Thus. Q and R gets larger. Similarly. which we will revise shortly. Observe that at C the function is concave downward.
called the Second Derivative Test for Relative Extrema. by Warren B. Therefore.3 Concavity and the Second Derivative * ** 281 To determine the sign of the second derivative we need only find those points in the domain of the function at which the second derivative is zero or fails to exist. we have the completed sign diagram for f 1x2. say .2.23 and 0.Section 3. 0. To find the inflection points we locate those points at which the second derivative is zero or fails to exists. Note that the concavity changes when x = . we find that the sign of f 1x2 is negative. say . I1 A . and Finance. Choose any number between . Walter O.23 6 x 6 0 or x 7 23. we found that f 1x2 = . Usually. Example 5 Determine where f1x2 = x/1x2 + 12 is concave upward and where it is concave downward.23/4 B . I210. Economics. . so we need only consider values at which it is zero. 0 and 23. given in Figure 6. thus in this interval.x2 = 0.23. we begin with Figure 5. .x 2)/( x 2 + 1) 3 0 CU + CD 0 0 0 CU + Figure 6: The Concavity of f 1x 2 = x /1x 2 + 12 The given function is concave upward if . The second derivative is zero when x = 0 or 3 .x22 Figure 5 Choosing any number to the left of x = .23.1. sign of f" ( x) = .x 2)/( x 2+ 1) 3 0 0 0 0 The Second Derivative Test for Concavity Solution In Example 3. we restate Theorem 1 as a corollary to the Second Derivative Test. Wang. The Second Derivative Test for Relative Extrema We are now ready to revise Theorem 1. Applied Calculus for Business. The second derivative 1x2 + 123 always exists (Why?). Substituting into the equation of the function to find the yvalues. 23/4 B . These are the xvalues at the inflection points.2x13 . it is concave upward (CU) in this interval. Gordon. and April Allen Materowski. the function is concave downward (CD). that means finding these key numbers for the second derivative function. Inc. 02 and I3 A 23. we have the inflection points. Notice that determining the inflection points is analogous to classifying relative extrema. To analyze the sign of f 1x2. CD sign of f " ( x ) = . x = . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. . 23. We may then apply sign analysis on the second derivative. since it is at precisely those points where the sign of f 1x2 may change. Continuing in this manner. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2 x (3 . Identify the points of inflection for the graph of y = f1x2. we find f 1x2 7 0. that is.2 x (3 .23.23.23 or 0 6 x 6 23. It is concave downward if x 6 . Since we can determine the concavity of a function in terms of the second derivative.
then (c. (See Exercises 71 and 72. However. and f 132 7 0 illustrating the second derivative test for classifying the two critical points.1.1) 1 CU + Figure 7 Since the concavity changes at x = 1. Example 7 Sketch the graph of f1x2 = x3 .1 and 3. at x = 0.3x2 . 202 and a relative minimum at m13. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Each of these functions has a critical point at x = 0 and the second derivative at x = 0 is also zero (verify!).282 * ** Section 3.1. If f 1c2 7 0. Gordon.3 Concavity and the Second Derivative THEOREM 1: (REVISED) SECOND DERIVATIVE TEST FOR RELATIVE EXTREMA Let f be a differentiable function with f ¿ 1c2 = 0. then (c.) Example 6 Use the Second Derivative Test to classify the critical points of f1x2 = x3 .122.12. If this occurs. Thus. f has an inflection point. Sign analysis on f 1x2 yields Figure 7. We see that f 1x2 = 6x . (Note that at f 1 .321x + 12. and the first derivative test (or other methods) could be used. 4) is an inflection point. f(c)) is a relative maximum Note that the case f 1c2 = 0 is omitted. Solution f ¿ 1x2 = 3x2 .12 = .122 is a relative minimum. Solution In Example 6 we found that the function has a relative maximum at M1 . The critical points are at x = . and Finance. Therefore 13.) To sketch the graph of the function. Applied Calculus for Business. . where it changes. 1 . Consider f1x2 = x3. we have that I(1. 202 is a relative maximum. Walter O. Wang. the second derivative is zero at x = 1.9x + 15. by Warren B. and h has a relative maximum (verify these statements).6. we can use the second derivative to determine the concavity and the points of inflection for the curve. g1x2 = x4 and h1x2 = . Therefore. Economics.3x2 . The completed graph is given in Figure 8b. the test is inconclusive. indicating all relative extrema and inflection points. we first plot the relative extrema and inflection points as in Figure 8a. Since f 1x2 = 6x .9x + 15.x4. We then join the points.6 = 61x . f(c)) is a relative minimum. f 1 .12 6 0. and April Allen Materowski. In addition. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. A slight modification of this test is sometimes used to classify the critical point when f (c) = 0. . . Similarly. If f 1c2 6 0. remembering that the concavity is downward until we reach the inflection point. g has a relative minimum. CD 0 sign of f " ( x ) 6( x . Inc.12 6 0.9 = 31x . f 132 = 12 7 0.6x .
We begin by plotting the points in Figure 10. The sign analysis of 1x2 + 123 the second derivative was done in Example 5 and is given again in Figure 9. f 112 6 0. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. therefore M A 1.x2 Solution In Example 1 we found that f ¿1x2 = 2 and that 1x + 122 . Inc. Walter O. and April Allen Materowski. 1 .20) (0. The critical numbers are x = . .3 M(1. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. CD 0 sign of f " ( x ) = 2 x (3 x 2)/( x 2+1) 3  CU + CD 0 0 0 CU + Figure 9 From the sign diagram we see that f 1 . Applied Calculus for Business.Section 3. 1*2 B is a relative maximum. Gordon. 15) I (1. The inflection points are at I1 A . 20) (0. 02 and I3 A 23. thus. 23/4 B .12 7 0. I210.1. 4 M(1. .23/4 B .1 and x = 1. 15) I (1.x22 f (x) = .2x13 . Economics.23. Wang. 12) m(3.3x2 . 12) Figure 8a: Starting the Sketch Figure 8b: Completing the Sketch Figure 8: Sketching the Graph of f 1x2 = x3 .9x + 15 Example 8 Sketch the graph of f1x2 = x/1x2 + 12 indicating all relative extrema and inflection points. 1*2 B . the function has a relative minimum at m A . by Warren B. and Finance. 4) Concavity and the Second Derivative * ** 283 m(3.
Economics. 0) I (. M(1. The completed graph is given in Figure 12. and Finance. Gordon..3. by Warren B. .3 Concavity and the Second Derivative I3( 3 . and April Allen Materowski.3. to the right of I3 it is concave upward. .3/4) 1 m(1.284 * ** Section 3. To the left of I1 it is concave downward.3 /4) Figure 10: Plotting the Relative Extrema and Inflection Points In Figure 11 we join the points. remembering that: Between I1 and I2 the function is concave upward. we should observe that the xaxis is the horizontal asymptote for x approaching both + q and . . Walter O. 3 /4) I2 (0. Between I2 and I3 it is concave downward. I3 I2 I1 Figure 11 To finish the graph. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Inc. 3/4) I2 (0. .0) I1(. Wang.+*) Figure 12: Completing the Sketch of f 1x2 = x /1x 2 + 1) Applied Calculus for Business.q (verify this!).+*) I3 ( 3. and.
However. At the Inflection point I1 its tangent line is horizontal. Remember. 0) is neither a relative maximum nor a relative minimum. Since f ¿ 1x2 has been factored above. It has a second inflection point at I212. the test fails. it also reveals that (0.22. From I1 to I2 the graph is concave downward. 0) (4. I2 (2.4x3. and April Allen Materowski.32 I1 (0. However. . .272 is a relative minimum. We begin the sketch in Figure 15. The completed sketch is given in Figure 16. 0 sign of f '( x ) 4 x 2( x . Wang. Gordon. 27) Figure 16: The Completed Sketch of f1x2 = x4 .24x = 12x1x .16) m(3. otherwise it is concave upward. 0). we have a relative minimum. The second derivative is zero when x = 0 or 2. so the two xintercepts (zeros) are x = 0 and x = 4. The critical numbers are found where f ¿ 1x2 = 0. at x = 3.32 I1 (0. We see that f 102 = 0 and f 132 = 36 7 0.12x2 = 4x21x . and the rest of the graph could be drawn by symmetry. at x = 0.3 Concavity and the Second Derivative * ** 285 Note that the function in the previous example is odd. The sign analysis of f ¿ 1x2 is given in Figure 13. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. by Warren B. I2 (2. and Finance. where the tangent line is horizontal. 0) We see that the function has an inflection point at I110. Let us analyze the concavity of the curve. The yvalue at this point is f132 = 1324 . We next calculate the first two derivatives. 02.42. where f102 = 0.4x3 Applied Calculus for Business. so the graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. Therefore. Inc.16) m(3. Solution Note that f1x2 = x4 .162.4x3 = x31x .4x3 CU + sign of f " ( x ) 12 x ( x . Economics. . the curve is decreasing until it reaches m. Example 9 Sketch the graph of f1x2 = x4 .32 f 1x2 = 12x2 . Walter O. we can analyze the sign of f ¿ 1x2 in order to classify the point (0. we only really needed to determine how the graph looked for x 7 0. On the other hand. f ¿ 1x2 = 4x3 . Let us try to apply the second derivative test in order to classify these points.Section 3. 0) The sign diagram confirms our conclusion that m13. indicating all relative extrema and inflection points. The sign diagram is given in Figure 14. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Therefore.3) 0 0 3 + Figure 13: sign of f ¿ 1x2 = 4x21x .27.41323 = . Nevertheless. 27 Figure 15: Beginning the Sketch of f1x2 = x4 . it is easy to see that the critical numbers are x = 0 and x = 3.3) CD 0 0 0 2 CU + Figure 14: sign of f 1x2 = 12x1x . the tangent line there is horizontal and this will be indicated in our sketch.
286 * ** Section 3. That is. . Example 10 Use the first and second derivatives to sketch the graph of f1x2 = x . see the graph on the right in Figure 17. where the derivative does not exist the tangent line is vertical.3 Concavity and the Second Derivative For smooth functions the concavity around a relative maximum is downward. the graph is concave upward both on its left and right. Walter O. . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. See Figure 17 where we illustrate a relative minimum.2 = . However. this could occur. f ¿ 1x2 = 1 . Applied Calculus for Business. At M(0. and April Allen Materowski. the graph is always concave upward. 3 3x4/3 Note that f 1x2 is positive except at x = 0. Figure 17: Concavity Around a Non Smooth Critical Point It also follows that for smooth functions. Remember. Economics.2 = 0 whose solution is x = 8. The second derivative is given by f 1x2 = 2 4/3 2 x = .3x2/3. while around a relative minimum it is upward.2x1/3 = 1 2 x1/3 . if the point is not smooth. Referring to the sign diagram. The denominator is zero when x = 0. We first begin the sketch in Figure 19 and give the completed graph in Figure 20. When this is not the case. Note that even though M(0. Wang. when the numerator or the denominator is zero. and Finance. Therefore. in the graph on the left.22/x1/3 We find the corresponding yvalues: f182 = . the concavity is downward both to its left and right. it is possible to have any kind of concavity near a relative extremum. where it fails to exist. That is. 0). by smooth we mean that a graph has no sharp points. 0) and a relative minimum at m18. Sign analysis of the first derivative yields the sign diagram given in Figure 18. Inc. while it is concave downward to the left and upward to the right of the relative minimum on the curve on the right. by Warren B. 1/3 x x1/3 The critical points occur when the derivative is zero or when the derivative does not exist.0) is a relative maximum. The numerator is zero when x1/3 . we see that we have a relative maximum at M(0. This happens because of the graph not being smooth at this point.42. + sign of f '( x ) ( x 1/3 .2)/ x 1/3 DNE 0 0 8 + Figure 18: sign of f ¿ 1x2 = 1x1/3 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Gordon. Solution We start with the first derivative.4 and f102 = 0. its derivative exists everywhere. a point cannot simultaneously be a relative extremum and an inflection point.
Thus. by Warren B. x = 2. since x Z 0. we obtain C ¿ 1x2 = 4 . the domain is the unbounded open interval.Section 3. the second derivative test is often useful when finding the extrema of a function. horizontal and vertical asymptotes of the function. Inc. there is no upper bound to the number of dolls we can build. 0) m(8. as the next example illustrates. Hence. we find x = 27 as the second xintercept. x = 5/2. and April Allen Materowski. We illustrate with an Example. x 7 0. we have that 4x2 . Therefore. Walter O.123 It will be zero when x = 0. We can now include examination of the first and second derivative to improve the sketch. we need only show it is a relative minimum.7 and 2.5. 1 the function has vertical asymptotes. (Note that we need to consider the zeros of the denominator. 4) Figure 19: Beginning the Sketch of f1x2 = x .3 Concavity and the Second Derivative * ** 287 Note that in the previous example. Wang.5 thousand dolls. we considered rational functions. cubing both sides. this gives x1/3 = 3. is given in thousands. even though the function has vertical asymptotes at these xvalues. 2 M(0. 4) That is. 23. Economics. we must have x 7 0.) The only critical point of the function is at x = 2. the average cost of making no dolls makes no sense. . and one cannot manufacture a negative number of dolls. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. The average cost C1x2 is given in dollars per thousand dolls and the number of dolls.3x 2/3 In Sections 1. 4x2 = 25 x = 25/4. x2 . and x = . We take the derivative to obtain. and Finance. Finding the derivative. Obviously. as they determine the sign of the second derivative. x = 2.4.25 = 0.122 We know that at x = . Gordon. 0) m(8. (Note. Figure 20: The Sketch of f1x2 = x . Setting C ¿ 1x2 = 0.25/x2. It should be noted that in applications. How many dolls should be manufactured if the average cost is to be minimized? Solution The reality of the problem restricts the domain of the cost function. f ¿ 1x2 = 2x2 1x2 .32 1x2 . x. We see that we need not worry about the denominator vanishing. Example 12 Sketch the graph of the function defined by f1x2 = 2x3 . Of course. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.32. The second derivative is f 1x2 = 4x1x2 + 32 1x2 . giving C 12.52 7 0. the negative square root is not considered since the domain is x 7 0. We find C 1x2 = 50/x3. It may often be complemented with the Only Critical Point Test.5 gives a relative minimum.1 Solution You should verify that this function has no horizontal asymptote and has vertical asymptotes at x = . Sign analysis of the second derivative is given in Figure 21. To prove it is the minimum. and by the Only Critical Point Test.3 = 0. we can write f1x2 = x . in theory.) Applied Calculus for Business. the minimum. 1. so the xintercepts (zeros) occur when x = 0 or x1/3 . Example 11 The average cost of producing a doll by a toy manufacturing company is given by the equation C1x2 = 2000 + 4x + 25/x.3x2/3 M(0. so the only critical numbers are x = 0. There we sketched the graph by examining the zeros.3x2/3 = x2/31x1/3 .
2. 3 We note that the yintercepts of the curve occur when x = 0. M A .8x/18y = . Wang. At x = . Gordon. That is. The graph is sketched in Figure 22. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. (Why?) We find the derivatives implicitly. and Finance. and April Allen Materowski. . This curve is not the graph of a function. .23 the second derivative is negative so the graph is concave downward so we have a relative maximum at. . x . 236 .123 From the second derivative test. It fails to exist when y = 0. we again differentiate implicitly. 3 23 B . the function has an inflection point (the tangent line is horizontal at this point as well. They are y = . Thus. The xintercepts occur at the endpoints of the curve.1 2 Implicit Differentiation and Curve Sketching The final example of this section uses implicit differentiation as developed in Section 2. they are not relative extrema. 3. 8x + 18yy ¿ = 0. Example 13 Using the first and second derivatives. Inc. using the quotient rule to find y . x = 1 x=1 m I (0. 02.3 23 B and at x = 23 the graph is concave upward so there is a relative minimum at m A 23. Solution The permissible xvalues may be found by solving for y which gives 1 y = . they are x = . the yintercepts occur when y = 0. Similarly. Economics. 0) M Figure 22: f1x2 = 2x3 . at the yintercepts 10.23. it follows that at x = 0. Walter O.8.4x2.288 * ** Section 3. why?).3 Concavity and the Second Derivative CD VA sign of f "( x ) 4 x ( x 2 + 3)/( x 2 1) 3 1 CU + CD 0 0 VA 1 CU + Figure 21: Sign of f 1x2 = 4x1x 2 + 32/1x 2 . Therefore. at the xintercepts 1 . Applied Calculus for Business. To find the second derivative. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. by Warren B. or y ¿ = . 3. sketch the curve whose equation is 4x2 + 9y2 = 36.4x/9y The derivative is zero when x = 0.3 x 3. . 22.
0) m(0. A qualitative sketch is needed when given a function whose relative extrema. Consider the following example. and completing the curve in Figure 24. However.5. 4C 9 y .c 9 9y3 However. the 2 indicating the second derivative. Calculator Tips Applied Calculus for Business.c 9 y2 Substituting for y ¿ . 2) (3. we have. Inflection points may also be obtained from the GRAPH window by using F5. Walter O. Gordon. M(0. we have that 4x2 + 9y2 = 36. Economics. inflection. x2. To find the zeros of the second derivative (and possible inflection points). and Finance. Inc.16 . 2) M(0. M(0. 22 = 0. from the equation of the curve. 2). selecting inflection and then choosing lower and upper bounds. and m10. It is clear that for higher order polynomials it can be difficult to determine the zeros of the function. Substituting.4x b 9y S y =  Simplifying the complex fraction. or zeros are outside or not visible in the usual window. 2) is a relative maximum. . 2) Figure 23: Beginning the Sketch of 4x2 + 9y2 = 36 Figure 24: Completing the Sketch of 4x2 + 9y2 = 36 The second derivative may easily be found using the TI 89. 4 4x2 + 9y2 d y = . first by plotting the critical points in Figure 23. derivative and second derivative. We sketch the curve.3 Concavity and the Second Derivative * ** 289 4 y[1] . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. assuming the function was named y1. and it is negative (concave downward) when y 7 0. Thus. this only works if you know where to look for the inflection points.Section 3. It is precisely in these cases that the calculator is a useful tool in providing a qualitative sketch of a graph. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. x.41362 919y 2 3 = . an ellipse. . x. by Warren B.x[y ¿ ] d y¿ = . Wang. the differentiations may be messy as well. or for other kinds of functions. 2) (3. the syntax is as follows: d(y1(x). we obtain. and April Allen Materowski.xa y2 . 0) m(0. This curve is. we need only enter solve 1d1y11x2. we see that y = .22 is a relative minimum. as we saw in Section 1. 9y3 Note that the second derivative is positive (concave upward) when y 6 0.
123 5 2 4 2 5. Find f 1x2 for f1x2 = 1x . f1321x2 and f1421x2. we can find the zeros of the function. Find 2 .24x5 . and April Allen Materowski. on your sketch. .825x4 + 6000x32. It is an easy matter. d2y 9. Find the first five derivatives of f. dx Applied Calculus for Business. rela100000 tive extrema and inflection points. we can provide a qualitative sketch of the function as given in Figure 25. (a) Find f1321x2 if f1x2 = 1/x2. we use the calculator to compute the corresponding yvalues. For the xvalues found. find f ¿ 1x2. Solution The entire graph of this function is not viewable in any reasonable window. Walter O.3 Concavity and the Second Derivative Example 14 Sketching the graph of the function defined by 1 y11x2 = 12x6 . Wang.22 = 0. find f1n21x2. by Warren B.12/13x + 12.t. Economics. f 1x2. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.123.7x + 9 dx 1x2 + 122 4. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Find f 1x2 for: (a) f1x2 = (b) f1x2 = 1x2 + 1210 1x2 .3 1. Show. We will leave these to you as an exercise. to verify which zeros of the first derivative are indeed relative maxima and minima. x2 and solve 1d1y11x2. 7. (b) Find s 1t2 if s1t2 = 21 . Find f 1x2 if: (a) f1x2 = x + 3x + 5.24x5 . What do you observe for f1n21x2 when n Ú 5? 2. However. if x1/2 + y1/2 = 6. find (a) f ¿ 102 (b) f 102 (c) f132102 (d) f142102 (e) f1n2102 for n 7 9. first and second derivative using solve 1y11x2 = 0.825x4 + 6000x32 100000 EXERCISE SET 3. x2 respectively. If f1x2 = a4x4 + a3x3 + a2x2 + a1x1 + a0. so we cannot expect to get anything reasonable on our calculator. f1x2 = x4. x. Gordon. Inc. 3. If f1x2 = a5x5 + a4x4 + a3x 3 + a2x 2 + a 1x + a0. and which zeros of the second derivative are inflection points. f1x2 = 1x3 . 6.290 * ** Section 3. The breaks in the axes indicate the graph is not drawn to scale. all zeros. solve 1d1y11x2. After doing so. where n is any positive integer. Figure 25: A Qualitative Sketch of 1 y11x2 = 12x6 . (b) f1x2 = 2x + 3x + 1. What happens for the sixth and higher order derivatives? 8. and Finance. x2. d2y (c) Find 2 if y = 3x2 . x2 = 0.
16. as given in Figure 27.x2. Draw the smooth graph through these points. Economics. Find the equations of its velocity and acceleration. sketch the graph of the function passing through the relative maximum. and I5. I3. 1) and concave downward on (1. t 7 0. f1x2 = 4x3 . Find 12.2 28. and the inflection points I1. Gordon. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Find 11. I3. . 4x2 + 9 33. Walter O. f1x2 = . (a) Draw the graph of a function which is increasing on (0.4t + 11. f1x2 = 3x5 + 5x4 . 22. 2) and such that it is concave upward on (0.3x2 + 2 24. f1x2 = x 23 .y1/2 = 6.1221x + 322 44. M. but f ¿ 1x2 and f 1x2 exist everywhere else.72x + 20 43. In Exercises 22 39 determine where the function is concave upward and downward. f1x2 = x2 . I2. Find 13. f1x2 = .6x2 + 9x . f1x2 = 4x2 23.13x2 + 12x + 9 42. and I4. 40. . The position of an object at any time is given by the equation s1t2 = 5t3 .12/1x + 12 30.20x3 + 10x + 30 29.6x2 + 2x + 1 26. Sketch the graph of a function having a critical point that is simultaneously a relative extremum and an inflection point.x3/4. f1x2 = . f1x2 = x4 . f1x2 = 29 + x2.2x + 3 41. dx2 d2y dx d2y 2 I3 I4 I2 I1 dx2 14. the relative minimum. if x2 + y2 = 1.2x3/5 38. Wang. (d) Find the time at which the acceleration is maximum.t4 for t 7 0. 17. M. (a) Draw the graph of a continuous function increasing and concave downward on . 37. (a) Find the velocity and acceleration as functions of time. f1x2 = ax2 + bx + c: (a) a 7 0. f1x2 = 2x + 1. f1x2 = 3x4 + 16x3 + 6x2 . Figure 26: Exercise 19c 20. 36. by Warren B.8t + 21. (c) Find the time at which the velocity is maximum. 2). . Repeat Exercise 16 for s1t2 = 5t3 . Assume that the derivative fails to exist at M. Suppose that the position of a particle as a function of time is given by the formula s1t2 = 4t2 . (See Figure 26) m Figure 27: Exercise 20 21. (b) Does this function have an inflection point? 19.3t5.Section 3. (b) Find the time at which the velocity is zero and the time at which the acceleration is zero. Inc.4 3x 32. (b) Can such a function have any relative extrema or inflection points? (c) Suppose you have located the relative maximum. 18. 35.1 x 6 2 and decreasing and concave upward on 2 6 x 5.2y2 = 6. As in the preceding exercise. 31. 15.x. if 3x2 + 2y2 = 6.2x3 + 5x2 + 7 27. if 3x2 . Find the equations of its velocity and acceleration. Find d2y dx d2y 2 Concavity and the Second Derivative M * ** 291 . f1x2 = 29 . . m and the inflection points I1. The position of an object at any time is given by the equation s1t2 = 3t3 . f1x2 = 4x3 . f1x2 = 1 . and Finance. if x1/2 . the relative minimum m. f1x2 = 3x/14x2 + 92 Applied Calculus for Business. I2. 39. f1x2 = x . f1x2 = 4x2 x . f1x2 = x4/5 . f1x2 = x 2x .1 2 M I4 I3 I5 I2 I1 m . I4.3 10. 34.x2/3 In Exercises 40 44 use the second derivative test to classify the critical points. (b) a 6 0 25. f1x2 = 1x . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and April Allen Materowski. and list all inflection points. f1x2 = 1x .
Sketch the graph of a function satisfying the following sign diagrams (Figure 28a and 28b. Gordon. f1x2 = x4/5 .x2/3 64. Applied Calculus for Business. Show that the second derivative test fails for: (a) f1x2 = 1x .42 4 5 3 3 2 2 + sign of f '( x ) DNE 1 0 3 + Figure 29a: Ex 68 + sign of f " x) DNE 1 0 2 + Figure 29b: Ex 68 69. Suppose the graph of f ¿ 1x2 versus x is given in Figure 31. 55.24x2 52. Suppose the graph of f ¿ 1x2 versus x is given in Figure 30.1. f1x2 = 1*41x4 . f1x2 = x4 . Draw the graph of a continuous function which is concave downward on 1 .292 * ** Section 3. 52 and increasing on (5. .4x3 + 12x2 . 4y2 . Wang.1. sketch a possible graph of f(x) versus x. by Warren B.2x3/5 63.). (d) f1x2 = 1x . decreasing on 1 .6x + 8x 50. Walter O. f1x2 = x3 + 3x2 . In Exercises 45 65 use the first and second derivatives to sketch the graph of the given equation.5x + 6 46. f1 . Suppose that f ¿ 1c2 = f 1c2 = 0.9x . (c) f1x2 = .5x 61. x 0 sign of f " (x ) 4 + 0 1 0 0 + 0 2 0 5 + Figure 28b: Ex 67 Figure 31: Ex 70. f '(x) 0 sign of f '( x ) 2 + 0 4 Figure 28a: Ex 67 additionally. f102 = 5. 72.12x 48. Show that the function has a relative maximum (minimum) at x = c.3x 56. f1x2 = x . and Finance. and April Allen Materowski. f1x2 = x3 . The Graph of f ¿ 1x2 versus x 70. 5 6 f ' (x) x Figure 30: Ex 69.42 = 3. f1x2 = . 72. f1x2 = 1*4x4 . Use this result to classify the critical points in Exercise 71. The Graph of f ¿ 1x2 versus x 71. f1x2 = 3x/14x2 + 92 59.1231x + 324 In each case.8x + 112 57.2. and f152 = 2.223. f142 = 9.12x2 + 10 54. classify the critical point(s). f1x2 = x . f1x2 = 3x .2x2 58. Sketch a function satisfying the sign diagrams given in Figures 29a and 29b. Also include the intercepts. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. sketch a possible graph of f(x) versus x. 67. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. whenever they are easily determined. f1x2 = x 2x + 4 60. f1x2 = 5x . Include concavity in your sketch. Economics. x2 + 4y2 = 16 65. 45. f1x2 = x2 . f1x2 = 6x . f1x2 = 1x .12 = 1.15 51.1x . f1 . f1x2 = x3 + x + 2 49. (b) f1x2 = 1x .22 = .6x + 6 47.3 Concavity and the Second Derivative 68. f122 = 7.224.x2 = 16 66.7). Include concavity in your sketch. f1x2 = 5 + x2/3 62. Inc.24x2 + 25 53.224. f1x2 = x4 . f1 . but f 1x2 is negative (positive) just to the left and right of x = c.x4 + 6x3 .
that relate the variables so that the objective function is of the form y = f1x2.Section 3. by the second derivative test. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. the function has a relative minimum which Applied Calculus for Business. if they exist. Gordon. . The only critical point is at x = 2. We shall see that many optimization problems may be reduced to problems of the form given in Example 1 or 2. Referring to Exercise 7. In such cases. Wang.4 Applications I Geometric Optimization Problems » » » » » Area and Perimeter Optimization Procedure Volume Distance and Velocity Calculator Tips Given any function defined by the equation of the form y = f1x2.) 75. b. called constraint equations. we find the derivative. If f1x2 = 11 + x25 = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + a3x3 + a4x4 + a5x5.1 if ax m + bym = c. Example 2 illustrates a situation that involves two variables and one constraint.12x2 + 10 0 (Hint: Exercise 52. Therefore. Thus. the coordinates of the inflection point are the averages of the corresponding coordinates of the relative extrema. c and d such that the graph of f1x2 = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d will have both a relative maximum and relative minimum? (b) Show that. The object of this section is to look at different types of problems which may be solved using those procedures developed in the last few sections. Sometimes there will not be.1)x m . the methods of this chapter can only be used if you can determine equations. 80. Applications I Geometric Optimization Problems * ** 293 77. we get f 1x2 = 6. a function of a single variable. one good place to look for optimum values is at critical points. 4! = 4132122112 = 24. compute them. (a) What condition must be imposed upon a. f ¿ 1x2 = 6x . f1k2102 79. use the preceding exercise to find the values for the ak s.15 = 0.f ¿ 1x . the function to be optimized involves more than one variable.9x . 76.f ¿ 1x2 (a) lim h:0 h f ¿ 1x + h2 . Assuming each limit exists. We begin with two simple examples which illustrate the basic procedure.ac(m . by Warren B. Show that any smooth even function has a relative extremum at its yintercept. Example 1 is a case in which there are no constraints. Inc. Show that y = . 78. Sometimes.2 b 2 y 2m . we wish to determine its maximum or minimum value. 3. Determine the number of real roots of the equation x3 + 3x2 .h2 (b) lim h:0 h 74. The symbol ! is read factorial. Solution As we have learned previously.121k . show that ak = where the symbol k! # Á k! = k1k .4 73. Since this is a positive number. f ¿ 1x + h2 . Show that . and April Allen Materowski. We shall see that the solution to such optimization problems requires an examination of the derivatives of the function. We shall call the function to be optimized the objective function. We have found the solutions to several such problems in the previous two sections. Show that a smooth odd function passing through the origin has an inflection point there. when this condition is satisfied.12x + 17. Calculating the second derivative. 81. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Economics. Example 1 Find the minimum value of f1x2 = 3x2 .x4 + 6x3 . and Finance. The symbol 0! is defined to be equal to 1. Sometimes there will be an additional constraint on the possible values of the variables.22 2 1. Walter O.12.
Clearly a parabola opening upward has its minimum at its vertex. .4 Applications I Geometric Optimization Problems is its minimum (by the Only Critical Point Test) at x = 2.1622 + A y . When the objective function involves two variables.1622 + A 4 .1 2 B . Solution Our objective is to minimize D. Example 2 Minimize D = 1x . Notice that S = D.1622 + A y . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. we try to find a constraint equation. D has a relative minimum at x = 2 and by the Only Critical Point Test.82. However the minimum value of S = 2208. the minimum occurs when x = 2. 4). y = x2. dx The only critical point occurs when x3 .25. and the minimum is D = 12 . D = 1x . Since the objective function contains two variables.162 + 2 A x2 . The minimum value is f122 = 5. we obtain. it tells us what the relationship between x and y is. Inc.1*2 B 2 = 208.294 * ** Section 3.8 = 0.1*2 B 2x = 4x3 . Note that we did not need calculus to solve the last example. or x = 2. Economics. Wang. Area and Perimeter Example 3 A rancher has available 1600 feet of fencing to construct a rectangular corral. you should usually do two things: First.32 = 41x3 . and. by Warren B. namely. Second. we use the constraint equation to eliminate one of them. in the preceding example you were asked to minimize 2 2 s = 31x . and April Allen Materowski.1*2 B 2 subject to the condition that y = x2. sketch a figure illustrating the problem. d2D = 12x2 7 0 if x = 2. at (2. Suppose. Let us now look at some geometric problems. One other remark. Let x be the width of the corral and y its length (see Figure 1). dx2 Thus. Gordon. Solution When looking at any geometric problem.43. and Finance. The equation y = x2 is a constraint. The corral is to be subdivided by two fences parallel to the sides. Applied Calculus for Business. we have y = 4. x and y.1*2 B 2 We now differentiate dD = 21x .1622 + A x2 . From the constraint equation. identify all the variables. and that the minimum of s will occur at the same place that D has its minimum. which we can use to eliminate one of the variables.25 L 14. Substituting for y from the constraint equations. Walter O. Determine the dimensions of the corral if its total area is to be maximized. Applying the second derivative test to classify the critical point. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Example 2 illustrates a very important principle. Our objective is to determine x and y so that the total area is maximized. we have.
When appropriate. by Warren B. Walter O.4x and we have the only critical point at x = 200. Define the variable or variables to be determined. Solving this constraint equation for y. 5. The relationship is precisely the constraint equation. The rancher has 1600 feet of fencing available for the corral.2x Thus. and April Allen Materowski. Inc. A = xy. and Finance. OPTIMIZATION PROCEDURE 1. Justify your conclusion Example 4 A manufacturer wishes to produce a (rectangular) box with an open top with maximum volume from rectangular sheets 8 inches by 15 inches. sketch a figure illustrating the problem and the variables.Section 3. we have that 4x + 2y = 1600. Wang. Therefore.4 y Applications I Geometric Optimization Problems * ** 295 x x x x y Figure 1: Illustrating the Corral To achieve this objective we must maximize the total area. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Find the critical points of the objective function. Determine the objective function to be maximized or minimized 3. Substituting for x in the constraint equation. we have. Use the constraint equation and substitute into the objective function reducing it to a function of one variable. implying that A achieves its maximum value at x = 200. Economics. A = xy = x1800 . 2. we must find a relationship between them. To eliminate one of them. to maximize the total area.4 6 0. we obtain y = 800 . y = 800 . 4. determine the constraint equations. The previous examples suggests a general procedure that may be applied to many optimization problems. . Therefore.2x2 A ¿ = 800 . when appropriate. The objective function has two variables. Optimization Procedure Volumes Applied Calculus for Business. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. we have A = .2x2 = 800x . The box will be constructed by cutting out an equal square from each corner. Determine the dimensions of the box. the rancher should construct a corral with length 400 feet and width 200 feet.212002 = 400. Using the second derivative test. 6. Gordon. and then turning up the sides to form the box.
1. Folding along the dotted lines gives the completed box as illustrated in Figure 3. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. by Warren B.23x + 302 = 0 413x . x must be less than 4. Note that since x inches are cut from each corner. This constraint dictates the domain of the function to be optimized. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2x x x x x x x x x 15 15 . Setting V ¿ 1x2 = 0. The volume of a (rectangular) box is the product of the height.2 x x x x x x x x x Figure 2a 8 .4 Applications I Geometric Optimization Problems Solution 1. we look for critical points. 3. V¿1x2 = 12x2 . 5.521x . Note that the height of the box is x. since the smaller of the two dimensions is 8.2x Figure 2b 15 .2x. and April Allen Materowski.2x.2x2. 8 8 . V ¿ 1x2 = 413x2 . 4.46x2 + 120x Differentiating. Let x be the width of each square corner. and Finance. the width is now 8 . Figure 2b shows the sheet with the corners cut out.62 = 0 x = 5/3 or x = 6 Applied Calculus for Business. . This step is not necessary as the objective function contains only one variable. The dotted lines in Figure 2b indicate where the sheet is to be folded to construct the box. length and width.92x + 120. Figure 2a shows the rectangular sheet with the square corner to be removed drawn dashed. The problem reduces to maximizing V = LWH = x115 . Inc. Rather than apply the product rule we multiply the factors obtaining V = 4x3 . otherwise there is no material left to construct the sides of the box.2 x x Figure 3: The Box 2. That is. Economics. Gordon. Wang. The constraint is 0 6 x 6 4. Walter O.2x218 . Also observe that a constraint is imposed upon x. and the length is 15 .296 * ** Section 3.
and April Allen Materowski. 6.52. is x 9. Differentiating. L ¿ 1x2 = 1*21x2 + 3621/22x + 1*21x2 . the only critical point in the domain is at x = 5/3. and Finance. the distance from P to B is 2x2 + 62 = 2x2 + 36. By the Pythagorean Theorem. we must minimize L = 2x2 + 36 + 2x2 . and setting L ¿ 1x2 to zero. Let C and D be the points on the river bank closest to A and B.9 2x . Example 5 Towns A and B are located 3 and 6 miles respectively.x 2 = 0 = 2x . . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Wang. Therefore. Economics. but its solution requires some algebraic manipulation.18x + 90 9 . and the volume = A 5 3 B A 3 B A 3 B = 27 in . Where on the river should the pumping station be located in order to minimize the length of piping used in connecting the towns? Solution 1.x22 = 2x2 . we write x 2x + 36 2 x 2x + 36 2 + x .18x + 9021/212x . V 1x2 = 24x .4 Applications I Geometric Optimization Problems * ** 297 Since x must be less than 4. Simplifying. the volume is maximized when x = 5/3 inches.Section 3.182. 9. we have. P. and the distance from A to P is 232 + 19 . as shown in Figure 4. and 14 35 2450 3 length 15 . That is. Inc. The next example is easy to set up. width 8 .18x + 90.) 5. by Warren B. We have that 0 x (Step 4 is not necessary. respectively. The resulting box will have height x = 5/3 inches. Thus. L ¿ 1x2 = To solve for x. Walter O. Note that 0 C 3 River 9 D C 3 9x P x D 6 A A B 6 B Figure 4 Figure 5 2.92. Gordon.2x = 14/3 inches. The distance between points C and D is 9 miles.18x + 90 2 Applied Calculus for Business. located (see Figure 5). from a straight river.2x = 35/3 inches. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.18x + 90 3. Let x be the distance along the river from town B to where the pumping station. as we shall see. we must cut out a square of side 5/3 inches from each corner. and V 15/32 = . The two towns are to be supplied water from a pumping station situated on the river between them.
Walter O. we find that the critical point is at t = 3. or 1x . how?) It is interesting to observe that this problem may be solved without the use of calculus.18x3 + x4 + 2916 .701139952 .12 = 0. Exercise 29 indicates a geometric method. and April Allen Materowski. Therefore.24x + 108 = 0. we begin at step 5. Wang. the pumping station should be 6 miles from D and 3 miles from C. and Finance.16t2 + 96t + 192. .695022096 7 0 Thus.182 = 0. Thus. and by the Only Critical Point Test. the ball will reach its maximum height at the instant when its velocity is zero. Inc.32t + 96.18x + 81 = 2 x + 36 x .621x .18x3 + 90x2 = 81x2 . Solution Since we have s as a function of t already. 20 miles upriver. thus the critical point is a relative maximum. Gordon. L ¿ 15. Distance and Velocity In Section 2. The derivative is s ¿ 1t2 = . under the river to some point A. Setting this to zero. x = 6 is the only critical point in the given domain. s 132 6 0. Example 6 A ball is thrown vertically upward from the ledge of a building 192 feet high with an initial velocity of 96 feet per second. by Warren B. Since x 9. and a factory is on the other side. and then over land to the Applied Calculus for Business. which is x miles upriver from P. The maximum height of the ball is s132 = . Economics. implying that at the only critical point L is a minimum.4 Applications I Geometric Optimization Problems Squaring both sides gives x2 x2 . From a physical point of view.71860214 6 0 and L ¿ 16. A computation gives.298 * ** Section 3.712926292 + 0. Example 7 A power station is on one side of a straight river which is five miles wide. x4 . How high will the ball go? Assume that the height of the ball as a function of time is s1t2 = .0. 27x2 .161322 + 96132 + 192 = 336 feet above the ground.18x + 90 2 Clearing fractions (cross multiplying) we find.648x + 36x2. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 6. the physical and mathematical explanations are in complete agreement. To classify the critical point it is easiest to apply the first derivative test. Thus.92 = 0. A power line is to be run from the power station. 6. (Note that we could have also determined the minimum using the Extreme Value Theorem. the sign of L ¿ 1x2 changes from negative to positive at x = 6.648x + 2916 = 0 Dividing by 27 x2 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. a maximum.7 we solved similar problems by setting the velocity v = 0.
x2 x Ú 0 and x 20 This can be done fairly easily with pencil and paper. this function is continuous on a closed interval. the calculations are considerably reduced using the calculator.4 Applications I Geometric Optimization Problems * ** 299 factory (Figure 6). Applied Calculus for Business. If it costs $80 per mile to run the line under water and $50 per mile to run it overland. now determine the point on the other side of the river where the power line is to come out of the river. y1102 = $ 1400. by Warren B. Solution Figure 7 illustrates the problem to be solved. To determine when the derivative is zero requires solving a fourth degree equation.x22 x Ú 0 and x 20 This problem is very difficult to do without a calculator. if the total cost of the power line is to be as small as possible. . Economics.25. y11202 = $ 1649. Inc. and April Allen Materowski. the point on the other side of the river where the power line comes out of the river. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and the cost at this value is approximately $1312. Walter O. Wang. Gordon. therefore we need only compute the yvalues at the two endpoint and critical points to determine the minimum cost.Section 3. P 1 x A 20 . then the problem is to minimize y11x2 = 80 2x2 + 25 + 50120 . However. Solution P Calculator Tips 5 miles x A 20 .0032 miles Example 8 Suppose the power station in the previous example is moved one mile inland. with a calculator. The critical point turns out to occur at x = (Verify!). the solution is straightforward and left as an exercise for you. 25 239 39 L 4.x F 20 miles  Figure 6 If we let y1 represent the cost. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. By the Extreme Value Theorem.x 5 F Figure 7: The Power Station One Mile Inland The problem is then to minimize the cost function y21x2 = 50 2x2 + 1 + 80 225 + 120 . however.24. find x. and Finance.
. Suppose the tin for the top and bottom of the can cost 8 cents per square inch.300 * ** Section 3. Figure 11: Ex. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 9 10. what dimensions will minimize the cost of construction? 15. 11 12. What should its dimensions be if he wants to use the least amount of fencing? 9. 5. A farmer wishes to build a rectangular pig pen using as little fencing as possible. Applied Calculus for Business. 10 17. As little tin as possible as possible is to be used in the construction of the can. y Figure 9: Ex.) 11. He wants to design a rectangular plot for an organic crop with the river acting as a natural border. Find the dimensions of the largest rectangle whose perimeter is 144 feet. What dimensions will minimize the amount of material needed to build it? 14. Consider the farmer in Exercise 7 whose field borders the river. by Warren B. A holding pen for fish is to be made in the form of a rectangular solid with a square base and open top. Wang. Show that the answer to Exercise 3 follows from Exercise 2. A 12 centimeter square sheet of cardboard is to be made into a box by cutting equal squares from each corner and then folding up its sides. and April Allen Materowski. If 400 feet of fencing will be used on the three other sides. If 480 feet of fencing is available. Gordon. What should the diameter of the can be if the cost of the can is to be minimized. Determine what the side of the square cut from the corners should be if the box is to have as large a volume as possible. if the total area is 480 square meters.4 1. what should the numbers be if their product is to be as large as possible? 4. If the total perimeter of the window is to be 30 feet. x y Figure 8: Ex. A Norman window is one in which the window is constructed by capping a rectangular region with a semicircular region (see Figure 11). 7. The larger section to serve as a corral and the smaller as a training area (see Figure 9). Minimize the amount of fencing needed to construct the region shown in Figure 10. Consider the can in the previous exercise. If the volume of the tank must be 50 cubic feet. The sum of two positive numbers is 100. determine the dimensions x and y which maximizes the total area. 12 13. (a) A farmer has a field bordering a straight river.4 Applications I Geometric Optimization Problems EXERCISE SET 3. A rancher has divided a plot of ground into an L shaped region. while the tin for the remainder of the can costs 1 cent per square inch. what are its dimensions? 6. 180. If the area of the pen is to be 225 square feet. What is the least amount of fencing needed? (see Figure 8. 3. Inc. what should the dimensions of the plot be if its area is to be maximized? (b) What are the dimensions if the river side is also to be fenced? 8. The base will be slate that costs $4 per square foot and the sides will be glass that costs $5 per square foot. Walter O. Economics. Determine its height and diameter.000 square feet of land is to be enclosed in a rectangular plot which will then be subdivided into three plots by a pair of fences both parallel to the sides. Show that the rectangle with fixed area and minimum perimeter is a square. 2. An aquarium is to be made in the shape of a rectangular solid with a square base and an open top. Does its dimensions yield a minimum? (c) Why do you think manufacturers choose not to use this type of design? x 2y x 16. find the dimensions that maximizes its area. Show that the rectangle of maximum area with fixed perimeter is a square. Assume he wants the area of the plot to be 800 square feet. y /2 x /2 x y Figure 10: Ex. and Finance. (a) A wholesale manufacturer of canned corn wants a tin can (a right circular cylinder) that will have a volume of 54 cubic inches. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. (b) Measure a can of corn from your local supermarket. The volume of the aquarium is to be 108 cubic inches.
