KRONOLOGI & SEJARAH PENTING NEGARA 1786 – 2003

1786 Sir Francis Light tiba dari Britain dan memperoleh Pulau Pinang daripada Sultan Kedah. 1819 Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles membuka pelabuhan perdagangan bebas untuk Britain di Singapura. 1824 Perjanjian Inggeris­Belanda ditandatangani. Belanda secara rasmi menyerahkan Melaka kepada Inggeris. 1826 Singapura, Melaka dan Pulau Pinang disatukan di bawah pentadbiran Inggeris dengan panggilan Negeri­negeri Selat. 1832 Singapura dijadikan ibu negeri bagi Negeri­negeri Selat. 1841 James Brooke menjadi Rajah Putih atau Rajah Sarawak. 1881 Syarikat Berpiagam Borneo Utara menubuhkan pejabat di Borneo Utara (sekarang Sabah). 1888 Borneo Utara, Brunei dan Sarawak menerima perlindungan British. 1896 British menubuhkan Negeri­negeri Melayu Bersekutu terdiri daripada Perak, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor dan Pahang. 1905 Maktab Melayu Kuala Kangsar ditubuhkan bertujuan menyediakan pendidikan kepada bakal­bakal pentadbir dalam kerajaan British. 1915­1941 Tanda­tanda awal semangat nasionalisme mula dirasai bila British mengamalkan dasar pecah dan perintah. 1922 Maktab Perguruan Sultan Idris dibuka di Tanjung Malim, Perak. 1931 Sekolah Pertainian Tanah Melayu dibuka di Serdang, Selangor. 1941­1945 Perang Dunia Kedua merebak ke Tanah Melayu dengan ketibaan dan pendudukan Jepun yang penuh ketakutan, kesengsaraan dan tragedi. 1945 Jepun menyerah kalah, menandakan berakhirnya Perang Dunia Kedua. British kembali ke Tanah Melayu. 1946 British merencanakan Kesatuan Tanah Melayu (Malayan Union) tetapi dibantah keras orang­orang Melayu. 1946 Datuk Onn Jaafar mengasaskan Persatuan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu (UMNO). 1948 Perjanjian Persekutuan Tanah Melayu ditandatangani. Permulaan zaman Darurat, iaitu pemberontakan pengganas komunis selama 12 tahun.

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1948 Institusi pengajian tinggi awam pertama di Tanah Melayu, Universiti Malaya dibuka di Kolej Perubatan Raffles, Singapura. 1952 UMNO dan Persatuan Cina Tanah Melayu (MCA) berganding dalam pilihan raya bandaran pertama di Kuala Lumpur. 1953 Parti Perikatan yang menggabungkan UMNO, MCA dan Kongres India Sa­ Tanah Melayu (MIC) ditubuhkan. 1954 Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra mengetuai rombongan ke Britain untuk menuntut kemerdekaan, namun tidak begitu berjaya. 1955 Pilihan Raya pertama bagi Semenanjung Tanah Melayu diadakan dengan lancar dan berakhir dengan kemenangan besar bagi Perikatan. Tunku Abdul Rahman dipilih menjadi Ketua Menteri Persekutuan Tanah Melayu yang pertama.

1956 Tunku Abdul Rahman sekali lagi mengetuai rombongan ke London untuk mengadakan rundingan kemerdekaan. Britain bersetuju memberikan kemerdekaan. kepada Tanah Melayu pada 31 Ogos 1957. 1956 Sekembali dari London, Tunku Abdul Rahman mengumumkan tarikh kemerdekaan di Padang Bandar Hilir, Melaka. 1956 Suruhanjaya Reid ditubuhkan untuk merumus dan memperhalusi draf Perlembagaan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu. Perikatan menyerahkan memorandum yang dipanggil Pakatan Murni, yang mengusulkan tolak ansur antara kaum di negara ini. Memorandum ini menyentuh lima perkara utama iaitu kedudukan Raja­Raja Melayu, kedudukan agama Islam, kedudukan bahasa Melayu, kedudukan istimewa orang Melayu dan kerakyatan sama rata.. 1957 Tanah Melayu mencapai kemerdekaan daripada British. Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra menjadi Perdana Menteri pertama manakala Dato’ Abd Razak Hussein menjadi timbalannya. 1957 Majlis Raja­raja berkenan memilih gelaran “Yang di­Pertuan Agong” bagi Ketua Negara Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, dan Yang Dipertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan Tuanku Abdul Rahman Ibni Almarhum Tuanku Muhammad dipilih menjadi Yang di­ Pertuan Agong pertama. 1959 Yang di­Pertuan Agong merasmikan kampus Universiti Malaya di Kuala Lumpur. 1961 Tunku Abdul Rahman mengusulkan penubuhan Malaysia, yang merangkumi Semenanjung Tanah Melayu, Singapura, Brunei, Borneo Utara dan Sarawak. 1963 Kelahiran negara baru yang diberi nama Malaysia, meliputi Semenanjung Malaysia, Singapura, Sabah (dahulunya Borneo Utara) dan Sarawak. 1965 Singapura keluar dari Malaysia lalu menjadi sebuah negara merdeka. 1969 Rusuhan kaum tercetus di Kuala Lumpur selepas Pilihan Raya Persekutuan. Keadaan darurat diisytiharkan dan Majlis Gerakan Negara (MAGERAN) ditubuhkan,

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diketuai Dato’ Abd Razak. Di bawah MAGERAN, keamanan dipulihkan dan urusan seharian kembali seperti sedia kala di ibu negara. 1970 Tunku Abdul Rahman meletakkan jawatan. Dato’ Abd Razak mengambil alih sebagai Perdana Menteri Kedua. 1970 Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia dibuka di Kuala Lumpur. 1970 Dasar Ekonomi Baru diperkenalkan bagi mewujudkan keseimbangan ekonomi di kalangan rakyat. 1971 Tunku Abdul Rahman dipilih menjadi Setiausaha Agung Pertubuhan Persidangan Islam (OIC) yang pertama. 1976 Tun Abd Razak meninggal dunia di London. Dato’ Hussein Onn menggantikan tempatnya sebagai Perdana Menteri Ketiga. 1981 Dato’ Hussein Onn meletak jawatan dan melantik Dato’ Seri Dr Mahathir Mohamad sebagai Perdana Menteri keempat. 1985 Malaysia memulakan peralihan ekonomi dari yang berasaskan pertanian ke ekonomi berasaskan industri kilang. Kereta nasional pertama, Proton Saga dikeluarkan dari kilang pembuatan di Shah Alam. 1996 Malaysia melancarkan satelit pertamanya, Malaysia East Asia Satellite (MEASAT) dan siaran TV satelit pertama. 1997 Sistem Transit Rel Ringan (LRT) pertama negara dilancarkan di Kuala Lumpur.

1997 Menara Berkembar Petronas di Kuala Lumpur setinggi 425m muncul sebagai bangunan tertinggi di dunia. 1998 Kegawatan ekonomi melanda dunia, namun Kuala Lumpur berjaya menjadi ibukota negara Asia pertama menjadi tuan rumah Sukan Komanwel. 1999 Putrajaya mengambil alih peranan Kuala Lumpur sebagai Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan. 1999 Sistem transit rel ringan automatik tanpa pemandu terpanjang di dunia, Putra­ LRT dilancarkan di Kuala Lumpur dan kawasan sub­bandarnya. 1999 Litar Antarabangsa Sepang dibuka; Malaysia menganjurkan Grand Prix Formula Satu buat kali pertama, yang ditaja syarikat minyak negara, Petronas. 2000 Malaysia menyambut alaf baru sambil melangkah keluar dari kemelesetan ekonomi dengan daya dan gaya tersendiri. 2003 Malaysia menjadi tuan rumah kepada Sidang Kemuncak XIII Pergerakan Negara­negara Berkecuali (NAM) di Kuala Lumpur. 2003 Malaysia menjadi tuan rumah kepada Sesi Ke­10 Sidang Kemuncak Pertubuhan Persidangan Islam (OIC) di Putrajaya.

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2003 Dato’ Seri Dr Mahathir Mohamad menyerahkan kepimpinan Malaysia kepada Dato’ Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi dalam satu peralihan kuasa yang berjalan lancar.

francis light

Pulau Kesatu in Penang History was also known in the 15th century by Admiral Cheng Ho because Tamils traded pinang (areca nut). The Portuguese, who stopped at Batu Feringgi (Foreigner's Rock) or present day term Batu Ferringhi to refill their ships with fresh water saw Pulo Pinaom on their maps.

On August 1786, Francis Light, a trader for the East India Company planted a British flag. He named the once Pulo Pinang, Prince of Wales Island in honour of the heir to the British throne. Penang then became part of India in Penang History. The cape was formerly known as Tanjong Penaigre as the hardy ironwood called penaga, which Francis Light induced the early settlers to clear.