0). 0) (b) (6. 26. Find the dimensions of such a package with square ends whose volume is to be a maximum. Inc. 2) (c) (2.4 18. 23. 25. A low stone wall 27 inches high is 64 inches away from a building. Use the theorem of Pythagoras along with similar triangles to find the total length. A rectangular page is to contain 96 square inches of print. A right triangle is formed in the first quadrant by a line passing through the point (3. Find the dimensions of the largest rectangle with lower base on the xaxis and upper vertices on the curve whose equation is (a) x2 + y2 = 4 (b) 9x2 + 4y2 = 36. 12). Show that the solution to Example 5 may be found as follows: reflect A to the other side of the river to A ¿ as shown in Figure 14. One piece is to be used to form a square and the other to form a circle. (a) Show that f1x2 = 1x . A 12 inch piece of wire is to be cut into two pieces. Economics.22.a222 + 1x . 29 31. Deduce a contradiction by using the fact that the sum of the lengths of two sides of a triangle exceeds the length of the third side.) 4 C Figure 12: Ex. Applications I Geometric Optimization Problems * ** 301 29. 27. Find the points on the circle x + y = 9 (a) closest to and (b) farthest from the point (8. the portion from the ground to the fence. and the margins on each side are 1. Walter O. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 19. Applied Calculus for Business. 3). and April Allen Materowski. (Hint: Assume that some other point gives the minimum length. the location of the pumping station.a122 + 1x . Make sure to justify your conclusions. 10 miles from A. (a) John is at B. 29 A 10 B 30. The top and bottom margins are each 1 inch wide. 4 miles from the beach (see Figure 12). where along the beach should she land so that she may get to John in the least amount of time? Solve the problem if John is (b) 100 miles.a322 has its minimum value when x = 1a1 + a2 + a32/3. Wang. and from the fence to the building.a122 + 1x . Complete the solution to Exercise 8. (b) Show that f1x2 = 1x . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 2 2 2 2 A' P A B Figure 14: Ex. and Finance. What should the dimensions of the page be if the least amount of material is to be used? 20.) Pole Building 27 64 Figure 13: Ex. . Find the point on the curve y = 1x closest to (3/2. What is the length of the shortest pole that passes over the fence and reaches the building? (Hint: The length of the pole is composed of two portions. Find the coordinates of its vertices if its area is to be minimized. 21 22. Assuming Mary can row at 3 miles per hour and jog at 5 miles per hour. Hint: The computation may be easier if you try to minimize d2 rather than d. Mary is in a boat in the sea at C. 24. Find the point on the line 3x + 4y + 7 = 0 closest to the point 11. Find the points on the curve whose equation is x + y = 16 nearest and farthest from (a) (8. How should the wire be cut if the sum of the areas is to be maximized? 28. Suppose postal requirements are that the maximum of the length plus girth (cross sectional perimeter) of a rectangular package that may be sent is 144 inches. (c) 1 mile from A. 21. . by Warren B. on a straight beach. Draw a line connecting A ¿ to B. (c) Generalize the above. 5) and the coordinate axes. Gordon. See Figure 13.5 inches. Where this line intersects the horizontal line is the required point P.a222 has its minimum value when x = 1a1 + a22/2.Section 3.
Economics.000 and 0 p 200. We recall that the total revenue is defined as the product of the price per item times the number of items sold. the quantity and sales price of a commodity is not the market equilibrium point determined by supply and demand curves. Demand and Revenue In this section we shall apply the same methods used in the previous section. and Finance.000. Inc. . Wang. in business applications. Where p is the price per car in dollars and x is the number of cars that will be purchased at that price. Demand and Revenue Cost and Average Cost Elasticity of Demand Price. and April Allen Materowski. R = xp. Walter O. That is. we wish to maximize R 2 and 3. Our first example shall deal with the revenue available to a monopolist. From Figure 1 we see that 0 x 20. negative values for x and p are usually not allowable. 1.5 Applications II Business and Economic Optimization Problems » » » Price.5 Application II Business and Economic Optimization Problems 3. R = xp = . That is.302 * ** Section 3. Thus.000. Figure 1: p = . Gordon.10x + 200000.10x + 200000. We shall make some observations which follow directly from our knowledge of the derivative that are usually considered theorems in microeconomics. by Warren B. Example 1 Suppose that the price and demand for a particular luxury automobile are related by the demand equation p + 10x = 200.10x2 + 200000x. Solving the demand equation for p. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. The only difference will be that the examples to be considered come from economics and business. and the price is set by the monopolist producer. A sketch is not necessary here. Hence. we consider a market situation in which there is no competition. However. Thus. (Remember.) 4. Applied Calculus for Business. if we sketch the demand equation we will see that there are constraints imposed on the variables x and p. What price should be charged per car if the total revenue is to be maximized? Solution We follow the steps in the procedure indicated in the previous section. we have that p = . we have only a demand curve. Instead. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.
we have a class of business problems in which the object is to minimize cost (or average cost).2 = 0.000 = 0. and the minimum average cost is C1702 = $ 138.1p + 20.1p2 + 20. it is the minimum.000 = $ 100.000 cars to sell at $100. That is. .2 + 4900x1 x x x x Differentiating. The only critical point is where R ¿ 1x2 = 0. Gordon. and Finance.1p + 20. On the other side of the coin. To complete the problem. C1x2 x2 2x 4900 Solution The average cost. the average cost is minimized when x = 70. producing a revenue of one billion dollars. We remark that in Step 4. Therefore. Applied Calculus for Business.000. When x = 10. x = . The object was to maximize revenue. C1x2 = = + = x . or x2 = 4900. therefore.000. we must find the price per car when the revenue is maximized. in dollars. a maximum.10110. In Example 1.000 and. Next differentiate with respect to p to find that the revenue is maximized when p = $ 100. As you can see. Thus. it really does not matter which variable is eliminated. 6.000p. C has a relative minimum. x = 70. Example 2 Suppose that the cost. Setting . the price per car. Alternately.20x + 200. at the critical point. The only critical point is where C ¿ 1x2 = 0.000. We leave the remaining details as an exercise.0002p = . C 1x2 = 9800/x3 7 0 when x = 70.000. Walter O. The minimum cost is C112 = $ 4899.20 6 0. we get x = 1. Cost and Average Cost Example 3 In the preceding example find the minimum average cost. C 1x2 = 2 7 0. R ¿ 1x2 = . of producing x hundred bicycles is given by C1x2 = x2 .0. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. the optimum strategy for the manufacturer is to produce 10. Since this is the only critical point. Wang. p = . and R = xp = 1 .0. Let us look at some such examples. Solving. What is the minimum cost? Solution We may begin immediately to solve the problem. Inc.000.0002 + 200. to find the critical point. and April Allen Materowski. we have 4900/x2 = 1. implying that the revenue has a relative maximum at x = 10.0. More realistic examples would involve maximization of profits. we solved for p in terms of x and then found R in terms of x. we find C ¿ 1x2 = 1 4900 . we could solve for R as a function of p by first finding x in terms of p in the demand equation. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Setting 2x . R 1x2 = .20x + 200. we obtain x = 10.000. x2 Setting this equal to zero.2x + 4900.2. by Warren B. C ¿ 1x2 = 2x . Economics. Thus.000 apiece.Section 3.5 Application II Business and Economic Optimization Problems * ** 303 5. we have seen one typical type of business or economic application.
170x + 8002 Applied Calculus for Business. we have 2x . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Since the cost is given in terms of x. P. C ¿ 1x2 = xC ¿ 1x2 . we have C ¿ 1x2 = C1x2/x = C1x2.05x2 + 900x .2 + 4900x1 Simplifying. PROOF The proof follows from the quotient rule. when C ¿ 1x2 = C1x2. Since x 7 0. Gordon. or x2 = 4900 as above.05x2 + 900x P1x2 = R1x2 . Wang.) In the above example. (a) What level of production maximizes profit? (b) What is the price per stereo when profit is maximized? (c) What is the maximum profit? Solution Recall that the profit. C1x2 = C1x2/x. when the marginal cost equals the average cost. and Finance.2 + 4900x1. we have that x = 4900/x. Thus. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. differentiating. when xC ¿ 1x2 .0.304 * ** Section 3. .2.C1x2 x2 . The demand equation is 20p + x = 18000. is the difference between the revenue and the cost. xC ¿ 1x2 = C1x2. The remainder of the solution follows as above. That is.2 = x . From the demand equation we have p = . the marginal cost is C ¿ 1x2 = 2x . that is. the only critical point comes from the zero of the numerator. and the average cost is C1x2 = x . setting C ¿ 1x2 = C1x2.0. Inc. by Warren B.0.C1x2 = 0 or equivalently. and April Allen Materowski. THEOREM 1 The average cost is minimized at a level of production at which marginal cost equals average cost. Dividing by x. rather than in terms of p. R1x2 = xp = . (See Theorem 1 below.5 Application II Business and Economic Optimization Problems Economists often solve problems like the one considered in Example 3 by using the fact that the average cost is minimized at the level of production at which the average cost equals the marginal cost.C1x2 = . Economics. we shall find the revenue in terms of x. That is. Walter O. Example 4 The cost in dollars of producing x stereos is given by C1x2 = 70x + 800.05x + 900.
The manager finds that she can fill all the seats if she charges $4.0.1x + 900. THEOREM 2 For realistic economic functions.800 = $ 3. That Applied Calculus for Business.1 6 0. that is. when the marginal revenue equals the marginal cost.051830022 + 830183002 .0.0.05183002 + 900 = $ 485.0. the profit is maximized when the marginal revenue equals the marginal cost. Let us see what the given information tells us. as the next example illustrates. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. What ticket price should she charge to maximize the ticket revenue? Solution The ticket revenue is the product of the number of tickets sold and the price per ticket. Gordon. Equating the marginal revenue with the marginal cost yields . Example 5 A theater has 204 seats. Therefore. (c) The maximum profit is P183002 = . Economics.0. . or R ¿ 1x2 = C ¿ 1x2. For each ten cents that she raises the ticket price she will sell three fewer seats. Walter O. Differentiating. Inc.0. she sells 204 tickets. P1x2 = R1x2 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. The remainder of the solution continues as above. when R ¿ 1x2 = C ¿ 1x2 PROOF The proof is an immediate consequence of the sum rule for derivatives.1x + 830. P 1x2 = . since this is the only critical point the relative maximum is the maximum. the profit is maximized when the marginal revenue equals the marginal cost. That is. p = . the level of production at which profit is maximized is x = 8300. We could have used Theorem 2 to do Example 4 as follows: find the marginal revenue and marginal cost. Solving. the profit has a relative maximum at x = 8300.C ¿ 1x2 The critical point occurs when R ¿ 1x2 . and April Allen Materowski. R ¿ 1x2 = .1x + 900 = 70. At $4 per ticket.10 and leaves three seats unsold. and Finance.700.443. Again. One ten cent increase brings the price to $4.0.5 Application II Business and Economic Optimization Problems * ** 305 or P1x2 = .C1x2 thus P ¿ 1x2 = R ¿ 1x2 .800. Wang. C ¿ 1x2 = 70.C ¿ 1x2 = 0.05x2 + 830x . The critical point is at x = 8300. There are situations where we are given data from which we must construct the function to be optimized. by Warren B. we find that P ¿ 1x2 = . An economist will use the fact that for a realistic economic function.00 per ticket. (b) The price charged per stereo comes from the demand equation.Section 3. (a) The level of production that maximizes profit is x = 8300.
1132 204 .4n + 816 R ¿ 1n2 = . the number of tickets sold is 204 and when the price is $4.102 = $ 1.20 and lowers the number of seats sold to 198.n132 = 204 . suppose we solve for x in terms of p and write this relationship as x = D1p2.102 = 4 + 0. we could have solved this problem by observing that the demand equation is linear. suppose x is measured in tons and p in dollars and dx/dp = 2 tons per dollar. we divide dx/dp by the quantity x/p. dx/dp measures the change in demand with respect to price. Inc. 204 . Alternately.0. Setting the marginal revenue to zero gives x = 162 and 15 5 substitution into the demand equation gives p = $ 5. However. The price is increased by 141. Wang.3n2 + 8. by Warren B.5 Application II Business and Economic Optimization Problems is.102 4 + 21.40. Economics. We tabulate our observations.1n21204 . This ratio is called the elasticity of demand and we designate it PD. if we want to measure the rate of change of demand with respect to price.10 the number of tickets sold is 201. only 201 = 204 .1n. 204 . That is.306 * ** Section 3. the total ticket revenue is R1n2 = 14 + 0.3n2 = . The price per ticket when there are x increases is 4 + n1.40. Certainly. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. this is not a very useful measure as it is dependent upon the units used. 5 30 x 54 + . Gordon. and April Allen Materowski. R 1n2 = .2132 Let n = the number of ten cent increases. and Finance.6n + 8. Thus the demand equation (line) passes through the points (204.1132 tickets are sold. which has the same units. Walter O.6 6 0. Elasticity of Demand Given a demand function. The resulting ratio is a dimensionless quantity. Two ten cent increases brings the price to $4. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Therefore.40.3n. our measurement should be independent of units. . 4. denoted by PD is defined by dx dp p dx = = # x dp x p PD (1) Applied Calculus for Business.0. The number of seats sold is 204 .10) and its equation is p = and we have R1x2 = We find R ¿ 1x2 = 1 2 54 x + x 5 30 1 54 x + 1Verify!2. For example. The new ticket price that maximizes the ticket revenue is $5. Thus the ticket revenue is maximized when n = 14.2132 seats are sold and so on. then the value of dx/dp is multiplied by a factor of 2000 making it 4000 pounds per dollar. The derivative. DEFINITION 1 The elasticity of demand. 4) and (201.0. when the price is $4. To that end. If we change our units of measurement from tons to pounds.102 and so on. Price per Ticket 4 Number of Seats Sold 204 4 + 11.4 The only critical point occurs when n = 14.
Of course.3/97 .3p. the terminology elastic and inelastic carry over naturally to nonlinear demand functions.5 Application II Business and Economic Optimization Problems * ** 307 Note that in economic theory. but it does give approximately this value. we have x = 97. The 3 unit change in x.f1q12 * 100% f(q1) (3) f1q22 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. that is. If PD = 1. and Finance. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Thus. The reason for choosing PD = 1 as the transition from elastic to inelastic demand will be given shortly.3/97 (b) As p changes from 1 to 2. Since both x and p are positive it follows that the elasticity of demand will always be negative. every demand function is a decreasing function. In this case it is easy to show that the elasticity is exactly equal to the ratio of the relative change in demand to the relative change in price (see Exercise 22). Walter O. Therefore. the ratio is .3p. In fact. (b) Show that the elasticity equals the ratio of the relative change in demand to the relative change in price when p changes from 1 to 2. DEFINITION 2 The relative change of a function whose equation is p = f1q2 as q changes from q1 to q2 is relative change = The percentage change is defined as percent change = f1q22 . x = 97. as p changes from p = 30 to p = 31.12/1 = 1. At this price range. the demand is elastic. When p = 1. the relative change in price is 12 . Thus. The demand is relatively inflexible. by Warren B. Gordon. the corresponding change in demand is from x = 10 to x = 7. consider the demand equation x = 100 . represents 100% change in price. represents a 3/97 or roughly a 3% change in demand.3/97. from x = 97 to x = 94. On the other hand. The demand is called elastic if PD 7 1.Section 3. we have been analyzing the case in which the demand equation is linear. and when p = 1. find the elasticity of demand when p = 1. in this price range. We first need an additional definition. Economics. and April Allen Materowski. and the demand is inelastic if PD 6 1. x changes from 97 to 94 and the relative change in demand is 3/97. Wang. demand decreases as the price increases. . a small change in price results in a relatively large change in demand.3. x = 94. a one unit change in p. Solution (a) for x = 100 . from p = 1 to p = 2. Thus. Example 6 (a)If the demand equation is x = 100 . Applied Calculus for Business. dx/dp 6 0. That is. the elasticity is said to be unitary.f1q12 f(q1) (2) To better understand this terminology. about a 3% change in price. Inc. For nonlinear demand equations the elasticity is not exactly equal to the ratio of the relative change in demand to relative change in price.3p. 1/1 = . it is inelastic. PD = dx # p dp x dx = . we may obtain equation (1) by taking the limit of the ratio as the change in price approaches zero (see Exercise 23). therefore dp PD = . when p = 2. Therefore. Thus a 100% change in price causes only a 3% change in demand. a 30% change.311/972 = .
by Warren B. it is often the case that the price determines the demand. dp Since x 7 0. PD = 1. x = 2100 .1.308 * ** Section 3. If PD 6 . and Finance. using the product rule. find the elasticity of demand when p = 18. PD = 9/32 6 1. Is the demand elastic or inelastic at p = 18? Solution dx/dp = 1 2100 . It should be noted that in the above discussion we have considered demand as a function of price.1 6 PD 6 0.1/8. If you do so. Wang.1. demand is inelastic. and when PD 7 . Gordon.1/82/18/182 = . when p = 18.2p p = 18 = . However. . demand is elastic. Walter O. the only critical point occurs when PD = . Thus. it is easy to show that the elasticity of demand may p x = dp dx be written as PD (4) Exercise 24 asks you to derive equation (4). . Example 8 Show that when the revenue is maximized. that is. we could just as well have considered price as a function of demand. Economics. Inc.5 Application II Business and Economic Optimization Problems Example 7 Given the demand equation x = 2100 . when PD 6 1. that is. the revenue is maximized when PD = 1. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Applied Calculus for Business.21182 = 8. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. that is when PD 7 1.1. thus. Solution The total revenue is R = xp. PD = 1 . After all. dR/dp = x + p1dx/dp2 We may write p dx dR = xc1 + a b d = x dp dp dx dp T xD1 + x p or dR = x[1 + PD]. To the left of the maximum the demand is elastic and to its right it is inelastic.9/32. and April Allen Materowski. Therefore. at p = 18 the demand is inelastic.2p. The next example indicates why unitary elasticity is the value at which we say the elasticity changes from elastic to inelastic.
monthly sales are 6 coats. (c) p/x = 10 at p = 5. 8. If a demand equation has the form xpc = A show that PD = . Each month an automobile dealer makes a profit of $200 on each car that she sells if not more than 50 cars are sold. In Exercise 5. What is the price and revenue for this amount? 10. Use the results of the preceding exercise and a scale drawing to find the elasticity of demand for each of the following. the yield per tree decreases by 10 peaches. Figure 2 indicates the graph of a demand equation. If the demand equation is p = 29 . (b) x = 2100 . Given a linear demand equation x = mp + b. (c) 4p + x = 100. Let p change from p0 to p0 + h. Inc. Find the minimum average cost if the total cost function is C1x2 = x2 + 5x + 9. what price should be charged to maximize profit? 6. and the cost equation is C1x2 = 3x + 1. 24. Derive equation (4). 150 . (a) p + 4x = 80 at p = 40. Let price change from p to p + h. p = 46. For a linear demand equation show that PD = .p.Ap/x. 13.5 Application II Business and Economic Optimization Problems * ** 309 EXERCISE SET 3. (f) p = 29 . find the cost equation and profit equation. Show that PD = . An orchard contains 300 peach trees with each tree yielding 800 peaches.Section 3.x + 3. find the maximum profit. Walter O. and its tangent line at the point B. A producer finds that demand for his commodity obeys a linear demand equation p + 2x = 100 where p is in dollars and x in thousands of units. 23. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. If the producer s costs are given by C1x2 = 2 + 3x. When the price increases to $5000. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. what should his level of production be to maximize profits? 2. (b) p = 29 . by Warren B.5 1. (c) p + x = 75. (d) px = 8. (d) p2 + x2 = 100. For every car above 50 that she sells her profit per car is decreased by $2. Economics. If the cost equation in Exercise 1 is C1x2 = 0. Wang. (a) p + 4x = 80. (b) 10p + x = 500. Compare the result with the exact answer found by using either equation (1) or (4). 14. (a) Find the level of production that will maximize revenue. where x is in carats and p is in thousands of dollars. (a) Find the demand and revenue equations. In Exercise 6. (f) p2 + x2 = 50.x2 + 4x. 3. and a cost equation C1x2 = x + 1. (a) For what values of x is this a possible demand equation? (b) Find the number of carats to be made available to maximize revenue. what tax should the government impose on the producer if it wishes to maximize its tax revenue? 18.x = 100. where dAB is the distance from the point B to the xintercept A and dBC is the distance from B to the pintercept C. Given the demand equation p = 100/1x + 12. 9. (c) Find the level of production that maximizes profit. Minimize the average cost if the total cost function is C1x2 = 3x2 + 200x + 12.dAB/dBC. Assume that the demand equation is linear. what tax should the government impose on the producer if it wishes to maximize its tax revenue? 17. (c) x = 100/1p + 122. Gordon. how are profits affected? 16. (a) x + 4p = 200. Suppose in Exercise 5 that the producer is subjected to a tax of $10 per thousand units. 21. Suppose x = D1p2 is a nonlinear demand equation. p C B x A Figure 2: Ex. p = 0. 5. For each five additional trees planted. What should his production level be in order to maximize profits? 15. where c and A are constants. p = 3. Find the elasticity of demand for each of the following demand equations. the demand is for 5 coats. How many cars should the dealer sell monthly to maximize her profit? 11. 20. . and April Allen Materowski. find the maximum profit. Show that elasticity of demand is the limit as h approaches zero of the relative change in demand to the relative change in price. 7. 18 19. 4. 22. How many trees should be planted to maximize the total yield of the orchard? 12. Applied Calculus for Business. (e) px2 = 12. p = 40. Find the maximum revenue if the demand equation is: (a) p = 100/1x + 12. and Finance. Show that the ratio of the relative change in x to the relative change in p is exactly equal to the elasticity of demand at p0.c.x. In Exercise 6 if the government applies a luxury tax of 20% per coat.5x2 + x + 1.x42 . A diamond dealer finds that the demand for flawless diamonds is governed by p = . (b) p = 1x + 22 (e) p2 . Interpret A.x at p = 2. p = 2. (b) If overhead is $2500 per month and the production cost per coat is $2000. A fur dealer finds that when coats sell for $4000. p = 4. Find the elasticity of demand at the indicated price for each of the following.
Gordon. we have the following definition. and April Allen Materowski. the tangent line lies beneath the graph. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. near the point of tangency we have the approximation f1x2 L T1x2 (2) (1) We shall see that (2) is useful in numerical evaluations. see Figure 1b. by Warren B. we saw that the tangent line is the best linear approximation to the function near the point of tangency.x02 + f1x02 With this is mind.f1x02 = f ¿ 1x021x . DEFINITION 1 The equation of the tangent line to the differentiable function defined by y = f1x2 at the point 1x0. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Wang. Thus.310 * ** Section 3. f1x022. f1x022. we have y = f ¿ 1x021x . f1x022 is given by y = T1x2 = f ¿ 1x021x . and Finance. P P Figure 1a: Concave Upward near P Figure 1b: Concave Downward near P Applied Calculus for Business. we expand upon this notion and illustrate how this is used to linearize a function. while it lies above the graph if f is concave downward near x0.x02. f1x022 is y . the equation of the tangent line at the point 1x0. Inc. To illustrate the notion of linearization we consider several examples. Note that if the graph of f is concave upward near P1x0.x02 + f1x02 T(x) is called the linearization of f near the point 1x0. Economics.6 Linearization and Differentials 3.6 Linearization and Differentials » » » » » Linearization Differentials The Differential Approximation Differentiable Functions Differential Formulas Linearization In our discussion of the derivative. see Figure 1a. . Solving for y. Recall that given a differentiable function defined by the equation y = f1x2. In this section. Walter O.
Inc. Solution We have f102 = 1 and f ¿ 1x2 = 1*211 + 2x21/2122 = 11 + 2x21/2. 2/3 3 3142 12 12 3182 Since f1x2 L T1x2 for values of x near x0 = 8.01).012 = 1/1218 . Gordon.02 + 1 or T1x2 = x + 1 Let us not lose sight of the fact that linearization is nothing more than finding the equation of the tangent line. However.12 . Solution If we let f1x2 = x1/3 then we must compute f(8. and April Allen Materowski. to nine places. Linearization is used to replace a complicated expression by a simpler one. the purpose of the example is to illustrate the method of linearization. giving f ¿ 102 = 1. We have that T1x2 = 1x . Our next example illustrates how this may be done. f18. Using a calculator we find that Applied Calculus for Business.Section 3. Therefore.012 + 2 = 2 + 1/1200 L 2. The next example illustrates that once this is done. Wang.21x .2x + 1. Substituting into (1). we obtain.6 Linearization and Differentials * ** 311 Example 1 Linearize f1x2 = 2x2 . and f ¿ 112 = .000833333. and Finance. Economics.6x + 3 near x0 = 1. Since the linearization of a function is much easier to deal with than the function itself.012 L T18.8. therefore. we will linearize the function near x0 = 8. Example 3 Using linearization. Thus.01. but we must point out it is much easier and probably more accurately done by a calculator. T1x2 = 11x . we shall find it. 3 1 2/3 1 1 1 1 182 = = = . f ¿ 1x2 = 4x . To make the approximation reasonably accurate we must choose the point at which the function is linearized close to x = 8.1. Note that f 1x21x2 = 4 7 0. Example 2 Linearize f1x2 = 21 + 2x near x0 = 0. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. or T1x2 = . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.82 + 2. Solution We have f112 = .6. Since we have to compute f1x02 = 1x021/3. 8 will be a good choice for x0 since it is a perfect cube and near 8. Walter O. We may now exploit this fact and use linearization as an effective tool for approximation. T1x2 = .2. .01. the graph is concave upward and y = T1x2 is below y = f1x2.01. by Warren B.1. We have f182 = 81/3 = 2. calculations are especially simple. f ¿ 1x2 = therefore f ¿182 = 1 2/3 x . approximate 2 3 8.
dy = f ¿ 1x02 ¢ x. and the vertical line drawn from Q1x0 + h. Wang. and not dy divided by dx . f( x 0 + h ) Q ( x 0 + h . y = T1x2 Figure 2 is a sketch of a smooth function y = f1x2. f( x 0)) y = f( x ) x0 x0 + h Figure 2: y = f1x2 and its Tangent Line at P1x0.6 Linearization and Differentials 8. divided by the horizontal distance from P to R. f ( x 0) ) f ( x 0) P ( x0 . and Finance. In fact. We shall give meaning to each of the dx expressions dy and dx. but the importance of the example is to illustrate that linearization reduces a more complex calculation to a simpler (linear) one. In addition. Differentials Certainly. Gordon. f( x 0 + h )) y = T (x) *y S dy R ( x 0 + h . f1x0 + h22 to R1x0 + h. and equals f1x0 + h2 . dRP = h. Observe that the distance from Q to R is denoted by ¢ y or ¢ f. which is not equal to dy. . We shall also show how the differential may be used to approximate small changes. f1x022. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. that is. However. Economics. Let h = ¢ x then dSR = T1x0 + h2 .011/3 = 2. f1x022.f1x02 = f ¿1x02h = f ¿1x02 ¢ x We define this quantity to be the differential dy. When developing the notation for the derivative we were careful to read the expresdy sion as dydx. f1x022. Inc. Walter O. which is exactly what occurred. We let S be the point where the tangent line crosses the vertical line QR. the tangent line is above the graph near x = 8. by Warren B. from S to R.000832986. the slope of the tangent line is f ¿ 1x2. it is much simpler to solve the above example with a calculator. the sketch shows the horizontal line drawn from P to R. Since f 1x2 = . the distance dSR. this must be the same as the slope of PS computed by using the change in y divided by the change in x. therefore our approximate value will be on the large side.2/19x5/32 6 0 if x 7 0. Its tangent line y = T1x2 is drawn at P1x0.T1x02 = [f ¿ 1x021x0 + h . The error is in the sixth decimal place. and April Allen Materowski.312 * ** Section 3. By definition. If we set dQS = P ¢ x then we have Applied Calculus for Business.x02 + f1x02] . called differentials. We shall find differentials useful when we discuss the reversal of the differentiation process later in this text . so that we may interpret their ratio as being the derivative. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. That is. we have ¢ y = dy + dQS.f1x02.
The reason for the unusual choice of notation P ¢ x will be explained shortly.Section 3. f ( x 0) ) dy R ( x 0 + h . the distance dQS. we have the following definition in which we delete the subscript on x. P 6 0.f( x 0 + h )) * y f( x 0) P ( x0 . P 7 0 and if it is concave downward near P. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. f 1x022.1x2 . by Warren B. That is. . Inc. However.122 . compute: (a) dy. (c) P.f1x2 = 11x + h22 . if the graph is concave upward near P. which we called P ¢ x becomes negligible. S f( x 0 + h ) Q ( x 0 + h . and April Allen Materowski. Thus.122x ¢ x = 4x1x2 . we have the approximation that ¢ y = dy. (b) ¢ y. then ¢ y 6 dy. Figure 2 shows the graph as being concave upward near P. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Thus. since P may represent any point on the graph DEFINITION 2 h = ¢ x = dx dy = f ¿ 1x2 ¢ x ¢ y = f1x + h2 . and Finance. Where f is Concave Upward Example 4 Given y = f1x2 = 1x2 . y = T1x2.f1x2 = dy + P ¢ x (3) (4) (5) It is instructive to observe that as Q approaches P.4xh + 6x2h2 + 4xh3 + h4 . Economics. Walter O. Gordon.6 Linearization and Differentials * ** 313 ¢ y = f1x0 + h2 . a small change in f is approximately equal to a corresponding change in T. (b) ¢ y = f1x + h2 .f1x02 = dy + P ¢ x. as ¢ x approaches zero. as in Figure 3. and we see that in this case that ¢ y 7 dy.2h2.122 = 4x3h . (d) What happens to P as ¢ x approaches zero? Solution (a) dy = f ¿ 1x2 ¢ x = 21x2 . f ( x 0) ) y = T(x) y = f( x ) x0 x0 + h Figure 3: y = f 1x2 and its Tangent Line at P1x0. Wang. if the graph is concave downward near P.12 ¢ x.122. Summarizing. Applied Calculus for Business.
(d) As ¢ x approaches zero. is given by C1x2 = 6x3. we have t 60 dP = 1/4 10. . by Warren B. we have that P . we have ¢ y = 4x1x2 . If there is a 5% increase in the number of transports produced.8011623/4 = 2.1. f Example 6 The cost of producing x military transports. the relative change may be approxidf mated by . By ¢f the relative change in f. as well as ¢ x the distance from Q to P. Solution We are required to find ¢ P but will instead find dP. Find the approximate change in the population between 16 and 16. where the population at time t is given in millions while t is measured in seconds. or P = 6x2 ¢ x + 4x ¢ x2 + ¢ x3 . The Differential Approximation Example 5 The population of a particular bacterial culture was found to be governed by the equation P1t2 = 80t 3/4. we find dP = 1/4 dt. in place of change. we mean and by percentage change we mean the relative f change written as a percent. and April Allen Materowski. (Note. the approximate change in the population of the culture is 16 3 million.6 Linearization and Differentials Replacing h by ¢ x. to nine places. It is precisely this observation that makes differentials useful in approximating ¢ y if ¢ x is small. Differentiating.12 ¢ x + 16x2 ¢ x + 4x ¢ x2 + ¢ x3 . therefore.2 ¢ x2 = 0.) Sometimes. Gordon.1 seconds. We x x C C 2 have that dC = 18x dx.lim 16x2 ¢ x + 4x ¢ x2 + ¢ x3 . in millions of dollars.314 * ** Section 3. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Of course if ¢ f L df. Economics.2 ¢ x.2 ¢ x2 ¢ x.2 ¢ x2 ¢ x. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.997662312. 3 x C C 6x Applied Calculus for Business.0123/4 .12 = 3. and factoring. We are given that 60 ¢ t = dt = 0. we see that P ¢ x = 16x2 ¢ x + 4x ¢ x2 + ¢ x3 . P depends upon the value of x at P. When t = 16. where x is the number of transports produced. The next example illustrates this approximation. ¢x : 0 Observe that P depends upon both ¢ x and x. what is the corresponding percentage increase in the cost? ¢x dx ¢C dC = = 5%. the term relative change or percentage change is used. Wang. the exact change is ¢ P = 80116. We must determine L . Thus. Inc. Solution We are given that 18x2 dx 18x2 dx dx dC = = = 3 = 315%2 = 15%. Walter O. and Finance. That is. Example 4 illustrated that it is often much easier to compute dy than ¢ y. (c) From ¢ y = f ¿ 1x2 ¢ x + P ¢ x.
P ¢ x = ¢ y . It is precisely this observation that is used to generalize the definition of differentiability to a function of several variables. the differential of a sum is the sum of the differentials because the derivative of a sum is the sum of the derivatives.dy = f1x + h2 . f ¿ 1x2 = f ¿ 1g1t22 Therefore. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.f1x2 . there is a little more to it than that. In fact we may define differentiability of a function as follows. Thus. then dy can dx Differential Formulas Applied Calculus for Business. it is now possible to rewrite all our derivative formulas as differential formulas. we have. . and April Allen Materowski.Section 3. We now see that the differential gives the approximate change in y for a small change in x. Walter O. Thus. For a differentiable function. and Finance.f ¿ 1x2. Exercise 33 illustrates how (6) may be used to prove the chain rule. x = g1t2. Gordon. All the rules for derivatives will carry through to differentials. D is then the derivative of the function. P measures the difference between the slope of the (secant) line through P and Q and the slope of the tangent line at P.6 Linearization and Differentials * ** 315 Thus. the symbol be considered a fraction. Or. d [f1g1t22] = f ¿ 1g1t22g ¿ 1t2. Differentiable Functions DEFINITION 3 A function whose equation is y = f1x2 is differentiable if the change in y may be written in the form ¢y = D ¢x + P ¢x (6) where P approaches zero as ¢ x approaches zero. once again. Now.f1x2 h . Consider. dy = f ¿ 1x2 ¢ x and dx = g ¿ 1t2 ¢ t By the Chain Rule. It is apparent that the quantity P is of some significance when we use differentials. by Warren B. thus dt dy = f ¿ 1g1t22g ¿ 1t2 ¢ t However. Thus. we have P = f1x + h2 . in fact. However. Wang. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Economics. for instance.f ¿ 1x2 ¢ x. Say. a 5% increase in the number of transports produced results in a 15% increase in cost. the ratio of dy to dx is precisely the derivative and. the case y = f1x2 but suppose that x is a function of some other variable t. Using this new terminology. The interpretation of P follows directly from (5). Dividing by ¢ x = h. dy = f ¿ 1x2 dx. if we have y = xN. this difference approaches zero as ¢ x = h approaches zero. Inc. for example.
12x dx = 14x3 . and Finance. Solution To compute the differential you could either: (a) Find the derivative of the entire function and multiply by dx. Economics. . by Warren B. Walter O. Later in dx this text it will be convenient for us to use the differential form of the product rule.6x2 + 112 = 14x3 .1 dx or d1xN2 = nxN .12x2 dx Applied Calculus for Business. Wang. and April Allen Materowski.12x Therefore.6x2 + 112 = d1x42 . Inc. or. Example 7 Find d1x4 .316 * ** Section 3. written both in differential and derivative form. (b) Find the differential of each term separately using the fact that the differential of a sum is the sum of the differentials. (a) f ¿ 1x2 = 4x3 . (a) Letting f1x2 = x4 .6x2 + 112.1 dx. then the product rule d1uv2 dv du + v = u dx dx dx may be written as d1uv2 = u dv + v du Table 1 summarizes all the derivative formulas up to this point.12x2 dx (b) d1x4 . For example if u and v are two functions of x.1 could be rewritten as dy = NxN . Thus.6d1x22 + 0 dx = 4x3 dx . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.6x2 + 11. Gordon.d16x22 + d1112 = 4x3 dx .6 Linearization and Differentials dy = NxN . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. d1x4 .
If y = f1x2 = 1x3 + 522 find (a) dy.01.1 dx dx dv d du u = 1uv2 .2x + 5 (a) x0 = 0.01). (b) near x0 = 0 and computing T(1. In Exercises 7 11 use linearization to approximate the given quantity. x0 = 0. (iii) x = 1 and ¢ x = .7x + 10. 11. linearize f near x0. (d) Evaluate each of these quantities if: (i) x = 10 and ¢ x = 1.00124. and April Allen Materowski. Applied Calculus for Business.2 3.N dD b = D N2 da d1f1u22 = f ¿ 1u2 du d1uN2 = NuN . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.v dx dx dx Differential Form d1c2 = 0 d1cf2 = c df d1xN2 = NxN .01. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. (b) 215. Inc. (ii) x = 1 and ¢ x = 0.v du EXERCISE SET 3.N D d N dx dx a b = 2 dx D N du d 1f1u22 = f ¿ 1u2 dx dx du d N 1u 2 = NuN .27. 10. linearize f (a) near x0 = 0. (c) P. 9.3 (a) x0 = 0. (ii) x = 1 and ¢ x = 0. (a) 216. f1x2 = 3x .6 In Exercises 1 4. In each case determine whether the result is too large or too small.0.1. Approximate f(1. (b) 2 3 . f1x2 = 2 3 1 + x.1 dx d1uv2 = u dv + v du N D dN . (a) 13. Let f1x2 = 3x4 . (c) Explain why one of the above choices for x0 yields a better approximation then the other. f1x2 = 3x2 + 12x . (a) 2 3 26.6 Linearization and Differentials * ** 317 Table 1: Derivatives and their Differential Form Derivative Form d 1c2 = 0 dx df d 1cf1x22 = c dx dx d N N1 1x 2 = Nx dx dv du d 1uv2 = u + v dx dx dx dN dD . (b) x0 = 1. (d) Evaluate each of these quantities if: (i) x = 10 and ¢ x = 1. (b) ¢ y.1). If y = f1x2 = 5x2. (b) 2 3 26. Wang. 4. (c) P.01.01) by linearizing f (a) near x0 = 1. does it present a problem? 5. 13. find (a) dy. (b) x0 = 2 2. 14.00325. (c) what about x0 = . (b) ¢ y. f1x2 = 21 + x (a) x0 = 0.1 du u dv = d1uv2 . (c) P. (b) x0 = . (b) near x0 = 1. (b) 11. 6. 2 8.9. approximate f(1. If y = f1x2 = 3x3 + 1 find (a) dy.0423/5. (a) 2 3 28. 1. .Section 3. (b) 132. 12.2. (b) ¢ y. (a) 14. Gordon. and Finance. Walter O. 7. by Warren B.9924. Economics.01. (c) Using an appropriate linearization. Let f1x2 = 24 + 5x.98.
6. by Warren B. (a) find ¢ y.3 (b) Find f ¿ 1x2 if f1x2 = 22x3 + 3x + 2. (d) Evaluate each of these quantities if: (i) x = 3 and ¢ x = 1. Consider the function f1x2 = 1x .975. 30.1 = 0. where P approaches zero as ¢ x approaches zero. x + 1 3x . (a) Suppose there is a 15% increase in the radius of the artery.2 3 x . Explain why (c) and (d) together prove the chain rule. (b) Let f1x2 = 11 + 2x21/3 + 11 + 3x21/4. (c) P. By slightly increasing the radius of an artery they are able to obtain a significant increase in blood flow. Find an approximate solution of 1x . (ii) x = 3 and ¢ x = 0. and find T(x). If f1x2 = 11 + ax2k. find: (a) dy. Using differentials. 29. such that f1r2 = 0. T21x2 the linearization of g(x).) 23. 18. there is a fourfold increase in the volume of blood flowing through it (Physicians exploit this relationship between the volume of blood flowing and the radius of the artery. and Finance.6 Linearization and Differentials 26. (b) Choose x0 = 9. (b) ¢ y. (b) y = x612x4 . (c) P. and April Allen Materowski.2 2 x (b) Find dy if y = 2 . 16.005in. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.1 . (b) the percent change in the revenue as x changes from 36 lbs to 36.04cm. 28. (a) Find df if f1x2 = 2 . (a) Find dy if y = .0012 cubic inches in computing the volume must be allowed. (c) Identify D. Due to heat conditions a possible error of 0. Use (a) and the previous exercise to quickly find the linearization of f near x0 = 0. (b) Show that ¢ u = g ¿ 1x2 ¢ x + P2 ¢ x where P2 approaches zero as ¢ x approaches zero. (c) P. (b) Find the differential approximation to the increase in area. Gordon. If y = f1x2 = 2x2 + 2x + 3. 2x + 3 24. This exercise uses (6) to prove the chain rule. Find df. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 8 6 r 6 9. Determine the approximate error in computing the volume of the cube. 2x . (a) Find the exact change in volume. (b) ¢ y. (b) ¢ y. find (a) dy. (c) Draw a picture of the original and the expanded square. A cube is measured and each side is found to be 4 inches with a possible error of at most 0. (d) Give a geometric interpretation for the approximation and for the error. (a) Find dr if r = 20 25u2 + 9 . (c) Instead of solving f1x2 = 0. (a) show that the given function is continuous for all x Ú 0. (a) Show that ¢ y = f ¿ 1u2 ¢ u + P1 ¢ u where P1 approaches zero as ¢ u approaches zero.1 lbs. x . (d) Show that P approaches zero as ¢ x approaches zero. f182 6 0 and f192 7 0. b 3 19. The volume of a cube with side length s is V = s3. where k is any real number. Consider a cube whose side has been extended to length s + ¢ s. (a) Let T11x2 be the linearization of f(x).1 lbs.7. (b) Show ¢ y = D ¢ x + P ¢ x. 22.928 27. What is the maximum possible error in the measurement of the side of the cube? 21. (a) f1x2 = 1x2 + 221x4 . use the approximation f1x2 L T1x2 and instead solve T1x2 = 0 to approximate r. and T(x) the linearization of F1x2 = f1x2 + g1x2. (b) Find the differential approximation to the increase in volume.x21/2. what is the corresponding percentage increase in the volume of the blood flowing through it? (b) Show that for a relative change in the radius of the artery. Wang. A rubber ball (a sphere) is expanding in such a way that its radius increases from 8cm to 8. 31.72. . determine (a) the change in the revenue as x changes from 36 lbs to 36. 15.318 * ** Section 3. Economics. Walter O. (c) Substitute (b) into (a) to show that ¢ y = f ¿ 1 u2 g ¿ 1 x 2 ¢ x + P ¢ x where P = P1g ¿ 1x2 + P2f ¿ 1u2 + P1P2. Conclude that there is a number r. find (a) dy. If y = f1x2 = 1x3 + 521. The total revenue in cents in selling x pounds of coffee is given by R1x2 = 10x1100 . (a) What is the approximate change in its volume? (b) Is the approximate change larger or smaller than the actual change? 4 a V = pr3. Find dy. (a) Find the exact change in area. 32. Given f1x2 = 1x2 + 423. 20. Show that T1x2 = T11x2 + T21x2.2 3 x .1 25. 17. show that its linearization near x0 = 0 is given by T1x2 = 1 + akx. Consider a square whose side has been extended to length s + ¢ s. Let y = f1x2 = 12x + 120. 33. each near x0.3x + 42. The volume of a cube is measured to be 8 cubic inches. The area of a square with side length s is A = s2.975. Applied Calculus for Business. Suppose y = f1u2 and u = g1x2 are each differentiable functions. Inc.01.0. The volume of blood flowing through an artery whose radius is r is proportional to the fourth power of the radius. (b) Find dy if y = x51x 2 .
y + ¢ y2 . (b) g1x2 = x4 . if any. y + ¢ y2 . (c) f1x2 = x3 .1. 4]. .1.1.x23.6x2 + 9x .2 6 x 6 7. if any for: (a) g1x2 = x3 . (d) g1x2 = x211 . (b) f1x2 = x3 + 6x2. for: (a) f1x2 = 3x2 . (a) Sketch the graph of a continuous function defined on . find the maximum and minimum values of g on the interval [ . (c) For g1x2 = x1/3 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. find the maximum and minimum values of g on the interval [ .4 x 4. 9.1. 6. 10. Consider the function of two variables f1x.3x.18x + 21. find the maximum and minimum values of f on the interval [ . Wang. where P1 and P2 each approach zero as both ¢ x and ¢ y approach zero. Indicate the point m on your graph which is a relative minimum. (b) For f1x2 = x3 . Classify the critical point(s). Gordon.4x2.52 and a relative minimum at (0. 5. by Warren B. (b) G1x2 = . y2 * ** 319 (b) Show that ¢ f = f1x + ¢ x.52 and a maximum at 13. and April Allen Materowski. x + 1 x + 2 8. (b) Sketch the graph of a continuous function decreasing on . (c) f1x2 = x3 . Find all critical point(s).14. Economics. y2 = D1 ¢ x + D2 ¢ y + P1 ¢ x + P2 ¢ y. 2. x + 4 x + 4 2 Applied Calculus for Business. find the maximum and minimum values of f on the interval [ .12x. (b) f1x2 = x3 + 6x2.12x2. use the first derivative test to determine where the given function is increasing and where it is decreasing. .6x2 + 9x .6.2 and decreasing on . y2 = x2y3.1. that has relative a maxima at 1 . 3.3 6 x 6 . We shall see later in the text that D1 and D2 are called partial derivatives with respect to x and y respectively. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 8]. Find all critical point(s). 2]. if any for: (a) y = x2 x1/3 .3x. (b) g1x2 = x4 . 42.1*2 6 x 6 1*2 and increasing on 1*2 6 x 6 2.x23. (b) Sketch the graph of a continuous function defined on . 11. x2 3x . Find all critical point(s). Inc. 4].3x. (b) h1x2 = x211 . (a) Sketch the graph of a continuous function increasing on . 2). if any for: (a) F1x2 = 7. (a) compute ¢ f = f1x + ¢ x. if any for: (a) h1x2 = x1/3 .f1x. 3.12x.4x2. Indicate the point M on your graph which is a relative maximum. Find all critical point(s). Demand and Revenue Cost and Average Cost Elasticity and Demand Linearization The Differential Approximation Differentiable Function Differential Formulas 1.x23. Find all critical point(s). and Finance.18x + 21. Walter O. 2].2. In Exercises 10 through 13. (a) For g1x2 = x3 . that has a relative maximum at (1. (c) g1x2 = x1/3 . find the maximum and minimum values of g on the interval [ . (b) y = 2 .Chapter Review 34. (a) g1x2 = x3 . if any. find the maximum and minimum values of g on the interval [ . (c) For f1x2 = x3 + 6x. CHAPTER REVIEW Key Ideas Continuity Maxima and Minima Relative Maxima and Minima Critical number and Critical Points The Only Critical Point Test Increasing and Decreasing Functions First Derivative Test The Second Derivative Higher Order Derivatives Velocity and Acceleration Concavity The Second Derivative Test for Concavity The Second Derivative Test for Relative Extrema Implicit Differentiation and Curve Sketching Optimization Procedure Area and Perimeter Volume Distance and Velocity Price. 5]. (b) For g1x2 = x4 . (a) f1x2 = 3x2 . 1).6x2 + 9x .9x + 5.14.14. (a) For f1x2 = 2x2 . 12]. 4.4x2. (d) For g1x2 = x211 .2 x 2. find the maximum and minimum values of f on the interval [0. a relative minimum at 10.f1x.
(d) Find the position when the acceleration is maximum.4x2.12x2. (c) f1x2 = x3 . (ii) maximized. Sketch the graph of the function (a) given in Exercise 7(a) (b) given in Exercise 7(b) 28. Gordon. 19. If the total length of the frame and sash is to be 20 feet. (b) Use the result of (a) to compute 2 4 1. (b) Find the fourth derivative for f1x2 = 2x + 1 22. What should the lengths of the legs be.5x3. classify the critical points by use of the second derivative test and the sketch the graph of the given function. If the total cost of producing x gimcracks is C1x2 = 144 + 40x + x2. A window is to be made in the shape of a rectangle with a sash across it (Figure Ex. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 16. 18.18x + 21. . 15. Sketch the graph of: (a) y = x1/31x . (b) y = x511 . Sketch the graphs of the function (a) given in Exercise 6(a).12. 21.x23. * ** Chapter Review 23.8x3. Wang. 23). 29. by Warren B. (b) Find the times at which the velocity is zero and the times at which the acceleration is zero. what dimensions will maximize the area of the window? (a) The function F in Exercise 6(a).3x. (b) given in Exercise 6(b). how many gimcracks should you make in order to minimize the average cost of a gimcrack? What is the minimum possible average cost? 26. (b) The sum of the square of the first plus twice the square of the second is: (i) minimized.14.x224.6x2 + 9x . x4 . determine the production level that will maximize profit. (b) y = 3x4 . (b) f1x2 = x3 + 6x2. (c) y = x3 .006. 27. (a) f1x2 = 2x2 . 31. (b) f1x2 = x3 .12x2 . If the demand for x gimcracks at price p is determined by the equation 3x + 5p = 1500: (a) What production will maximize revenue? (b) Using the total cost function in the previous exercise. Find two nonnegative numbers whose sum is 20 and such that: (a) The sum of their squares is: (i) a minimum. 14. 23 24. if the length of the hypotenuse is to be as small as possible? 25.9x + 5. (b) The function G in Exercise 6(b). Suppose that the position of a particle as a function of time is given by the formula s1t2 = 4t3 . (b) Find its position at the time when its velocity is zero. (b) 2 3 64. 13.6.1221x + 223. and Finance. (a) f1x2 = 3x2 . x211 .6x2 + 9x . (c) y = 4x + 3 x2 + 6 . (c) f1x2 = x3 + 6x (a) g1x2 = x3 .3x2 + x 3 + 23. Figure Ex.12x. Find dy if: (a) y = 7x2 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. A right triangle is to have area 18 square inches.320 12. (c) Find the position at the time when the velocity is maximum. x1/3 .1 . 17. and April Allen Materowski. (a) Find the velocity and acceleration as functions of time.3 Applied Calculus for Business. (a) Find the equations of its velocity and acceleration.t4. Economics. (b) The function defined in Exercise 7(b). (b) g1x2 = x4 . 2x . (ii) a maximum. Inc. (a) Linearize f1x2 = 2 4 1 + 2x near x = 0.16t2 + 64t + 192. 1 . (a) (b) (c) (d) g1x2 g1x2 g1x2 g1x2 = = = = x3 .60x + 100. (d) y = 1x .4x2. In Exercises 14 through 15 locate the points of inflection (if any) for the given functions. Use the differential to find the approximate value of: (a) 224.14. Walter O. The position of an object at any time is given by the equation s1t2 = . In Exercises 16 and 17. (a) Find f 1x2 for: f1x2 = 1*2 x4 . 20. (a) The function defined in Exercise 7(a). 30.
4 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions This chapter introduces the exponential and logarithmic functions. We shall see that calculus is an indispensable tool in examining these functions. Wang. . Inc. Gordon. Economics. and Finance. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. by Warren B. Applied Calculus for Business. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and then examines how they arise in natural applications. and April Allen Materowski. Walter O.
Solution The sketch of the graph is given in Figure 1. Observe both 13. 72. (Or equivalently as: if x1 Z x2 then f1x12 Z f1x22. Example 2 From the sketch of the graph of f1x2 = 3x + 7. 17.1. contrary to the definition of a function being onetoone. Walter O. A function defined by the equation y = f1x2 is said to be a onetoone function if (in addition to each x corresponding to a unique y) each yvalue corresponds to a unique xvalue. What can we do to insure that the set obtained by interchanging the coordinates also yields a function? It should be clear that we need the second set to satisfy the uniqueness property as well. then the same yvalue would correspond to two different xvalues. the function is oneto one. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. If it did.12.1 Inverse Functions 4. Suppose the function is f = 51 . .322 * ** Section 4. 22. Since the condition states that different xvalues correspond to different yvalues. by Warren B. 32.12 and (3.1 Inverse Functions » » » » » » » OnetoOne Function Horizontal Line Test Increasing and Decreasing Functions Inverse Function Composition Property Derivative of the Inverse Calculator Tips OnetoOne Function Recall that in the definition of a function defined by the equation y = f1x2 we required that to each xvalue there correspond a unique yvalue. 02. that is 3x1 + 7 = 3x2 + 7. therefore it cannot be a function (Why?). . what about the set we obtain by interchanging the x and y values? Is it also a function? The set obtained is 513. 10. no horizontal line drawn through the graph can intersect it in more than one point.) Example 1 Is the linear function defined by the equation f1x2 = 3x + 7 onetoone? Solution Suppose we have f1x12 = f1x22. This translates into a very simple statement regarding the original function. Horizontal Line Test The notion of a function being onetoone is easily determined from its graph. 42. Economics. We may rephrase this by saying that the only way two yvalues are the same is if their xvalues are the same. 14. 326. show the function is onetoone. since the only way two yvalues are the same is if their xvalues are. Applied Calculus for Business. Gordon. 526. and April Allen Materowski. 13. 12. Inc. we may write this condition as follows: if f1x12 = f1x22 then we must have x1 = x2. it means for a function to be onetoone. Wang. and Finance. . 15. then it follows from this equation that 3x1 = 3x2 or x 1 = x2 thus. 5) belong to this set. This observation is called the horizontal line test. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.
Gordon. Economics. . the function is onetoone. by Warren B. this is not the graph of a onetoone function. intersects the graph in two points or not at all.1 y f( x ) = 3 x + 7 Inverse Functions * ** 323 Figure 1: Applying the Horizontal Line Test to f1x2 = 3x + 7 Note that if a horizontal line is drawn anywhere. and Finance. that we could just as well have applied the definition of a function being onetoone to show that the given function is not onetoone. Example 3 Determine if the function whose equation is given by y = f1x2 = 2x2 + 1 is onetoone. Therefore. a horizontal line will only Increasing and Decreasing Functions Applied Calculus for Business. and April Allen Materowski. Therefore. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Therefore. by the horizontal line test. it intersects the graph in exactly one point (meaning each yvalue corresponds to exactly one xvalue). Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. the graph has no relative extrema). as long as a graph does not turn (that is. Solution The graph of the function is the parabola indicated in Figure 2. Note that any horizontal line that is not drawn through the vertex of the parabola. This is illustrated in Figure 2. f( x ) = 2 x 2 + 1 Figure 2: The Horizontal Line Test Applied to f1x2 = 2x 2 + 1.Section 4. Inc. What kinds of continuous functions are onetoone functions? How do they look? From the horizontal line test we see that a horizontal line will intersect a graph in more than one point if the graph has a turning point. Wang. It should be noted in the previous example. Walter O.
42. Figure 3a: An Increasing Function Figure 3b: A Decreasing Function Figure 3: Two Types of OnetoOne Functions Let us return to question posed earlier. one whose yvalues increase as the xvalue do. 12. f is an increasing function over its entire domain and.12. Recall that on any interval on which the derivative is positive. 1126. 32. 22.1. therefore. or the graph of a decreasing function. the function is increasing and on any interval on which the derivative is negative. by Warren B. 13. 52. the set obtained violates the uniqueness property of the definition of a function. (b) g = 51 . 111. 514.7. 12. 1 . Solution We have f ¿ 1x2 = 12x2 + 9 7 0 for all x. 13. .324 * ** Section 4. 12.32.3 and 3. the graph of an increasing function. This occurs because f is not a onetoone function as y = 2 corresponds to two different xvalues. (Why?) Therefore. Economics. 11. and April Allen Materowski.3.7 is a onetoone function. one whose yvalues decrease as the xvalue increase. we obtain 512. q 2? (b) Is there any domain on which this function may be defined where this function will be onetoone? Applied Calculus for Business. 22. and Finance. 18. Example 4 Is the set obtained by interchanging the x and yvalues in each of the given functions also a function? (a) f = 51 . 02. This is illustrated in Figure 3. Example 5 Show that the function defined by the equation y = f1x2 = 4x3 + 9x . Observe that the first derivative test can be very useful in classifying increasing and decreasing function. Wang. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Walter O. a onetoone function. namely . (b) The function g is a onetoone function since each yvalue corresponds to exactly one xvalue. 15.72.q .1 Inverse Functions intersect it in one point. Example 6 (a) Is the function defined by y = f1x2 = 2x 2 + 1 onetoone over the domain 1. 15. Gordon. 526. will be a oneto one function. This is not a function. Under what conditions can we interchange the x and yvalues and have the new set thus obtained also be a function? From the above discussions we see that the original function must be a onetoone function. 82. 22. 2026 Solution (a) If we interchange the x and yvalues. Thus. . 13. 526 is also a function. the function is decreasing. 32. . Therefore the set obtained by interchanging x with y. Inc. . 120. 32. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 15. 10.
which is negative when x 6 0 and positive when x 7 0. not the reciprocal of the function! Applied Calculus for Business. and April Allen Materowski. See Table 1 where we choose convenient xvalues. q 2. (b) with our domain specified. See Figure 2. Walter O. (b) sketch the graph of the function.1 Ú 0.) Example 7 Given the function defined by the equation y = f1x2 = 2x . has a relative minimum at x = 0) so it is not a onetoone function on the domain 1 . it is onetoone on that interval. 3) (3. (e) sketch the graph of the inverse function (f) determine the domain and the range of the inverse function.1 Inverse Functions * ** 325 Solution (a) f ¿ 1x2 = 4x. (a) determine the domain of the function. Solution (a) we require that x . Inc.Section 4. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. (b) If we limit the domain of the function to be only x 6 0. y = f( x ) = (4. see Figure 4. if we limit the domain of the function to be only x 7 0. More formally we have the following: Given the onetoone function defined by the equation y = f1x2. or equivalently.1. (Note that the function must be onetoone in order for the inverse function to be defined. Wang. Economics. (d) show the function is onetoone. The function obtained by interchanging the xvalues with the yvalues is called the inverse function. (c) determine the range of the function. therefore. the function obtained by interchanging every x and every yvalue is called the inverse function. We write the equation of the inverse function as y = f 11x2*. . Similarly.4 23 L 1. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. therefore it decreases for x 6 0 and increases for x 7 0 (that is. by Warren B. it is the symbol for the inverse function. then it is a decreasing function and. our domain is x Ú 1. then it is an increasing function and therefore it is onetoone on that interval. we can generate a table of values with which to sketch the graph. 2) Figure 4: y = f1x2 = 2x . Gordon.q .1 *Note that the symbol f 1 is not to be confused with a negative exponent. Table 1: Points on the Graph of y = f1x2 = 2x . and Finance.1 x 1 2 3 4 5 y * f1x2 * 2x + 1 0 1 22 L 1.7 2 Inverse Function (c) we now plot these points to obtaining the graph.
4 23 L 1. We next plot the graph using the points in Tables 2. 3) Figure 5: The Graph of the Inverse Function Some observations are in order. This is done in Figure 6.1 B = dx 1 7 0 on its domain. observe that since the inverse function was obtained by interchanging the x and yvalues in the original function that means that the domain of the original function becomes the range of the inverse (x Ú 1 is the domain of the original function. and April Allen Materowski. by Warren B. as well as its graph. Walter O. even without the equation we have considerable information about the inverse function. 4) ( 2. (Note that d A 2x . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.1 Inverse Functions (d) We observe from Figure 4 that this graph increases as it moves from left to right. x Ú 0 is the domain of the inverse function).326 * ** Section 4. Economics.) 2 2x . Wang. Gordon. (2. it should be noted that we have not yet obtained the equation of the inverse function. and Finance. Applied Calculus for Business. therefore it is onetoone. Thus. y Ú 1 is the range of the inverse) and the range of the original function becomes the domain of the inverse (y Ú 0 is the range of the original function. 5) ( 3. Table 2: Points on the Inverse Function x 0 1 22 L 1.7 2 y 1 2 3 4 5 (f) We see from the graph that the domain of the inverse function is x Ú 0 and its range is y Ú 1.1 (e) We may obtain the points on the inverse function by interchanging the x and y values in Table 1. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Moreover. First. we know its domain and range. It is also instructive to plot both graphs on the same coordinate axes. the new x and yvalues obtained by this interchange are given in Table 2. Inc. This is given in Figure 5. it is an increasing function. however. .
we first write y = f1x2 = 3x + 7 We next interchange y with x to obtain x = f1y2 = 3y + 7 we solve the equation x = 3y + 7 for y to obtain y = or we write. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.7 3 x . Walter O. Gordon. Example 7 Determine the equation of the inverse of the function defined by the equation f1x2 = 3x + 7. Inc. Solution In Example 1 we showed that this function is oneto one. Economics. Wang. and Finance. Namely. the reflection of this function about the line y = x yields the graph of its inverse function. y = f 11x2 = x .1 and its Inverse Function Observe that the function and its inverse are mirror images about the line y = x. and April Allen Materowski.Section 4. That means we need only interchange x and y in the equation of the original function to obtain the equation of the inverse function. We observed that the inverse function is determined by interchanging every x and y coordinate. .1 Inverse Functions * ** 327 y=x f( x ) = Figure 6: y = f1x2 = 2x . This is true in general. To find the inverse. by Warren B.7 3 Applied Calculus for Business. given any onetoone function. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. We now consider the determination of the equation of the inverse function.
5x or y12x . and Finance.2 2y + 5 3y . Inc. Economics.1 or y = x2 + 1 or y = f 11x2 = x2 + 1 Note that we determined.12 + 5x2 3y . Walter O. we have x = f1y2 = or x = To solve for y.1 squaring both sides.328 * ** Section 4. To determine the equation of the inverse. determine the equa2x + 5 Applied Calculus for Business.2 isolating the y terms. and April Allen Materowski. and sketched its graph there.2 or 2xy + 5x = 3y . by Warren B. we have 2xy .1 Solution We demonstrated that this function is onetoone in Example 5. we clear fractions to obtain x12y + 52 = 3y . that the domain of the inverse function is x Ú 0.2 2x + 5 3x . Wang. Gordon. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2 2y + 5 3x . we write y = f1x2 = 2x .2 . Solution We write y = f1x2 = interchanging x with y. in Example 5. we obtain x2 = y .1 Inverse Functions Example 8 Determine the equation of the inverse of the function defined by the equation f1x2 = 2x .32 = . .3y = .2 .1 Interchanging x with y we have x = f1y2 = 2y . Example 9 Given the rational function defined by the equation f1x2 = tion of the inverse function. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.
we have that b = f1a2. Inc. by Warren B. The inverse function. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.2x We leave as an exercise for you to verify that the function in the preceding exercise is always increasing. Inverse functions satisfy a unique property with regard to their composition with each other. (see Exercise 65). y = f 1 (x) y=x Composition Property y = f(x) Figure 7: y = f1x2 and its Inverse y = f 11x2 Since the point (b. The graph of the inverse function is obtained from the graph of the original function by interchanging its x and ycoordinates. Walter O.2x . therefore. Economics. Applied Calculus for Business.3 3 . its image point (b. b) is a point on the graph of y = f1x2. and (b) solving the equation x * f1y2 for y. and therefore is oneto one. 5. 4. Consider Figure 7 where we have the graph of y = f1x2 and its inverse y = f11x2. y * f +11x2 exists. 2. The range of f becomes the domain of f +1. The equation of the inverse is determined by (a) interchanging y with x in the equation y * f1x2. . Therefore. a) is on the graph of y = f 11x2. (The graph of y * f +11x2 will be the mirror image of the graph of y * f1x2 using the line y * x as the mirror. Wang. as we shall see later on in this chapter.Section 4. and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Gordon. and Finance. and since (a.1 Inverse Functions * ** 329 or y = or y = f 11x2 = 2 + 5x 3 .12 + 5x2 2 + 5x = 2x . it is necessary to define new functions to implement Step 5. We remark that sometimes. b) is on the graph y = f1x2. Summary Given the onetoone function y * f1x2 1. The point (a. The domain of f becomes the range of f +1. a) is on the graph of y = f 11x2 we have that a = f 11b2.) 3.
Our definition was geometric and (3) was obtained as a consequence of the geometry. y = g(x) = f 1(x) y = f(x) y=x Figure 8: Derivatives of Inverse Functions at Corresponding Image Points Applied Calculus for Business. Economics. Suppose y = f1x2 defines a differentiable function with an inverse defined by y = g1x2 = f11x2. Example 10 Show that f1x2 = 3x + 7 and g1x2 = sition property.72 3 1x . and Finance. They are often written as follows: f +11f1x22 * x and f1f +11x22 * x (3) Some texts take (3) as the defining property of inverse functions. Gordon. and April Allen Materowski. Since f1x2 = 3x + 7 we have that f1g1x22 = 3g1x2 + 7 = 3 a x . we found the inverse directly by applying its geometric definition.7 + 7 = x 3 f1x2 . Geometrically. that is. Inc. Should we not expect to have a simple relationship between their derivatives at corresponding image points? In Figure 8.330 * ** Section 4. Wang. of course. Walter O. functions whose equations satisfy (3) are inverse functions. b = f1a2 and a = f 1b2. we want to determine how g ¿ 1b2 is related to f ¿ 1a2.7 13x + 72 .7 3x g1f1x22 = = = = x 3 3 3 1x . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.) then g and f are inverse functions of each other and we write g = f 1. it follows that b = f1a2 = f1f11b22 1 (1) (2) These are the special composition properties satisfied by inverse functions. Solution We need to show that f1g1x22 = g1f1x22 = x. by Warren B.1 Inverse Functions a = f 11b2 = f 11f1a22 Similarly. It is usually given as follows: suppose f1g1x22 = g1f1x22 = x (over the appropriate domains. we saw that the inverse function is the image of f when reflected about the line y = x. .72 3 are inverse functions using the compo therefore f 11x2 = Note that in Example 6.7 b + 7 = x . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. therefore.
so there is no inverse. so the function is increasing and is. Exercise 11 Given f1x2 = 2x3 + 3x + 4 (a) Show f is a onetoone function. Note that when a graph has a (smooth) relative extremum (a turning point). f 1192 = 1. b) on f is the reciprocal of the slope of the tangent line at (b. (b) determine f 1192. this xvalue is f 1192. Thus. onetoone. this is an easy problem to solve by inspection. is its inverse. Walter O. from (4) we see that the slope of the tangent line at (a. Wang. f 11922 is the point on the inverse which corresponds to the image point on the function (x. We have. f1g1x22 = x Suppose f (and. it follows that the continuity of f implies the continuity of the f 1. In what follows. therefore. If we differentiate. using the chain rule. too. that is. Inc. However. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and April Allen Materowski. and Finance. Economics. y) when y = 9. g1b2 = a so we have g ¿ 1b2 = or d 1 f 1x2 dx or 1f11x22 ¿ 1b2 = 1 f ¿ 1a2 (4d) x=b Derivative of the Inverse 1 f ¿ 1g1x22 (4a) 1 f ¿ 1g1b22 1 f ¿ 1a2 (4b) = 1 f ¿ 1 a2 (4c) Thus. if f has a turning point. g ¿ 1b2 = however. we let g1x2 = f11x2. Applied Calculus for Business. g) are differentiable functions. a) on f 1. . It also follows that if a function is increasing. (c) determine dx Solution (a) We have f ¿ 1x2 = 6x2 + 3 7 0 for all x. We would expect the same to be true with regard to differentiability. so we set y = 2x3 + 3x + 4 = 9 and solve for x. (b) We know that 19. d 1 f 1x2 x = 9. if it decreasing so. Gordon. 1f11x22 ¿ 192. therefore. using the composition property. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. by Warren B.Section 4. its derivative is zero. we obtain f ¿ 1g1x22g ¿ 1x2 = 1 or g ¿ 1x2 = or in particular. Fortunately. it is not onetoone. so is its inverse.1 Inverse Functions * ** 331 From a geometrical point of view. and its solution is x = 1.
1 In Exercises 1 10 determine whether or not the function determined by the given equation is onetoone. so we set 2x3 + 3x + 4 = 12 and solve for x.3x + 7 3. Exercise 13 Given f1x2 = 2x3 + 3x + 4 (which was seen to be onetoone in Exercise 11). f1x2 = 2x .277322 L 611. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. f1x2 = 2x2 . Solution We proceed as we did in Exercise 11. 1) on the inverse function s graph is the reciprocal of the slope of the tangent line at the point (1. f 1x2 x = 9 = 1f11x22 ¿ 192 = 1/9. so f ¿ 112 = 9. d 1 f ¿ 1x2 = 6x2 + 3. dx Exercise 12 If f1x2 = x2 is defined on the domain x Ú 0 then its inverse function is f 11x2 = 1x. Using the solve command. 1. f 111222 is the point on the inverse which corresponds to the point on the function whose yvalue is 12. (Why is the negative square root not an option?) Using (4) we have d 1 1x2 dx If we replace b by x we have d 1 1 1x2 = . Inc. Gordon. r1x2 = 22 . . Using (4) show that 1 1x2 = . 9) on the graph of f. G1x2 = . and Finance.1 Inverse Functions (c) The slope of the tangent line at the point (9. Note that b = a2 or a = 2b. determine 1f11x22 ¿ (12).332 * ** Section 4. Therefore f ¿ 11. Walter O.3 2. Consider the following exercise. EXERCISE SET 4. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.2773222 + 3 = 12.7 6.27732 as an approximate solution. x2 and the calculator gives us x = 1. dx 2 1x Solution Let (a.07819. by Warren B. h1x2 = 22x + 3 8. dx 2 1x x=b = 1 d 2 1x 2 dx = x=a 1 1 = 2a 2 2b Calculator Tips We were able to solve the cubic equation in Exercise 11 by inspection. a).789282 L 0. We know that 112. this xvalue is f 11122. and April Allen Materowski. we have solve 12x3 + 3x + 4 = 12. b) be a point on f and its image point on f 1 is then (b. therefore. What do we do if that is not the case? We can use the solve command on the calculator and then proceed in the same manner.5x Applied Calculus for Business.4x 2 + 1 7. h1x2 = 2x + 5 4. d 1 (Verify!). Economics. Wang. g1x2 = . w1x2 = .7x + 9 5.78928 and 1f11x22 ¿ (12) = 1/112.
28. v1x2 = 4x2 + 1. 9:Ex. s1x2 = .7x + 9 15.3x + 7 13. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 22 23. Inc. x 2 Inverse Functions * ** 333 24. and April Allen Materowski.4x + 1 17. Walter O. In Exercises 21 28 determine if the given graph represents a onetoone function. 21. 28 Fig. 13:Ex. h1x2 = 22x + 3 18.1 9. Economics. by Warren B. 11. and Finance. s1x2 = . f1x2 = 2x2 . 16:Ex. w1x2 = . x Ú 0 10. f1x2 = 2x . g1x2 = . 27.2x2 + 6. 27 Fig. h1x2 = 2x + 5 14. 0 In Exercises 11 20 determine if the equation describes an increasing or decreasing function or neither. 15:Ex. 10:Ex. Fig. 26 Fig. 12: Ex. 21 22. G1x2 = . 25 Fig.5x 19. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 11:Ex. Fig.2x + 6. Fig. 24 25. x Ú 0 20. r1x2 = 22 . Wang.7 16.3 12. . 26. 23 Applied Calculus for Business. x 0 2 Fig. v1x2 = 4x2 + 1. 14:Ex. Gordon.Section 4.
f1x2 = 9x . Show that f 1g1x22 g 1x 2 = 1f ¿ 1g1x2223 76. 68. Suppose f and g are inverse functions and have second derivatives. If f1x2 = 2x .8 32. f1x2 = 2x .x2 58. (a) Do even continuous functions have an inverse? (b) Odd functions? 74. In Exercises 53 60 verify that f and g are inverse functions using the composition property. f1x2 = . Consider f1x2 = 4x . show this function is onetoone. x 36.4x 2x + 7 51. f1x2 = 8x3 37. f1x2 = 2x2 + 1.9 (b) Does this function have an inverse? Explain. x2 . f1x2 = . Prove. (b) Determine 1f11x22 ¿ (7). .25 .12 43. (a) Given f1x2 = 3x5 + 2x3 + 2. x 49. find (a) f1122.334 * ** Section 4. (b) f 1142 2x + 1 . g1x2 = 56. (f) determine the domain of the inverse function. using (4) that d 1/3 1 1x 2 = . f1x2 = 29 .3 30. f1x2 = x2 + 1.1. (b) f 1152 41. g1x2 = 2 x + 7 54. If f1x2 = . and Finance. f1x2 = 1x . f1x2 = 5x . verify that the function in the indicated exercise is always increasing or always decreasing and therefore oneto one. (b) f 1132 42. 70. find (a) f 1132. 67. 61.9 46. Are there functions that are their own inverse? 73.x2.32. (a) Given f1x2 = 2x3 + 3x .3. 45. x Ú 0 35. g1x2 = 29 .2x 33. determine how the concavity of g is related to the concavity of f. Inc.x2. f1x2 = 5x + 9. Using the results of the previous exercise. x . Consider the function defined by y = f1x2 = e x x sketch the graph of this function and determine if it is onetoone.2x 4x 0 x 6 2 x Ú 2 sketch the graph of this function and determine if it is onetoone. and April Allen Materowski. x Ú 0 48.4. Will a onetoone function always be a decreasing or increasing function? 72. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. find (a) f11 . find (a) f 1112. f1x2 = 2x .5 53. Exercise 37 65. using the derivative. f1x2 = 22x .7.3x + 7 31. x Ú 0 34.5. 29. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2 2x + 5 39. If f1x2 = 3x + 2 2x . Consider the function defined by y = f1x2 = e . Exercise 29 0 62. (b) f 11 . (b) f 1132 40. f1x2 = x2. (a) Show that this function is always decreasing.3x 2x + 5 0 66. f1x2 = 2x + 5. g1x2 = x . consider (gfh)(x). f1x2 = 22x . If f1x2 = 23x + 2. Exercise 32 63. find (a) f1112.9 5 x + 3 2 In Exercises 29 38. (b) f 1132 44. f1x2 = 3x . g1x2 = 2x . find (a) f1102.x2 59. Exercise 35 64.4x2 + 7. x Ú 0. f1x2 = 11 . (c) determine its range.1 Inverse Functions 55.3. Wang. f1x2 = 2x + 1 47. f1x2 = 2 1 3 x 38. If f1x2 = 22x . f1x2 = 22x + 3 50.12 3 57. 71. Applied Calculus for Business. f1x2 = . by Warren B. If f1x2 = 3x + 4 In Exercises 45 52 determine the equation of the inverse function. (b) sketch its graph. show this function is onetoone (b) Determine 1f11x22 ¿ (18). (g) determine the range of the inverse function. Hint: there are four cases to consider. f1x2 = 2x2 + 3. g1x2 = 25 .3 . Economics. f1x2 = 3x . g1x2 = 1/ 2 x 2 + 3/2 x Ú 0 60.3x + 9. g1x2 = 3 75. Prove the inverse function is unique. Walter O.5x 2 + 3. f1x2 = 25 .3 52. (d) show the function is onetoone. dx 3x2/3 0 x 6 1 x Ú 1 69. Hint: assume both g and h are inverse functions of f.1 In Exercises 61 65. 77. f1x2 = . (h) find the equation of the inverse function and (i) verify that f 11f1x22 = x and f1f 11x22 = x. (e) sketch the graph of its inverse function. Gordon. f1x2 = 26 . for the function determined by the given equation (a) determine its domain.
It is clear.2 Exponential Functions » » » » » » » Exponential Expressions The Graph of y * f1x2 * b x Solving Special Exponential Equations Finding the Exponential Function Growth and Decay Rates Power Function Calculator Tips Consider the exponential expression 2x. Walter O.41 = 21.414 = 21.414213562 = 21. and April Allen Materowski. that as we take more and more places.665137562 2. or 23/2 make perfectly good sense. As irrational values for x lie between rational values that we plotted. These values are illustrated in Table 1. We now assume that any number of the form bx. .657371628 2. to seven decimal places. but rather be guided by our intuition. Thus.665144027 2. When x is a rational number 2x is welldefined. Gordon. certainly a trivial example.41421 = 21. and we have that 21. we see that to each xvalue there corresponds one yvalue thus. Economics.414213 = 21. we would obtain 222 = 2.4142135 = 21. Wang. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. the value of 222 is.2 Exponential Functions * ** 335 4. and Finance. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. For example. We shall select convenient values in its domain and draw its graph.639015822 2.4142135624. these powers can be computed with our calculator. we have 22 L 1.665144138 2.Section 4.421/2 = 2i. all the laws of exponents given for rational exponents will be satisfied for irrational exponents as well. b is not allowed to be negative because we want to deal only with real numbers for example.41421356 = 21.665144142 2. how could we define 222? To ten decimal places. Now that we understand what we mean by expressions of the form bx.4142135624 = 2. Note: we exclude b from being 1. Inc.6651441.664749650 2. plotted and then connected the points to sketch the graph. 2. where b is any positive number other than 1 and x is any real number. by continuity. using a calculator.665143104 2. is well defined. expressions like 22/3. We could analyze any irrational power the same way. For example. 1 . As a consequence. represented on the graph as well. You will note that we selected convenient rational values for x.665119099 2. What do we mean by the expression when x is irrational? We do not intend to give a rigorous definition here. Applied Calculus for Business. they are.665144. by Warren B. the equation y = f1x2 = 2x defines a function.4142 = 21. since 1 raised to any finite power is 1.4 = 21.665144143 Exponential Expressions and so on. Fortunately.
Economics. The domain of the function is all real numbers. We also see that this is a onetoone function as well. but never touches it (since 2x 7 0).1). Wang. 2x 7 0. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. The yintercept is (0. and Finance. y =f(x) = 2x Figure 1: The Graph of y = f1x2 = 2 x Some observations are in order.336 * ** Section 4. we have 2x 6 1 and when x 7 0. for b 7 1 Applied Calculus for Business. The graph assumes all nonnegative yvalues. so we see that the negative xaxis is a horizontal asymptote for this function. This observation implies the existence of its inverse function which we shall examine in a subsequent section. we plot the graph given in Figure 1. so the range is y 7 0. Walter O. 2x 7 1.125 22 = 0. Note that as x becomes more negative. when x 6 0. Inc. The Graph of y * f1x2 * b x y = f( x ) = b x Figure 2: The Graph y = f1x2 = bx. . and no matter what value we take for x. In general.25 21 = 0. and its graph looks like the one drawn in Figure 2. by Warren B. Gordon.2 Exponential Functions Table 1: Points Used for Plotting the Graph y = 2 x x 3 2 1 0 1 2 y = 2x 23 = 0. and April Allen Materowski. the function defined by the equation y = f1x2 = bx where b 7 1 has the same properties. the graph gets closer to the xaxis.5 20 = 1 21 = 2 22 = 4 Using these points. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.
We observe that the domain of the function is all real numbers. when x 7 0.25 11/223 = 0. y = f( x ) = (1/2) x Figure 3: The Graph of y = f1x2 = 11/22x More generally. for example. Applied Calculus for Business. by Warren B. and April Allen Materowski. A 1 2 B 7 0. or y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote as x gets large. it is a onetoone function as well. Wang. Walter O. A 2 B 7 1. therefore. Economics.125 8 4 2 1 We plot these points and obtain the graph given in Figure 3.5 11/222 = 0. . the graph of y = f1x2 = bx when 0 6 b 6 1 will look like the graph given in Figure 4. and no matter what 1 x 1 x x value we take for x. but never touches it (since 2x 7 0). Inc. we have A 2 B 6 1 and when x 6 0. The positive xaxis. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. We give the values used in Table 2. The graph assumes all nonnegative yvalues.1).Section 4. and Finance. Gordon. It should also be noted that the graph is a decreasing function. lets examine the graph of the function defined by the equation y = f1x2 = 11/22x. Note that as x becomes more negative. the graph gets closer to the xaxis. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. so the range is y 7 0. The yintercept is (0.2 Exponential Functions * ** 337 Next consider the case when 0 6 b 6 1. Table 2: Points for the graph of y = 11/22x x 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 y * 11/22x 11/223 = 23 = 11/222 = 22 = 11/221 = 21 = 11/220 = 20 = 11/221 = 0.
that is . For b 7 1 the function is increasing. we must have 1b 2 6 0. When b 6 1. the function is onetoone. Applied Calculus for Business.q the negative xaxis. 1b 2 7 0. 0 < b < 1 Figure 4: The Graph of y = f 1x2 = b x. Example 1 Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation y = f1x2 = 21x . The Domain is all real numbers. by Warren B. In either case. 0 6 b 6 1 Summary of the properties of the exponential function defined by y * 1 2 * 1. from the above properties. The Range is y 7 0 3. and.q 6 x 6 q 2. When b 7 1. 4. y = 0 is its horizontal asymptote. and round the answer to one decimal place. The function is always positive. therefore. as we see in the next example.2 Exponential Functions y = f(x) = bx . Moreover.32/4. since each of dx dx d2 x the graphs are concave upward. (see Table 3). Gordon. has an inverse. For 0 6 b 6 1 the function is decreasing. 5. and April Allen Materowski.338 * ** Section 4. y = 0 is its horizontal asymptote. as x : q positive xaxis. Economics. The graph is always concave upward Note. and Finance. Wang. We shall verify these remarks when we dx2 learn how to differentiate exponential functions. we must have d x d x 1b 2 7 0 and when 0 6 b 6 1. it follows that when b 7 1. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Walter O. . Solution We take a reasonable number of xvalues and compute the corresponding yvalues. Inc. as x : . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Exponential functions where the exponents are more complicated will have the same general form. We use a calculator to determine the yvalues.
. the term x . However.75 = 0.3 = 4 + 5x or solving. Inc. suppose the problem was to solve 32x .5 = 1.3)/4 We now look at a different. Therefore. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. but using some simple properties of exponents.25 = 0.2 2122/4 = 20.7/3. Economics.Section 4. we find that x = . we observe that if the bases are the same. the equation may be modified to an equivalent one in which the bases are the same. and we will discuss this generalized problem when we define the logarithm.3)/4 Figure 5: The Graph of y = f 1x2 = 21x . We illustrate in the next two examples. note that the yvalue does not equal one until x = 3.4 2142/4 = 21 = 0. and April Allen Materowski. we have that if br = bs.2 Exponential Functions * ** 339 Table 3: Points to plot the Graph of y = f 1x2 = 21x . Thus.25 = 1. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.3 = 34 + 5x Since the exponential function is a onetoone function.7 2112/4 = 20. Dividing the exponent by 4 changes the scale and causes the graph to rise more slowly than y = 2x. Solving Special Exponential Equations Applied Calculus for Business. What if the bases are different? For example.5 2132/4 = 20.4 We use these values to sketch the graph which is given in Figure 5. Walter O.32/4.8 20 = 1 2112/4 = 20.3 moves the graph 3 units to the right. Wang. Gordon.5 = 0. then so are the exponents. then it must follow that r = s. but related problem. and Finance. in the given problem we have that 2x .32/4 2152/4 = 21.3 = 54 + 5x? We will need a more general procedure to solve such exponential equations. there is one special case in which the bases are different. Observe that the graph is a typical exponential function. x 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 y = f1x2 = 21x . y = f( x ) = 2 (x . by Warren B.25 = 0.6 2122/4 = 20. Consider the problem of finding x if we are given that 32x .
and Finance. Suppose y = f1x2 = Cbx. because a simple example like 3x = 2x + 1 cannot be solved using these methods.10x (Recall.4 50 5596. that moving the term from the denominator to the numerator changes the sign of the exponent.12x or x = 20/21 Example 3 Solve the equation 1 = 93 . and April Allen Materowski. Table 1: Equally Spaced xvalue with Constant Ratios in Successive yvalues x f(x) 10 200 20 460 30 1058 40 2433. Economics. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. we have that 9x + 12 = 32 . the ratio of successive yvalues is constant. so we have 1 = 93 . Inc. Gordon.340 * ** Section 4.10x or x = 3/2 Finding the Exponential Function We consider these last few examples special cases. . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. therefore. Solution It appears that the bases are different. The first observation is that an exponential function has the property that for equally spaced xvalues.3x.3x 12 2 = 124218 .5x2 3 2x 13 2 1 = 36 .3x2 3 13x + 42 29x + 12 = 232 . As mentioned above.5x for x. .6x = 6 . therefore.2 Exponential Functions Example 2 Given 83x + 4 = 168 . 2. Consider Table 1. Let us examine exponential functions a little more closely so we can develop a sense as to when data can be represented by such a function.12x We have now changed the equation into an equivalent one in which the bases are the same. Wang. Walter O.82 Applied Calculus for Business. we shall shortly learn how to solve the general case. by Warren B. We proceed as follows: 83x + 4 = 168 .) We now have the same bases. 272x Solution Both 27 and 9 are powers of 3.5x 272x 1 = 132213 .. but both 8 and 16 are powers of the same base. solve for x.10x 36x 36x = 36 .
Wang. measurement is never exact.3 or b = 2. However.Section 4.08686 Therefore. if in a data set.1a + 1k .12h and the next xvalue is a + kh.3. To show this.956511. Walter O.12h2 = Cba + 1k . f1x2 = C11.956512.12h In the previous example. and the ratio of any two successive yvalues is 2. if we have any exponential function and the xvalues are equally spaced then the ratio of any two successive yvalues is constant. it appears that the successive ratios are nearly equal then the assumption of an exponential relationship is reasonable. . assuming f1x2 = Cbx.3x/102 More generally. Inc.82/2415 = 2. for example f1102 = 200. Cb20 b20 460 = 10 = b10 = = 2. we also could have represented the relationship as f1x2 = 86.3 L 86.31/102x = 86. Applied Calculus for Business. We shall illustrate this case in the calculator tips.9565 so we have f1x2 = 86.12h2 Cba + 1k . and Finance.12h2 = bh = f1a + 1k .08786102 = 2.2 Exponential Functions * ** 341 Observe these xvalues are all equally spaced apart by h = 10 units. we have f1a + kh2 = Cba + kh and f1a + 1k .4/1050 = 5596.) Thus. Economics. we may work backwards and determine the exponential equation. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.31/10 L 1.3C and C = 200/2. so we expect some inaccuracies.08686x2 We can find C by using any of the points. Gordon.12h their ratio is f1a + kh2 Cba + kh = ba + kh . In the real world.3 10 200 Cb b (We could choose any successive points.08686x2 Note. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. If the starting xvalue is a then the kth xvalue is a + 1k . For example 460/200 = 1058/460 = 2433. we have. and April Allen Materowski.3 From this data. Assuming the form Cbx.956512. h was 10 and we found the ratio to be b10. by Warren B. suppose each xvalue differs from the previous xvalue by h units. so 200 = C11. we have b10 = 2.
so we have b2 = b1 = 1.062 = 235 + .S. which we could write as 1 + 0.1/235 = 1. when r 6 0. estimate the country s population in 2005.1 + . Then the successive years in the Table are t = 1.1 and so on for the other years. (b) Predict the population in 2005. Population 2000 2003 Year Population in Millions 2000 235 2001 249. Wang. we see that when r is positive.06 # 235 P122 = 249.111. That is. To find bh. it represents decay or decline. What interpretation can we give to r? In the last example observe that we found b = 1. Applied Calculus for Business. as in the previous example.046 = 1. we shall write the relationship in the form f1t2 = Cbt. Example 4 Suppose the population of the United States is given as follows in Table 2: Table 2: U. When r 7 0.06t2 (b) The population in year 2005.062 = 249.1 = 1. and Finance. Observe 249. it represents growth. So we see that the growth of the population each year was 6%.889 (a) Determine an exponential equation satisfying this data.046/249.889/264.342 * ** Section 4.046 2003 279.0622 = 209. Example 5 The population of the Ukraine is decreasing by 0.0652 = 314. or starting value. That is.06. in this example h = 1. so in many examples.06 (similarly 264. and April Allen Materowski.2. by Warren B. Let the population be P1t2 = Cbt From the remark given above.06 # 249. it represents the growth rate or the percentage of change.149 million Growth and Decay Rates We can write b = 1 + r. so we have P1 . Inc.06. that is. 2 and 3.1 2002 264. we see that C = P102 = 235. Walter O. Thus.153 million. r = . Economics.483 million (c) 1998 would correspond to t = .06). Often in such cases we define t = 0 as the initial. (c) What would you expect the population was in 1998? Solution (a) Let t = 0 correspond to year 2000. Gordon. C = f102 is the yvalue corresponding to t = 0. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. With such an interpretation. . If the population in the year 2000 was 49. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. the independent variable is time.06 and 279. and we need to look at successive ratios.06 b1 and P1t2 = 23511. f102 = Cb0 = C.06 = 6%. Observe that the population in any year was equal to the population of the previous year + 6% of the population of the previous year. when t = 5 would be P152 = 23511. For example P112 = 23511. observe that when t = 0.2 Exponential Functions Very frequently.4% each year.22 = 23511.
65. Economics. if we begin with a 100 lb sample of Radon.0.15310. the base is the constant and the power is the variable. Table 3: Decay of Radon Years (thousands) Radon Remaining (lbs) 0 100 1 65 2 42. whereas for a power expression the base is the variable and the power is the constant.0. we have A1102 = 10010. for equally spaced xvalues. Inc.004 and we have b = 1 . and April Allen Materowski. (b) How much Radon remains after 10. that is.2 Exponential Functions * ** 343 Solution Let t = 0 correspond to the year 2000. 100 lbs.) We really did not need to construct the above Table to compute b. then the year 2005 will correspond to t = 5. .4% each year. thus.35 lbs. since b = 1 + r and r = . where k is a constant. It is important not to confuse an exponential expression which has the form bx with a power expression. A power function has an equation of the form f1x2 = ax b.99962t and we have in year 2005 P152 = 49. they grow more quickly and decay more rapidly. (a) Determine an exponential equation which gives the amount A of Radon remaining at the end of t (thousand) years.9996. and Finance.35 = 0.35. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.4 we shall examine this remark more fully. As above. Suppose. The calculator makes computations with exponential expression very straightforward. one of the form xk. by Warren B. As we saw earlier.652t (Remember C is the initial amount.3 we enter 126¿12. we have r = . (b) In 10.25 3 27. but for now.0.32 and press enter. Since the population is decreasing by 0. To compute the value of an exponential expression we enter it normally and use the caret key ¿ to denote exponentiation.999625 = 49.15310.65 and we have the amount of Radon remaining A(t) at the end of t years (where t is in thousands) is A1t2 = 10010.4625 Thus. and A(t) is immediately obtained as given above. that is.0548 million Example 6 Radioactive Radon decays at a rate of about 35% every 1000 years. the ratios of the correspon Power Function Calculator Tips Applied Calculus for Business. Exponential and power functions grow (and decay) differently. we have b = 1 . We can construct Table 3. Note that for an exponential expression. From our discussion above.35 # 100 = 35 lbs will decay and 65 lbs would remain. in this example. Walter O.000 years? Solution After 1000 years. In Section 2.004 = . 35% of it. the equation would be P1t2 = 49. we state that exponential functions dominate power functions. We shall illustrate this comparison in the Example 7 below where we model a data set three ways.Section 4.000 years. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. we have b1 = 0. 0. Wang. Gordon.0. the calculator is especially convenient in the finding the equation of a regression curve.65210 L 1. to compute 1262.
346. We therefore fit this data to an exponential regression curve. Inc. t2 and press ENTER then ShowStat and press ENTER (This produces Figure 6) So we have f1x2 = 1. by Warren B. we obtain 1. 56 STO t1 press ENTER 52. (The regression curve is now drawn. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. t1. Economics.083102x2 as the exponential regression curve. and Finance. The procedure with the calculator is almost identical to the linear and polynomial case with the only difference that we enter ExpReg as indicated in the following example. 2. and scroll down and select ZOOMDATA (or press 9). 1. Gordon.163. t2 and press ENTER Choose WINDOW 1*F22. done exactly the same way on the TI89 as you would for linear (or quadratic) regression with the only change being we replace LinReg with ExpReg. Example 7 Consider the data set illustrated in Table 4 Table 4: Finding Different Regression Equations for the Same Data Set x f(x) 1 2. so it is reasonable to assume that the function we need to obtain is an exponential. Solution (a) If we take successive ratios. 1. 2.098. We proceed as follows: (1) Store the xcoordinates and ycoordinates as lists named t1 and t2.2 Exponential Functions ding yvalues are not the same. in the same way that we would do linear or polynomial regression. 2. that is the exponential regression curve. 2.083102x2 Applied Calculus for Business. 3. Regeq(x) STO y1(x) and press Enter (This stores the regression equation as y1(x)) then enter on the entry line NewPlot 1. we may determine the best fit exponential function. See Figure 7) Figure 6: Exponential Regression Figure 7: The Exponential Regression Curve f 1x2 = 1.99177711. Wang. (3) To draw the regression line.346 3 2.746. but they are close. In such a case. and April Allen Materowski.163 2 2. then press Zoom (F2). 4.5. 2. .986 STO t2 press ENTER Make sure you are using curly braces to enclose these two lists (2) Next enter on the entry line of the HOME screen (use the Catalog or type) ExpReg t1.085. We may then suspect that the data may represent an exponential. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.5 4 2.344 * ** Section 4.98 Determine (a) an exponential function (b) a linear function and (c) a power function that may represent this data. Walter O. which are fairly close to each other. enter on the entry line in the HOME screen. 1.99177711. as follows: 51.085.066.746 5 2.1.
2 Exponential Functions * ** 345 (b) For the linear equation. the population was 5. Walter O. suppose x in the above data set represented years and f(x) represented the population in year x. Inc. 1000 and so on. exponential or power curve? If we had additional data. compare values for x = 100. For example. (c) To obtain the Power function we proceed as above with PowerReg replacing ExpReg. Figure 8: The Linear Regression Curve y = 0. Wang. the exponential values grow much faster than either the linear or power values.277. by Warren B. then the answer would be the one that best supports the data. Using the linear model we obtain 3.9368 This looks like a good fit as well. the exponential yields 4. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. replacing ExpReg with LinReg. Let us also suppose that we know that in year x = 10. For example. It appears that the exponential better models the data than either the line or the power. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Gordon.Section 4. as the correlation coefficient is close to one. Figure 9: The Power Regression Curve y = 2. . Applied Calculus for Business. We obtain Figure 9. This demonstrates that exponential growth dominates linear and power growth. and Finance.105729x 0. Economics. the linear.192012 So which one model do we choose. we obtain (Verify!) Figure 8. and April Allen Materowski. Also note that as x gets large.49 and the power model yields 3.971.2034x + 1.
4x 39. 5 11. Radioactive Carbon 14 decays by about 11% every 1000 years. t = 1 to year 2000 and so on. 1 8x + 1 = 161 .4 4 33. by Warren B.2 Exponential Functions EXERCISE SET 4. An IRA is expected to earn a about 5% each year. 4. The population P at time t of a rural community is given by the equation P1t2 = 15001320. f1x2 = 2x 3x 34. f1x2 = 3x . How much would remain in a 50 lb sample at the end of (a) 5000 years (b) 20. 82x . where t = 0 corresponds to year 1999. sketch the graph of the function defined by the given equation. 1. f1x2 = 2. f1x2 = 312x2 24. 93x + 2 = 272 + x 41. y = f1x2 = 11/32x (compare with Exercise 14) 18. f1x2 = 2.2 28. (b) 2005.2325 7.5x 42. f1x2 = 3x .2 25. How much of a 10lb sample remains after (a) 3 days.652x 21. Economics.3 30. What will be the population of this community in year (a) 2000. 163x + 1 = 642 . What will an initial $1000 investment be worth in (a) 10 years. y = f1x2 = 4x 17. Inc. (b) What will be the population in 2006? (c) What was the population in 1998? 54. f1x2 = 36. Sketch on the same graph y = f1x2 = 2x and y = g1x2 = can be concluded about the two functions? 46.1 82 + 3x 812 + 3x 1 814 .753 4/3 40.3. 1 . (a) Determine an exponential equation representing the population as a function of year. 25x = 83x + 1 Applied Calculus for Business.2 .5 2. f1x2 = 10. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. (c) 2015? 51.4x 3. 23x 42x . and April Allen Materowski. f1x2 = 4 3x + 1 5 63x + 2 2x .2x = 163x + 7 = 275 . f1x2 = 3x + 2 27.718x 23.753/4 6. How many points uniquely determine (a) an exponential function? (b) a power function? 22.78213 8. 44.1 x Solve for x in Exercises 37 44 37.718 x x x 47. How much of a 75 lb sample remains after (a) 2000 years (b) 10.000 per year with a 3% increase each year. y = f1x2 = 11/42 (compare with Exercise 15) 19.25t.54 4. f1x2 = 512x2 31. f1x2 = 3x . 9 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. what can be concluded about the two functions f and g? 49.000 years? 55.346 * ** Section 4. 2222 3. Walter O. y = f1x2 = 11. f1x2 = 10x 42x 35. Thorium 234 decays by about 3% every day. 4.5% each year.4x 1 = 2x. y = f1x2 = 3x 15. f1x2 = 2 3x . . 272x + 1 = 43. What 3x 5.000 years? 57. What will be your salary in (a) 5 years. The population P at time t of a city is estimated by the equation P1t2 = 15001220. The population of Hungary is decreasing by 0. 7 12. 1. The population is growing at about 6% each year. Sketch on the same graph y = f1x2 = 3x and y = g1x2 = can be concluded about the two functions? In Exercises 13 36.32 20. Its population in 2000 was 10.2 Use your calculator to compute the expression given in Exercises 1 12.23 32x . f1x2 = 23x . Suppose g1x2 = f1 . Wang.5. 15. 0. What 2x 1 = 3x.56 45. Radium decays by about 35% every 1000 years.232.25 2. What can be concluded about the functions y = f1x2 = bx and y = f1x2 = b x? 48. Gordon. f1x2 = 3x + 2 26. and Finance.x2. What will be the population in year (a) 2000. y = f1x2 = 3x 14.3 = 161 . If the population in 2005 is 296. (b) What will be the population in 2010? (c) What was the population in 2003? 52.139 million. y = f1x2 = 4x 16.7 3.25t Suppose t = 0 corresponds to year 1999. (c) 2010? 50. f1x2 = 3x . (b) 1 week (c) 30 days? 56. t = 1 to year 2000 and so on. 13.6 million. 1 .673. A company offers you a position with a starting salary of $45. (a) determine an exponential equation representing the population as a function of year.2 + 3 29. (b) 25 years? 58. 422 9. (b) 15 years? 53.21 38.1 91 + 3x 10. (b) 2005.6 32.
Which of the three functions would best approximate this new data point? 63. 67 Year 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895 1905 1915 1925 1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 Exponential Functions * ** 347 Population (in Millions) 8. Inc. suppose you are later given another data point (8.45 32 12.28 20 26. 5) and (2. 7) determine the (a) linear function. Find an exponential function determined by the data in Table 5.84 80 37.2 59.S. (Let 1815 be year 0. 68 Year 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 * Estimate 66.7 19. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.uiuc.0 14. and Finance. The population of the United States from 1815 to 1975 is given in Table 9. Table 8: EX.6 15 20.mste.768 40 514. Given the points (1. Find an exponential function determined by the data in Table 8. (b) exponential function and (c) power function they determine. What reasons can you give to explain the different number of deaths in the late 1980s and early 1990s as compared with the later 1990s and early 2000s? Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report.0 190. 9). Given the functions you found in Example 59. and so on.7 20 50. Given the points (2.3258 Deaths 130 466 1511 3526 6996 12183 16488 Year 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 Deaths 21244 28054 31836 37106 41849 45733 50657 Year 1995 1996 1997 1998* 1999* 2000* 2001* Deaths 51414 38074 21846 19005 18491 17741 18524 67.7 35.8 114. suppose you are later given another data point (5.) Based on your solution. 6) and (4. Economics. Using the years 1981 through 1993 find the best fit (a) exponential (b) power function representing this data.15 Table 10: Deaths Due to AIDS Ex. Population Ex. 12) determine the (a) linear function. 21). Find an exponential function determined by the data in Table 7. Gordon. estimate the population in 2005.3 11. Table 5: EX.) (c) (i)Find another best fit exponential and (ii) power function that represents the data from years 1993 through 1997. The number of deaths in a year attributed to AIDS is indicated in Table 10.2 98.2 127. 61. Determine an exponential regression function that will best fit this data. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.24 30 160.html) Applied Calculus for Business. 1825 year 1 and so on. and April Allen Materowski. 65 8 20 16 17 24 14. Given the functions you found in Example 60.edu/malcz/ExpFit/ data. Table 7: EX.9 68.1 164. 64 10 15. .Section 4. Which of the three functions would best approximate this new data point? 62.9 214. Wang.7 26. 60. 63 5 12 10 15. Find an exponential function determined by the data in Table 6. 1982 year 2. (b) exponential function and (c) power function they determine.3 64.9 83.1 140.2825 68. by Warren B. Walter O.364 Table 9: U. Table 6: EX. 66 20 100 40 72 60 51.(Data from http://www.2 44.4 55.458 65. (Let 1981 be year 1.
measure its circumference and then divide the circumference by the diameter of the circle.348 * ** Section 4. we would find that its graph is very similar to both the graphs of y = f1x2 = 3x and y = g1x2 = 4x. and April Allen Materowski. We introduced the expression px just to emphasize that we can have an exponential function whose base is any positive constant. We could generate a table of values by using 3. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. but it is closer to y = 3x since p is closer to the number 3 then 4. We will soon introduce you to another mathematical constant and then examine exponential expressions involving this number as its base. it would make perfectly good sense to plot the graph of the function y = f1x2 = px. Thus. Economics. even if the constant is represented by a Greek letter. and y = 4x Observe that the graph of y = px is sandwiched between the graphs of y = 3x and y = 4x.3 The Number e 4. by Warren B. Walter O. y = px.141592654. The graphs of all three functions are given in Figure 1. then at the end of this time the accumulation A is given by the formula Applied Calculus for Business. approximately equal to 3. y =* x y = 4x y = 3x Figure 1: The graphs of y = 3x.14159 for p and then use the appropriate keys on the calculator. This constant p is well known to all of us. p. However. Wang. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. We begin by reminding you of the law of compound interest. Inc. Gordon. . we first take a somewhat circuitous route and examine a basic notion of finance. It is an irrational number.3 The Number e » » » Continuous Compounding of Interest The Constant e Calculator Tips If you draw any circle. If this is done. If P dollars is invested into an account yielding interest at a rate r compounded n times per year for t years. and Finance. you always obtain the same number.
Wang.85 $1. Applied Calculus for Business.Section 4. What n happens to it as n : q ? First. it appears that the answer should be around $1.000 Invested at 6% Compounded n Times Per Year for 10 Years n 1 (annual interest) 2 (semiannually) 4 (quarterly) 12 (monthly) 365 (daily) 365 # 24 (hourly) 365 # 24 # 60 (every minute) A * 100011 + 0. Economics. In fact. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. using your calculator. we are asking what happens to the accumur nt lation as n becomes infinite.11 $1. In fact. the accumulation increases. and April Allen Materowski. Gordon.814. that is. observe that as n : q . the frequency at which interest is given. using the laws of exponents as a1 + r 1 r nt r n t b = a a 1 + b b = A 11 + u2u B t = A 11 + u2u B rt n n Furthermore.12 Note that as n. and Finance. almost becoming fixed. From both the graph given in Figure 2. as n : q ? Consider the expression a 1 + b . in fact.12. We do that in Figure 2 where we plot the graph as u takes on values from 1 to near 0. that is.40 $1. Mathematically. we see that 11 + u2u is approximately equal to 2. increases? Consider the concrete example of investing $1.) Table 1: The Accumulation of $1. increases. let us rewrite the expression using the power property law of exponents as a1 + r nt r n t b = a a1 + b b n n Continuous Compounding of Interest Suppose we let u = r/n or equivalently. there is almost no difference between getting interest hourly or every minute. by Warren B.819. Table 1 gives the accumulation for different values of n.000 for ten years at a rate r = 6%. we need to understand what happens to the expression 11 + u2u as u ap1 proaches zero. as n gets larger the accumulation appears to increase much more slowly. 1 u : 0. as n : q . moreover. n = r/u. Note that as u approaches zero the value of the expression approaches values a little larger than 2. One approach is to sketch 11 + u2u versus u.3 The Number e * ** 349 A = Pa1 + r nt b n What happens to the accumulation as n.71828 as u approaches zero.7. (The first five frequencies are commonly used and their names are indicated next to them.11 $1822.06/n210n $1.790. Then the expression may be rewritten. Walter O. and taking values of u near zero you can generate a table similar to the one given in 1 Table 2.822. Thus.822. u = r/n gets small. the number of times per year interest is given. Inc. .02 $1.03 $1822. What happens to the accumulation if interest is given continuously. and Table 2.806. at every instant of time? From Table 1. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.
716923932 2. we have x : q . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. we have that to five decimal places.718145827 2.000001 . and April Allen Materowski. Mathematically. Inc. Applied Calculus for Business. e = 2.3 The Number e ( 1 + u ) /u 1 Figure 2: The Graph of 11 + u2u Versus u as u Approaches Zero Table 2: The value of 11 + u2u as u approaches zero u .0001 . That is. so we may give an equivalent formulation of the definition of e as e = lim a 1 + x: q 1 x b x (1b) As seen in Figure 2 or Table 2. and Finance. by Warren B.001 .718280469 2. if we let x = 1/u.718268237 2. When t is negative equation (2) gives a past value.) We illustrate the use of (2) in the next few examples. we define e as the value the expression 11 + u2u approaches as u approaches zero. Economics. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.718281692 2. Gordon. 1 If we substitute e for 11 + u2u as u approaches zero.71828.01 .00000001 11 + u21/u 2.350 * ** Section 4.0000001 .00001 .704813829 2.718281825 1 1 1 The Constant e In more advanced courses it can be shown rigorously that the expression 11 + u2u does indeed approach a fixed value as u approaches zero and this value is denoted by the 1 number e. we define e as e = lim 11 + u2u u:0 1 (1a) Equivalently. . Walter O. Wang. (Note that when t is positive equation (2) gives the future value of P. then a1 + r 1 r nt r n t b = a a 1 + b b = A 11 + u2u B t = A 11 + u2u B rt approaches ert n n and the compound interest formula becomes A * Pe rt (2) when interest is given continuously (at every instant of time). then as u : 0.
r nt A = P a 1 + b with P = 1500.Section 4. its graph will look very similar to y = 3x. namely e. e3 ) (2.72 e2 L 7.09 Plotting the points from Table 3.60.128. Determine its accumulation. e is such a useful constant in mathematics that most calculators have a key for the exponential function ex. ex is indicated in green above the X key.37 e0 = 1 e1 L 2. We can now examine the function defined by the equation y = f1x2 = ex. e1 ) Figure 3: The Graph of y = f 1x2 = e x Applied Calculus for Business.07/12260 = 150011.14 e 1 L 0. We first use a calculator to obtain Table 3. Gordon.44. the accumulation increased. n (a) We have n = 12. nt = 513652 = 1825 and A = 150011 + . first requiring the pressing of * to access it.07. we use equation (2). Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.126. we obtain the graph in Figure 3 y = f( x ) = e x (3. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. using a calculator.419020392 = $ 2. Inc. Observe in the previous examples. and April Allen Materowski. nt = 51122 = 60. t = 5 and r = 0.4190675492 = $ 2.1) (1. (c) continuously.07 5 = 1500e0. Solution For the first two parts of the problem we use the discrete formula. e2 ) (2. We have now introduced another mathematical constant. by Warren B.53.35 = 150011. and A = 150011 + . e is also an irrational number. We have # A = 1500e0.39 e3 L 20. Since e is slightly less than 3.3 The Number e * ** 351 Example 1 $1500 is invested for 5 years at an interest rate of 7% compounded (a) monthly. we could. and Finance. . (b) daily.128. (The yvalues are rounded to two places. evaluate expressions of the form ex. Economics. It can be shown that like p.4176252312 = $ 2.) Table 3: Values Used to Plot the Graph of y = f 1x2 = e x x 2 1 0 1 2 3 y * ex e 2 L 0. Wang. e.07/36521825 = 150011. Since e is a constant. that as the frequency increased. Walter O. (c) Since interest is now being given continuously. e 2 ) (1. On the TI89 calculator. (b) We have n = 365.
for x 7 0. y = 3x is above the graph of y = f1x2 = ex. it is a onetoone function and has an inverse. It has the negative xaxis as its horizontal asymptote (x : . Economics. . Wang. by Warren B. and April Allen Materowski. and Finance. y = 3x y = f( x ) = e x Figure 5: The Graphs of y = f 1x2 = e x and y = 3x for x 6 0 To summarize: the graph of y = f1x2 = ex is a typical exponential function. it is difficult to see this on this scale so in Figure 5 we change scales to better see this last observations. and when x 6 0. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Gordon. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. The function is an increasing function on its domain. their relative positions change. Its domain consists of all xvalues and its range is y 7 0.3 The Number e It is instructive to compare the graph of y = f1x2 = ex with the graph of y = 3x. This is done in Figure 4.352 * ** Section 4. However. Walter O.q ). Therefore. y = 3x f( x ) = e x Figure 4: The Graphs of y = f 1x2 = e x and y = 3x Observe that since e 6 3. Applied Calculus for Business. Inc.
e 2 3. Walter O. 8. Economics. we can find a number k such that b = ek For example. We can use the TI 89 to graph any exponential function. k2 yields (press * Enter for a numerical answer) 0. e3 2. Gordon.25% compounded (a) monthly.1 . y = f1x2 = 2ex . (b) daily. we shall see. Wang. y = f1x2 = ex . . (c) continuously. $1475 is deposited into an account for 12 years.000121t. Using it. $500 is deposited into an account for 6 years. (b) daily.23% compounded (a) monthly.x 2 ex . Thus. y = f1x2 = a b e e x 27.693147. For example. is given by the equation Q1t2 = 100e 0. e 2. by Warren B. y11x2 = e ¿12x2. As mentioned above. (b) 10. y = f1x2 = ex + 3 16. we shall give an explicit formula which determines k. we can use the solve command to determine k. y = f1x2 = a b 2 2 x 26. y = f1x2 = ex . (c) continuously? 12.000 in 10 years if the account bears interest at 6. The remark made above was that any base b can be written in the form ek. Determine the accumulation if interest is 6% compounded (a) monthly.e x 2 5. (b) daily. then 2 = ek.000 years? Applied Calculus for Business. and April Allen Materowski. How much should be deposited into an account today if it is to accumulate to $15.3 17. e 4. Determine the accumulation if interest is 5. it will then graph this equation.3 23. 7. (b) daily.37% compounded (a) monthly.87% compounded (a) monthly. (b) daily. to access the ex key on the calculator.000 years. 6. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Calculator Tips EXERCISE SET 4. (b) daily. For example. y = f1x2 = 3e2x 15. to be considered later on in this chapter. y = f1x2 = a b 3 3 x 28. y = f1x2 = ex + e . solve 12 = e ¿1k2. y = f1x2 = a b e 29.3 The Number e * ** 353 The constant e did not appear in the early study of finance. $4750 is deposited into an account for 20 years.Section 4. (c) 25. $1250 is deposited into an account for 10 years. (c) continuously? e x 25. How much should be deposited into an account today if it is to accumulate to $2100 in 7 years if the account bears interest at 5% compounded (a) monthly.37 22 In Exercises 13 28 sketch the graph of the function defined by the given equation. (c) continuously? 10.3 21. y = f1x2 = ex + 1 + 3 22. if the base is 2. Making sure the calculator has an appropriate window. 13. How much should be deposited into an account today if it is to accumulate to $950 in 6 years if the account bears interest at 4. (b) daily. Base e is so important to calculus that it is called the natural base. we press * and then X.693147. Determine the accumulation if interest is 7. (c) continuously. simplifies calculations in the calculus. and Finance.25% compounded (a) monthly. The determination of k requires the taking of a logarithm.25% compounded (a) monthly. that is. The quantity Q of radioactive carbon remaining in a 100 gram wood sample at time t given in years.1 18. It was the mathematician Euler who first represented the constant by the letter e in 1727. 1. (c) continuously. The first reference to the constant was in 1618 in the work of John Napier. (c) continuously? 11. The base of any positive exponent can be written in terms of e. However. y = f1x2 = ex + 1 . Determine the accumulation if interest is 4. (c) continuously. any base can be replaced by base e with an appropriate k. (b) daily. y = f1x2 = ex + 1 19. How much radioactive carbon remains in the sample after (a) 100 years. y = f1x2 = ex . and k is approximately 0.1 14. 9. y = f1x2 = 24.3 In Exercise 1 4 calculate the given expression. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.000 in 15 years if the account bears interest at 7. Later on in this chapter. y = f1x2 = ex .1 + 3 20. we can enter in the Y = screen. Inc. How much should be deposited into an account today if it is to accumulate to $2.
12 hex f ¿ 1x2 = lim = lim = lim = lim ex = ex h:0 h:0 h:0 h h:0 h h Notice that the theorem states that the derivative of ex is itself. . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 1 + h L eh for h near zero We now prove the theorem using the definition of the derivative and (2). If 3 = ek. Wang. Consider Applied Calculus for Business. eh L 1 + h. How much radioactive radon remains in the sample after (a) 100 years. we can use (2) to replace eh.5 = ek. Inc. 33. We purposely consider the case with base e first.f1x2 ex1eh .ex = lim = lim = lim h:0 h:0 h:0 h:0 h h h h (2) 1 If we try to take the limit at any stage in the previous line.000428t. Proof Let f1x2 = ex then we have f ¿ 1x2 = lim f1x + h2 . If 0. (b) 1. 30.000 years.354 * ** Section 4. Gordon. From our knowledge of limits we understand that this means if h is near zero.4 The Derivative of the Exponential Function 31. Fortunately.12 ex + h . Show that if h is near zero. we have 11 + h2h L e or equivalently. specifically f ¿ 1x2 = f1x2. Walter O. we recall that lim 11 + h2h = e (this is (1a) from the preh:0 vious section with h replacing x). Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. raising each side to the power h.000 years? 4. and examine other bases later on in this chapter. The quantity Q of radioactive radon remaining in a 500 gram sample at time t is given by the equation Q1t2 = 500e 0. To show that is the case. we would obtain the form 0/0. by Warren B. Economics.ex exeh . Hint: Use (1a) with h replacing u. determine k.12 ex11 + h . this gives ex1eh . The reason is simple. It then follows from the constant multiplier rule that d 1Cex2 = Cex dx There is no other function that has this property (except the trivial function f K 0). and Finance.4 The Derivative of the Exponential Function » » » » The Simple Exponential Rule The Generalized Exponential Rule Exponential Domination Calculator Tips In this section we examine the derivative of the exponential function whose equation is y = ex. 32. and April Allen Materowski. (c) 10. the derivative in base e results in a simpler expression. determine k. suppose there were some other function which had itself as its derivative. THEOREM 1 THE SIMPLE EXPONENTIAL RULE d x 1e 2 = e x dx 1 (1) The Simple Exponential Rule Before we prove this theorem.
2 x dx 2 dx Example 3 Determine the equation of the tangent line at the point x = 0 if (a) f1x2 = ex. there is no other (nontrivial) function other than the exponential that can have itself as its own derivative. requiring the use of the chain rule. Wang.f1x2ex exf1x2 .2 x [ . Determine dx Solution d d 2x 1e 2 = e 2x 1 . In the general rule.2 x A e 2 B = e.2x2 = e 2x[ .x] = . the exponent is u. Inc. Gordon.4 The Derivative of the Exponential Function * ** 355 exf ¿ 1x2 .xe. 2 (b) f1x2 = e2x Applied Calculus for Business. In other words.2] = .1 x2 1 a . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.x2 b = e. which agrees with the differentiation variable.2e 2x dx dx Example 2 d . THEOREM 2 THE GENERALIZED EXPONENTIAL RULE Suppose u is some differentiable function of x. which does not agree with the differentiation variable. and April Allen Materowski.exf1x2 d f1x2 0 a x b = = = 2x = 0 dx e 1ex22 e2x e If the derivative of a function is zero. In the simple rule the exponent is x. then we have du d u 1e 2 = e u dx dx (4) The Generalized Exponential Rule Note the difference between the simple rule and the generalized rule. Economics. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. for y Z 0. and Finance. dx Solution 1 2 d 1 2 1 2 d . by Warren B. if dy = y then y = Cex dx (3) Now that we know the derivative of ex we can apply the chain rule and find the derivative when the exponent is a function of x. Walter O. Example 1 d 2x 1e 2. .Section 4. thus f1x2 = C ex or f1x2 = Cex Thus.1 x2 Determine Ae 2 B. then that function is a constant.
Walter O. therefore. we have f102 = e0 = 1.3x + 222 = xe 3x 1 .27 6 0 so the function has a relative maximum at 4 2 2 L 0. .12x + 22 The critical points occur when the first derivative is zero.3x + 1 . The criti4 2 cal numbers are. by Warren B. which shows that the graph does indeed change concavity at these point so they are inflection points.138.12 or y = 1. Inc. 0) and A 2 3. the first derivative will be zero when x = 0 or . Gordon.1 = 01x . Corresponding yvalues are 0. that is when 2 . f 102 = 2 7 0.3x + 22 a x 1e 3x2 + e 3x[1] b = dx . Economics.195 and 1.32] + e 3x2 = e 3x1 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. we have d 3x d 1e 2 + e 3x 1x 22 = dx dx d x2e 3x 1 .3x + 221x[e 3x1 . 2 d 2 (b) At x = 0.062 A2 3 .3x + 122 = e 3x19x2 . 22 9x2 .043 respectively. so f ¿ 102 = 0. Wang. Solution Using the product rule.12x + 2 = 0. Using the second derivative test.3x2 + e 3x2x dx = x2e 3x1 . f 12/32 L . therefore the equation of the tangent line is y . 14/9e The inflection points occur when the second derivative is zero. f ¿ 1x2 = ex.3x + 22 + 1 .3x + 22 f ¿ 1x2 = x2 Using the product rule several more times we have. so f ¿ 102 = e0 = 1. Applied Calculus for Business. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and April Allen Materowski. Example 4 Using the first and second derivatives of f1x2 = x2e 3x. Since the exponential function is always positive. the critical points are (0.3x + 221 . 0). f ¿ 1x2 = e2x 12x 22 = 4xe2x .3] + 1 . The solutions to this quadratic equation are x = .3x + 22 1xe 3x2 = dx dx dx d xe 3x[ . A sketch is given in Figure 1b.4 The Derivative of the Exponential Function Solution (a) At x = 0. x = 0 and 2/3.02 or y = x + 1. 9 e B . therefore. or 3 x L 0. we have f102 = e0 = 1.356 * ** Section 4.3xe 3x + 1 . the function has a relative minimum at (0. determine the relative extrema and inflection points of the function and sketch its graph. and Finance. 9 e B . dx and the equation of the tangent line is y .0.3x + 2 = 0.32 + 2xe 3x = xe 3x1 . Using sign analysis on the second derivative. f 1x2 = d d d 1xe 3x1 . we obtain Figure 1a.02 and 0.1 = 11x .
For example. when x = 55. that is.195 0 CU + x * 1. . it is overwhelmed by the way the exponential term approaches zero as x : q . note that y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote as x : q . the product is 0.138. examine the product x 100e 0. which it cannot do because f1x2 Ú 0. . and April Allen Materowski. Wang. To convince yourself of this fact. Moreover.0002053. which is why the product indicated in the theorem approaches zero. so much so that their product is zero.Section 4. an exponential will grow much faster and decay more quickly than a polynomial function. Inc.12x + 22 M * I (1. That is why the companion statement to the theorem is x: q Exponential Domination lim x aebx = q (6) Basically.000. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Exponential functions with negative exponents decay very quickly. Walter O.043) 2 * I (. lim x2e 3x = 0.000 to see that the product is small.195. Gordon. there needed to be an inflection point afer M otherwise the graph would have crossed the xaxis. exponential functions with positive exponents grow very quickly.1 38 x Figure 1a: Sign f 1x 2 = e3x19x 2 . The calculus confirmed this. For smaller values of x the product is large). and Finance.02) 1 m(0. 0) Figure 1b: The Graph of f 1x2 = x 2e3x Note that the function in Figure 1b is decreasing after its relative maximum point and since it is always positive. Similarly. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.4 The Derivative of the Exponential Function * ** 357 Sign of f 1x2 CU 0 CD + x * 0. In particular. much more quickly than algebraic functions. these two results indicate that an exponential function rises and decays much more quickly than most functions.02x for large values of x. This observation generalizes as follows: x: q THEOREM 2 EXPONENTIAL DOMINATION OVER POWER FUNCTIONS If a and b are positive numbers then x: q lim xae bx = 0 a (5) This theorem states that while the x grows very large as x : q . Economics. . Applied Calculus for Business. greater than 55. (Make sure you choose very large values of x. by Warren B.
the only critical point occurs when x = 0 and f102 = 1. most of the graph of this bell shaped curve is on . Figure 3: f 1x2 = e2 x 1 2 Applied Calculus for Business. It gives rise to the so called bell or normal or Gaussian curve as illustrated in the next example. Its graph is given in Figure 4.x2 = . f 1x2 = . Gordon. Solution We need to determine the critical and inflection points for this function. and Finance. That function is n1x2 = 11 e . by Warren B. and its inflection points at x = .12 A sketch of the function is given in Figure 3. CU + Sign of f '' ( x ) 1 1 1 2 CD 0 0 CU + x Figure 2: Sign of f 1x2 = e2 x 1x 2 . Walter O. We saw that the exponential function arose naturally when examining continuous compounding. We shall classify this critical point using the second derivative test. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.q . e 2 x : 0. In Example 2 we found that f ¿ 1x2 = . that is. The same is true. the exponential function is extremely important. for x 7 3 the yvalues are almost zero.xe 2 x . 1).x 1 2 d 1 2 1 2 1 2 d .3 6 x 6 3.358 * ** Section 4. .e 2 x = e 2 x 1x2 . Example 5 1 2 Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation f1x2 = e 2 x . that is. Note that this function is even. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Using sign analysis (see Figure 2) we see the function has inflection points at 1 A . y = 0 is. (The purpose of the multiplicative scaling factor is that the total area under the bell curve must be one. it is symmetric with respect to the yaxis as f1 .xe 2 x D . by symmetry as x : . In the study of statistics.1 which means the critical point is a relative maximum (since it s the only critical point it is also a maximum). e 0.4 The Derivative of the Exponential Function Exponential functions arise in many different applications. Moreover. a horizontal asymptote as x : q . e . 1 2 Note that as x : q the graph approaches 0.5) The actual bell shaped curve used in statistics is almost identical to this one except for a 1 x2 2 scaling constant.x2 = f1x2. It will have its maximum M at 2p x = 0. so the critical point is (0. therefore.12 dx dx 1 2 Note that f 102 = . Since the exponential function is always positive. Wang. that is. 1. the second derivative is zero when x = .5) I 2(1 ./ 2 B . However. 1) I 1(1 .x C . Economics. 1.) This bell shaped curve is called the normal or Gaussian distribution.1 x2 A e 2 B + e 2 x 1 . Inc. M(0. e 0. 1. and April Allen Materowski.
are the extrema of the function? 25. Given the function defined by the equation c1x2 = ex + e . by Warren B. There are many important applications whose growth or decay at any instant is proportional to itself at that instant.4 The Derivative of the Exponential Function * ** 359 We close this section with a generalization of (3). f1x2 = eax1x . (f) What. f1x2 = 2 x + 1 12. if any. Walter O.1 ex . as we shall see in Section 2.4 In Exercises 1 17 determine the derivative.2ex + 3e2y = 3x 3 . (a) Show it is 2 an even function. The sketch of the graph is obtained from the Y = screen. f1x2 = ex 4. e *½ ) ) I2 (1. x = 3 21.2x2 bution n1x2 = 11 2p e EXERCISE SET 4. The proof of (7) is almost identical to the one given above and is left to the exercises( Exercise 33). we let y11x2 = 11 e 2p 1d1y11x2. ex + 2y = x2 + y 16.12 13. we may easily find the derivative and sketch the graph of exponential functions. no matter how complicated they may be.x . if any. 1. f1x2 = x2ex 8. ( * 1.7. Calculator Tips M (0 . x = 0 20. (e) What. f1x2 = e 3x 3. (Note: this function arises frequently in engineering applications and is call the hyperbolic cosine. (c) concave upward and downward. x2.) 2 2 ex . Given the function defined by the equation f1x2 = 4xe3x. f1x2 = x e + e x e 2x + 1 11. Economics. to find the in2 1 2 x . Gordon.12 and y1(1). (d) determine any relative extrema (e) Sketch the graph.x 10. but make sure you choose an appropriate window. f1x2 = x2 e 2x 6. are the extrema of the function. 28. f1x2 = ex1x . e *½ I1 ) Figure 4: The Normal1 Distri.3y 3 2 2 2 2 Applied Calculus for Business.ey = y2 . For example. Determine on which intervals the function is (b) increasing and decreasing. 27. the only function whose derivative is proportional to itself is an exponential function. f1x2 = x4e 3x 7. f1x2 = ex. . f1x2 = e21x . x. x = 0 23. 22 = 0. f1x2 = x2e2x . and April Allen Materowski. and the constant of proportionality is the growth (decay) rate. (b) concave upward and downward.1/a2. and enter solve flection points of the normal distribution. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. a is a constant 5. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. (a) Determine on which intervals the function is (a) increasing and decreasing. x = 1 24. x = 1 22. the y coordinates are found by entering y11 . f1x2 = e2x 2. . f1x2 = ex . determine the equation of the tangent line at the given xcoordinate. f1x2 = 9. a is a constant 14. Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation f1x2 = x3e 2x.x 2 17. defined by cosh1x2 = e x + e x . ex . x2e2x y .2xe2x + 4e2x 15. Wang.1 ex + 1 2 In Exercises 18 23. which gives x = . f1x2 = x3e3x. f1x2 = eax .4y2 + 2x .32.e . 26.Section 4. 1. and Finance. f1x2 = xe2x. Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation f1x2 = x2e 2x. 18. Using the calculator. it follows d kx that if k is a constant 1e 2 = kekx. Sketch the graph of the function defined by the equation f1x2 = 2xe4x. f1x2 = ex + 1 x2 . Also if dx dy (7) = ky then y = Cekx dx That is. Inc. f1x2 = ex. x = 0 19. From the chain rule. (c) determine any relative extrema (d) Sketch the graph.
32.) 2 30. 4.1 at which x = c is . defined by sinh1x2 = ex + e x . y =f(x) = 2x Figure 1: The Graph of y = f 1x2 = 2x Applied Calculus for Business.360 * ** Section 4. (a) Show it is 2 an odd function. In particular. (f) What. Gordon.5 Logarithmic Functions and Derivatives 31. Suppose a rectangle whose base is on the xaxis is inscribed under this curve such that its upper vertices are the inflection points of the curve. (c) concave upward and downward. Determine the area of the rectangle. and April Allen Materowski.5 Logarithmic Functions and Derivatives » » » » » » » Definition of a Logarithm Base 10 and e pH of a Solution Graphing Logarithmic Functions The Simple Logarithmic Rule The Generalized Logarithmic Rule Calculator Tips We begin with the exponential function defined by the equation y = f1x2 = 2x whose graph was plotted in an earlier section and is reproduced in Figure 1. Show that the xintercept of the tangent line to the curve y = eax at the point ac . Inc. Walter O.x . Prove that if f ¿ 1x2 = kf1x2 then f1x2 = Cekx. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 33. where a is a constant. if any. Economics. by Warren B. Given the function f1x2 = eax . Given the function defined by the equation s1x2 = ex . and Finance. Determine on which intervals the function is (b) increasing and decreasing. where a is a positive constant. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Find the area of the triangle formed by the xaxis and the tangent lines to the curves y = eax and y = e ax at the point where x = 0. are the extrema of the function? (Note: this function arises frequently in engineering applications and is call the hyperbolic sine. . (d) determine any relative extrema (e) Sketch the graph. Wang.e . show the xintercept of the tangent a x line to the curve y = e is always one unit to the left of the point of tangency. 2 29.
and Finance. how do we determine the equation of its inverse function? We proceed exactly as we have learned before: we first interchange x with y and write x = f1y2 = 2y.q 6 y 6 q Graph passes through (1. The square root symbol was introduced so that we could solve this last equation for y in terms of x. 1) y * f +11x2 Domain: x 7 0 Range: q 6 y 6 q Graph passes through (1. by Warren B. and. Sometimes. We can now go back to our question. and April Allen Materowski. Before we give the equation we make an observation about defining functions.5 Logarithmic Functions and Derivatives * ** 361 Since this is an increasing function it is onetoone. Walter O. it is convenient to define new functions. this is only a representative symbol. 1) y * f +11x2 Domain: x 7 0 Range: . The unanswered question at this point is the determination of the equation of the inverse function in the form y = f 11x2. Economics. This graph obtained by the interchange is given in Figure 2. That is. Inc. the symbol y = 1x is equivalent to x = y2 (and y 7 0). therefore. y * f1x2 * 2x Domain: . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Gordon. 0) We may draw the graph of the inverse function by interchanging the points used to plot the original function. the statement y = 1x is equivalent to the statement that y is the positive solution to the equation y 2 = x. Before we discuss the equation of the inverse let us make some observations about the function and its inverse. in fact we could just as well have written the symbol as SQRT (5).q 6 x 6 q Range: y 7 0 Graph passes through (0. Thus we have that the following two equivalent expressions.Section 4. However. You might seem surprised by this statement. Similarly. Given the function whose equation is y = f1x2 = bx where b Z 1 is a positive number we have: y * f1x2 * b x Domain: . Wang. namely Applied Calculus for Business. Given the equation y = f1x2 = 2x. We do this by defining a new function! The solution to the equation x = 2y is y = log 2 x. 0) The graph for the inverse function may be obtained from the graph of the exponential function by interchanging the x and the y coordinates. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. . Without thinking. but it is something with which you are familiar. The problem that now arises is how do we solve this equation for y in terms of x. it has an inverse. Suppose we ask you to write the positive number whose square is 5. Figure 2: The Inverse of y = f1x2 = 2x The analysis for an arbitrary exponential function and its inverse is almost identical. you would write 25. The statement x = 25 is equivalent to the statement x2 = 5 (and x 7 0).q 6 x 6 q Range: y 7 0 Graph passes through (0.
y = f( x ) = b x y=x Figure 4: The graphs of y = f 1x2 = b x and y = f 11x2 = logb x where 0 6 b 6 1 Applied Calculus for Business. Thus any exponential expression may be written in logarithmic format and any logarithmic expression may be written in exponential format. the graph of the logarithm is the mirror image of the exponential about the line y = x. then the inverse function is given by y = f 11x2 = log b x is equivalent to the expression x = by. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Note that 2 is the base of the exponential of the expression on the left. by Warren B.362 * ** Section 4. if y = f1x2 = 2x. then the equation of its inverse function is y = f 11x2 = log 2 x. Inc. y = f( x ) = b x y=x Definition of a Logarithm Figure 3: The graphs of y = f 1x2 = b x and y = f 11x2 = logb x where b 7 1 When 0 6 b 6 1. Thus. given the exponential function y = f1x2 = bx where b Z 1 is a positive number. Economics. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.5 Logarithmic Functions and Derivatives x = 2y is equivalent to y = log 2 x The expression on the right is read y equals the logarithm of x to the base 2. We have already discovered the domain of the logarithm is x 7 0 and its range is . and April Allen Materowski. Gordon. Walter O. we obtain the graphs given in Figure 4. Note that in both Figure 3 and 4. More generally. and Finance. Figure 3 illustrates the graphs of y = f1x2 = bx and y = f 11x2 = log b x where b 7 1. Wang.q 6 y 6 q . we have. .
when base 10 is used. or x = 3. Logarithms to the base 10 are called common logarithms and those to base e are called natural logarithms. (d) log e w = r. (b) 23 = 1/8. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Inc. (c) log 5 25 = . Wang. Thus log x means log 10 x and ln x means log e x. . Economics. thus (a) 32 = 9 becomes log 3 9 = 2 (b) 23 = 1/8 becomes log 2 1 8 = 3 3 (c) 10 = 1000 becomes log 10 1000 = 3 1 (d) A 1/ 2 B 3 = 1/8 becomes log 1 = 3 2 8 Example 2 Write each of the following expressions in exponential format: 1 1 (a) log 4 16 = 2. and Finance. Gordon. we write ln instead of log e. There are two special bases deserving special attention. (c) 103 = 1000. Example 3 Compute log 3 27. as we illustrate in the next example.5 Logarithmic Functions and Derivatives * ** 363 Example 1 Write each of the following exponential expressions in logarithmic format: (a) 32 = 9. This is a special exponential equation which is easily solved by writing 3x = 33. we have 3x = 27. (b) log 1 = 2. Solution To answer each of these questions we use the fact that x = by is equivalent to y = log b x. and April Allen Materowski. namely base 10 and base e. We shall examine such cases shortly. by Warren B. we write log instead of log 10 and when base e is used. Walter O. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2 becomes 52 = (c) log 5 25 (d) log e w = r becomes er = w For special types of problems switching from the logarithmic to the exponential form of the expression is useful. Often. Four basic properties of logarithms log b 1 = 0 log b b = 1 log b b = x blogb x = x x Base 10 and e (1) (2) (3) (4) Applied Calculus for Business.Section 4. Solution Let log 3 27 = x. 39 Solution (a) log 4 16 = 2 becomes 42 = 16 1 2 = 2 becomes A 1 (b) log 1 3B = 39 1 9 1 25 1 = . (d) 11/ 223 = 1/8. It should be noted that if the base of the logarithm was different from 3 then the resulting exponential function could not be easily solved.2. rewriting this expression in exponential format.
we have pH = . If the pH of a solution is less than 7. we have bx = 1. namely that f1f 11x22 = f 11f1x22 = x We note that two special cases of (2) are log 10 = 1 and ln e = 1 (2b) (2a) pH of a Solution Calculators provide log and ln keys. and is therefore a translation of log x. using the properties of logarithms in the next section. Sorenson when in 1909 he defined the pH of a solution. writing this in exponential format. using a calculator. and April Allen Materowski. ln 14 = 2. Let log b 1 = x. L. .log[H 3O +] + (3) where [H 3O ] represents the concentration of the ion.6390573 and log 23 = 1.4.2 * 1011. This solution is basic since the pH exceeds 7. so by using them we can quickly compute logarithms to these bases.3617278. Walter O. The acidity of a solution was originally viewed as the concentration of the hydronium ion H 3O + present in it. it is convenient to use a logarithmic scale. that any logarithm of the form log1ax + b2 may be written as log1x + b/a2 + log1a2. Example 5 Sketch the graph of y = ln12x . to seven decimal places. we have. Economics. For example. if the pH is greater than 7. and Finance. the solution is called acidic. using the calculator. it is a simple matter to compute logarithms or to plot the graphs of logarithms to base 10 or e. Thus.2 * 1011. This idea was used by the Swedish chemist S. Properties (3) and (4) follow immediately from the properties of inverse functions. Applied Calculus for Business. the solution is neutral. by Warren B. Inc. P.364 * ** Section 4. Graphing Logarithmic Functions Calculators are useful in plotting the graphs of logarithmic functions.5 Logarithmic Functions and Derivatives The first property follows from our discussion above. Using a calculator we obtain (to the nearest tenth) pH = 10. Gordon. For reinforcement. as pH = .log 4. indicated by [H 3O +]. The pH is usually given to the nearest tenth. let log b b = x. Consider the following example from chemistry. but b0 = 1. expressed in logarithmic notation.12. Solution Substituting into (3). thus we have bx = b0 or x = 0. Since the concentration can change over several orders of magnitude. The TI89 has the ln key above the X in orange and the log key is in the catalog. We prove the second property the same way. Example 4 Determine the pH of a solution whose hydronium ion concentration is 4. as illustrated in the next two examples. therefore x = 1. we illustrate it again.) Logarithms arise in a variety of applications. Wang. rewrite in exponential format as bx = b = b1. the solution is is called basic. It is easy to show. if the pH is about 7. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. (Other bases will be examined in the next section. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.
5 Logarithmic Functions and Derivatives * ** 365 Solution The domain of the function is found by remembering that if y = log b u. for the given example.Section 4. by Warren B. However.61 1.40 We plot these points to obtain the graph given in Figure 5.1 1. Example 6 Sketch the graph of the function whose equation is y = f1x2 = 2 log 2 x. Solution As we observed above. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and Finance.6 1 2 3 4 6 y * ln12x + 12 . 2x . We need only use the appropriate key on a calculator to obtain the yvalue corresponding to any xvalue in the domain. Walter O. then the domain is determined from the inequality u 7 0.1 7 0.6 0 1. we cannot use a calculator directly to obtain the yvalues since there is no key for base 2. Economics. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. thus the domain is x 7 1/ 2. This approach is illustrated in the next example. Table 1: Points used to plot y = ln12x .1.95 2. We now can choose appropriate values with which to plot a graph.1) Figure 5: The graph y = ln12x . Inc. Gordon. We use a calculator to generate Table 1. Wang. we shall determine the equation of the inverse function. Instead. and April Allen Materowski. . Thus. where all logarithms have been rounded to two decimal places.12 It is a straightforward matter to plot the graph of most logarithmic functions whose base is e or ten. We interchange x with y to obtain. We shall see in the next section how we can graph logarithmic functions to other bases with a calculator. Applied Calculus for Business. y = ln (2 x . we can also plot such logarithmic functions by recalling that any logarithmic function is the inverse of some exponential function.12 x .
Table 1: x Points to plot the graph of y = 2 2 x 4 2 0 2 4 6 4 y = 22 x = 22 = 0. Walter O. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.25 22 2 2 2 = 21 = 0. by Warren B. Inc. These points are indicated in Table 2. .366 * ** Section 4. Wang. and April Allen Materowski. we generated Table 2. Gordon. and Finance. and by interchanging the x and yvalues of these points.50 1 2 = 21 = 2 22 4 = 22 = 4 22 6 22 = 2 3 = 8 We wish to plot the graph of the inverse function. we only needed to list points on its graph. using the points from Table 2 in Figure 6.5 Logarithmic Functions and Derivatives x = 2 log 2 y or x = log 2 y 2 rewriting this expression in exponential format. Table 2: Points to plot the graph of y = 2 log 2 x x 0. Applied Calculus for Business. Note that is was not necesx sary to plot the graph of y = 22 .25 0. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. All we need to do is to interchange the two columns in Table 1 and we have points on the graph of this function. Economics. y = 2 log 2 x. gives as the equation of the inverse function y = 22 x We could plot this graph easily by generating a table of values as given in Table 1.5 1 2 4 8 y = 2 log 2 x 4 2 0 2 4 6 We plot the graph.
Gordon. The continuity and differentiability of the logarithm function follow from the exponential function. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Inc. Economics. and April Allen Materowski. let (b. From Section 1. b) where b = ea. and Finance. a) be any point on the graph of y = ln x 1b = ln a2 then the corresponding point on y = ex is (a.5 Logarithmic Functions and Derivatives * ** 367 y = 2log 2 x Figure 6: The Graph of y = 2 log2 x No matter what the base of the logarithm functions are. by Warren B. we have dy dx (1) Applied Calculus for Business.Section 4. Walter O. . The Simple Logarithmic Rule THEOREM 1: THE SIMPLE LOGARITHMIC RULE 1 d 1ln x2 = x dx Proof Let y = ln x then we have x = ey We differentiate this equation implicitly to obtain 1 = ey or dy 1 = y dx e but x = ey. log b 1 = 0. their basic shapes are all the same. as given in Figure 4. Note that log b x 7 0 when x 7 1 and log b x 6 0 when x 6 1. Wang. so we have dy 1 = x dx Alternately. We next consider the derivative of the natural logarithm and after we examine the properties of logarithms in the next section we will consider the derivative of any logarithmic (and exponential) function.
f ¿ 1x2 = 1/x.2x 2 a 2 = = (b) f 1x2 = b = dx x + 1 1x 2 + 122 1x2 + 122 1x2 + 122 Example 8 let f1x2 = ln x . x = x when x 7 0. (b) f 1x2 Solution (a) We have.5 Logarithmic Functions and Derivatives 1f11x22 ¿ (b) = or in this case 1f11x22 ¿ (b) = 1 d x 1e 2 dx 1 f ¿ 1 a2 = x=a 1 1 = ea b The Generalized Logarithmic Rule or replacing b with x we have (1).1] = . determine f ¿ 1x2. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. that f1x2 = ln x is (a) an increasing and (b) a concave downward function. Applied Calculus for Business. the function is increasing.368 * ** Section 4. we x dx have the first derivative is always positive and. where u is a differentiable function of x. so in this interval. Solution (a) We have f ¿ 1x2 = d 1 1ln x2 = . therefore.x dx x x dx Thus. Gordon.2x[2x] 211 . we have d 1 1ln x 2 = x dx Example 9 Verify. THEOREM 2: THE GENERALIZED LOGARITHMIC RULE d 1 du 1ln u2 = # u dx dx Example 7 Let f1x2 = ln1x2 + 12. Wang. Economics.x22 = 1 . and since the domain of this function is x 7 0. . by Warren B. Walter O. when x 6 0. using the first and second derivatives. and Finance. in either case. However.x2 = [ .x22 d 2x 2 . determine (a) f ¿ 1x2. we obtain the generalized logarithmic rule. d 2 1 1 2x f ¿ 1x2 = 2 1x + 12 = 2 [2x] = 2 dx x + 1 x + 1 x + 1 1x 2 + 12[2] . using the generalized rule (with u = x2 + 1).x and from the generalized rule d 1 d 1 1 1ln1 . Using the Chain rule. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. x = . Solution The domain of this function is x Z 0. and April Allen Materowski. Inc.
so the critical point is (0. 0). ln 2) are each inflection points. we see that 1 . Example 10 Sketch the graph of f1x2 = ln1x 2 + 12. Walter O.q (this follows from ex : 0 as x : q ).5 Logarithmic Functions and Derivatives * ** 369 (b) f 1x2 = ward. by Warren B. is always increasing and is concave upward. ln 22 and (1. and Finance. as x : 0+. Gordon. The second derivative is zero when x = . By the second derivative test. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. The graph is given in Figure 8. Solution First. The first and second derivatives were found in Example 7. the function is concave downdx x x Observe that we now are able to give a quick sketch of the graph of f1x2 = ln x knowing that it passes through (1. Wang. Economics. 0). Figure 7b also indicates the concavity.1. Applied Calculus for Business. 0). f 102 = 2 7 0 so the function has a minimum at (0. . we observe that the function is even as f1 .Section 4. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Analyzing the sign of the second derivative in Figure 7b.1 and x = 1. and ln 1 = 0. and April Allen Materowski. ln 2) (1. ln 2) Figure 8: The Graph of f 1x2 = ln1x 2 + 12 Example 11 Determine the equation of the tangent line to f1x2 = e 2x + 1 ln14x2 + 12 when x = 1/ 2. giving Figure 7a. The critical point occurs when x = 0. Moreover.2 6 0 for all x.x2 = f1x2. Inc. d 1 1 a b = . Figure 7a: f 1x2 = ln x CD sign of f''( x ) 0 CU + 0 CD x 1 1 Figure 7b: The Sign of f 1x2 (1. therefore. f1x2 : .
we have y . f ¿ 1x2 = e 2x + 1 d d 1ln14x 2 + 122 + ln14x2 + 12 1e 2x + 12 = dx dx 1 [8x] + ln14x2 + 12e 2x + 1[ . where m = f ¿ A 1/ 2 B . Log can be found in the Catalog of the calculator.614 A x . f A 1/ 2 B = e0 ln122 = ln 2 L 0. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.1/ 2 B .2 ln 2 L 0.693. The rules are as follows: Simple Rule d N 1x 2 = Nx N .1/ 2 B or y = 0.1 dx dx du d u 1e 2 = eu dx dx d 1 du 1ln u2 = u dx dx Chain Rule Calculator Tips The only other functions we will discuss in this text will be exponential and logarithmic functions to bases other than e. For example. however. thus y . and Finance. you enter lg(28. That is why LN is prominently displayed in orange on the calculator key above X. algebraic. Gordon.614x + 1 1 A8A1 2 B B = 2 4 .370 * ** Section 4. applications where it is convenient to use log.2] e 2x + 1 2 4x + 1 1 4A B + 1 1 2 2 When x = 1/ 2.0. enter log(x) then press STO and name it lg(x).2 ln 2 = 2 .7) and press Enter. Wang. Applied Calculus for Business. For example in determining the pH. Economics. Walter O. that is base 10.0.693 = m A x . and April Allen Materowski. we have f ¿ A 1/ 2 B = e0 Therefore.614 At this point you should realize that we can now find the derivatives of three kinds of functions. you can define this function on your calculator using the STO key and place it in your calculator s memory. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. by Warren B. There are. see Figure 9. . The most useful base for us is base e.7. using the catalog. We shall see that these follow from the natural base e very easily using some basic properties that we will examine in the next section. say log 28.693 = 0. However. This means if you want to evaluate.5 Logarithmic Functions and Derivatives Solution We have. logarithmic and exponential. Inc.1 dx d x 1e 2 = ex dx d 1 1ln x2 = x dx Generalized Rule d N du 1u 2 = NuN .
log 100 = 2 14.5 Logarithmic Functions and Derivatives * ** 371 If a data set appears to resemble a logarithmic curve. Economics. 60 = 1 6. 56 STO t1 press ENTER 50. enter on the entry line in the HOME screen. 0. 1. Regeq(x) STO y1(x) and press Enter (This stores the regression equation as y1(x)) then enter on the entry line NewPlot 1.65. 4. 0. Wang. log 3 27 = 3 15. 1.716 STO t2 press ENTER Make sure you are using curly braces to enclose these two lists (2) Next enter on the entry line of the HOME screen (use the Catalog or type) LnReg t1. log 2 8 = 3 10. then press Zoom (F2). 0. Walter O.Section 4. or if for some other reason.65). log 1/2 1/8 = 3 16. 24 = 16 4. as follows: 51.4/3 11. by Warren B. 1. (3. 11/32 = 1/9 8. t2 and press ENTER then ShowStat and press ENTER (This produces Figure 10) (3) To draw the regression curve. 3.) Figure 9: Defining Log on the TI 89 Figure 10: Obtaining the Logarithmic Regression Equation Figure 11: The Regression Curve EXERCISE SET 4. Inc. (5. We proceed as follows: (1) Store the xcoordinates and ycoordinates as lists named t1 and t2. then we may determine a best fit regression equation just as we did for linear.29). Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. log b 1 = 0 12. 81/3 = 1/ 2 5. See Figure 11. and Finance. we suspect that the data is logarithmic. and scroll down and select ZOOMDATA (or press 9). (4. t1. . (2. t2 and press ENTER Choose WINDOW 1*F22. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 34 = 81 2. 32 = 1/9 3.5 In Exercises 1 8 write the given expression in logarithmic format 1. 1. 19/1623/2 = 27/64 2 In Exercises 9 16 write the given expression in exponential format. log 1/100 = .29.13.71) We fit this data to a logarithmic regression curve done exactly the same way on the TI 89 as you would for linear (or quadratic) with the only change being we replace LinReg with LnReg. and April Allen Materowski.16). (The regression curve is now drawn. power and exponential functions.13). Suppose we are given the following data set: (1. 163/4 = 8 7. 1. log 8 1/16 = . Gordon. log 2/3 16/81 = 4 Applied Calculus for Business.15. 9.1. 1. 2.2 13.
by Warren B. f1x2 = 2x ln x x = 1 59. (5. a 7 0 48. Determine all relative extrema. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. f1x2 = ln x 5 50.482. log 4 16 18. log 3/4 27/64 24. 31.4 * 105 In Exercises 36 44 sketch the graph of the function whose equation is given. and April Allen Materowski. y = f1x2 = 3 ln13 . log 8 4 19. y = f1x2 = 4 log 21x . y = f1x2 = 3 log12x + 32 40.8 * 108 34.2. y = f1x2 = 2 log 3 x 44. f1x2 = x . . (6. log x 8 = 3 26.41). (a) 6. Wang. y = f1x2 = ln12x + 12 38. (a) 8 * 108 35.4 * 104 (b) 7.372 * ** Section 4. (b) Using the regression equation. and Finance. f1x2 = ln14 + 3x22 53. y = f1x2 = ln1 . f1x2 = e2x ln x 56. f1x2 = ln1x 5 + 122 54. 13. . (3. f1x2 = ln ax. f1x2 = ln xn 52. (a) 5. log 10000 20. f1x2 = ln x 63. 1. log 25 x = 1/ 2 30.2.07). log 64 1/16 22. log x 1/16 = . f1x2 = ln x 3 49. log 1/3 27 21. 17. 14. f1x2 = ln x e 2x + x 2 + 1 In exercises 17 24 determine the value of the logarithm without the use of a calculator. log 2 32 23.4/3 29.12 In Exercises 45 57. log 25 125 In Exercises 25 30 find x 25. 1. log 3 x = 4 28.52 39.2x2 41. what are the ycoordinates when x = 1 and x = 8? 65.82). (b) 2.x2 42.71).3 * 10 6 33.912. Gordon. log 4 x = . inflection points and asymptotes. f1x2 = x ln x 61. 1.2 * 10 5 57. . .292. f1x2 = ln 4x 47. . f1x2 = 1ln x25 55.2 ln x 62. f1x2 = ln 3x 46.522. y = f1x2 = 3 log 2 x Applied Calculus for Business.4 * 10 11 (b) 1. (a) 3. 36. (a) Find the logarithmic regression function that best fits the following data set: (2.2. 16. log 1/4 x = 3/2 In Exercises 31 35 determine the pH of a solution with the given hydronium concentration. y = f1x2 = 2 log14x .65). 1.3 * 109 (b) 7. 15.2 * 107 (b) 2. determine f ¿ 1x2 45.12 37. Classify the solution as an acid base or almost neutral. Repeat the previous exercise for the data set: 12.1 * 1012 32. 60.1. 58. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.0. Inc. 0. f1x2 = ln1ln x2 In Exercises 58 59 determine the equation of the tangent line at the indicated xcoordinate. f1x2 = e x ln x 64. y = f1x2 = ln12x .5 Properties of Logarithmic Functions 43. Walter O.032. f1x2 = ln x 3 51. Economics. . f1x2 = e2x1ln x + 42 x = 1 In Exercises 60 63 sketch the graph of the given function.2 27. (4. (a) 4. using the first and second derivatives.
Moreover. and April Allen Materowski. we observed that if the derivative is zero (on some interval) then the function is a constant (on that interval). many of the calculations using logarithms are now no longer needed. . this logarithm may be easily computed. However.5. Inc. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. First. that is. They were able to be used for this purpose because of their basic properties which we shall discuss. Let A and B be positive numbers.g ¿ 1x2 = 0. Gordon. Walter O.g1x2 then D ¿ 1x2 = f ¿ 1x2 . Suppose in particular that f ¿ 1x2 = g ¿ 1x2 Let D1x2 = f1x2 .6 Properties of Logarithmic Functions » » » » » » » » » Multiplicative and Division Properties Exponential Property Derivatives Using the Properties Logarithmic Equations Exponential Equations Change of Base Derivatives in Different Bases Logarithmic Differentiation Calculator Tips Historically.g1x2 = c We are now in a position to prove the various properties of logarithms. Verification for any other base follows from the change of base theorem that we give later on this section and will be left as an exercise.Section 4. with the application of some simple properties. when logarithms were first defined. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. We can use this observation to show that if two functions have the same derivative. most calculators will indi2. these properties are invaluable in the study of the calculus of the logarithm. Economics. by Warren B. then log b AB = log b A + log b B log b A = log b A . base e. and Finance. With the appearance of the calculator. quotients and powers of large numbers. but 1620313221000 not all of them. We prove the properties for natural logarithms. proof of these properties is usually given by rewriting the logarithmic expression in exponential format (see Exercises 103 104). Wang. they differ at most by a constant. as we shall see.000000003 cate that this number is outside of its range. one of their most important uses was to calculate products. therefore. we recall that when we studied the first derivative test. here. Applied Calculus for Business.6 Properties of Logarithmic Functions * ** 373 4. it follows that D1x2 = c or f1x2 . we take a different approach.log b B B (1) (2) Multiplicative and Division Properties In college algebra. For example try to calculate ln .
ln 219. we obtain the reciprocal property of logarithms. we see that d d 1ln ax2 = 1ln x2 dx dx so we have ln ax . in particular. This result is true for x 7 0.ln a a (3) As a simple illustration.ln x = ln a or ln ax = ln a + ln x choose x = b and we have ln ab = ln a + ln b as required. consider ln ax. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Before we prove (2). Gordon. Similarly. and Finance. then we have 1 1 0 = ln 1 = ln a a # b = ln a + ln a a or ln Now.6 Properties of Logarithmic Functions To prove (1). (b) ln (11/17).ln x = c We next compute c. we have ln1271 # 4372 = ln 271 + ln 437. so we have c = ln a or ln ax .ln b b b b 1 = . we have that d 1 d 1 1 1ln ax2 = 1ax2 = a = ax dx ax x dx therefore. ln a 1 1 = ln a a # b = ln a + ln = ln a . 357 = ln 357 . so we have ln a . (c) ln . choose x = 1. From the generalized rule. (d) log a # b 17 57 69 Solution (a) using (1). by Warren B. ln 219 Example 1 Write the given expression as a sum and difference of logarithms 221 # 352 29 # 37 (a) log 1211 # 3292. Applied Calculus for Business. Inc. we have log1211 # 3292 = log 211 + log 329. Suppose we let b = 1/a.374 * ** Section 4. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. using (3). Walter O. Wang. we can prove (2). . and April Allen Materowski. Economics.ln 1 = c but ln 1 = 0.
and April Allen Materowski.r ln x = c this is true for all x 7 0. Walter O. which gives c = 0 therefore ln xr . Using the generalized logarithmic rule. Suppose r is any real number and A 7 0.Section 4. Gordon. Wang. then we have by (1) log b A3 = log b A # A # A = log b A + log b A + log b A = 3 log b A The general case is proven as follows. C 7 0 log b A .B2. giving ln 1 . There are no rules for simplifying the logarithm of a sum or difference! We only have rules for simplifying logarithms of products and quotients. say r = 3.log 57 . by Warren B. then we have log b Ar = r log b A (4) Exponential Property This property is the natural generalization of the multiplicative property.r ln 1 = c. Economics. The rules generalize. . B. we now use (1) to obtain 17 ln (d) 221 # 352 = ln1221 # 3522 . and Finance. Similarly.sign log 29 + log 37 . Inc. we have that ln = ln1221 # 3522 . if r is an integer. log b B then log b1ABC2 = log b1A2 + log b1B2 + log b1C2 Another useful property of logarithms is in the simplification of exponents.ln 17 17 29 # 37 property 122 b = 57 # 69 property 112 log129 # 372 . We have not given any rules to simplify expressions like log b1A + B2 or log b1A .r ln x = 0 or ln xr = r ln x Applied Calculus for Business. For example. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.6 Properties of Logarithmic Functions * ** 375 (b) using (2) we have ln111/172 = ln 11 . so choose x = 1. ln xr . 2.ln 17 = ln 221 + ln 352 . there are no simplification rules for product and quotient expressions like 1log b A21log b B2 or 3.log 69 Notes: 1. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.ln 17. verify that we have d d 1ln xr2 = 1r ln x2 dx dx therefore.1log 57 + log 692 = distribution of the . for example if A.log157 # 692 = log a log 29 + log 37 .ln 17. 221 # 352 (c) Using (2).
Economics. Example 4 Find f ¿ 1x2 if f1x2 = ln x3. products and quotients into sums and differences. Solution 1 3 log x + 1 2 log y . and Finance. (c) log 2 x2y 3.A log w 3 + log z2 B = log x3y 2 . and by the constant multiplier rule. Note that using the properties of logarithms change powers into constant multipliers. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Inc. z 7 0). Solution We could differentiate directly.10 ln w . but note that f1x2 = 3 ln x. (b) we rewrite ln 1x = ln x2 = 1 2 ln x. (b) ln 1x.3 log w . we have log 2 x2y 3 = log 2 x2 + log 2 y 3 = 1 2 log 2 x + 3 log 2 y 1 1 1 1 x4 1 3y w10 1z (Assume w. we have that f ¿ 1x2 = 311/x2 = 3/x. Applied Calculus for Business.376 * ** Section 4. Wang.3 log w . (d) ln Solution (a) using (3). Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Gordon.ln w 10z2 = ln x4 + ln y 3 . .6 Properties of Logarithmic Functions Example 2 Simplify (a) log x3. Walter O.2 ln z 1 Using property (4) Distributing the minus sign Example 3 1 Rewrite the following as a single logarithm: 3 log x + 1 2 log y . and April Allen Materowski.2 log z = log x3 + log y 2 . by Warren B. we have that log x3 = 3 log x. as illustrated in the following examples. Using the exponential property (d) ln x4 1 3y w10 1z 1 = ln x4y 3 w 10z2 1 1 1 = Rewriting radicals as exponents Using property (2) 1 ln x4y 3 .log w 3z2 = log + x3y 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 Using property (4) Using property (2) Using property (1) w 3 z2 * = b log a x3 1y 1 3 wz2 Rewriting exponents as radicals Derivatives Using the Properties The properties of logarithms are often useful when used in conjugation with the derivative rules.A ln w 10 + ln z2 B = 1 4 ln x + 1 3 ln y . (c) Using (1). x. y.2 log z.
log 313x . . and x2 = 4 (verify this!). Wang. this is nonsense. and April Allen Materowski. Gordon. Applied Calculus for Business. 1 f1x2 = ln A x5 22x + 1 B = ln x5 + ln12x + 122 = 5 ln x + 2 ln12x + 12 1 Therefore. Checking the second root.6 Properties of Logarithmic Functions * ** 377 Example 5 Find f ¿ 1x2 if f1x2 = ln A x 5 22x + 1 B . therefore. We now write this expression in exponential format as 23 = x13x .182 = 1 using (2) to obtain log 3 12x + 92 = 1 13x . log 2 4 + log 2 2 = 3 or log 2 22 + log 2 2 = 3 2 log 2 2 + log 2 2 = 3 3 log 2 2 = 3 This.182 Logarithmic Equations we rewrite this expression in exponential format as 12x + 92 = 31 = 3 13x . Walter O. of course. Example 6 Solve each of the following equations for x.2/3.102 = 3. (a) log 2 x + log 213x . Substituting .Section 4. Solution We have using the properties. Consider the following example. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Inc. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. We must check our solutions. Economics. and Finance. clearing fractions.182 or.10x .182 = 1 Solutions (a) we use property (1) to rewrite log 2 x + log 213x .log 313x .2/3 for x we have in the first term the logarithm of a negative number. since the logarithm is only defined for positive numbers. f ¿ 1x2 = 5 # 1 + x 1 2 1 5 1 11x + 5 [2] = + = x 2x + 1 2x + 1 x12x + 12 The above properties are useful in solving various kinds of logarithmic equations.102 or 8 = 3x2 .102 = 3 as log 2 x13x .102 = 3 (b) log 312x + 92 .8 The solutions to this quadratic equation are x1 = . checks since log 2 2 = 1. (b) We rewrite log 312x + 92 . by Warren B. we reject this answer.10x or 0 = 3x2 .
Example 8 Solve for x: 52 + 3x = 94 . then it follows from the logarithm being a onetoone function that A = B. Exponential Equations You will recall that we solved special exponential equations where we were able to reduce each exponent to the same base. so we expected our result to be smaller than 2. and April Allen Materowski. Economics. We leave the checking as an exercise for you. then log b A = log b B. We now illustrate how this is used to solve exponential equations. by Warren B.6 Properties of Logarithmic Functions 2x + 9 = 9x . we have that ln 4x = ln 15 Using (3) we have x ln 4 = ln 15 or x = ln 15 L 1. Gordon. .95345 ln 4 Note that 42 = 16. We can now illustrate how to solve exponential equations of the more general type.) Using the exponential property. Example 7 Solve the equation 4x = 15.2x Solution We take the logarithm of each side of the equation to obtain ln 512 + 3x2 = ln 914 . conversely if log b A = log b B.378 * ** Section 4. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Walter O.2x2 ln 9 or 2 ln 5 + 3x ln 5 = 4 ln 9 .2x ln 9 we isolate the x terms by transposing to obtain 3x ln 5 + 2x ln 9 = 4 ln 9 . Solution Since 4x = 15. Inc. We first observe that if A and B are positive numbers then A * B is equivalent to log b A * log b B (4) Clearly if A = B. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and Finance.2x2 (Note the use of parentheses to avoid errors. we have 12 + 3x2 ln 5 = 14 . Wang.2 ln 5 Applied Calculus for Business. or x = 9.54 7x = 63.
We solve this exponential equation by taking the logarithm of each side of the equation Thus.193958432 years is equal to 0.173127399 years.12/12212t. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.01212t = 12t ln 1.65 = ln11. (a) We have. ln 1. (b) continuously? Solution Let t be the time in years.12t = 0.327501194 months. A = P11 + r/n2nt. we find that t = 4 years 2 months and 3 days. the expression for x my be rewritten using the properties of logarithms as 6561 25 L 0.327501194 # 30 days = 9. t = ln 1. by Warren B.650 = 11.82503552 days.12t 1remember.01212t. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.193958432 # 12 months = 2.603943.193958432 years. and April Allen Materowski. or t = ln 1.327501194 months = 0. assuming 30 days per month. or 1.603943 1Verify this!2 x = ln 10125 ln In the next example we use the properties of logarithms to determine the time it takes an investment to reach a specified accumulation.01. using the compound interest formula.65/0.5. (b) Using A = Pert we have 1650 = 1000e0.12 = 4. To the nearest day. Are you surprised that the difference is only seven days? Applied Calculus for Business. Economics. even if the decimal portion is less than 0.65/112 ln 1. Inc.12t. Example 9 How long does it take $1000 to accumulate to $1650 if money is earning interest at a rate of 12% per year. .12t ln e = 0. Banks always round up to the nearest day. 0. Alternately. compounded (a) monthly.2 ln 5 or x = 4 ln 9 . ln 1. or 1. This gives 2 months and the remaining fraction. Gordon. Wang.012 = 4.65 = ln e0. we have.Section 4. and Finance. Walter O. t = 4 years 2 months and 10 days.65 = e0. 0.2 ln 5 3 ln 5 + 2 ln 9 We may evaluate this expression with a calculator to find that x L 0. Thus.6 Properties of Logarithmic Functions * ** 379 or x13 ln 5 + 2 ln 92 = 4 ln 9 .12t Taking logarithms. We may compute t to the nearest day as follows: The fraction. 1650 = 100011 + 0. ln e = 12 or.
The method used was indirect since calculators do not provide a base two key.0824 = 8. we let log b N = x We write this in exponential format as bx = N We take the logarithm of this expression to any other base a. What rate of interest did it earn? Solution Since interest is compounded continuously. Walter O. we have. and Finance. using base e. and April Allen Materowski. Let log 2 7 = x. When applying (5). Using base e. ln N ln b (5b) Applied Calculus for Business. by Warren B. Economics. there is a simple way to change the base of any logarithm to any other convenient base.6 Properties of Logarithmic Functions Example 10 $1000 is deposited into an account for 9 years in a bank that pays interest compounded continuously. To prove (5). Taking logarithms of each side of the equation (to base e). that is log a bx = log a N We now use the exponential property and have x log a b = log a N or x = log a N log a b proving the theorem. We have the following theorem: log b N * log a N log a b (5a) where a and b and positive numbers different from 1 and N 7 0. Inc.380 * ** Section 4.1 = 9r. we have 2x = 7. Gordon. . we usually choose a to be e as this base is most accessible on most calculators. Wang. However.1 9 ln 2. we rewrite (5a) as log b N = Example 11 Use your calculator to obtain log 2 7.24% Change of Base In the previous section. we sketched the graph of a logarithmic function to base two. r = ln 2. the account contains $2100. then in exponential form. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. L 0. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. At the end of that time. Solution We will rederive the result in the context of this example.1 = e9r Taking the natural logarithm. we have 2100 = 1000e9r 2.
6 Properties of Logarithmic Functions * ** 381 ln 2x = ln 7 or x ln 2 = ln 7 or x = ln 7 L 2. in Example 5 of the previous section.80735 ln 2 With the above in mind. Solution We change the base.Section 4. it is a simple matter to now plot the graph of functions to bases other than e or ten as we illustrate in the next example. These points are plotted and the graph is given in Figure 1.17 4 y = f( x ) = 2 log 2 x Figure 1: The Graph of y = f 1x2 = 2 log2 x Applied Calculus for Business. and April Allen Materowski. Inc. and using (5) or (5b).25 0. we have log 2 x = Table 1: Points used in Graphing y = f 1x2 = 2 log 2 x x 0. ln x . by Warren B. Wang. y = f1x2 = . Walter O. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and Finance. The values are given in Table 1. Gordon. ln 2 2 ln x therefore. with a = e. We need only choose a reasonable number of xvalues to ln 2 find the yvalues. Note that this is the identical function plotted. Economics. and then plot these points to obtain the graph. Example 12 Sketch the graph of y = f1x2 = 2 log 2 x. . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.5 1 2 3 4 y = 2 ln x ln 2 4 2 0 2 3. The yvalues are rounded to the nearest hundredth. indirectly.
this factor is 1. we have d 1 1log b x2 = x ln b dx and by the chain rule. Economics. Inc. you need only rewrite the problem by changd 1 d ln x 1 d 1 1 ing the base. Gordon. we now have the following: (7) d d 1log 7 x2 (b) 1log 31x 2 + 922. In base e. In any other base. using dx (5b) we may write 1 d d ln x 1 d 1 1 1log b x2 = a b = 1ln x2 = = dx ln b ln b dx ln b x x ln b dx (Remember. dx dx Applied Calculus for Business. Consider 1log b x2. Example 13 Determine (a) Solution d 1 1log 7 x2 = x ln 7 dx d 2 d 1 1 2x 1log 31x 2 + 922 = 2 1x + 92 = 2 [2x] = 2 (b) dx 1x + 92 ln 3 dx 1x + 92 ln 3 1x + 92 ln 3 (a) We note that if you forget (6) all is not lost. and April Allen Materowski. there exists a constant k such that b = ek To determine k. That is. for any differentiable function u. 1ln 7 x2 = a b = 1ln x2 = = . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and Finance. it is now a straightforward matter to determine the ded rivative of a logarithmic function with respect to any base. We remarked in an earlier section that any base b may be converted to base e. ln b is a constant so we used the constant multiplier rule. (6) has the extra constant factor ln b.) Thus. d 1 du 1logb u2 = u ln b dx dx (6b) (6a) It is clear why we prefer to work in base e. by Warren B. . Wang. we have k = ln b or bx = 1ek2x = exk = ex ln b Therefore d x d d x ln b 1b 2 = 1e 2 = ex ln b 1x ln b2 = bx ln b dx dx dx Note that we used (7) in rewriting the expression ex ln b as bx. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. With the chain rule.382 * ** Section 4.6 Properties of Logarithmic Functions Derivatives in Different Bases With the change of base theorem. for example. Walter O. giving a simpler result. we need only take the logarithm of each side of this equation. dx dx ln 7 ln 7 dx ln 7 x x ln 7 We can now consider the derivative of the exponential function to any base. ln b = ln ek = k ln e = k thus.
Walter O.2x + 16 = 2 [2] [6x] = = 2 2 y dx 2x + 1 3 3x + 4 2x + 1 3x + 4 12x + 1213x2 + 42 or dy 8x2 . we could have written 2x = ex ln 2 and proceed directly to find the derivative. we have 1 1 1 dy 1 4 2x 8x2 .ln13x 2 + 423 = 2 ln12x + 12 . Logarithmic differentiation is useful when y involves products and quotients. Remember. . Economics.2x + 16 = y dx 12x + 1213x2 + 42 substituting for y. unnecessary if we use equations (5) and (7). we may easily convert to base e using these results. Equations (6) and (8) are. d x3 d 3 3 3 A 2 B = 2x ln 2 1x32 = 2x ln 2[3x2] = x2 A 2x 3 ln 2 B . using (8). and if A and B are positive then it follows that ln A = ln B. Write ln y = ln f1x2 2.ln13x 2 + 42 2 3 2 3 3x + 4 differentiating. Solve for dy dx 1 1 dy = f ¿ 1x 2 f1x2 y dx Logarithmic Differentiation Example 15 Use logarithmic differentiation to find 12x + 122 dy if y = . Example 14 d x3 Determine A2 B. Wang. if A = B. this method is valid when f1x2 6 0. differentiate implicitly to obtain 3. Inc. dx 2 3 3x2 + 4 Solution We have 12x + 122 1 1 ln y = ln a b = ln12x + 122 . we have 18x2 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Given the function defined by the equation y = f1x2. therefore. However. Equations (5) and (7) essentially state that we really don t need to ever use any base other than e. If one is given to us. Gordon. This method is called logarithmic differentiation.Section 4. We first assume that f1x2 7 0. It is also useful when no other method seems applicable. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.2x + 16212x + 12 dy # = = dx 12x + 1213x 2 + 42 13x 2 + 421/3 13x2 + 424/3 Applied Calculus for Business. and April Allen Materowski. dx Solution We have.2x + 162 12x + 122 18x2 . see Exercise 94. dx dx 3 3 Again. and Finance. The procedure is as follows: Given y = f1x2 1.6 Properties of Logarithmic Functions * ** 383 d x 1b 2 = bx ln b dx du d u 1b 2 = bu ln b dx dx (8) where u is a differentiable function of x. by Warren B. sometimes it is convenient to find the derivative by first taking the logarithm of each side of the equation.
) To use the calculator to find derivatives of exponential and logarithmic expressions. we have ln y = ln xx or ln y = x ln x therefore. log 10x2y3 x 3y 4 6.384 * ** Section 4.6 In Exercises 1 1. Economics. ln 1xy2 9. by the product rule. with x 7 0.x) and press Enter (Remember. log4 1 4z x5 1 3 yz5 12. as the base is not a constant. you need only enter lg(3. log6 1wv5r9 Applied Calculus for Business. log 2xy3 10. Taking logarithms. ln 5 z 12 write the given expression as a sum of logarithms 7. log 2 xy 2 4. by Warren B. x). Nor is this an exponential function. you need only enter d(f(x). ln x5 2 4 y3 10 x 1 3y 11. Gordon.6 Properties of Logarithmic Functions In the previous example. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. the quotient rule could have been used to obtain the derivative. x EXERCISE SET 4. 1 1 y ¿ = x c d + ln x[1] = 1 + ln x y x or y ¿ = 11 + ln x2y = 11 + ln x2xx Calculator Tips Note that y = xx = eln x = ex ln x. We could place into the calculator s memory the logarithm to any base as follows: on the entry line in the home screen enter LN(x)/LN(b) sto lg(b. log 3 y 3. and April Allen Materowski. dx Solution Note that the power rule may not be used because the power is not a constant. but note how much simpler it was to use the logarithmic properties and then find the derivative. (Remember for approximate answers press * Enter. Walter O. nothing new need be done. LN is in orange above X) Now if you want to compute say log 3 7. log 3x 2 2. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and Finance. Example 16 Use logarithmic differentiation to find dy if y = xx. .7) and the calculator produces the correct result. where f(x) is the expression to be differentiated. log1xy 22 5.. Inc. and we may use the generalized exponential rule to find the derivative. ln x3y4z5 8. Wang.
y = ln x9 71. y = 4 . log 4 14. 31.2 log 5 3 22.12 + log 31x + 12] In Exercises 31 35 compute the value of the given logarithm. (b) quadruple. Inc. 28.2x 49. log 5 20 In Exercises 36 51 solve for x 36. log 10 15. log 3 7 33. Sketch the graph of the function defined by y = f1x2 = log 4 x. (c) monthly. 4[ln x . 1/ 2 log 6 25 + 2 log 6 3 21. log 314x + 32 . log1x + 32 + log1x + 22 = log 20 38. log 2 12 32. log 212x + 12 . y = ln 2 3 5x + 7 75. 67. Economics.22. 64. 19.3% compounded quarterly to reach a total accumulation of $2350? 54.3x = 94x . 1/ 2 log x + 2 log y . What interest rate compounded continuously did a $275 investment earn if it accumulated to $540 in 12 years? 61.2[log 31x . 5 log x + 1 3 log y .4 ln w . y = ln1x ln x2 84.log 312x + 12 = 2 41.000 investment earn if it accumulated to $18.2 3 log w 26.5 48. Gordon.4x = 1 2 85. and April Allen Materowski. 2x .ln1x + 12] . For how long must $2200 be left on deposit at 9. 3 = 32 46. by Warren B. 66. 124x + 3 = 157 . y = ln A 3x4 2 5 2x2 + 9 B 83.4 ln y 24. log 4 11 34.12 = 1 44. = 1 4x . What interest rate compounded continuously did a $15. log 16 18.12] . y = 32x 78. y = ln 8x5 73. (e) continuously? 57.16 # 2x = 3 2 x x x 79. Sketch the graph of the function defined by y = f1x2 = log 415x + 22. 10 log13x + 42 In Exercises 67 88 use the properties of logarithms to find the derivative. log 25 17. (d) daily.6 In Exercises 13 18 use log 2 = 0. y = ln 15x 69. y = ln 23x2 + 5 4x5 24x2 + 3 2x3 50.x 47. y = ln x6 70. log 213x + 22 + log 215x . y = ln 4x 68. y = log2 Applied Calculus for Business. What interest rate compounded continuously did a $1000 investment earn if it accumulated to $1250 in 3 years? 59. 52 . log 20 16.2 ln1x + 52] 29. 4x + 2 = 32 . 3[log 31x + 12 . 4x = 23 45. 65. 63.5 ln v 2 27.Section 4.2x x2 + 1 2 81. 4 log x . 13. log x + log1x + 12 = log 12 37. . 3 ln x + 2 ln y 23. 2 ln x . B ln1x + 32 + ln1x + 12 . For how long must $700 be left on deposit at 6% compounded monthly to reach a total accumulation of $1750? 53. and Finance. y = log7 x5 77. Hint: It might be easier if you use the properties of logarithms first.log 213x .6990 and the properties of logarithms to compute the given logarithm.17 log z .1 2 [ln x . log 400 In Exercises 19 30 combine the given expression into a single logarithm. 2 log 5 12 .72 = 3 43.log 3 2 20. For how long must $900 be left on deposit at 7.ln1x + 12] 30.2 log 31x . Walter O. eln12x . y = ln 22x + 1 74.3 log z 25. log 1/3 6 35.3010 and log 5 = 0.12 # 3 51.log b B.65% compounded continuously to reach a total accumulation of $3200? 56. How long would it take money to double itself if it is earning interest at 11% compounded (a) semiannually. y = 23x 2 = 1 42.2 log y + 1/ 2 log z . do not use a calculator. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. earning 8% compounded continuously? 58. How long would it take for an investment to (a) triple. (b) quarterly.000 in 5 years? 60.5 log w Properties of Logarithmic Functions * ** 385 52. y = ln A x 3 23x + 1 B 82. Sketch the graph of the function defined by y = f1x2 = log 213x . Prove log b A = log b A . log1x + 12 + log1x . y = x342x 80. 2 log 3 4 . y = ln 5x6 72.12 = 1 40. Sketch the graph of the function defined by y = f1x2 = log 312x + 12.62 = 5 39. 1 4 ln 1 4 [3 2 x + 2 3 ln y + 3 ln z . 3 . Wang. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. What interest rate compounded continuously did a $1500 investment earn if it accumulated to $4500 in 18 years? 62. For how long must $1700 be left on deposit at 6% compounded continuously to reach a total accumulation of $3200? 55. y = log3 x2 76.
Given P1x2 = F1x2/S1x2. y = 1x2 + 524 25x + 7 13x . let x = log b A then bx = A or 1bx2r = Ar bxr = Ar rewrite this exponential in logarithmic format as log b Ar = rx conclude log b Ar = r log b A In Exercises 93 95. y = x2x 92. Then it was found in Section 4. Walter O. 93. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 89.) 4 2 2 3 4. Let y = bx.386 * ** Section 4.7 2x3 2x2 + 4 2 3 3x + 7 x312x + 124 2 Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 102. where t represents time. 98. that is. use logarithmic differentiation to find the derivative. by Warren B. (3) and (4) are true for any base. Hint: write y = f1x2 . and April Allen Materowski. Use logarithmic differentiation to obtain the usual quotient rule. dx 100. (2). Write xx as ex ln x to find its derivative. further. dy 99. differentiate implicitly and then determine the equation of the tangent line to the curve defined by the given equation at the indicated point. 1) 95. To prove (1) directly from the laws of exponents. 101. y . Given P1x2 = F1x2S1x2. Wang. where F and S are differentiable functions. Use logarithmic differentiation to obtain the usual product rule. using the change of base theorem. let x = log b A and y = log b B by rewriting each logarithm in exponential format.8xy = 0 12.4 that the only nontrivial function that satisfies this equation is Applied Calculus for Business. Economics. log b AB = x + y = log b A + log b B 104. f ¿ 1x2 = kf1x2. and therefore y = ln1ax + b2 is a translation of y = ln x.2x ln y = . x2 ln xy + x 4 . 105. x2 + y3 = 1 + ln1x 2 + 12 + ln y (0. To prove (4) using the properties of the exponential. Prove (2) using the same approach as in the previous exercise. . y = ln 88. Gordon. Show that (1). Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. that the rate of change of the function at any time t is proportional to the function at that time. show = bx ln b. y = x ex AB = bxby next show AB = bx + y and finally. (See Example 16.1 90. take logarithms and differentiate. and Finance. y = x2 + 1 91. using logarithmic differentiation. 1) 96.7 Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions » » » » » » » » Exponential Growth Population Growth Continuous Compounding Radioactive Decay Carbon Dating Logistic Growth Richter Scale Calculator Tips Let y = f1t2. where F and S are differentiable functions. 1/ 22 94. y = ln 87. y = ln 25x + 4 4x713x2 + 8210 22x2 + 5 12x5 + 925 2 4 3x2 + 1 2 In Exercises 89 92. Show that ln1ax + b2 = ln1x + b/a2 + ln a. Show that if y = f1x2 and f1x2 6 0 then logarithmic differentiation is valid. Suppose.8x + 4x y + y (2. Inc. 97. 103. show that A = bx and B = by then 86.228 24x .
P1t2 = 10000ekt (a) When t = 2.000. f(0) will be the initial mass. yielding 21000 = 10000e0. by Warren B. 2. we have f102 = C. For example. Often. Therefore. We noted that C had a simple but special interpretation. If the initial culture has a population of 10. and Finance. P0 = P102 = 10. Walter O. C is called the initial value. Thus. Here is a specific example. If f(t) represents the mass of some substance at time t. We saw that any application modeled by equation (1) is said to exhibit exponential growth if k 7 0.7 = ln e2k ln 1. depending upon its sign. and so on.000. the rate of change of population is proportional to the population itself at any time.Section 4.265314 1to six decimal places2.265314152 L 37. then we may rewrite (1) as P1t2 * P0e kt (2) Exponential Growth Population Growth which is simply equation (1) with P(t) replacing f(t) and P0 replacing C. we have for this model. or decay if k 6 0.72/2 L 0. and April Allen Materowski. if f(t) represents a population at time t. k is called the growth or decay constant. ln 1.1 = e0.7 Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions * ** 387 f1t2 = Ce kt (1) Where C and k are constants to be determined by the specific application. Then we have P1t2 = P0ekt.265314t (b) Substituting t = 5. Wang. often written as m0. Inc. Let us begin our measurements at t = 0.000 and in two hours it has increased to 17. Since e0 = 1. Gordon. P152 = 10000e0.7 = e2k We solve this exponential equation using logarithms. we can calculate directly.265314t Dividing by 10000. Substituting t = 0 into (1) we have that f102 = Ce0. Economics. . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. we have 17000 = 10000e2k or 1.681 1to the nearest integer2 (c) To find the time at which P1t2 = 21. we substitute for P(t).7 = 2k ln e = 2k k = 1ln 1. since P102 = 10. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. However. Example 1 The rate of change at which a bacterial culture increases is proportional to the population at that instant. P1t2 = 10000e0. often written as P0.000 (a) determine its growth constant. If we let P(t) represent the population at time t.000.265314t Applied Calculus for Business.000? Solution Let P(t) represent the population of the culture at time t. (b) What will be its size in 5 hours? (c) How long does it take to reach a size of 21. f(0) will be the initial population.
we have that r = 11. we have t = 1ln 2.265314t = 0.265314t and solving. the initial amount. we have 1500 = 1200e2r or 1. Scientists have been able to determine the halflife of radioactive elements. we can determine the decay constant k as the next example illustrates. radioactive decay is also modeled by (1). Thus. suppose that an initial investment of $1200 grows to $1500 in 2 years.388 * ** Section 4. Therefore. to continuous compounding of interest. P. fossils. if we let m(t) be the mass present at time t. we have. Gordon.79645 hours. Economics. Radioactive Decay It has been established by physical observations that the rate at which a radioactive element decays is proportional to the amount present at any time. ln 1. of course. Continuous Compounding Interestingly. Applied Calculus for Business. m1t2 * m 0e kt (3) It is obvious that this exponential decay property has significant ecological importance in planning for storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. Example 2 Suppose the rate at which an investment grows is proportional to the investment at that instant. We refer. the supposition of continuous compounding of interest is equivalent to the condition that the rate of growth of an investment is proportional to the amount present at any time. and Finance. .25 = ln e2r = 2r ln e = 2r or r = 1ln 1. Given the halflife. As you recall. corresponds to the growth constant k.7 Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Taking logarithms. is just A(0). Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and the principal. determine the interest rate. Thus. Walter O. which is the time it takes for a given mass to decay to onehalf its original size.12/0. we find that ln 2. Inc. we have already encountered an example of exponential growth. r.1 = ln e0. with m(t) replacing f(t) and m0 replacing C.111572 or writing r as a percent.265314 L 2. by Warren B. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.252/2 L 0. the basic relationship is A * Pe rt (3) You can see that the rate. Solution From (3). and artifacts. It is also widely used by geologists and archeologists interested in dating ancient rock strata. In particular.16% (to the nearest one hundredth of a percent). The next example illustrates the application of exponential growth to finance. Wang.25 = e2r Using logarithms. which is about 2 hours 47 minutes and 47 seconds. and April Allen Materowski.
1ln 0. that is m0 = 2.25 Where t is to be determined. That is. Gordon. we have ln e24k = ln 0. then m1t2 = 0. how old are the remains? Solution Let m0 = 1. which is radioactive.0.457 years old. and Finance. The idea behind this method is very clever.5 or 24k ln e = 24k = ln 0. and April Allen Materowski. Then in 24 days we should have half that amount or 1 gram.52/5745 L . After the plant dies. as in the previous example. Walter O. Solution Assume we begin with two grams of Thorium. . 0. it stops taking in new carbon. Knowing that the halflife of radioactive Carbon is approximately 5745 years. that its decay constant k = 1ln 0. Carbon Dating Applied Calculus for Business.52/24 = . find its decay constant. Example 4 Archeologists found remains of an ancient campfire in which the amount of radioactive Carbon in the wood fragments is 25% the normal amount. Inc. Wang. we are able to determine. they absorb the carbon. we have ln 0.Section 4. A certain fraction of all the carbon in the world is Carbon 14. for t = 24 days. the amount of Carbon 14 remaining in anything made of wood will depend upon the age of the article.5 Taking logarithms. the remains are approximately 11. by Warren B. Thus.5 or k = 1ln 0.0.7 Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions * ** 389 Example 3 The halflife of Thorium 234 is approximately 24 days. The next example illustrates the method. Economics.000121.000121 L 11457 That is.252/0. Substituting into (3) yields 1 = 2e24k or e24k = 0.02888 Archeologists are able to determine the age of an artifact by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon it contains.000121t Taking logarithms.25 = 112e0.000121t or t = .25 = . When plants breath in carbon dioxide. which becomes incorporated into the plant s cells.0. Thus. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. we have m1242 = 1. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.
Figure 1: A Typical Logistic Growth Curve This means that. t has the units of time. Wang. and April Allen Materowski. everyone must be infected. Gordon. it appears that at the inflection point p is about 1/2. replacing C by f(0). Walter O. Inc. in real epidemics not everyone becomes infected. On the other hand. Of course. therefore. k is measured in 1/days. Applied Calculus for Business. Observe that p(0) represents the fraction of the population infected at time 0. It is an exercise in differentiation to show that p1t2 = 1 1 + Ce kt (4) When k 7 0. However it is related to an exponential type of growth. Then a model often used in determining the spread of the disease is given by the equation dp = kp11 . Suppose p(t) is the fraction or percentage of the population infected at time t. and in Example 3. this can be explained by defining p(t) to be the fraction of the susceptible population. the right hand side is f(0) ekt. k has units 1/hours. In our model we must have 0 p102 1.p1t2. You will note that in Example 4. This is not exponential growth. therefore. In fact. k is measured in 1/years. 1 . we measure t in years. eventually. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. since it represents a fraction of the total population. However.390 * ** Section 4. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2/5 = 3/5 is not infected. this is called logistic growth. Thus. if t is measured in hours.p2 dt This says that the rate at which the infection spreads at time t is proportional to the product of the fraction infected and the fraction not infected at that time. Notice that in (1). and Finance. Consider the growth of an epidemic in an isolated community. k must have the units 1/time. years. thus ekt is a dimensionless quantity. Therefore C Ú 0. A typical logistic growth curve is given in Figure 1. Economics. by Warren B.) For example if 2/5 of the population is infected. Also note that as t gets very large 1t : q 2 we e kt : 0. it was measured in days.7 Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Logistic Growth A word about units. and so on. (The fraction not infected at time t is 1 . it is left as an exercise (Exercise 41) to show that (4) will always have 1/2 at its inflection point. and. p(t) approaches one. With such a redefinition. people with natural or other immunity are dropped from the pool. Note that in Figure 1. if t is measured in days. f(0) has the same units as f(t). Substituting into (4) gives p102 = 1/11 + C2. .
as follows 3 1 = 4 1 + 3e0.Section 4. If 25% of the population is infected on March 1.5 = 0.2e 2k = 0. Thus. we find C = 3.34657t = 4 or e 0. 1 9 Applied Calculus for Business. p1t2 = 1 1 + 3e kt 1 1 + 3e2k We find k by using the information that when t = 2. Walter O.4 = Clearing fractions yields 0.75 = 3/4 and solve for t.339916 weeks .7 Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions * ** 391 Example 5 Assume logistic growth as given in (4). substituting into (4). Inc.5 Taking logarithms and solving for k. how long will it be before 75% of the population is infected? Solution We let t = 0 correspond to March 1. Gordon. by Warren B. 2 days and 9 hours. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 3 + 9e 0. and Finance.34657t We need to find the time at which p1t2 = 75%. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Therefore.4 + 1. Economics. We are given that p102 = 25% = 1/ 4.34657t or clearing fractions. to the nearest hour. Wang. we have p1t2 = 1 1 + 3e 0. and assume that t is measured in weeks. Thus.34657t = solving.34657 ln or. 1 9 t = L 6.0.4. we substitute p1t2 = . 0. p122 = 40% = 0.34657 Thus. .2e 2k = 1 1. k = .6 e2k = 0. and April Allen Materowski.A 1/ 2 B ln 0. we have 1 1 = 4 1 + C solving for C. and two weeks later 40% of the population is infected. t = 6 weeks.
9 Over 8 Earthquake Effects Recorded but generally not felt Felt.0 7. Example 6 The 1906 earthquake in San Francisco measured 8. .518.4 Under 6. Often results in major damage to poorly constructed buildings over small areas. Determine the energy of the earthquake. Major earthquake.25 L 1.23 * 1019 = 11. The relationship is given by the (base 10) logarithmic equation log E * 11. by Warren B. we shall see that each whole number step in the magnitude scale corresponds to the release of almost 32 times more energy than the amount associated with the preceding whole number value. and April Allen Materowski. Can cause serious damage over larger areas Great earthquake.5M or 19. As a result of the logarithmic basis of the scale.8 + 1.9 Example 8 Compare the relationship in energy between two earthquakes who magnitude differs by 1 on the Richter Scale. Applied Calculus for Business.7 Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Richter Scale In 1935 Charles Richter working with Dr.0 6.78 * 1024 ergs. Inc.5 3.392 * ** Section 4. Economics.5M (5) where E is measured in ergs.3 in (5) we have log E = 11. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Can cause serious damage in areas several hundred miles across Example 7 What is the Richter magnitude of an earthquake whose energy is 1.8 + 1. Destructive in areas up to about 65 miles across.32 = 24. Table 1: Richter Magnitude and Earthquake Effects Richter Magnitude (M) Less than 3.1 6.5M or to the nearest tenth. Gordon. Walter O.25 Rewriting this expression in exponential format. and Finance.9 7. Table 1 indicates the relationship between the magnitude of an earthquake and its effects. Solution Substituting M = 8. Usually.3 on the Richter scale.5 5. Wang.23 * 1019 ergs? Solution Substituting into (5). Beno Gutenberg developed a relationship between the magnitude M of an earthquake and the amount of energy E it radiates. we have E = 1024. but rarely causes any damage.0899 = 11. we have log 1. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. minor damage to constructed buildings.8 + 1.8 + 1. M = 4.
8 + 1. E2 = 1.8 + 1. Inc. Note that we could find the inflection point of this graph with the calculator by pressing F5 (when in the graph window) then selecting Inflection. t = 6.51M + 12 Subtracting the first equation from the second. for the lower bound.34657t22 = 3/4.Section 4. move the cursor well to the left and press Enter. p1t2 = .34657t 4 1 + 3 e mand we have solve11/11 + 3e ¿1. and let E2 be the energy associated with an earthquake of magnitude M + 1.log E1 = 1. and then for the right bound. and April Allen Materowski. we have log E2 . Choosing an appropriate window (remember 0 p1t2 1) we have the graph in Figure 2. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. E2 = 101. Calculator Tips Figure 2: p1t2 = 1 1 + 3e 0324657t Applied Calculus for Business. joules or calories or footpounds. Using the solve com. move the cursor well to the right and press Enter. t2 the calculator gives us immediately.5 L 31. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Wang.6228 E1 or E2 L 31. Economics. 0. because the energy is being expressed in different units. we have log or in exponential form.5) as the inflection point. and Finance.5M and log E2 = 11. The calculator gives (3. 3 1 In Example 5.5 rewriting as a single logarithm. a difference of magnitude of 1 on the Richter scale translates into the energy being increased almost 32 times. then.7 Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions * ** 393 Solution Let E1 be the energy associated with an earthquake of magnitude M. .6228E1 Thus. We shall not deal with them here.0. Walter O. We can also have the calculator plot 1 this logistic curve. using (5). By entering this function into the Y = window 1 + 3e 0324657t with x replacing t. Gordon.5 E1 Note: Sometimes (5) may be given differently.33992. There are standard conversions from one system of units to the next. we needed to solve = for t. we have log E1 = 11. by Warren B.16996.
(c) 1982. Gordon. The rate of increase of money at a bank is proportional to the amount invested. 33. usually when advertising has been discontinued. How long will it be from time 0 before 1. A radioactive substance disintegrates at a rate proportional to the mass present at any instant. If the proportionality constant is 5 1/ 4% per year. (c) 1950. A radioactive substance has a halflife of 47 years.6.) 20.500. In Exercises 13 and 14 use . At what time will its circulation reach 500. 13. (b) In what year will the population of Lubbock reach 300.018. 34. 21. After four weeks 22% have caught the disease. TX was 149. and April Allen Materowski. Compare your predicted results with the actual population as given in Table 2.5 hours? 4. In a small isolated village with population 2. Initially. 23. and $1500 is invested initially.029 and a = 3.394 * ** Section 4.000? 5. Suppose that an epidemic of chicken pox hits a private elementary school.7 Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions EXERCISE SET 4.0.000 years. Furthermore. (a) Determine its decay constant. At what point will 90% of the students have succumbed to chicken pox? (Assume logistic growth. Suppose that the world population P(t) at time t is governed by equation (2).000? 18. 26. If an ancient wooden axe handle is found to have onetenth the amount of Carbon 14 that a new one would have. Determine the energy of an earthquake if its magnitude is 6.7. (a) Given that the decay constant for Radium is . letting 1970 be time zero.000428/year. The halflife of Potassium 40 is 1. the growth constant k = 2/hr. Economics. determine the population in: (a) 1970. (b) What will be left of a 22 kilogram sample after 15 years? 10.47 * 1020.6 1950 2. Determine the energy of an earthquake if its magnitude is 5.5 in their magnitude are related. Walter O. 9.000? 19.023/year. If the world population in 1960 was 3 billion. The rate at which an item depreciates is proportional to its value at that instant.3 billion years. What percent of the original Potassium 40 in the rock remains? 16.000 in 1980. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. find the function P(t) that describes the population of Lubbock. Table 2: World Population in Billions Year Population 1900 1. Suppose a magazine has an initial circulation of 1 million and two months later its circulation has decreased 10%. Determine how the energies of two earthquakes differing by 2.5 in their magnitude are related.5. Assume the growth constant for this culture is 3/hour. The population in 1960 was approximately 3 billion. . 24. how long will it take until the radiation level reaches 5% of the present level? 17. The population of Lubbock. The rate of change at any time t.67 * 1012.1.6 15. (in hours) of the number of bacteria in a culture. Determine the energy of an earthquake if its magnitude is 7.58 1982 4. Determine the energy of an earthquake if its magnitude is 3. (e) 1900. 36. Determine the magnitude of an earthquake if its energy in ergs is 3.000 villagers have a cold? 22.000121. 32. and its initial population is 5 million. 7% of the island population is infected. (d) 1900. 29. Determine how the energies of two earthquakes differing by 3.aP02e kt 6. P0k aP0 + 1k .3. Initially. If radioactive Carbon 14 has a halflife of approximately 5745 years. (b) 1982. what will be left of a 10 gram sample of Radium after 200 years? (b) What is the halflife of Radium? (c) What does this suggest to you about the safety of the dumping of Radium in our environment? 11. After 5 days.23 * 1019. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. equals twice the number of bacteria in the culture at that instant. Find the rate of interest earned by an investment that grows exponentially. and Finance. Assume in this model. suppose.5 in their magnitude are related. What is the population after 2. Under certain conditions. what percent of the original sample remains at the end of 10 years? 12.000. Inc.86 * 1021.000 and six months later it is valued at $14. verify that its decay constant is . How long does it take for the population to become 300 million? 3.8. and $3400 is invested initially: (a) What is the accumulation at the end of 6 1/ 4 years? (b) How long will it take until the value of the investment is $4950? 8. Determine the magnitude of an earthquake if its energy in ergs is 1. At the end of two weeks 180 villagers had a cold. k = 0. Assuming logistic growth. Determine how the energies of two earthquakes differing by 1. Determine the magnitude of an earthquake if its energy in ergs is 4. Determine how the energies of two earthquakes differing by 2 in their magnitude are related. Suppose that the rate of change at any time t. how long does it take for 80% of the island population to get infected. 30% are infected. If the proportionality constant is 6. (b) 1970. An ancient wood forklike instrument was found to have 3% of the amount of Carbon 14 that a new one would have. if a $1200 investment increases to $2700 in 9 1/ 2 years. 25. 31. of the number of bacteria is proportional to the population at any instant. Determine the energy of an earthquake if its magnitude is 8. If the average halflife of materials in a nuclear waste dump is 10. how old is the axe handle? 14. 3% of the students have caught the disease. that is. 28.000 it was discovered that at the end of 1 week 20 villagers had a cold. Predict the world population using this model in: (a) 1965.000121 as the decay constant for Carbon 14. what is the accumulation at the end of 10 years? 7. (a) What was the population of the culture two hours later? (b) How long would it take for the bacterial population to triple? 2. In 1837 the Dutch mathematician Pierre François Verhulst proposed a different model for population growth given by the logistic equation P1t2 = where P0 = P102.51 1970 3. Measles is found on an isolated island. the population is 250 million and three hours later the population is 275 million. The rate of increase of money at a bank is proportional to the amount invested. Using k = 0. If the disintegration rate is 0. it has been shown that sales of a product at any time will decrease at a rate proportional to the sales at that instant. The culture began with a bacteria population of 200. Determine the magnitude of an earthquake if its energy in ergs is 1. 27. The rate of increase of a euglena culture at any instant is proportional to the number of euglena present at that instant. when will it be valued at $10. initially.59 * 1018. Wang. Determine the energy of an earthquake if its magnitude is 4. (a) Assuming exponential growth.3% per year.7 1. 30. how old is the fork? Applied Calculus for Business.000 in 1970 and 174. by Warren B. (d) 1950. 35. If an item is presently valued at $15.0. A rock has been estimated to be 4 billion years old. (f) Letting t get very large.0.
Wang.6°F. (Assume t = 0 corresponds to 1960. How did she make this conclusion?. 40. 42. suppose soup whose temperature is 190°F is poured into a cup in a room whose temperature is 70°F. performed another measurement. dt CHAPTER REVIEW Key Ideas OnetoOne Function Horizontal Line Test Increasing and Decreasing Functions Inverse Function Composition Property Derivative of the Inverse Exponential Expressions The Graph of y = f1x2 = bx Solving Special Exponential Equation Finding the Exponential Function Growth and Decay Rates Power Function Continuous Compounding of Interest The Constant e The Simple Exponential Rule The Generalized Exponential Rule Exponential Domination Definition of a logarithm Base 10 and e pH of a Solution Graphing Logarithmic Functions The Simple logarithmic Rule The Generalized Logarithmic Rule Multiplicative and Division Properties Exponential Property Derivatives Using the Properties Logarithmic Equations Exponential Equations Change of Base Derivatives in Different Bases Logarithmic Differentiation Exponential Growth Population Growth Continuous Compounding Radioactive Decay Carbon Dating Logistic Growth Richter Scale Applied Calculus for Business. She returned to the body at the same spot in one hour.Tm2 dt Let w = T . Five minutes later the temperature of the soup is 180°F. Inc. Show that in base e. (a) What will be the temperature of the soup in another 5 minutes? (b) How long did it take before the temperature of the soup was 150°F? 39.25 AM. Assuming Newton s Law of Cooling.Chapter Review approximate the limiting value of the world s population as predicted by this model. and April Allen Materowski. and found the body temperature to be 93. She later concluded that death occurred at exactly 8:59. show that dw = kw dt solve for w and then show that T1t2 = Tm + Ce kt This is known as Newton s Law of Cooling. by Warren B.45M. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. That is dT = k1T . Show that (4) is a solution of dp dt = kp11 . equation (5) may be given as ln E = 27. Gordon.Tm. Walter O. It has been shown that the rate of change of the temperature of an object at time T(t) placed in a medium with constant temperature Tm is proportion to the difference between the object s temperature at time t and the temperature of the medium. * ** 395 38.4°F. In a room kept at a constant temperature of 70°F a dead body was discovered. Economics. .) 37. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and Finance.17 + 3.p2. Hint: differentiate dp = kp11 . Show that at the inflection point of (4) p = 1/ 2. A forensic examiner measured the temperature of the body at noon and found it to be 94.p2. 41.
4. (III) f1x2 = 3x2 + 4. (d)sketch its graph. Classify the solution as an acid base or almost neutral. (b) 2.2% annual interest compounded continuously? 7. determine an exponential function passing through them.000428/year. Determine the magnitude of an earthquake if its energy in ergs is 1. 8) and (5. Find d 3 1x ln13x2 + 122. Find 11. How much should be deposited into an account today if it must accumulate to $1200 in three years if it earns 4.1. Find d 2x2 A5 B. dx d x2 1e ln12 + 5x22. (a) 3. and April Allen Materowski. (b) 1997. 10. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Find 17. (a) show that f is onetoone. x Ú 0. dx d A x 1x B .2 million. . (IV) f1x2 = 24 . Sketch the graph of f1x2 = 2xe 3x. (b) determine f1122. Using logarithmic differentiation. 20.8 * 1012.1. Walter O. 2 12. For those functions that are not onetoone. Applied Calculus for Business.22 a b. 15. 5. find k. determine over what intervals they are increasing and decreasing. (c) show that f11f1x22 = f1f 11x22 = x. (II) f1x2 = 2x3 + 4. Gordon. (e) determine the equation of the inverse. Wang. The population P at time t (in years) of a culture is given by the equation P1t2 = 22001220. For those that are onetoone (b) determine their domain and range.03t.2. 6. If $1500 accumulates to $1800 in 3 1/ 2 years. determine the population in (a) 2006. (c) determine 1f 11222 ¿ . 2. Suppose t = 0 corresponds to the year 2000.x2. how long does it take a sample to decay to 10% of its present mass? 19. (I) f1x2 = 2x + 5.9 * 104. 12). For each of the following functions. (a) Given that the decay constant for Radium is . and Finance. If the population of a small country is growing at 2% per year and if its population in the year 2004 was 7. Compute log 3 8.37 * 1019. 14. Inc. determine 16. Sketch the graph of f1x2 = x2 ln12x2. (c) its population in 1998. Determine the equation of the tangent line to the curve f1x2 = 3x3e 2x when x = . (b) its population in 2015. (V) f1x2 = 2x4 . Given the points (3. Given f1x2 = 3x + 2x + 7. If 23x = ekx. (a) determine which are onetoone. what interest is it earning if it is compounded continuously? 8. (VI) f1x2 = 4x2 . dx 2 4 x2 + 9 3 18. determine (a) an exponential equation representing its population as a function of time. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 13. dx 4 d 13x . Determine the pH of a solution with the given hydronium concentration. by Warren B.0. 3. dx 1. Economics.396 * ** Chapter Review 9.
Inc. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.5 Integration and its Applications Antidifferentiation Integration is the reversal of differentiation. and April Allen Materowski. Applied Calculus for Business. by Warren B. Walter O. and Finance. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Wang. In this chapter we examine the properties of integration and its application to area and Finance. Gordon. Economics. .
we now introduce a notation that indicates the antiderivative with respect to x. Similarly. Inc. and Finance. the most general antiderivative is x3 + c. and April Allen Materowski. f1x2 = x3 . That is. The terms antidifferentiate and integrate are used synonymously in mathematics. the f1x2 dx is call the indefinite integral. Thus. Possible choices are f1x2 = x3.1 Antidifferentiation Integration » » » » » » Antiderivative Integration Theorems Simple Power Rule Simple Logarithmic Rule Simple Exponential Rule Calculator Tips Antiderivative What we will do in this section is examine the reversal of the process of differentiation. Consider the following: d 2 1x + c2 = 2x 2x dx = x2 + c Proof: dx L L L L 5 dx = 5x + c Proof: t2 dt = t3 + c Proof: 3 d 15x + c2 = 5 dx d t3 a + c b = t2 dt 3 d 1 2u A e + c B = e2u du 2 symbol 2u e2u du = 1 + c Proof: 2e Applied Calculus for Business. and the function f which is antidifferentiated is called the integrand. that if two functions have the same derivative. find the antiderivative of f.398 * ** Section 5. f1x2 = x3 + 50. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. that is F1x2 = f ¿ 1x2. or in fact many others. Economics. For example. Walter O. L the differential dx tells us that we are finding the antiderivative with respect to the variable x. Thus. This follows from the first derivative test. given some function F. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. by Warren B. or simply the integral of f. Thus the variable x. find another function f whose derivative is F. 3x with respect to x. Often.7. We use the symbol L dx to indicate that whatever is to the left of the differential dx is L 3x 2 dx means to find the antiderivative (or integral) of to be antidifferentiated. you will be asked to integrate f. Wang. And in general. they differ at most by an arbitrary constant. Note that all anitderivatives of 3x2 differ at most by a constant. given F1x2 = 3x2 find a function f whose derivative f ¿ 1x2 = 3x2. in the example just considered. as we discovered in Section 2. where c is a constant. The symbol 2 L f1x2 dx represents the antiderivative of f with respect to which looks like an elongated S is called the integral sign. instead L of saying. Gordon. .1 Antidifferentiation Integration 5. This function f is said to be an antiderivative or integral of F.6. d We introduce some notation: The symbol 1 2 is used to find the derivative with dx respect to the variable x. any two antiderivatives will differ at most by a constant. whatever goes in the parenthesis is differentiated with respect to x. Sometimes.
we need only invert these two processes. we have used different letters to indicate the variable of integration (the independent variable). As antidifferentiation is the inverse process.1 is any real number N + 1 (4) Applied Calculus for Business. Economics. we have. Note the special case in (1) when the constant k = 1. we should increase the power by 1 and divide by the new power. the two operations. and April Allen Materowski. Inc. Gordon. Wang. Simple Power Rule SIMPLE POWER RULE L Proof d d N+1 xN + 1 1 d N + 1 N a 1x 2 + 1c2 = x + 0 = x N.1 Antidifferentiation Integration * ** 399 Note that verification of the antiderivative is accomplished by differentiation. For example. For examd 1f1x2 + g1x22 = f ¿ 1x2 + g ¿ 1x2. that is. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. differentiation of x to a power is accomplished by multiplydx ing by the power and decreasing the exponent by 1. L The constant multiplier rule indicates that we may factor a constant out of the integral. ple. This follows because d a f1x2 dx b = f1x2 dx L and d 1f1x22b dx = f1x2 + c L dx a Applying the two operations in succession results in the function f.g1x22 dx = L f1x2 dx  L g1x2 dx difference rule (3) The proof for each follows from the corresponding rule for derivatives. we have the following theorem which we call the simple power rule. 1k is a constant2 constant multiplier rule (1) Integration Theorems L 1f1x2 + g1x22 dx = L f1x2 dx + L g1x2 dx sum rule (2) L 1f1x2 . and obtain the original integrand. where N Z .1.Section 5. Walter O. Sometimes. we do nothing more than examine closely the rules for differentiation. Therefore. (2) is true because dx * dx = x + c. . More formally. So how do we actually find the antiderivative for a given function? In many cases. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. We have the following integration theorems: L k dx = kx + c. differentiation and integration are called inverse operations. to prove that the antiderivative obtained is correct. and Finance. Observe that in the above examples. + cb = dx N + 1 N + 1 dx dx N + 1 * xN dx = xN + 1 + c. you need only differentiate it. by Warren B. d N 1x 2 = NxN . namely.
as indicated in the next few examples. we bring it to the numerator by changing the sign of the exponent. the 1 by which we increase the exponent is written in the form n/n where n is the denominator of the exponent. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. making this observation means we can mentally place the multiplier out front after first computing the exponent. 4 + 1 5 In some situations. + c = + c = 7 dx = 7 + 1 6 x 6 x6 L L Solution We first rewrite the integrand so we may apply to simple power rule. That is. x L 1 x 7 + 1 x 6 1 x 7 dx = + c.1 Antidifferentiation Integration Example 1 Evaluate L Solution x4 dx. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. by the constant multiplier rule. Walter O. L x4 dx = x4 + 1 x5 + c = + c. x6 x6 3x 5 dx = 3 x5 dx = 3 + c = + C. when a single power function is in the denominator. we rewrite it in exponential form. 6 2 L L Applied Calculus for Business. we perform the division m/ n n m/n mentally and write x . by Warren B. or if an expression is written as a radical. Example 3 Evaluate L Solution x3 dx. and April Allen Materowski. the multiplier becomes the reciprocal of the exponent. Inc. For example. Solution We have. Economics. and Finance. 2 L x3 dx = 2 x3 + 1 x3 + 3 x3 3 5 + c = + c = + c = x3 + c 2 2 3 5 5 + 1 + 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 5 Note that when working with fractional exponents. Example 2 Evaluate 1 7 dx. Wang. avoiding any need to xm/n work with the complex fraction. m Example 4 Evaluate L 3x5 dx.400 * ** Section 5. it is useful to rewrite the integrand before we apply the simple power rule. Gordon. instead of writing . .
2 x 5 dx + 7 dx = 5 Lx L L L L L 2+1 4x2 dx . We will almost always compute the integral this way and add on a single arbitrary constant at the end. by Warren B. Economics. we instead added a single constant of integration in the last integration step. Wang. . This is illustrated in the next example. In many cases. Do we know a function whose derivaLx L tive is 1/x? We showed that the derivative of ln x is precisely 1/x. x5 2 + 7 b dx = x5 1 dx + 7 dx = 4 x2 dx .1.2 + 7x + c = . Walter O. Therefore. 3x L 1 Solution We first rewrite the expression (and convert the radical to an exponent) so we may apply the simple power rule. you should note that instead of working with three separate constants after each integral and then combining them into one. we have the x dx simple logarithmic rule. and Finance.Section 5.2 + 7x + c = + 2 + 1 5 + 1 3 4 3 2x4 Again. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.1/3 dx + 5 x 1/3 dx = 1/3 x L x L L a 3 x5/3 dx + 5 L x 1/3 dx = L x5/3 + 3/3 x 1/3 + 3/3 3 3 9 15 2/3 x + c 3 + 5 + c = 3 x 8/3 + 5 x 2/3 + c = x 8/3 + 5/3 + 3/3 .5 that 1ln x 2 = . Example 5 Evaluate L Solution L a 4x2 a 4x2 2 + 7 b dx.1/3 + 3/3 8 2 8 2 You noticed that the simple power rule excluded the case when the exponent N = . d 1 we showed in Example 8 of Section 3. the integral x 1 dx = dx.2 4 x x 5 + 1 x 4 4x 3 4x3 1 + 7x + c . Gordon. Inc. and April Allen Materowski. more generally. in order to evaluate a given integral. 3x2 + 5 L 1 3x dx = 3x2 5 + 1/3 b dx = 3 x2 .1 Antidifferentiation Integration * ** 401 Did you see us pull a fast one on you in that last solution? We should have written L 3x5 dx = 3 L x5 dx = 3 a x6 x6 + cb = + 3c 6 2 but since three times a constant is still a constant. In fact. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Simple Logarithmic Rule Applied Calculus for Business. 1 When N = . we can replace 3c by C. we must convert it into a form we recognize.1. Example 6 Evaluate 3x2 + 5 dx.
5x 2/3 + 4x 3 + x 4ex . dx SIMPLE EXPONENTIAL RULE L Example 8 5ex dx. Walter O. Evaluate 5ex dx = 5 ex dx = 5ex + c. namely 1e 2 = ex. Simple Exponential Rule We next consider the simple exponential rule. . Example 9 Evaluate x8 + 7x 2 . x L N Z 1 N = 1 (6) (5) 2 1 dx = 2 dx = 2 ln x + c = ln x 2 + c.5x 2/3 + 4x 3 + x4ex . and April Allen Materowski.1 Antidifferentiation Integration SIMPLE LOGARITHMIC RULE 1 dx = ln x + c x L We may now combine (4) and (5) and write them as one rule as follows. This rule follows from the derivative propd x erty of the exponential. x x L L (Note that we used the exponential property of logarithms and wrote the 2 an exponent. xN + 1 + c xN dx = c N + 1 L ln x + c Example 7 Evaluate 2 dx. L Solution We have. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.6x 4 dx. 3x4 L x8 + 7x2 . by Warren B.6x 4 dx = 3x4 L x8 7x 2 5x2/3 4x 3 x 4ex 6x4 a 4 + + + b dx = 4 4 4 4 3x 3x 3x 3x 3x4 L 3x Solution Applied Calculus for Business. Do you see why we were able to delete the absolute value symbols?) Solution We have. Inc. Economics.402 * ** Section 5. ex dx = ex + c (7) L L One final example illustrates all the rules developed in this section. and Finance. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Gordon. Wang.
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. We shall do so in Section 5. and Finance.1 Antidifferentiation Integration * ** 403 1 7 5 4 1 + ex . logarithmic and exponential functions.2x + c = 3 1 3 . so it is not a good idea to get used to notation which uses any particular letter to represent the variable. We restate the three simple rules. The integral symbol is indicated in orange above the 7 key on the keypad. or it may be stored in the calculator s memory. . Example 10 Evaluate L Solution See Figure 1.a . To access this key. we use the variable u.2 b dx = a x 4 + x 2 . Economics. It is clear that we will need to examine how to reverse the generalized rules for differentiation of these three functions to integrate more complicated expressions. N Z .x 10/3 + 3 3 3 x 3 3 L 1 7 5 4 1 1 x 2 dx x 10/3 dx + dx + ex dx 2 dx = x4 dx + 3L 3L 3 Lx 3L 3L L 1 x5 7 x 1 5 x 10/3 + 3/3 4 1 + + ln x + ex . there were no composite functions. variable2 where the function may be typed directly from the L keyboard. Wang. and the variable is the variable of integration.2x + c 15 3x 7 3 3 Basically.1 N + 1 L 1 du = ln u + c Lu L eu du = eu + c Calculator Tips Just as the TI 89 has a differentiation key. by Warren B.b x 7/3 + ln x + ex . Gordon. Inc. you first press the orange button (2nd) and then the number 7. Walter O. We shall see in applications. antidifferentiation. that often the independent variable is time. and April Allen Materowski. The syntax for the key is 1function. uN du = uN + 1 + c. x Applied Calculus for Business.10/3 + 3/3 3 3 3 5 x5 7 5 3 4 1 . indicated by t.3. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and the rules obtained were the simple ones.2x + c = 15 3x 3 7 3 3 x5 7 5 4 1 + x 7/3 + ln x + ex . it also has an integration (antidifferentiation) key. this section did nothing more than restate the basic rules of differentiation in terms of its inverse operation. The specific functions we considered were the power. but instead of using the variable x.Section 5. The variable that appeared in each function was x. a x4 7 + 3x 4/5 b dx.
x3 dx 13. 9. Wang. x) for checking? EXERCISE SET 5. Gordon. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 15. Walter O. L 2w L L L L L L 3 a 2r3  A 5x2 + 2 1x . Inc. 1 dw 21. Why do we not use solve(your answer = calculator answer. 2 4 t dt 18. .404 * ** Section 5.3 B dx 13x23 dx 12x + 122 dx 1t2 + 122 dt 22x dx L 1x L x 3/4 L w 5/7 Applied Calculus for Business. and April Allen Materowski. 1. 10. then the answers are equivalent. 5. 3 dx 12. dx 20. L2 3 x2 L 2t7 dt 1 dw 3 + 4 b dr r2 1x dx 1t dt 16. To check your answer (assuming the variable used is x) with the calculator s answer you can enter solve1d1your answer.1 Evaluate the given integral and check your answer. 8. 4. L L 2s3 ds 2 4 x5 dx 1 dx L L dx 14. 6. x2. 2. 3. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. by Warren B.1 Antidifferentiation Integration Figure 1: Using the TI 89 to evaluate 7 ax4 + 3x 4/5 b dx x L Note that the calculator does not include the integration constant with the result. It also may not always give the result in the same algebraic form that you would obtain manually. 1 3 x dx 17. Economics. 1 Lx L L L L 3 11. 1 dx 19. 7. x2 = d1calculator answer. x2 If the calculator responds with True. and Finance.
25. Wang. F112 = 12. for every different choice of the constant c we obtain another antiderivative. dx b L a + bx 7ex dx 2et dt 5 a .x2.2ex + 7 b dx L x L L a 2et . 29. so 14x + 72 dx = 4 x2 + 7x + c = 2x2 + 7x + c 2 Particular Solutions L Applied Calculus for Business. that is. Gordon. F1x2 = 2x2 + 7x + c. by Warren B. 5. 4x Le 33. then we have the so called particular solution. . Is there a problem with these two differLx ent results for the same integrand? Explain. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.9ex + 7 . 27. 4x3 . Compute Applications of Antidifferentiation * ** 405 5t7 .7x + 2 L x5 dx 31. Often. use this to determine dx. Inc. and April Allen Materowski. x x dx L 1 that we have dx = ln ax + C. (a) Compute 34. Use this result to prove that dx a 1 eax dx = eax + C. (b) e x dx. but it also follows from 1ln ax2 = . and Finance. (a) Compute d 1x ln x . we are given additional data that results in our being able to find a particular solution which is both the antiderivative and satisfies this additional information. Using the result of Exercise 31. the general solution we found gives rise to a family of solutions. 28.Section 5. 30.5 b dx x 35. (b) What function can you now antidifferentiate? dx d 1 1 a ln1a + bx2b . Example 1 Find a function F such that F ¿ 1x2 = 4x + 7 and F112 = 12.3t4 + a 4x 3 . Solution We need to find the integral (antiderivative) of F. evaluate (a) e2x dx.2t4 + 3 dt 2t3 L 4 dx Lx 2 Lx L L dx d 1 ax a e b .2 22. Walter O. We have that 1 d 1 dx = ln x + c. 23. in applications. F1x2 = Thus.2 Applications of Antidifferentiation » » » » » Particular Solutions Equations of Motion Marginal Functions Separable Differentiable Equations Calculator Tips We saw in the previous section that finding an integral of a function (antidifferentiation) gives an infinite number of solutions. 24.12 b dt t 8 . where the constant a Z 0. a L 32. Economics. L L 1 (c) dx. 26. We illustrate with examples. In effect.
Wang.2a b + c1 = 2x 5/2 . that since x 7 0. We have 5x2 . and April Allen Materowski.4x 1/2 + c1 5/2 1/2 L L f ¿ 1x2 = Applied Calculus for Business. namely F1x2 = 2x2 + 7x + c. we get a different solution. F1x2 = 2x 2 + 7x + 3 In the previous example. we were given an equation involving the derivative of y and solved for y.2 x 1/2 dx = 5 a b . the integral had a general solution which represents an infinite family of solutions. we do not need to include the absolute value in the logarithm. if f ¿ 142 = 60 and f112 = 6. since we are given the second derivative. Geometrically. .) thus y1x2 = 3x + ln x + c since y112 = 4. For each choice of c. Inc. Example 3 Find f(x) if f 1x2 = 5x2 . see Figure 1. and y112 = 4. but involves the second derivative. An equation involving derivatives is call a differential equation.2 dx = dx = 5x3/2 dx 2x 1/2 dx = 1/2 L 1x L x L L x5/2 x 1/2 5 x 3/2 dx . which means that in order to solve it we will have to integrate twice.406 * ** Section 5. x dx Solution dy 1 1 1 dx = 3x + ln x + c = 3 + means y1x2 = a 3 + b dx = 3 dx + x x dx L L Lx Figure 1: F 1x2 = 2x 2 + 7x + c for different values of c (Note. the particular parabola which satisfies the condition F112 = 12 is the particular solution required. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.2 5x 2 . Gordon. we have a family of parallel parabolas. each integration will yield a constant. by Warren B. 1x Solution We will need to integrate twice to find f. or c = 3 therefore. Economics. Example 2 dy 1 Find y if = 3 + if x 7 0. or c = 1 thus y = 3x + ln x + 1 Note that in the previous example. The next example is also a differential equation.2 Applications of Antidifferentiation 12 = 21122 + 7112 + c 12 = 9 + c.2 . Walter O. we have 4 = 3112 + ln 1 + c. and Finance.
x 3/2 + 4x + 3 21 7 We saw that if s = f1t2 represents position s. Walter O. Gordon. Can we determine its position and velocity at any other time? We illustrate the procedure by which we can do so with a few examples.9.8 m/sec 2. Thus. is approximately . or c2 = 86/21 and we have f1x2 = 4 7/2 8 86 x . Inc.8 + c1 or c1 = 4 so we have.x 3/2 + 4x + c2 7 3 We now find c2 using f112 = 6. suppose we know both the object s initial position and velocity. . and the second derivative represents the acceleration a at time t. We now reverse the question.4x 1/2 + 42 dx = 2 # 2 . we could differentiate and determine both the equations for velocity and acceleration. Wang. by Warren B. Determine (a) how high the ball goes and (b) its velocity when it hits the ground. and April Allen Materowski.4x 1/2 + 4 integrating again.) Example 4 A ball is thrown upward from a 100 foot ledge with an initial velocity of 120 feet per second. then the first derivative represents the velocity v. The first example illustrates vertical motion where the only force on the object is gravity. as a function of time t. we have. Equations of Motion Applied Calculus for Business. f ¿ 1x2 = 2x5/2 .Section 5. f ¿ 1x2 = 2x 5/2 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and Finance. suppose we are given the acceleration of some object.32 ft/sec 2 or in metric units. given the equation representing the position as a function of time.8/3 + 4 + c2. Economics. and the force of gravity is directed downward.2 Applications of Antidifferentiation * ** 407 So we have. f1x2 = L 7/2 3/2 12x 5/2 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. at time t.4x1/2 + c1 We can find c1 as follows: f ¿ 142 = 60 = 21425/2 . the socalled equations of motion. moreover. The acceleration due to gravity g. so we have 6 = 4/7 . (The minus sign occurs because we assume the usual position of our axes positive vertical position upward.4#2 + 4x + c2 = 7x 3x 1 4 7/2 8 x .4142 / 2 + c1 or 60 = 64 . .
we can answer the questions.32t + 1202 dt = .32 # t2 + 120t + c2 = . Walter O. Inc.408 * ** Section 5. . Moreover.32t + 120 v = dt therefore.32 dt therefore v1t2 = L . Gordon. Economics. (b) When it hits the ground. so we have 100 = .16t2 + 120t + c2 2 We are given that s102 = 100. s = 0. Applied Calculus for Business.16t2 + 120t + 100 = 0 or equivalently.32t + 120 ds = .752 + 100 = 325 ft.1613. . we have v = 0. s1t2 = L 1 .32 dt = .30t .75 sec.32102 + c1 or c1 = 120 and v1t2 = . 4t2 .2569 sec. Wang.161022 + 120102 + c2 or c2 = 100 and s1t2 = .32t + c1 We are given v102 = 120 so we have 120 = .32t + 120 = 0 or t = 3. and s13. so we have dv a = = . and Finance.25 = 0 we find t L 8.16t2 + 120t + 100 Now that we determined the equations of motion. and April Allen Materowski.752 = . the only force acting on the ball is gravity. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.2 Applications of Antidifferentiation Solution We are being told that s102 = 100 ft and v102 = 120 ft/sec. (a) At the maximum height. so we must solve the quadratic .7522 + 12013. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. by Warren B.
so we have smax = s1v0/322 = . and April Allen Materowski. and instead find the maximum height of the object. therefore. its height is decreasing.) Example 5 With what minimum velocity must an object be thrown upward from ground level if it is to reach an altitude of 225 ft? Solution We are given that s102 = 0 (the object begins from ground level) and we wish to find v(0) if it is to reach 225 ft. we have .25692 = .400 or v0 = 120 ft/sec Therefore an initial velocity of at least 120 ft/sec will guarantee the object will reach an altitude of 225 ft. as the next example illustrates. .2 Applications of Antidifferentiation * ** 409 We now substitute to find v. Another way of solving this problem is to compute the impact velocity an object that is dropped from a vertical elevation of 225 feet has with the ground. Applied Calculus for Business. the object was subject only to the force of gravity. v18.3218. In the last two examples.25692 + 120 = . Economics. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Inc.161v0/3222 + v01v0/322 = 225 or v02 = 14. we find v1t2 = . Walter O. so we have . Let v102 = v0. Of course we want this to be (at least) 225 feet. Wang. the acceleration was a constant. Let us turn around the problem and for the moment assume we know the initial velocity. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Of course.32t + v0 and s1t2 = . Why will this impact velocity (ignoring its sign) solve the problem? See Exercise 32. and Finance. by Warren B. and.144. Gordon. v = 0. this need not be the case.161v0/3222 + v01v0/322 now if we set this equal to 225 (the height the object is to attain).22 ft/sec (The negative sign indicates the ball is traveling downward.16t2 + v0t When it reaches the maximum height.Section 5. Proceeding as in the previous problem.32t + v0 = 0 or t = v0/32 now we substitute to find the maximum height.
v = therefore. s = t3 . If the initial position is 4 meters and its initial velocity is 2 m/sec.4t + 6 m/sec 2. Therefore. find the velocity and position after 3 seconds.2 3 t + 3t + 2t + 4 Marginal Functions Recall that any marginal function is nothing more than the derivative of a given economic function. Wang.75 meters. Inc. v = Since v102 = 2. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Solution We are given. given the marginal function. a = therefore. we have 2 = or c1 = 2 and v = therefore. Solution We have. by Warren B. and if the fixed costs are $10. we should be able to work backwards.2 Applications of Antidifferentiation Example 6 The acceleration of some object is given by the equation a1t2 = t2 . and Finance. Example 7 The marginal cost for x items is given by the equation C ¿ 1x2 = 2x + 1000 (in dollars).2t2 + 6t + 2 3 33 .410 * ** Section 5.21322 + 6132 + 2 = 11 m/sec 3 ds t3 = . we find c2 = 4. via integration. and s = and s132 = 81/12 . and construct the original function.2 3 t + 3t + 2t + c2 dv = t2 .4t + 6 dt t3 .000. as the next example illustrates. and April Allen Materowski.18 + 27 + 6 + 4 = 25. Walter O. Gordon.2t2 + 6t + 2 dt 3 since s102 = 4.2t2 + 6t + c1 3 L 1t2 .2t2 + 6t + 2 b dt = 3 L a 1 4 12 t 1 4 12 t 3 2 . C102 = 10000 and Applied Calculus for Business.21022 + 6102 + c1 3 t3 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. v132 = We have. 3 2 . Economics.4t + 62 dt = 1023 . determine the cost equation. .
2 Applications of Antidifferentiation * ** 411 C1x2 = L 12x + 10002 dx = 2 x2 + 1000x + c1 = x 2 + 1000x + c1 2 10000 = C102 = 1022 + 1000102 + c1 c1 = 10000 Thus. Gordon. These types of problems fall into the class of problems called separable differential equations. Essentially. Walter O. any differential equation of the form dy = f1x2g1y2 dx is separable. We illustrate with an example. . as we saw above. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Inc. and April Allen Materowski. we mean. that is. dx y y2 dy = x 3 dx or integrating. and letting C = 3c1. Wang. y2 dy = x 3 dx Separable Differential Equations Solution We rewrite the differential equation in differential form (assuming y Z 0) as L We next integrate and obtain L y3 x4 = + c1 3 4 (Note that each integral produces a constant of integration.Section 5. we can determine an equation relating x and y. we may rewrite the differential equation in differential form with the yterms on one side of the equal sign and the xterms on the other. and C1x2 = x2 + 1000x + 10000 Certain types of differential equations may be solved very easily by integration. Economics. and Finance. By separable. we have 4 y3 = 3 4x + C Applied Calculus for Business. by Warren B. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Example 8 Solve the differential equation dy x3 = 2. which we combine into one constant.) Multiplying by 3. 1 dy = f1x2 dx g1y2 we now integrate each side to obtain 1 dy = f1x2 dx g 1 L L y2 Assuming we can do the integration.
2y 4 + Cx 2y 4 Figure 1: Using deSolve on the TI 89 (Note that we renamed the constant. Wang. Note that the symbol @1 is the way the calculator represents the constant of integration. If there are several constants of integration it may give them as @1 and @2. Figure 2: Solving using deSolve Applied Calculus for Business. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. dependent variable). integration with the calculator is especially simple using the integral key. we have L 1 1 1 1 = + + c1 x 4y 4 2x 2 2y2 to clear fractions. we multiply by . Gordon.3 b dx 5 x y L x L integrating. and April Allen Materowski. The syntax is as follows: deSolve(differential equation. Pressing Enter gives Figure 2.2 Applications of Antidifferentiation or 4 y = 2 3 3 4x + C We remark that we cannot always solve for y explicitly as a function of x. Consider Example 8 which is illustrated in Figure 1. Economics.412 * ** Section 5. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. the calculator can solve many differential equations for us as well. Example 9 Solve the differential equation 1x . Sometimes we give the solution in implicit form. we have L y or 1y 3 + y 52 dy = 1x 2 .x 32 dx a y2 5 dy = x .) Calculator Tips As we mentioned in the last section.4x 2y 4. Walter O. . This is done using the deSolve key which is accessed by pressing F3 (Calc key) and then scrolling down to option C and pressing Enter. and Finance. You can verify that the answers are equivalent using the calculator method suggested the previous section. as illustrated in the next example. independent variable. The prime symbol (located in orange above the = key) is used to enter the derivative. However. Be aware that the form of the answer given by the calculator may look different from the form obtained manually. Inc.1 dx x3 + 1 x 1 b dy = a 3 .12y5 dy = 3 2 . and we have 2x2y 2 + x 2 = 4xy 4 . dx x 1y + 12 Solution We rewrite in differential form (assuming x Z 0 and y Z 0) as y2 + 1 y5 integrating. by Warren B.
28. find its equation. 21. Redo Example 5 using the method suggested after its solution. 1. How long does it take an object dropped from a 50 foot height to hit (a) the Moon s surface. .) 36. by Warren B. f ¿ 1x2 = 3ex 2 + 1. Applied Calculus for Business. determine the cost function. (Use Exercise 34 of the previous Section. If the overhead cost is $5. 39. = f A x B . f112 = 5 7.1.2.2. f 1x2 = 2x2 . f112 = 5 2.1x + 900. The marginal cost and marginal revenue for x items in dollars is given by the equations C ¿ 1x2 = 70. x 24. f ¿ 122 = 1. y) where the curves from both families pass through the point. find the equation of the curve. 10) is on the curve. f ¿ 112 = 2. Given 13. dy dx dy dx dy dx dy dx dy dx dy dx = 2x 3 y4 = 3x 4y4 = = = 4ex y 1x + 22y3 x 41y4 + 32 1x3 + 32y2 x 41y3 + 82 5. If f ¿ 1x2 = 3/x.7 at any point on the curve. Determine the velocity of this object and show that the velocity will approach g/k as t gets very large. there is a frictional force proportional to the velocity opposing the object s motion. and (b) the Earth s surface? 18. its acceleration is a = g .3. determine the profit function. f ¿ 112 = 3. f122 = 7 x2 26. f112 = 3 8. solve the given differential equation.kv where k is a constant. . Determine the (a) revenue function and (b) the demand function. and April Allen Materowski. Economics. assume s(0) = 3m and v(0) = 9 m/s. 20. with what speed does it hit the ground? 16. and R ¿ 1x2 = . if the point (4. y = cx2 represents a oneparameter family of parabolas. This exercise generalizes Exercise 31.) dy dx = x . f ¿ 1x2 = 2x . find f(x). Hint: Let y = vx. Gordon. The acceleration of an object is given by the equation a1t2 = 3et + 2t .0. sketch the family of solutions. with what speed does it hit the ground? (c) What is the relationship between the answers to the questions and why is it so? 17. If f ¿ 1x2 = 2 x 2 dy = axNyM. f ¿ 1x2 = x2 . 34. dy dx = 3x 2y2 32. k is a constant. 4) is y = 3x . sketch the family of solutions. f ¿ 1x2 = 2 + 5/x. f 1x2 = 3e + 2. f ¿ 1x2 = 2e .4x + 8. 14. With what minimal velocity must a ball be thrown vertically upward to reach its top. The marginal cost for x items in dollars is given by C ¿ 1x2 = 2x + 50. Why does this method work? 33. 29. a is a constant. The slope of the tangent line at any point (x. 15. An object is thrown upward from the ledge of a building 128 feet high with an initial velocity of 32 ft/sec. The acceleration due to gravity on the Moon is about 1/5 that of the Earth s. (Show that the slope of the tangent lines at any point not on the yaxis to the original family of parabolas is 2y/x. Inc. 22. 27. (a) First. Determine its velocity and position after 4 seconds. (Note: there are four cases that need to be dx considered. Walter O. that is. 25.2 Applications of Antidifferentiation * ** 413 EXERCISE SET 5. f102 = 2 3. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. f ¿ 102 = .2t2 + 12 m/s2. The marginal revenue for x items in dollars is given by R ¿ 1x2 = . . and use the product rule.y x + y . suppose that the only force on the object is gravity.2/x + x 2. dx 35. d 2y If 2 = 6x . Hint: write y = vx.Section 5. If the overhead cost is $800. suppose you somehow know beforehand that the object will have a limiting velocity. (b) Now suppose that in addition to gravity. 30.3. show that the dx change of variable v = y/x results in a separable differentiable equation. f 1x2 = 2. Find the equation of another oneparameter family of curves with the property that at any point (x. Suppose an object is dropped from a plane flying at a constant altitude. sketch the family of solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. determine y. Determine its velocity and position in 3 seconds if s(0) = 4 and v(0) = 2. their tangent lines at this point are perpendicular to each other. f102 = 4 4. determine its impact velocity.6 1x + 2. sketch the family of solutions. f122 = 1 10. 12. 31. If f ¿ 1x2 = 2x + 3. 19. If f ¿ 1x2 = 2ex. Why does it then follow that this terminal velocity may be determined by setting a = 0? dy y 38. f102 = 1 11. and Finance. Suppose.2 In Exercises 1 10. Show that Exercise 31 may be written in the form dy dx = fAy xB. (b) If an object is dropped from a height of 1250 feet. f ¿ 1x2 = 3 . Wang.1 x4 x = kyn.1 9. The acceleration of an object is given by the equation a1t2 = t3 . In Exercises 23 31.2x + 9. In the previous example. y) on a curve is given by 2 1x.000.) 37. f 1x2 = x . This is called the terminal velocity. f112 = 3 6. (a) The Empire State Building is 1250 feet high. 23. f112 = . The equation of the tangent line to a curve at the point (2.
du = g ¿ 1x2 dx Notice that du is precisely g ¿ 1x2 dx. then we can evaluate it. When we studied the Chain Rule. Gordon. namely. Consider integrals of the form f1g1x22g ¿ 1x2 dx (1) L Notice that the first term in the integral is f(g(x)) and the derivative of the inner part of this function. consider the integral 13x2 + 12106x dx. That is. and Finance. we developed the rules for integrating the simple expressions. Let s try this substitution again and see where it takes us. Economics. the answer to that question is not simple. but there is an entire class a functions that can be made to look like one of these simple rules. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. we let the inner function be represented by u. For example. uN du = uN + 1 + c. and April Allen Materowski. N + 1 N Z 1 L 1 du = ln u + c u L L Reversing the Chain Rule eu du = eu + c What do we do if we have a function that does not fall into one of these three rules? In general. under this substitution. that is.3 The Substitution Method » » » » » Reversing the Chain Rule Generalized Power Rule Generalized Logarithmic Rule Generalized Exponential Rule Calculator Tips In Section 5. Walter O. so (1) becomes. It looks like the integrand may have been obtained by using the chain rule on some function having g(x) as its inner part. we multiply the derivative by dx). L f1g1x22g ¿ 1x2 dx = L f1u2 du (2) Now if this simpler looking integral on the righthand side of (2) is one we recognize. by Warren B. the second part of the integrand.1.3 The Substitution Method 5. . Inc. Wang. g*(x) is multiplying this function.414 * ** Section 5. let u = g1x2 then du = g ¿ 1x2 dx or in differential form (remember to find the differential. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Observe that L Applied Calculus for Business.
namely. Gordon. and April Allen Materowski. by Warren B. That is. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 1 6 L 13x2 + 12106x dx = 1 6 L u10 du = 1 6 u11 1 13x 2 + 1211 + C + C = 11 66 The point of this remark is that if you almost have the derivative of the inner function in the integrand. Inc. namely the power.Section 5. .1. Such situations are easily rectified by the constant multiplier property of the antiderivative. the term g ¿ 1x2 is not quite the derivative of the inner function. logarithmic and exponential rules of integration. exponential and logarithmic cases. if k is a nonzero constant. as long as it is compensated for by multiplying the integral by its reciprocal. by almost. Economics. Walter O. we have 13x2 + 1210x dx = 1 6 L L 13x2 + 12106x dx We now would proceed as above. the constant may be inserted. to find the differential du we find the derivative and multiply by dx. we considered three special cases. Similarly we examine three specific cases of (1) the generalized power. where r Z . and Finance. For the generalized power rule. then f1g1x22g ¿ 1x2 dx = 1 k L L f1g1x22kg ¿ 1x2 dx (3) When we studied the Chain Rule. that is f1g1x22 = ur. That means if instead of the above example we had 13x2 + 1210x dx L we observe that du = 6x dx. by the constant multiplier property. we have the following restatement of the constant multiplier property. It may happen that it is off by a multiplicative constant. the form of (1) becomes ur du ur + 1 dx = ur du = + c dx r + 1 L (2a) L Generalized Power Rule Applied Calculus for Business. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. However.3 The Substitution Method * ** 415 d 13x 2 + 12 = 6x dx So we try the substitution u = 3x2 + 1 then du = 6x dx Again. we mean within a multiplicative constant. We have 13x2 + 12106x dx = u10 du = u11 + c 11 L L we now substitute for u and obtain 13x2 + 12106x dx = u10 du = 13x2 + 1211 u11 + c = + c 11 11 L L Sometimes. Wang.
3 dx = 12x . to check your answer take its derivative. We have a x2 term in the integral. Wang.321/2 dx = 1 2 L L L 12x . a constant. if it is off by a constant multiplier. Example 2 Evaluate 22x .323/2 + c 3 3 2 3 Example 3 Evaluate L 1x + 1213x2 + 6x + 128 dx. by Warren B.3 is 2. we have. and Finance. Gordon. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. we are off by a factor of 12. 4x3 + 7 is 12x 2. Inc. Let Evaluate u = 4x3 + 7 then du = 12x2 dx therefore.3 then du = 2 dx we have 22x . Remember. Applied Calculus for Business.321/22 dx = 1 2 L u1/2 du = 1 # 2 3/2 1 1 u + c = u3/2 + c = 12x . L Solution Observe the derivative of 2x .3 dx. 14x3 + 7212x 2 dx = 1 12 L L 14x3 + 721212x2 dx = 1 12 L u12 du = 1 # u13 1 13 1 u + c = 14x 3 + 7213 + c + c = 156 156 12 13 Notice that after we finish the integration step. you must get the original integrand. and April Allen Materowski. Example 1 14x3 + 7212x2 dx. if the integrand almost looks right. we need to replace u by 4x3 + 7. We let u = 2x . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.3 The Substitution Method The easiest way to understand this rule is by considering several examples. Of course. . So once again the constant multiplier rule will be useful. so the method will work fine. L Solution You should immediately observe that the derivative of the inner function. we can use (2). Walter O.416 * ** Section 5. that is. Economics.
within a multiplicative constant. Economics. Example 4 15x3 + 124x4 dx. We let u = 3x2 + 6x + 1 then du = 16x + 62 dx = 61x + 12 dx we have L 1x + 1213x2 + 6x + 128 dx = 1 6 L 13x 2 + 6x + 1281x + 12 dx = L 1 6 13x 2 + 6x + 12861x + 12 dx = u8 du = 13x 2 + 6x + 129 1 # u9 u9 + c = + c = + c 6 9 54 54 L Let us make sure we understand why this method is working. Work out each integral and see that you would obtain different Applied Calculus for Business. and April Allen Materowski. We do not have an x2 term in the integrand. once we identify the inner function. Gordon. . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. by Warren B. Walter O. L Solution If we let u = 5x3 + 1. Did you see where we performed the illegal operation? We factored out the x2 from the integral. then du = 15x 2 dx. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. See Exercise 33. Explain why the above substitution method does not work on How could we evaluate the integral in the above example? One way is to multiply out the integrand and then integrate term by term. What is wrong with the following approach? u = 5x3 + 1 and du = 15x2 dx then 15x3 + 124x4 dx = L 1 15 15x3 + 124x 215x 2 dx = L x2 15 15x 3 + 12415x2 dx = L x2 15 u4 du L and now proceed using the power rule. Essentially. We can only factor out constants! Observe. we must have. so the above substitution method is not applicable.3 The Substitution Method * ** 417 Solution It looks like there is a choice for the inner function here. The substitution u = inner function reduces the problem to one we recognize.Section 5. The next example illustrates when this method is not applicable. its derivative in the integrand as well. and Finance. that L results. Is it x + 1. This is an illegal operation. x2 dx Z x L x dx. Wang. or is it 3x2 + 6x + 1? A little reflection should make it clear it is the latter. Inc.
Gordon.3 The Substitution Method In the same way some substitutions in some problems result in the generalized power rule. (2) may result in the generalized logarithmic rule which may be written as Generalized Logarithmic Rule 1 du 1 dx = du = ln u + c Lu L u dx We illustrate with a few examples. . When this is not the case. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and April Allen Materowski. so we use long division 4 x2 + 4 * 4x2 + 6x + 16 4x2 + 16 6x Giving. One basic strategy when integrating a rational expression is to make sure the degree of the polynomial in the numerator is less than the degree of the polynomial in the denominator.418 * ** Section 5. 4x2 + 6x + 16 6x = 4 + 2 x2 + 4 x + 4 so we have. x2 + 4 L Solution The degree of the numerator is the same as the degree of the denominator. 4x2 + 6x + 16 6x dx = a4 + 2 b dx = 2 x + 4 x + 4 L L Applied Calculus for Business. use (polynomial) long division to reduce the degree of the numerator. Inc. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and Finance. Example 6 Evaluate 4x2 + 6x + 16 dx. Example 5 Evaluate x2 dx. Consider the following example. Wang. 3 Lx + 1 u = x3 + 1 then du = 3x2 dx so we have 1 x2 1 1 dx = x2 dx = 1 3x2 dx = 1 du = 3 3 3 3 3 u Lx + 1 Lx + 1 L Lx + 1 1 3 ln 3 u + c = 1 3 ln x + 1 + c (2b) Solution If we let The answer may also be written as ln 2 3 x3 + 1 + c. using the power property of logarithms. Walter O. by Warren B. Economics.
Walter O. Applied Calculus for Business. du One final remark. The case of the generalized exponential really offers nothing new. by Warren B. the integral transforms into one we recognize.) So the problem reduces to the evaluation of the second integral. Sometimes. e2x 1 1 dx = 1 2e2x dx = 1 du = 1 2 2 2 ln u + c = 2x u e + 8 + 8 e L L L 2x 1 2 ln 2x e2x + 8 + c = 1 + 82 + c 2 ln1e Once again. Let u = x2 + 4 du = 2x dx then 6x 1 1 dx = 3 2x dx = 3 du = 3 ln u + c = 3 ln x2 + 4 + c 2 2 u + 4 x + 4 x L L L We do not need the absolute values since x2 + 4 7 0. Lu You should realize that both the power and logarithmic cases are really the same. (2) becomes L eu du dx = eu du = eu + c dx L (2c) Generalized Exponential Rule We illustrate with several examples. Wang. 2x Le + 8 Solution The derivative of the denominator is (except for a constant) in the integrand. logarithmic integrals are written in the form . Gordon. that is.Section 5. That is exactly the point of (2). . ObL u 1 serve that this is just an alternate way of writing du. we do not need the absolute value signs (why?). except that now the integral we obtain is an exponential. so the evaluation of the original integral is 4x + 3 ln1x2 + 42 + c or 4x + ln1x 2 + 423 + c Example 7 Evaluate e2x dx. Economics. once the substitution is made. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.3 The Substitution Method * ** 419 L 4 dx + 6x 6x dx = 4x + dx 2 2 + 4 x + 4 x L L (The constant of integration will be added at the end. and April Allen Materowski. Inc. so we let u = e2x + 8 and du = 2e2x dx and we have. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and Finance. In the case of the exponential.
5 dx. Walter O. So we have. Economics. L Solution We have Evaluate bx dx = ex ln b dx L L This is exactly the integral given in (4) with a = ln b. except for a constant multiplier.5x 5 e + c In exactly the same way. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Example 9 Evaluate L e2x 4x 2 dx. .3 The Substitution Method Example 7 e 5x dx. and April Allen Materowski. 3 Solution Notice the derivative of the exponent 2x3 is 6x2.5x. let u = 2x3 then du = 6x2 dx and e2x 4x 2 dx = 4 3 L L e2x x 2 dx = 3 4 6 L e2x 6x2 dx = 3 2 3 L 2 2x u + c eu du = 2 3e + c = 3e 3 With the substitution method we can now determine integrals of exponentials in any base. you may show that for any nonzero constant a. we have this term in the integrand so the substitution method will work. then du = . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Gordon. L Solution Let u = . and we have Evaluate e 5x dx = *1 5 L L e 5x1 * 52 dx = 1 5 L eu du = 1 u 5 e + c = . and Finance. ax + c eax dx = 1 ae L (4) You are asked to show this in Exercise 29. Applied Calculus for Business.1 . by Warren B. Inc.420 * ** Section 5. Example 10 bx dx. Recall that bx = ex ln b with this identity we solve the next example. Wang.
9. Economics. 5.x 4 ex dx 2 Lx 3 1 2 dx L 2x + 1 3x + 2 L 13x2 + 4x + 125 dx Applied Calculus for Business. None of the subL stitutions we discussed will work on this example. Gordon.3 Evaluate the given integral. by Warren B. See Figure 1. 12. by a simple substitution. (Recall that the calculator omits the constant of integration. 11. 12x3 + 326x2 dx 24x + 14 dx 13x5 + 12815x4 dx 12x + 1292 dx e2x 4x dx 2 7. 8. The TI 89. To verify that this result is correct. Thus. Inc. EXERCISE SET 5.) Calculator Tips Figure 1: Evaluating L ln x dx with the TI 89 ln x dx = x ln x . you need L only differentiate the result and obtain the integrand.229 dx 22x + 1 dx 3x2 24x 3 + 3 dx 2x3 dx L L L L L L 21 . 3. 2.Section 5. be reduced to one of the three forms given above.3 The Substitution Method * ** 421 L bx dx = L ex ln b dx = 1 x ln b 1 x bx e + c = b + c = + c ln b ln b ln b (5) This section showed that if a more complicated integrand can. consider ln x dx. 13. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 10. Wang. . Walter O.x + c. 4. L L L L x13x2 + 225 dx x513x6 . however is able to compute many forms of integrals in addition to the three we just considered. then we can evaluate its integral. 1. 6. and April Allen Materowski. and Finance. What do we do at this stage in our mathematical development if we come across an integral which does not reduce to one of these cases? For example. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.
30.2x 3 + 3x2 + 8x + 5 12 + 3x2/32 16. What relationship should there be among these constants if the method of substitution will work to evaluate the integral? 1 dx (Hints:(a) multiply the numerator and denominator by e x. L 15x 3 + 124x4 dx.x + 4 xn1axm + b2r dx. Gordon. dx L x 35. Consider the integral dx dx 4x 2 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. x2 dx Lx + 1 1 dx L ax + b L L L L eax dx 1ln x23 x 42x dx 2x154x 2 dx 2 3x + 2 dx L 3x + 4x + 1 2 10x4 . then divide. L L L L x2e4x dx 10x4e3x 5 3 dx +7 dx 3 31. (c) Explain the different results.) 5. Given 12x + 322 dx. is how to determine the equation of the tangent line to a curve. 15. Inc. calculus answers two questions. 20. and Finance. evaluate 37. Most of differential calculus is just a detailed response to this question. the xaxis and the lines x = a and x = b. 19.4 Approximation of Areas » » » » » Areas by Rectangles Left Endpoints Right Endpoints Midpoints Calculator Tips Simplistically speaking. + 2x2 + 1 13x2 + x2e4x dx 32. Walter O. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. x Le + 1 (b) Write the numerator as 1ex + 12 . Applied Calculus for Business. By multiplying out the integrand. 2x Le + 1 a3 + 25. (c) Explain the different results. b.4 Approximation of Areas 27. 18. n and r are conL stants. Wang.422 14. 33. * ** Section 5.3x2 + 3x + 4 L 4x5 . which we have already studied in some detail. The first. 21. a. by Warren B. 29. dx 28. Economics. (a) evaluate this integral by first multiplying out the L integrand. L L x2 x2 + 1 2 b x 3 36. + 2 dx e 2x dx 2x 1 e + 123 L e 2x dx 24. See Figure 1. .ex. where. e2x 21 + 3e2x dx x dx 2 Lx + 1 53x L5 3x 1 dx L x ln x 1ln x2N 34. dx x1/3 L 17. and (b) by substitution. m. 38. and April Allen Materowski. The second question that calculus answers is the following: find the area of the region bounded by the graph of y = f1x2. 23. 22. 26.
Inc. Wang. and Finance. In order to answer the second question we begin with one simple idea. Example 1 Let us consider the problem of approximating the area A under the parabola defined by f1x2 = x2 + 1. The area of a rectangle is defined to be the product of its length and width.Section 5. see Figure 2. the rectangle. then by summing the areas of these rectangles we should obtain a good approximation to the area of the given region. and April Allen Materowski. Gordon.4 y y = f( x ) Approximation of Areas * ** 423 x=a x=b x Figure 1: Area of Region Bounded by y = f 1x2. Economics. Areas by Rectangles A Figure 2: Area bounded by f 1x2 = x2 + 1. and we should then obtain the required area. and between the lines x = 1 and x = 2. What we do now is to approximate the area of the region we are trying to determine by rectangles. the xaxis. the xaxis. Walter O. you might then suggest we let the number of covering rectangles become infinite (this will involve a limit). . the xaxis and the Lines x = a and x = b What is interesting is that while these two questions seem to have no connection. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. by Warren B. Thinking like a mathematician. we shall discover that indeed they do. the lines x = 1 and x = 2 Applied Calculus for Business. If we can cover or exhaust the area with enough contiguous rectangles. We shall see that by increasing the number of rectangles covering the region the approximation will improve.
2]. see Figure 3. Economics. since the length of the original interval is 2 . Wang. Figure 3: Drawing the Vertical Sides of the Rectangles How do we complete the rectangle? There are lots of choices. and Finance. each will have length ¢ x = 12 .25.25. Gordon.5 x 1. Some choices will result in rectangles whose areas are too small. For this example. we draw a vertical line from the xaxis to the curve.) f( x ) = x 2 +1 Left Endpoints y 1.12/4 = 1/4. 1.5. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. At each xvalue on the subintervals. some too big. So we draw the lines x = 1. [1. Walter O.75].25 1.5]. x = 1. 1. .1 = 1 unit long and we want four equal subintervals. Inc. let us make the choice and use the leftmost point of each interval to complete the rectangle. 1. x = 1. it draws the yaxis through x = 1. and April Allen Materowski. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. [1.5.75 and x = 2.75 Figure 4: Choosing the Left Endpoint of Each Subinterval to Construct the Rectangle Applied Calculus for Business. (For clarity. the figure just shows the xaxis from 1 to 2. by Warren B.25]. and [1.4 Approximation of Areas Solution How can we approximate the area of the region? Suppose we partition the interval between x = 1 and x = 2 into n = 4 equal subdivisions (we chose four arbitrarily). Thus. we illustrate this in Figure 4.424 * ** Section 5. the four subintervals will be [1. x = 1.75.
0625 f122 = 5 The sum of the areas of these four rectangles is now S4 = 1/412.252 + 1/414.5625 f11.25 f11. by Warren B.5625 + 3.7522 + 1 = 4. Economics. see Figure 5. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.252 + 1/414.75 Figure 5: Choosing the Right Endpoint of Each Subinterval to Construct the Rectangles f11.5625 + 3.96875 Note that this sum underapproximates the area of the required region because each rectangle does not fill up the entire region under the curve. the heights of the other three rectangles are f11.25 1. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Gordon.52 = 11.2522 + 1 = 2. The height of the first rectangle is at x = 1 on the curve.0625 The area of each rectangle is then the height times 1/4.252 = 11. The sum of the areas of these four rectangles is therefore s4 = 1/4122 + 1/412. and April Allen Materowski. Inc. Applied Calculus for Business. choose the right endpoint of each subinterval.25 + 4. the height of the first rectangle is f112 = 12 + 1 = 2.52 = 11. Walter O.252 = 11. Wang.522 + 1 = 3.06252 + 1/4152 = 12.25 + 4.5 x 1.56252 + 1/413.25 f11.522 + 1 = 3.752 = 11.2522 + 1 = 2.56252 + 1/413.752 = 11.062421/4 = 2. When x = 1 on the parabola. and Finance.25.5625 f11.4 Approximation of Areas * ** 425 We now have four inscribed rectangles. each of width ¢ x = 1/4 = 0. Solution The yvalues at each right endpoint producing the top of the rectangles are now Right Endpoints y 1.71875 It is clear that this sum is too large as each circumscribed rectangle overapproximates the area under the curve because a portion of the rectangle is above the curve. . Example 2 Redo the previous exercise.Section 5.06252 = 12 + 2. but now. instead of choosing the left endpoint to draw the rectangles.7522 + 1 = 4.0624 + 521/4 = 3.
426 * ** Section 5. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.375 1.26563 2.875 ycoordinate on Curve 2. Applied Calculus for Business.25] [1.640632 + 1/ 414.5] [1. its midpoint and corresponding yvalue. and draw the top of the rectangle through that point. M4 = 1/ 412.5156321/4 = 3. 1. We shall discover that the exact area of the region is 10/3 L 3.25 1. Wang.890632 + 1/ 413.375 1.4 Approximation of Areas An improved approximation is obtained by taking the average of the two results. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. using the above.25.3333.265632 + 1/ 412.75] [1. Solution In Table 1.64063 4. This will be true in most cases.89063 3.625 1.96875 + 3.75. Example 3 Redo the previous example by choosing the midpoint of each subinterval. Walter O.625 1. and Finance.5. The rectangles using this midpoint are drawn in Figure 6 Table 1: Finding the y Coordinate at the Midpoint of the Subinterval Interval [1.26563 + 2.328125 Notice that the errors produced by using the left or right end points almost cancel out when the midpoint is used.125 1. Economics.515632 = 12. clearly the midpoints gave the best approximation.5 1.125 1. . T4 = s4 + S4 2. Gordon.34775 2 2 Midpoints We could construct the rectangles by choosing any point in each subinterval: compute the yvalue at that point on the curve.875 2 x Figure 6: Choosing the Midpoint of each Subinterval to Construct the Rectangles We have. Inc. 1. by Warren B.71875 = L 3.64063 + 4. 1. and April Allen Materowski.89063 + 3.75 1.51563 f(x) = x2 + 1 y 1. we indicate the interval. 2] Midpoint 1.
This remark is used for the spreadsheets using left.Section 5. by Warren B.125 1. 5 1. c1 = 1) the next xvalue in this column is c2 = c1 + ¢ x. f(x ) = x 2 + 1 y 1. right and midpoints given below.25 = 1. 25 1. Walter O.75 1.12/8 = 1/8 = 0. we ll generate all the information on a spreadsheet so we don t have to actually do the arithmetic.125. We first use the left endpoint of each subinterval to draw the rectangles.4 Approximation of Areas * ** 427 Example 4 Improve upon the approximation in the previous three examples by partitioning the interval into n = 8 rectangles. Economics. Solution Let us repeat the calculations.625 1. Inc. and April Allen Materowski. we now will partition the interval into 8 equal subintervals. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. so the width of each interval will now be ¢ x = 12 . if we call the first xvalue c1 (in the above example.25) the next is c3 = c2 + ¢ x and so on. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Figure 7 shows the inscribed rectangles formed under this partition using the left endpoint. Thus we find that the approximate area using n = 8 rectangles and the left endpoint of each subinterval is s8 = 3. Gordon. This is precisely how we generated the first column of the spreadsheet by copying the previous xvalue and adding ¢ x. (In the above example 1 + 0.875 x Figure 7: Using the Left Endpoint and n = 8 Rectangles We shall first give the spreadsheet using the left endpoint.375 1.148438 Applied Calculus for Business. and Finance. . this time. As before. Table 2: Using the Left Endpoint and n = 8 Rectangles Note that when constructing the xvalue column. Wang.
335938 which is very close to the exact area. we will do even better if we take the midpoint of each interval. Table 3: Using the Right Endpoint and n = 8 Rectangles (Note. we found S4 = 3. no other changes need to be made.4 Approximation of Areas Note that this is an improvement upon the case where we used the left endpoint and four rectangles. the number of rectangles increase. If we choose the right endpoint. Thus.125.428 * ** Section 5. where we found that s4 = 2.25 1. by Warren B. and Finance. Applied Calculus for Business. the rectangles cover more of the area under the curve and the approximation improves. The same observation will be true for the right endpoint and the midpoint. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. which is the spreadsheet containing all the calculations. and in fact is true no matter which point is used to construct the height of the rectangles.875 Figure 8: Using the Right Endpoint and n = 8 Rectangles We generate Table 3. y 1. we have Figure 8. Economics. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. If we average the two approximations for n = 8 rectangles.523438 Still too large but the overapproximation has decreased. When we used n = 4 rectangles. and April Allen Materowski. Inc.125 1. we have T8 = 1s8 + S82/2 = 13. Wang. 75 1. Table 3 may be obtained from Table 2 by changing the entry in Cell B7 from 1 to 1. . 5 x 1.625 1. See Figure 9.148438 + 3. Walter O. As before. it is apparent that as we let n.71875.) Observe that the approximation to the area is now S8 = 3. Gordon.5234382/2 = 3.375 1.96875.
8125 1. Gordon. This does not always happen. n has to be very large before the approximation is any good.4 Approximation of Areas * ** 429 y 1.Section 5.1 x 1. . We know from elementary geometry that the area of a circle of radius 1 is p. Walter O. So we consider the area of the region bounded by the curve whose equation is y = f1x2 = 21 .x2. the rectangles better filled (exhausted) the area under the curve. the upper half of this circle is given by the equation y = f1x2 = 21 . and Finance. Wang. we find M8 = 3.0625 1875 1. To make it even simpler.x 2. Economics. we say these sums converge quickly to the exact answer. remember.3333. and April Allen Materowski. In the language of mathematics. see Figure 10. by Warren B.6875 1.9375 x Figure 9: Using the midpoint of each subinterval and n = 8 Rectangles Table 4 is the spreadsheet generated using the midpoint of each subinterval. we indicated that the exact answer is 10/3 L 3. our approximations are getting better very quickly. and the domain is .4375 1. with 0 x 1. sometimes. The equation of the circle of radius 1 centered at the origin is given by the equation x2 + y 2 = 1.332031 Notice the improvement in the approximation of the area by doubling the number of rectangles.3125 1. let us take onehalf of this semicircle. Let us consider another example. that is the quarter circle in the first quadrant.x2 Applied Calculus for Business. Therefore. 1. Table 4: Using the Midpoint and n = 8 Rectangles. Thus. In each case by using more rectangles. We have agreement to two decimal places with only n = 8 rectangles.5625 1. Figure 10: The Quarter Circle y = f 1x2 = 21 . Inc. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. It appears that in the above example.
Still not very good.1. we have 13.904518.304518 + 2. at best. Inc. So with n = 10 rectangles we get. see Table 5 (the rectangles overapproximate the area. Suppose for the moment that we do not know the value of p. Using the average of these two values. see Figure 11).4 Approximation of Areas The area of this quarter circle is p/4. use n = 10 rectangles to approximate p. and April Allen Materowski.02/ 10 = 0. The width of each rectangle (that is the length of each subinterval) will be ¢ x = 11 .9045182/2 = 3. We next generate the spreadsheet using the right endpoint in Table 6 (these inscribed rectangles underapproximate the area.104518 as an approximation to p. We could find the approximate area under this curve and then multiply that number by 4. by Warren B. see Figure 12). Economics. We find that we obtain. We generate that spreadsheet in Table 7 where we obtain 3. one decimal point accuracy. this would then be an approximation of p. y Figure 11: Left Endpoints with n = 10 Table 5: Using Left Endpoint to Approximate p Applied Calculus for Business. Walter O.14159 to five decimal places.430 * ** Section 5. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. This is not very good: recall p L 3. . We first generate the spreadsheet using the left endpoint of each subinterval (circumscribed rectangles). Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Example 5 Following the discussion above. and Finance. Perhaps we will do better using the midpoint of each subinterval (see Figure 13). Wang.304518 as an approximation to p. we obtain 2. 3. Solution We will use spreadsheets and form a partition using n = 10 rectangles. Gordon. using the left endpoint.152411 as our approximation.
Gordon.65 . by Warren B.4 Approximation of Areas * ** 431 y x Figure 12: Using the Right Endpoint for n = 10 Table 6: Using Right Endpoint to Approximate p y .45 . Wang. and Finance. Walter O.95 Figure 13: Using the Midpoint for n = 10 Applied Calculus for Business.25 . . Economics.15 .55 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.Section 5. and April Allen Materowski. Inc.05 .75 .35 .85 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.
160417 as approximations to p. if they are measures in meters.7854842 = 3. we obtained a very good approximation. because of its size (but is easily done on your computer). Gordon. Thus. then area is measured in square feet 1ft 22. the convergence is slow. x2. Mn is Mn = a f A a + x1 2 (1) (2) B + fA x1 + x2 2 x + b B + Á + f A n . that these sums may be written more succinctly using some simple notation. increases. xn . Suppose the interval [a. n will need to be very large before the approximation improves significantly. with n = 8 (a relatively small value). Wang. We see that while there is some improvement as n.141937 The left and the right sums yield 3. and Finance.02/100 = 0.4 Approximation of Areas Table 7: Using midpoints to Approximate p In the first few examples.12 + f1b22 ¢ x and the sum using the midpoint.122 ¢ x Using the right endpoint the sum Rn is Rn = 1f1x12 + f1x22 + Á + f1xn . Inc. x1. use 100 rectangles.785484 and p L 41. Using the midpoint of each subinterval. Clearly. in the next section. we can easily generate the spreadsheet which we do not show here. the sum converged quickly. We shall show. Notes (1) We could actually write out a formula for the sums that we considered. x3. if these dimensions are each measured in feet. by Warren B. for the area under the parabola.1.432 * ** Section 5. then Applied Calculus for Business. whose endpoints are a = x0. Walter O. . That is. How large should n be to get better accuracy in approximating p? If we take n = 100. the number of rectangles. then the width of each rectangle is ¢ x = 11 . It will ultimately get better. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. b] is partitioned into n equal subintervals. xn = b then the sum obtained using the left endpoint Ln is Ln = 1f1a2 + f1x12 + f1x22 + Á + f1xn .120417 and 3. and April Allen Materowski. still considerably inaccurate. in this example convergence is considerably slower. (2) Area is the product of two dimensions.12 B b ¢ x (3) We saw that it is a simple matter to compute these sums using a spreadsheet. but for a much larger value of n. that is. Economics. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Á . we find M100 = 0.01. However proceeding as above. in this particular example.
and the third column the area of the rectangle. that is. Suppose you are estimating the area bounded by some curve and the xaxis. (c) 100. Instead of doing this. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 3.18: Ex. between the lines x = 0 and x = 2. . f(x) = x2 + 2 7. Determine the width of each rectangle if the number of rectangles to be used in the approximation is (a) 4. and the xaxis for x between . and the xaxis for x between 0 and 2. determine the xvalues that form the partition of the interval. 8 x Fig. see Figure 18 f(x) = 4 . While the calculator may be used to generate the areas of the rectangles. and the xaxis for x between 0 and 2. approximate the area of the region bounded by f1x2 = x2 + 2. (b) 10. and April Allen Materowski. we shall show. Suppose you are estimating the area bounded by some curve and the xaxis. Using the right endpoint with n = 4. Suppose you are estimating the area bounded by some curve and the xaxis. and the xaxis for x between . determine the xvalues that form the partition of the interval.2 and 2. the Table will not easily compute the sums of its columns. Walter O. whatever units are used for measurement of length. see Figure 15. However. between the lines x = 8 and x = 11. that is. the second column the yvalues. approximate the area of the region bounded by f1x2 = x2 + 2. and Finance. as we did throughout this section.x2 x Fig. Wang.2 and 2. and so on.x 2. approximate the area of the region bounded by f1x2 = 4 . 5 6. Using the middle point with n = 4. If you are using n = 4 rectangles. approximate the area of the region bounded by f1x2 = x2 + 2. the first column would be the xvalues used in each subinterval. the xvalues needed in determining the heights of the rectangles. 4. a much better way of obtaining the areas with the calculator using Sigma notation. f(x) = x2 + 2 9. Economics. 9 Fig.x 2.x2 Fig. Calculator Tips EXERCISE SET 5. the xvalues needed in determining the heights of the rectangles. f(x) = x2 + 2 x Fig. Gordon. While we have omitted the units of area (and will continue to do so). approximate the area of the region bounded by f1x2 = 4 . by Warren B. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 6 Applied Calculus for Business. Inc. Suppose you are estimating the area bounded by some curve and the xaxis. area is measured in the square of these units. 14 Ex. 15: Ex. between the lines x = 3 and x = 5.Section 5. Using the left endpoint with n = 4. (c) 100. (b) 10. see Figure 14. it is considerably easier to use a spreadsheet. 17: Ex. Using the left endpoint with n = 4. 16: Ex. Much of what we did in this section could be done using the Table feature on the calculator. it is important to keep them in mind.4 1. Determine the width of each rectangle if the number of rectangles to be used in the approximation is (a) 4. between the lines x = 3 and x = 5. see Figure 16. and the xaxis for x between 0 and 2. see Figure 17 f(x) = 4 .4 Approximation of Areas * ** 433 the area is measured in square meters 1m22. Therefore. If you are using n = 4 rectangles. 5. Using the right endpoint with n = 4. 7 8. 2. in the next section.
(b) the right endpoint in each subinterval and (c) the midpoint of each subinterval. (c) midpoint. see Figure 20. 29. n = 4 using the (a) left endpoint. and April Allen Materowski. (b) the right endpoint in each subinterval and (c) the midpoint of each subinterval. 30. 1 + x2 2. Wang. Redo Exercise 13 with n = 100 rectangles. (b) right endpoint. Do Exercise 12 with n = 8.x 2. f1x2 = x3. 19. Do Exercise 10 with n = 8. it is assumed you will be using a spreadsheet. f1x2 = . and the xaxis for 0 x 1. f x) = 4 . using n = 50 rectangles and (a) the left endpoint in each subinterval. 15. 22. Estimate the area bounded by f1x2 = x211 . 11. see Figure 19. 25. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. 18. by Warren B. and the xaxis for 0 x 2.2x + 3. 27. Do Exercise 12 with n = 16. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. between x = 0 and x = 1. between x = 2 and x = 3. Use n = 4 trapezoids to estimate the area of the region in Exercise 11. 12. Economics.2 and 2. Using the middle point with n = 4. 32.4 Approximation of Areas 23. 21. and the xaxis for 10. and Finance. Recall that the area of a trapezoid with bases b1 and b2 and height h is 1/2h1b1 + b22. (c) midpoint. and the xaxis for x between . Use n = 4 trapezoids to estimate the area of the region in Exercise 10.x2. 26. without using a spreadsheet. 10 In Exercises 11 14. Do Exercise 10 with n = 16. n = 4 using the (a) left endpoint. resulting in trapezoids. using n = 25 rectangles and (a) the left endpoint in each subinterval. Use n = 4 trapezoids to estimate the area of the region in Exercise 12. Fig. In the remaining exercises.19: Ex. Estimate the area bounded by f1x2 = 1 x 1 . Do Exercise 11 with n = 16. between x = 0 and x = 1. determine the approximate area of the region bounded by the given curve. 20. Estimate the area bounded by f1x2 = ex. using the indicated number n of rectangles. using n = 100 rectangles and (a) the left endpoint in each subinterval. 14. n = 4 using the (a) left endpoint. (b) the right endpoint in each subinterval and (c) the midpoint of each subinterval. Inc. (c) midpoint. 13. 31. (b) right endpoint. between x = 4 and x = 5. Do Exercise 13 with n = 8. Use n = 4 trapezoids to estimate the area of the region in Exercise 13. (b) right endpoint. n = 4 using the (a) left endpoint. Walter O. (b) the right endpoint in each subinterval and (c) the midpoint of each subinterval. 16. Applied Calculus for Business.434 * ** Section 5. b1 h b2 Figure 20: Area of a Trapezoid is 1/2h1b1 + b22 In Exercises 28 32. approximate the area of the region bounded by f1x2 = 4 . and the xaxis for 1 x 4. 28. Gordon. (c) midpoint. . (b) right endpoint. using n = 100 rectangles and (a) the left endpoint in each subinterval. Show that the approximation of the area obtained by using trapezoids is equal to the average of the approximations using the left and right endpoints. approximate the indicated area by connecting succesive yvalues on the curve by a straight line. Estimate the area bounded by f1x2 = ln x. the xaxis and between the given lines. f1x2 = x2.x2 24. Do Exercise 13 with n = 16. Do Exercise 11 with n = 8. f1x2 = 3x + 2. 17.
Á . we use i. and starting and ending values are specified. and continuing with the next integer value. x2. then the average or mean of this set is the sum of these numbers divided by n. For example. Walter O. For example. It is the index letter that is being replaced by a number when creating the terms to be summed. Inc. x3. we now write this average. and Finance. the sample mean is often written this way. by Warren B. Economics. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. replacing the index i with 3 to begin with. then you would write x1 + x2 + x3 + Á + x30 Mathematicians have developed a shorthand method for indicating such sums. x306 and you wanted to indicate their sum. you have a variable that is being looped (in this case summed). if you have a set of n data points. k is called the summation index. We write 30 k=1 Sigma Notation a xk The Greek letter sigma 1 © 2 tells us to sum. perhaps you have seen its use in statistics. Á + x30 a xk = x1 + x2 + x3 + 30 k=1 This is similar to the loop command in most programming languages. In the above example. indicated by x. they delete them and write x = a xj n Applied Calculus for Business. Á . Gordon. its index. we begin with the value of k = 1 and we stop with the value of k = 30. as n j=1 a xj n x = In statistics. 5x1. That is. until i is 6. when the starting and ending values are understood. we could have used any letter we desired for the index. Wang. Sometimes. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and April Allen Materowski. x3. 2 2 2 2 2 a 2i = 2132 + 2142 + 2152 + 2162 6 i=3 Sigma notation is used extensively in mathematics. say 5x1.Section 5. j.5 Sigma Notation and Areas * ** 435 5. x2. consider 6 i=3 2 a 2i 2 We are to sum 2i . xn6. the expression we are summing is xk. . or k. usually.5 Sigma Notation and Areas » » » » » » Sigma Notation Linearity Property Summation Formulas Reimann Sums Areas by Riemann Sums Calculator Tips Suppose you have a set of 30 data points. Using sigma notation. that is.
or do the repetitive summation on a spreadsheet. but it could be any number. . We could now write sx = a x2 k k=1 n When we write n k=1 a F1k2 where F is some function of the index k. is Linearity Property n i=1 n i=1 n a 1aF1i2 + bG1i22 = a a F1i2 + b a G1i2 i=1 (1) where a and b are any constants. Economics. sometimes called the linearity property. Statisticians also use sigma notation to indicate the sample variance. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. We will be studying areas of regions. we are just interested in understanding the summation process. we shall either use the summation command on our calculator.4k 2 = 3 a k . 2 2 a 2i = 2 a i i=3 6 6 i=3 and 3 2 3 2 a 13k . Wang.5 Sigma Notation and Areas We will always indicate the index with its starting and ending values. At this point it does not matter what the terms in the sum mean. by Warren B.436 * ** Section 5. then at 2. until F is evaluated at n (the final value of the index). We shall see that when n is a large number we will rarely do the computations manually. Gordon. It will turn out that we will be frequently dealing with sums of the form n i=1 a f1ci2 ¢ x which translates into Á + f1cn2 ¢ x a f1ci2 ¢ x = f1c12 ¢ x + f1c22 ¢ x + f1c32 ¢ x + n i=1 Notice the index only affects the function f (the ¢ x has no index attached to it). it means we first evaluate this function F at 1 (the index s starting point). One simple property of sigma notation. then sum these n values. Walter O. we have the following: n Summation Formulas k=1 ak = n1n + 12 2 (2) Applied Calculus for Business. For example. When studying regression we had the expression sx which was the sum of the squares of the n data points. For example. We arbitrarily chose 1 as the starting value of the index. and April Allen Materowski. Inc. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and Finance.4 a k k = 2 k = 2 n n n k = 2 It also turns out that sum of powers of integers can be easily computed by simple formulas. and continuing at consecutive integer values.
12 + n S = n + 1n .12 + 1n . by Warren B. so we have. . For example. Walter O. beginning with the last term continuing until the first. (See Table 1. and Finance. Example 1 Compute a 12k2 + 5k2. k=1 30 Solution Using (2) and (3).5 2 ak = n n Sigma Notation and Areas * ** 437 k=1 n1n + 1212n + 12 6 n21n + 122 4 (3) k=1 3 ak = (4) Note that (2) says that the sum of the first n integers is the product of the last integer and. we obtain 2S = 1n + 12 + 11n .Section 5. we have 2 2 a 12k + 5k2 = 2 a k + 5 a k = 2 k=1 30 30 k=1 30130 + 1212 # 30 + 12 30130 + 12 + 5 = 6 2 k=1 10 # 31 # 61 + 751312 = 21. Economics. Wang. S = 1 + 2 + Á + 1n .122 + 11 + n2 notice each sum on the right is n + 1. 2S = n1n + 12 or S = n1n + 12/2 We indicate in the exercises how (3) and (4) may be obtained. 2S = 1n + 12 + 1n + 12 + 1n + 12 + Á + 1n + 12 1n + 12 occurs exactly n times on the right hand side. we write it out and then write it again. and April Allen Materowski. divided by 2.12 + Á + 2 + 1 If we add these two identical sums.12 + 22 + Á . Gordon. that is. 99 k=1 ak = 99 # 100 = 4950 2 It s not hard to prove (1). backwards. Suppose we let S be the sum. Applied Calculus for Business. Inc.) We illustrate at the end of this section how to do such sums on your calculator. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. one more than the last integer. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.235 30 Even a simple problem like this last example could be done quickly on a spreadsheet.
we enter in this cell. i=5 Solution We write 10 i=5 10 i=1 4 i=1 ai = ai . so we need to exclude them. Gordon. Consider the following example. by Warren B. Economics.438 * ** Section 5. and April Allen Materowski. = SUM1C4 : C332 In order to use these formulas (2). Example 2 10 Compute a i.4152/2 = 45 Applied Calculus for Business. the sum must begin at 1. = 101112/2 . Wang. 10 i=5 a i. Inc. When it does not.5 Sigma Notation and Areas Table 1: Computing a 12k 2 + 5k2 on a Spreadsheet k=1 30 Once the 1 is entered in cell B4. So we have. Walter O. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. our stopping value in cell B33. (3) and (4). we can easily rectify the situation. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. . To obtain the sum in Cell C34. and Finance. = 2*B4¿2 + 5*B4 and then copy its contents to all the cells in its column. which is why we have to subtract the second sum on the right from the first. To get the result in C4. We copy the content of B5 into all the cells beneath it until we reach 30. we enter in this cell. then we enter in the cell under it 1B52 = B4 + 1.ai Do you see why we subtract? The first sum on the right included first four extra terms missing from the original sum.
we have 7. 1 n 2 1 n1n + 1212n + 12 2n3 + 3n2 + n 2n3 1 k = lim 3 = lim = lim = a 3 3 n: q n k=1 n: q n n: q n : q 6n3 6 3 6n lim Note that the procedure for finding the limit as n : q is done exactly as when the variable is x. we first need to write the sums of the rectangles slightly differently. and so on. This is where the calculus comes into play. if we sum the areas of these n rectangles. we will need to take a limit. f1c22 ¢ x. Inc. Á . and so on for 3 and 4. when i = 2. That is. you could rewrite the sum as a 17 + 0i2. we have n k=1 a C = Cn (5) We shall see that to compute the area of a region using sums. Let us call c1 the xvalue used in the first subinterval. but it makes the writing of expressions involving sums much easier. Gordon. right or midpoint of each subinterval. f1cn2. and April Allen Materowski. c2 the xvalue in the second interval. Before we do that. Á . thus the sum is 7142 = 28. n: q lim f1n2 = lim f1x2 x: q Sigma notation is nothing more than a shorthand. the number of rectangles. f1cn2 ¢ x. We could proceed without it. .Section 5. we need to take a limit. Riemann Sums Applied Calculus for Business. How might we go about doing that? The answer appears obvious: do exactly what we did on the examples in the previous section and let n. While we considered examples using the left.5 4 Sigma Notation and Areas * ** 439 What does the sum a 7 mean? There is no index dependent term in the sum. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. We let the width of each rectangle be ¢ x. so when i=1 i = 1. n : q n3 k =1 Evaluate lim Solution We first evaluate the sum and then the limit becomes a secondary problem. We saw in the last section that while it is an easy matter to use larger and larger spreadsheets to improve upon the approximation in computing the area of a region. become infinite. using sigma notation. The next example illustrates how this is done. That is. respectively. we obtain an approximation A n to the area of the region. We shall assume that f is a nonnegative continuous function (we ll explain why later). The corresponding yvalues will be f1c12. Example 3 1 n 2 ak . we have 7. Economics. We shall now use it to help us represent the area of a region. we saw that it really does not matter which point we used in each subinterval to construct the top of the rectangles: we could use any point. by Warren B. We have n k=1 ak 2 n1n + 1212n + 12 6 therefore. which produces the same result. namely. 4 Alternately. Wang. i=1 More generally. we would like to obtain the exact area. Walter O. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. and Finance. f1c22. giving cn the xvalue in the last (nth) interval. Therefore. and the area of the n rectangles are f1c12 ¢ x.
Inc. c n . d n n Applied Calculus for Business.02/n = 1/n. using ¢ x = 11 . 1].5 Sigma Notation and Areas A n = f1c12 ¢ x + f1c22 ¢ x + Á + f1cn2 ¢ x We can express this sum using sigma notation as n A n = a f1ck2 ¢ x k=1 The sum is called a Riemann sum. ¢x = b . Wang. and Finance. We saw that this could be accomplished by letting the number of rectangles become infinite. the xaxis and the Lines x = a and x = b Note that if we partition the interval from a to b into n subintervals of the same length. named after the mathematician Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (1826 1866). A x=a x=b Figure 1: The Area A of the Region Bounded by y = f1x2.440 * ** Section 5. Á . and April Allen Materowski. by Warren B. the xaxis. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. [2/n. We illustrate with a few examples. Mathematically we write this as Areas by Riemann Sums n A = lim A n = lim a f1ck2 ¢ x n: q n: q k=1 (6) We shall illustrate how (6) is used in computing the exact area of a region like the one illustrated in Figure 1. Now we want to obtain the exact area.a2 divided by n. 3/n]. the number of rectangles we use. Gordon. Economics. . That is. the lines x = 0 and x = 1. Walter O.a n (7) Example 4 Find the area of the region bounded by the curve f1x2 = x2. then the n subintervals are: [0. A.1 n . of the region. [1/n. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. called a regular partition. 1/n]. it is usually easiest to use only the left or only the right endpoint in each subinterval. In using (6). Solution We partition the interval [0. ¢ x is equal to the length of the interval 1b . 2/n].
we let n become infinite. Wang. f11/n2. that is. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. so in this particular example. and Finance. Á . A n = 11/n221/n + 12/n221/n + 13/n221/n + Á + 1n/n221/n We may write this sum using sigma notation. this limit may be computed fairly easily as follows: n n k2 1 n k 21 = lim a 3 = lim 3 a k2 = A = lim a a b n: q k=1 n n n: q k=1 n n: q n k=1 3 2 1 n1n + 1212n + 12 2n + 3n + 1 2n3 1 = lim = lim = lim 3 3 3 q q n: q n n : n : 6 3 6n 6n (Note that (3) was used in evaluating the sum. .) Therefore.5 Sigma Notation and Areas * ** 441 (Note that n/n = 1 but let s keep the pattern) Suppose we choose the right endpoint of each subinterval. Economics. Solution Suppose we choose the left endpoint of each subinterval. Gordon. Inc. f13/n2. f12/n2. ¢ x = 1/n) f11/n2 ¢ x = 11/n221/n f12/n2 ¢ x = 12/n221/n f13/n2 ¢ x = 13/n221/n o f1n/n2 ¢ x = 1n/n221/n Therefore.Section 5. Then the corresponding yvalues are f11/n2. as n k 21 An = a a b n k=1 n 2 To obtain the area. the area of the region is 1/3. Walter O. the yvalues are f11/n2 = 11/n22 f12/n2 = 12/n22 f13/n2 = 13/n22 o f1n/n2 = 1n/n22 So the areas of the rectangles are (remember. by Warren B. A.12/n2 f10/n2 = 0 f11/n2 = 11/n22 f12/n2 = 12/n22 Applied Calculus for Business. Example 5 Redo the previous example using the left endpoint of each subinterval. f13/n2. and April Allen Materowski. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. f12/n2. Á . f1n/n2 Now note that f1x2 = x . f11n . then the corresponding yvalues are f10/n2. n k 21 A = lim a a b n: q k=1 n n As we saw above.
by Warren B. see Figure 2. . If we choose the right end points.12 2n3 . The subinterval endpoints would then be 0.442 * ** Section 5.1211n . .12/n221/n 1 n1 2 ak = n : q n3 k =1 .5 Sigma Notation and Areas o f11n . 4] as above and obtain ¢ x = 14 . n(4/n). .4x and the xaxis for x between 0 and 4 We can partition the interval [0. . 3(4/n).02/n = 4/n.12/n2 = 11n . . Economics. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.12/n221/n Therefore. Inc. with n . 2(4/n).) You will note that we have assumed that the function whose area we are computing is nonnegative. and Finance. and April Allen Materowski.12 + 12 = lim + n = lim 2n3 1 = 3 n : q 6n 3 (Note that (3) was again used in evaluating the sum.3n2 = lim lim n: q n: q 6n3 6n3 Á + 11n . Walter O.1 as the last term in the sum. A n = 11/n221/n + 12/n221/n + 13/n221/n + n1 k 21 An = a a b n k=1 n n1 2 n1 2 k k 1 = lim a 3 = A = lim a a b n: q k=1 n n n: q k=1 n 1 1n . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. 4/n.12 + 12121n lim 3 n: q n 6 1n .12/n22 So the areas of the rectangles are (omitting the first rectangle whose area is 0) f11/n2 ¢ x = 11/n221/n f12/n2 ¢ x = 12/n221/n o f11n . what if we used the region bounded by f1x2 = x2 . Applied Calculus for Business.42 and the xaxis with x between 0 and 4. What would happen if we consider a Riemann sum on a function that lies below the xaxis? For example. Gordon.4x = x1x .12/n2 ¢ x = 11n .12n12n . we obtain for the yvalues. Wang. Figure 2: Area of Region Bounded by f 1x2 = x 2 . 4((4/n)).
1x 2 . so we should have anticipated this.Section 5.4 b n n Therefore. The area under this curve f1x2 = .42 o 4 4 f1ck2 = f1k14/n22 = k # a k # . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Wang. If we reflect the given curve about the xaxis. f1ck2 ¢ x = k # 4 4 4 64k2 64k ak # . we obtain the congruent region given in Figure 3. and April Allen Materowski.42 f1c32 = f1314/n22 = 213/n21314/n2 .2 3 n n n n n and we have as the Riemann sum n 64k2 64k 64 n 2 64 n f 1 c 2 ¢ x = = k k a ak a 3 a n2 n3 k n2 k k=1 k=1 n =1 =1 n If we now let n become infinite.4b = .1. We can give a simple interpretation of this result. When the function is nonnegative. by Warren B. with the yvalues differing by a factor of .4x2.42 f1c22 = f1214/n22 = 214/n21214/n2 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. and the xaxis for x between 0 and 4 is 32/3. .lim 2 = q q n: n n: n 6 2 64n3 + 96n2 + 32n 32n2 + n lim = lim n: q n: q 3n3 n2 64n3 32n2 64 32 lim = . we have.32 = lim n : q 3n3 n : q n2 3 3 We obtain a negative result! This is not surprising as all the yvalues are beneath the xaxis.4x2 and the xaxis for x between 0 and 4 Applied Calculus for Business. and Finance. The computations are identical to the above. Economics.5 Sigma Notation and Areas * ** 443 f1c12 = f114/n2 = 14/n2114/n . Gordon. we have n 64 n 64 n lim a f1ck2 ¢ x = lim 3 a k2 . Walter O.lim 2 a k = n: q k=1 n: q n k=1 n: q n k=1 64 n1n + 1212n + 12 64 n1n + 12 lim 3 . the Riemann sums determine the area of the region. Inc. Figure 3: Area of Region Bounded by f 1x2 = .1x2 .
starting value. while the yvalue to the right of the origin are positive. A1 A2 A3 n Figure 4: lim a f 1ck2 ¢ x When the Function Changes Sign n: q k=1 Let A 1. A 1 . for a function that may assume both positive and negative values. and Finance. Fortunately. suppose we form a regular partition on the interval [ . Inc.5 Sigma Notation and Areas When the function is negative. press F3 and scroll to 4 and press Enter. t=5 20 Applied Calculus for Business. see Figure 6. you can choose any letter. we were able to compute the sums using the formulas given in this section. but the length of each subinterval approaches zero as n becomes infinite. one in which the subintervals have different lengths. What do we do if we have a function that results in a sum we do not recognize? We shall discover in the next section. Alternately. 1] Calculator Tips zero. the Riemann sum will be the sum of the signed areas.A 3 + A 2. . What will be the value of n f1ck2 ¢ x? A little thought should convince you that the limit of this sum will be lim n: q a k=1 Figure 5: f 1x2 = x3 on [ . Walter O. The calculator has in its Catalog g (sum (found directly under sum which we do not use). We can compute sums very easily with the TI 89. Then n: q k=1 we will obtain as our result. and April Allen Materowski. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. the Riemann sums give the negative of the area. Economics.444 * ** Section 5. Wang. We leave the consideration of irregular partitions to the exercises. they cancel. Selecting g (sum produces g ( on the input line. 1] and compute lim a f1ck2 ¢ x. but since the limit of the Riemann sums gives the sum of the signed areas. the only change is in the sign of the yvalues. Therefore. and A 3 be the areas of the regions between the curve and xaxis. you need to Figure 6: Sums on the TI 89 first use the Alpha key). how we may solve such problems using integration. consider Figure 4. Do you see why? This function is symmetric with respect to the origin. the yvalues to the left of the origin are negative. A 2. For example.2. Consider the following problem: Given f1x2 = x3. Thus. For example. by Warren B. Its syntax is as follows: a 1expression.1. as inn dicated.1. Gordon. The areas of each region are the same. they are now negative nothing else has changed. 1] into n equal subintervals. index variable. j or k for the index variable. j or k. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. See Figure 5. Make it easier for yourself when using your calculator and choose t (to use i. Suppose we partition the interval [ . to compute a 3t4. Another approach that is sometimes useful is to choose an irregular partition. ending value2 While we usually use i.
between x = 0 and 1 (do not evaluate this limit). 31. use the formulas provided in this section to compute the given sum.2k2. lim 3 n i2 2 n ia =1 n 9. between (a) x = 1 and 2.) n 20. between x = 0 and 2. a 1k1k . Find the area of the region bounded by f1x2 = 2x 2 and the xaxis. right and middle sums may be written as (Write out the sums and observe what happens to the terms.3j52 j=1 In Exercises 26 29. + + + + 5 7 9 11 13 6. (d) x = .2k2. a 13i5 . 38. evaluate the given sum 5 k= 1 4 22. between (a) x = 1 and x = 2. In Exercises 34 39 use Riemann sums and the limit to find the area. a 14i3 .1 = a k + 1 . a 12 j=2 In Exercises 15 18. (b) the first 999 integers. 15. x + + + Á + 2 3 n In Exercises 9 14. 23.a k + a k . a 1ak + 1 . compute the given limit. a 11 + 1 .1 and 1. 1 + 6 + 11 + 16 + 21 2 3 4 5 1 5. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.1 x3 xn x2 8. Determine the region whose area is given by Exercise 28. between x = 0 and x = 1.1) Applied Calculus for Business. (b) x = . Find the area of the region bounded by f1x2 = 3x + 1 and the xaxis. lim 28. a i=3 i + 1 8 k= 1 20 2 n: q 27. .2i2 + 11i . Why do you think it is called a k=1 telescoping sum? n 21.12 + 32 j=1 7 i 11.1 and 0. a 13k2 . between x = 1 and x = 2. a 1ak + 1 .a k . 36. Determine a Riemann sum that would determine the area of the region bounded by f1x2 = ln x and the xaxis. 32. (c) the first n integers. Wang. lim 4 n i3 a n3 n: q n i =1 n: q 2 n i 2 a3 + a b b n ia n =1 5 n i 3 a1 + b n ia n =1 12. (a) If we let a = x0 and b = xn. Find the average of (a) the first 99 integers. Compute the following sum. a 12k3 .122 i=1 35 17. 34.1 and 1. (c) a 12k + 1 . Determine the region whose area is given by Exercise 26. between x = 0 and x = 1. 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + Á + 47 1 1 1 1 3. 1 + 1/2 + 1/3 + Á + 1/20 2.12 (Hint: write k=1 a k + 1 . a + ar + ar2 + Á + ar n .2j + 42 j=1 30 20 16.1 and 0. 20 n k=1 k= 1 14.3k2 k= 1 27 18. 33.5 Sigma Notation and Areas * ** 445 EXERCISE SET 5. Use your calculator to compute each of the following sums. Compute the following sum.a k . and Finance. (c) x = .12 10. there are many more in your calculator s memory.12 2 13.a k2. Inc. Economics. a 13j2 .12 + 2k32 k= 1 19. a 12 + 5j 2 . Gordon. Find the area of the region bounded by f1x2 = 2x 2 and the xaxis.a k . by Warren B. Walter O. a 1j1j .2i42 i=1 53 23 24. show that formulas (1). (b) a 12k + 1 .2 and 1. 40. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.2k6 + 7k32 k = 12 18 25. Find the area of the region bounded by f1x2 = x3 and the xaxis. Compute (a) a 12k + 1 . (b) x = . 42. While we gave only three simple formulas for computing sums. and April Allen Materowski.Section 5. lim n: q 30. 1. Determine the region whose area is given by Exercise 27. Determine a Riemann sum that would determine the area of the region bounded by f1x2 = ex and the xaxis. (2) and (3) of the previous section for left. k= 1 5 39. a 12 j=1 20 k 29. 26. 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + Á + 2048 7. # + # + # + Á + # 2 2 2 3 2 19 2 1 4. Find the area of the region bounded by f1x2 = 3x + 1 and the xaxis. 35. (c) x = . Determine the region whose area is given by Exercise 29.2k2. between x = 1 and 2 (do not evaluate this limit). Find the area of the region bounded by f1x2 = x 3 and the xaxis. 41.5 In Exercises 1 8 rewrite the given sum using sigma notation. 37. a 12k .
the number of subintervals. (a) Find the area bounded by the curve f1x2 = 1x and the xaxis. and by Exercise 20. 1/n2].. and now wish to find S2 = a k2. 43. using the above three sums. 46..5 Sigma Notation and Areas n Ln = a f1xk . when p = 2. [4/n2. We have already established the formula in the case p = 1. for 0 x 1. 1/n3. becomes infinite. that is 7 ¢ 7 : 0 is equivalent to n : q . [1/n2. and Finance. n2/n2] (a) Show that ¢ xi = 12i . the area bounded by f1x2 = ex and the xaxis. 8n3. Show that using the right endpoints. Applied Calculus for Business. what sum do you 1 n 1 2 obtain? (c) comparing (a) and (b) show that lim 3 a k2 = n: q 2 k= 1 3 n 49. is given by (a) A = lim a ek/n. e L 1 + x.. 48. and we have n k=1 n 2 a 1 + a 3k + a 3k = k=1 k=1 n n + 3 a k + n + 3 a k2 = n + 3S1 + 3S2 k= 1 k= 1 f1ci2 ¢ x lim 7 ¢7 : 0 a i =1 (8) as the generalization to (7). .12/n2 (b) Show that for this partition. Given f 1x2 = 1 3 x. we used a regular partition. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.k 2 = n n n n n where ci could be any point in the ith subinterval. A = 1e . what sum do you obtain? (c) Comparing (a) and 1 n 1 3 (b) show that lim 4 a k3 = . we obtain (2). 45. Consider the following irregular partition of the interval [0. We know the value of S1. Hint: Find an irregular partition that will enable you to deter0 mine this area: note. by Warren B. 4/n2].12 ¢ x k= 1 n that is. and so on. (b) Supposed you used a regular partition. if it approaches 0. This exercise shows how to obtain formulas for Sp for positive integer values of p. Inc. In order to exhaust the region under the curve. i 2/n2]. 44.12 lim x e1/n 1/n n : q n1e .12 . Use the partition of exercise 46 and the right endpoint of each subinterval. we k=1 obtain (3). and x = b. 1n . determine (a) S3. (a) find the area bounded by this curve and the xaxis for x 1. why? (b) Suppose you used a regular partition. Walter O. 47. we require the width of each rectangle to approach 0. Suppose we let Sp = a kp. [1i . then the length of every subinterval will approach zero (why?). b] into n equal subintervals. Á . When p = 1. ¢ x. Complete the details and find S2. and the lines x = a. the length of every subinterval goes to 0 as n goes to infinity. and so on. between x = 0 and 1 n x = 1. The definition of a Riemann sum is now generalized to n i=1 a f1ci2 ¢ xi The next step is to take the limit. then there is no way the Riemann sum could represent the area of the region (why?). 1]: [0. and April Allen Materowski. ¢ x2 be the width of the second subinterval.122/n2. it is easily determined. Gordon. (c) S5. Á . So we could write n i=1 n Rn = a f1xk2 ¢ x k= 1 lim f1ci2 ¢ x = lim a f1ci2 ¢ x n: q a ¢x : 0 i=1 (7) and n Mn = a f A k=1 xk . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Using the method of the previous exercise. that the endpoints should be: 0.12 lim n We defined a Riemann sum as a f1ci2 ¢ x where we partitioned the interval i=1 [a. We could divide the interval into an irregular partition where the subintervals have different lengths. Wang.446 * ** Section 5. the xaxis. and ¢ xn be the width of the nth subinterval. (c) If we let x = 1/n show that this limit is equivalent to xe . 9/n2].k3 = 1 + 3k + 3k2 k= 1 n 3 3 a 111 + k2 . There is an easier way of saying this: let 7 ¢ 7 be the length of the largest of all the subintervals. If there were some subintervals whose width did not approach zero. .122/n2. (b) Observe that the given sum is n: q n k=1 a geometric sum and it follows that A = 1e . Describe a partition where n : q but 7 ¢ 7 does not approach 0. Note that as n. (b) S4. n: q 3 k= 1 4 n The first sum on the left is a telescoping sum with ak = k3. Let ¢ x1 be the width of the first subinterval. approaches zero. so we may now solve for S2. the width of each subinterval. Economics.1 x x = 0. (d) Compute this limit by recalling that near x x:0 e . k=1 we may proceed as follows: 11 + k23 .1 + xk 2 B ¢x (b) Write three different expressions for the area bounded by y = f1x2.
and Finance. Then we define b a 3 f1x2 dx. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.) Now we sum the infinite number of the areas of such rectangles beginning at a and ending at b.6 The Definite Integral » » » » Definite Integral Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus Basic Properties Calculator Tips In the previous section we saw that if f is a nonnegative continuous function. In motivating this notation. we have the symbol tinuous on the interval [a. b].Section 5. It is no coincidence that we use the Applied Calculus for Business. Suppose we call the width of such a representative rectangle the differential dx and its height f(x). Let us define a more convenient notation to represent this limit. we saw that this limit then gives the sum of the signed areas of the component regions. . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. th f(x) x=a dx x=b Figure 1: A Representative Rectangle with Area f(x)dx In essence. which is an elongated S to indicate we are summing an infinite number of rectangles.6 The Definite Integral * ** 447 5. then the area of the region bound by the curve and the xaxis between x = a and x = b is given by n lim f1ck2 ¢ x n: q a k=1 where ck is any point in the k subinterval. Then the (differential) area of this representative rectangle is f(x)*dx (see Figure 1. When the function is negative on part or all of the interval. Thus. We use the integral symbol. Walter O. a is called the lower limit of in tegration and b is called the upper limit of integration. what we do is to find the sum of the area of an infinite number of such thin rectangles. Economics. Inc. Gordon. More formally. each of whose width is approaching zero. we assume the function is nonnegative. We draw an infinitesimally thin representative rectangle. Wang. and we indicate the a and b to show where we start b Definite Integral and end the sums. but it does not have to be. suppose f is con n a b 3 f1x2 dx = lim a f1ck2 ¢ x n: q k=1 (1) The symbol a 3 f1x2 dx is called a definite integral. by Warren B. and April Allen Materowski.
F1a2 a b 3 f1x2 dx = F1x2 b a = F1b2 . First. then we have F1x2 = L f1x2 dx Of course there is an arbitrary constant of integration c in the evaluation of this integral. When the function is negative on part or all of the interval. we can choose c = 0. Basically. Basically. Example 1 2 val [a. Let F be any antiderivative of f. then (1) is easily determined. then the symbol gives the sum of the signed areas of the appropriate regions. Wang. some remarks and examples. the number no longer represents an area. We move into the realm of calculus when we consider the limit as n becomes infinite. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. by Warren B. as we shall see. the Fundamental Theorem reduces the summation and limit process into one of integration. Economics. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. If F is an antiderivative of f. Thus. Can we use the calculus to help us compute (1) in a simpler way? The answer to this question results in one of the most beautiful results in the calculus: the socalled Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus.F1a2 (2) We shall prove this theorem at the end of the section. over the interval [a. so we choose 3 3 Solution L x2 dx = Applied Calculus for Business. Then b a 3 f1x2 dx = F1b2 . but since the theorem states we may use any antiderivative. If the function is negative over some or all of the interval. but may have some other interpretation. b] then Compute 1 3 x2 dx. this number may or may not represent an area. the definite integral is a number which depends on the sign of f. Therefore. . b]. this theorem says that if you can integrate f. we can compute the definite integral. In any event. the notions of area and Riemann sums are nothing more than simple geometry: adding up the areas of many rectangles. Thus. and April Allen Materowski. if we can integrate f. b].F1a2 It then follows from the Fundamental Theorem that if f is nonnegative on the interf1x2 dx is a positive number representing the area of the region 3 a bounded by the curve and the xaxis.6 The Definite Integral Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus same symbol to represent an infinite sum of rectangles as we used to represent an antib derivative. Walter O.448 * ** Section 5. Another notation will be convenient. FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM Suppose f is continuous on [a. + c. we see that if f is nonnegative on [a. Gordon. x3 x3 as the antiderivative we will use. we let F1x2 so we may rewrite the Theorem as b b a = F1b2 . Inc. and Finance. b] then f1x2 dx represents the area 3 a of the region bounded by the curve and the xaxis over this interval.
That s why the theorem states any antiderivative will work. The region is illustrated in Figure 2. f(x ) = x 3 A 3 Figure 2: 2 3 x 3 dx representing the Area A (b) We have L x3 dx = 3 x4 x4 and we have + c. Economics. x3 Suppose you chose as the antiderivative + 1 in the previous example. Wang. and Finance. we choose c = 0 to make the computations simplest.a + 1b = . Solution (a) Note that f1x2 = x 3 is positive on the interval [2. as the constant will cancel in the calculations.6 The Definite Integral * ** 449 We have. The same would be true for any constant of integration. Gordon. Example 2 (a) Interpret as an area the integral 3 2 3 x3 dx. 3] so the definite integral does indeed represent an area. Inc.Section 5. do you 3 see why you get the same answer? 2 1 3 x 2 dx = a 2 1223 1123 x3 8 1 7 + 1b ` = a + 1b . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.= 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 The ones cancel. 2 1 3 x 2 dx = 1223 1123 x3 2 8 1 7 ` = = = 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 Did you notice that the definite integral in the previous example represents the area of the region bounded by f1x2 = x2 and the xaxis between x = 1 and 2? This is the first example we considered in Section 3. so we choose F1x2 = 4 4 1324 1224 x4 3 81 16 65 ` = = = 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 x 3 dx = Applied Calculus for Business. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. Walter O. . by Warren B. and April Allen Materowski. (b) Find this area.4.
b. Some of these properties are similar to those for the indefinite integral (see (4) and (5)). then we have a a b 3 f1x2 dx = 0 b (3) a b 3 kf1x2 dx = k b a 3 f1x2 dx b (4) a 3 1f1x2 . Inc. b a 3 g1x2 dx (5) b b 3 f1x2 dx = c a 3 f1x2 dx b (6) a 3 f1x2 dx = a 3 f1x2 dx + c 3 f1x2 dx (7) Applied Calculus for Business. There are some basic properties of the definite integral that we may obtain either from its definition in terms of a Riemann sum. and k is a constant. Economics. Suppose f and g are continuous functions on some interval containing a. from the Fundamental Theorem. or by a simple interpretation of the definite integral in terms of an area. Wang. c.450 * ** Section 5.F1a2 Basic Properties Note the integration variable is replaced by the limits of integration.6 The Definite Integral Example 3 5 Evaluate 3 1 dx. by Warren B. The variable of integration in a definite integral is sometimes called a dummy variable. then b a 3 f1x2 dx = F1x2 b a = F1b2 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. b b a 3 f1x2 dx = a 3 f1t2 dt Do you see why? Let F be an antiderivative of f. x 3 Solution An antiderivative of 1/x is ln x . so we have: 5 3 1 dx = ln x x 3 5 3 = ln 5 . and Finance. if we replace x by any other letter.ln 3 = ln 5 3 It should be noted that the definite integral does not depend on the integration variable. Walter O. g1x22 dx = a a 3 f1x2 dx .ln 3 = ln 5 . Thus. and April Allen Materowski. . That is. the result is the same. Gordon.F1a2 but b a 3 f1t2 dt = F1t2 b a = F1b2 .
1F1b2 . namely the area bounded by kf(x) is k times the area of the region bounded by f(x) (assuming k and f are nonnegative on the interval). (9) We first prove (3). Alternately. Consider (6): suppose a 6 b. and the Riemann sum is zero.F1a2 but a b b 3 f1x2 dx = F1x2 a b = F1a2 . by Warren B. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. but equal in absolute value to the area of the region. since the interval has zero length it has no area so its definite integral is zero. then b a 3 f1x2 dx = F1x2 b a = F1b2 . A1 A2 a b c c b b Figure 3: Illustrating a 3 f 1x2 dx = a 3 f 1x2 dx + c 3 f 1x2 dx Applied Calculus for Business. there are three cases to be considered: c may be between a and b. the area is being generated from right to left.F1a22 =  a 3 f1x2 dx In (7). Economics. We leave it as an exercise. or to the left of a. (4) may be proven from a simple consideration of areas.6 b The Definite Integral * ** 451 a b b 3 k dx = k1b . or to the right of b. Consider the case where a 6 c 6 b. b]. The area will then be negative. b n i=1 n i=1 b a 3 kf1x2 dx = lim a kf1ci2 ¢ x = k lim a f1ci2 ¢ x = k n: q n: q a 3 f1x2 dx (5) may be proven from the Riemann sums or by consideration of the additive property of areas. rather than from left to right. Therefore. and Finance. Alternately. if a 6 b. and April Allen Materowski.F1b2 = . Walter O. meaning the width of each rectangle is now a negative number. Equivalently.a2 (8) a 3 f1x2 dx a 3 g1x2 dx. where f1x2 g1x2 on [a. . Then if the limits of integration are reversed. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. In terms of Riemann sums it should be clear that the interval [a. a] has length zero.Section 5. Gordon. Let F be an antiderivative of f. ¢ x = 0. Wang. Inc. that is. the constant k may be factored out of the sum using the linearity property. as in Figure 3. if we write the definite integral on the left as a Riemann sum. if we assume the Fundamental Theorem. we can show this result another way.
we have 3 3 a 3x2 . Inc.F1a2 a 3 b f1x2 dx = F1c2 .+ 5b dx = 3 x2 dx . These will be left to the exercises. Walter O. b]. assuming the Fundamental Theorem.F1a2 = f1x2 dx 3 3 3 c a We leave the proof of (8) as an exercise.7 dx + 5 dx x x 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 * Applied Calculus for Business. x 3 3 3 3 1 1 7 a3x2 . Wang. We leave this proof to the exercises as well.F1a2 + F1b2 . and Finance. we have b a 3 c f1x2 dx = F1b2 .452 * ** Section 5. (9) may be proven using Riemann sums. .F1c2 = F1b2 . Gordon.4x + 2ex .F1c2 adding. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. We illustrate a few of the properties in the next example. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Economics. Alternately.F1a2 c 3 f1x2 dx = F1b2 . Example 4 Illustrate the properties on 1 3 3 Solution Using the properties. The other two cases may be shown in a similar way by indicating the areas of the appropriate regions. we have c b b a f1x2 dx + f1x2 dx = F1c2 . and using property (6). letting F be any antiderivative of f.6 The Definite Integral The area represented by the definite integral b a 3 f1x2 dx = A 1 + A 2 but c A1 = and a 3 b f1x2 dx A2 = c 3 f1x2 dx proving (7).4 x dx + 2 ex dx . by Warren B. and April Allen Materowski.4x + 2ex  7 + 5 b dx. and it has a simple interpretation when f and g are nonnegative on [a.
2x and the xaxis between x = . Economics.a .+ 1 = 3 + = 3 4 3 4 4 (b) Observe that f1x2 = x3 . Wang. A1 A2 x Figure 4: f 1x2 = x 3 .7 ln 1 + 52 = 20 + 2e3 ..2x Applied Calculus for Business.2x2 dx..4x + 2ex  3 x3 x2 7 + 5 b dx = a 3 . 1x3 .x 2 .2x2 + 2ex .11 .x 2 . and its sketch is given in Figure 4.18 + 2e .7 ln 3 Example 5 (a) Evaluate 2 (b) Find the area bounded by f1x2 = x3 .1 .7 ln 3 + 152 .123 2 23 . by Warren B.22 b .2e .x2 .4 . Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.x 2 .4 + 2ex .221x + 12. .2x2 dx = x4 x3 . and April Allen Materowski. Gordon.x2 + c 4 3 1 4 3 1x3 . Walter O. Inc.2x2 dx = a 2 x4 x3 .1 and 2. 2 1 3 1x 3 .Section 5.7 ln x + 5x b ` = x 3 2 1 3 1 (x3 .2x = x1x . It is more convenient to first find an antiderivative of the original integrand and proceed as follows: 3 1 3 a 3x2 . but that would be timewise foolish.7 ln x + 5x2 3 = 127 . Solution (a) We have L therefore.124 1 .x2 b ` = 4 3 1 a 1 .x 2 .122 b = 4 3 4 3 8 1 1 3 9 4 . Published by Pearson Learning Solutions.2 + 2e .x 2 . and Finance.6 The Definite Integral * ** 453 We could then evaluate each integral separately.
They are considered in second semester calculus. therefore.1 . 1 + x2 3 Solution The given integrand does have an antiderivative.1 and 0. Walter O. Inc. Gordon. taking reciprocals. and Finance. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. the required area is 5/12 + 8/3 = 37/12 0 3 1x 3 . A 1 + A 2. (Why?) The last basic property is helpful in estimating the value of a definite integral in the event we do not know how to compute it. 1 1 6 2 2 x 1 + x and by (9). You can show that 2x2 dx = . We choose to illustrate (9). and April Allen Materowski.8/3. 5/12 . Example 6 2 Estimate 1 1 dx.123 04 03 5 . we need 2 only compute it and change its sign to find A 2. Economics.2x2 dx will give the negative of A 2. so we have. the function is positive and for x between 0 and 2 it is negative. For x between . Observe that 1 + x 2 7 x2 on the interval [1. 1 2x2 2 x 2 + x 2 = 2x2 1 1 + x2 2 we again use (9) to obtain 1 1 dx 2 2 3 x 1 1 dx 1 + x2 3 Applied Calculus for Business. For example. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. by Warren B.2x2 dx = a 0 x4 x3 .454 * ** Section 5. Consider the following example.8/3 = . but we have not considered such types. the required area is the sum of the two areas shown. We could.02 b . We have.122 b = 4 3 4 3 12 2 Now the integral 0 3 1x3 .6 The Definite Integral Therefore.124 1 . Wang. 2]. however. estimate this integral a variety of ways.x 2 .x 2 .x 2  Do you see why the sum of the areas in (b) is not equal to the result in (a)? However.a . as it should. 1 + x2 taking reciprocals. on this interval. it follows that 2 2 1 1 1 1 dx 6 dx = 1Verify!2 2 2 2 31 + x 3x 1 On the other hand. 0 A1 = 1 3 1x 3 . . we could use Riemann sums and take the midpoint of each interval with a reasonably large value of n to obtain a fairly accurate estimate.9/4.x2 b ` = 4 3 1 a 1 .
We then use the Fundamental Theorem to compute the integral. (2.Section 5. and to the right of this line. (2. 8) f(x) = 2x2 dx f(x) g(x) 4x + 16 dx g(x) Figure 6: Finding the Area of the Triangular Region Applied Calculus for Business. . any representative rectangle has height f1x2 = 2x 2. Economics. Observe that if we draw the dotted line x = 2 to the left of this line. see Figure 6. and April Allen Materowski. as the curve which determines the height of the rectangle changes at x = 2. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education.) Let s go back and reexamine the idea presented in Figure 1. 8) f(x) = 2x2 g(x) 4x + 16 Figure 5: Finding the Area of the Triangular Shaped Region Solution We need to be careful when we draw a representative rectangle. we draw an incremental rectangle.6 The Definite Integral * ** 455 The definite integral on the left may be computed.32175. and Finance. The definite integral then gives the sum of the infinite number of these rectangles. Wang. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. So we have 2 1 4 1 1 1 dx 6 2 2 31 + x (To five decimal places. it tells us that when we want to compute an area. Inc. the integral is equal to 0. its value is 1/4. Basically. We illustrate this remark in the next example. every representative rectangle has height g1x2 = . Gordon. by Warren B. Walter O. Example 7 Determine the area of the triangular shaped region between the curves and the xaxis in Figure 5.4x + 16.
we see that a discontinuity does not change the area. 2 4 A = 0 3 2x dx + 2 2 3 1 . Wang. by Warren B. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. resulting in no change to the area. upper limit2 L We use the same integral key as we do for the (indefinite) integral that is. . Applied Calculus for Business. see Figure 8.4x + 162 dx we leave it for you to verify that A = 40/3.x 2 . n We remark that if f is continuous on the interval a n b x b. Gordon. It can be shown that this limit will also exist when f has a finite number of finite discontinuities on the interval. and April Allen Materowski. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. the total area bounded by this curve and the xaxis is c1 c2 b A = A1 + A2 + A3 = a 3 f1x2 dx + c1 3 f1x2 dx + c2 3 f1x2 dx Definite integrals are easily computed with the TI 89. variable. and Finance. Economics. It s not hard to understand why a finite number of discontinuities are allowable. that is. lower limit.456 * ** Section 5. The syntax is Calculator Tips 1expression. then lim a f1ck2 ¢ x exits.6 The Definite Integral The area of the triangular region is the s