Captain Francis Light landed in Penang. Photos courtesy from David Teoh Locals would called Georgetown, Tanjong till today. In Penang History, it was said he made the early settlers clear the north eastern cape George Town by firing a cannon full of coins into the forest. He then taught them to make cannon balls. Penang or Pulau Kesatu was once part of the Malay sultanate of Kedah. Despite Kedah early efforts to gain peace with the Siamese King by giving Bunga Emas between 1821 to 1906, Pulau Pinang (the land of the betel nut) was exchanged for military protection from the Siamese and the Burmese armies who were threatening Kedah. A total of 32 Bunga Emas and Perak was presented throughout the period, each about 1.5m in height.

Cannon balls in Penang. Photos courtesy from David Teoh The Sultan did not know that Captain Francis Light promised military protection without the approval of the East India Company. When East India Company failed to help Kedah when it was attacked by Siam, the Sultan tried to retake the island in 1790. All efforts failed, and the Sultan was forced to cede the island to the Company for 6,000 Spanish dollars yearly. With Province Wellesley added to Penang, it was increased to 10,000 dollars in 1800. To this day, an annual honorarium of 10,000 ringgits continues to be paid by the Malaysian Federal Government to the state of Kedah. In 1826, Penang, along with Malacca and Singapore, became part of the Straits Settlements under the British administration in India, moving to direct British colonial rule in 1867 in Penang History.

Early Pulau Kesatu Locals. Photos courtesy

of David Teoh The traders in early Penang History bought pepper, clove, nutmeg, gambier, ivory and more stuff of the archipelago for selling to the early settlers traders of Europe, America, Arabia, India and China ships. The Chinese would mostly purchased areca nuts, bird's nest and tin. The British traded wool, chintzes and opium for spices. By the mid 19th century, the tin rush created the influx of Chinese coolies into the Malay states of Perak, Selangor and Johor. In 1867, the control of the Straits Settlement was transferred from India to the Colonial Office in Singapore, and then Suez Canal was opened in 1869, helped speed up Penang's recovery. Read about the intrigues of the Taochiews of Province Wellesley in Johor history.Troubles between the locals Malays sultans and Chinese triads of the Ghee Hin and Hai San increased British intervention with the signing of Treaty of Pangkor. As part of the Malay history Penang was founded way back in the early 15th century by Nahkoda Ragam. Read about Bayan Lepas, Gertak Sanggul and Pulau Kendi and how it was linked to this legendary Malay seafarer Penang by now became the export centre for northern states with the development of the Federated Malay States Railway. At the turn of the century, the regional trade had expanded enough to encourage the leading European companies in Singapore to establish branches in Penang.

Pulau Kesatu Early Malay Kampong. Photos courtesy of David Teoh The first world war, then in Europe saw commodity crashes destroyed families in the 1920s and 30s. Then came the Second World War where more fortunes were lost. Sar Nie Peh Koay Jie in Hokkien, (3 years and 8 months), World War II saw bombs dropped on the city and being occupied by the Japanese from December 1941 until September 1945 was the longest most difficult period for everyone round the world.

With the Second World War going on, Chinese ran into the jungle to hide and then formed a Malayan People's Anti- Japanese Army under Chin Peng. Chin Peng was the liaison officer between the MPAJA and Lord Mountbatten, the leader of the British SouthEast Asian Command (SEAC). After the war, reconstruction of Penang and the election of City Councillors was introduced. In 1946 it became part of the Malayan Union, before becoming in 1948 a state of the Federation of Malaya, which gained independence in 1957 and became Malaysia in 1963. Penang joined the new country as a state. And Georgetown is the commercial centre for Penang State. The island was a free port until 1969. Despite the loss of the island's free-port status, from the 1970s to the late 1990s the state built up one of the largest electronics manufacturing bases in Asia, in the Free Trade Zone around the airport in the south of the island. As Penang is part of Malaysia, our history is older than Francis Light. Here you can learn about ancient Malaya, Early Hindu Age, About Islam and the golden age then colonial Malaya, later Malaysia. Another great place to visit is Cool Iceland, read Thrandur site on his mother land. We too can visit Iceland as most people in Iceland do understand English though English is not their first language.

http://www.ctl.utm.my/merdeka/calon/merdeka5/sejarah.html

Ancient Malay Government

The ancient Malay Sultanate of Melaka was a sultanate whose rein of government was entirely in the hands of the rulers and the Malay officials. The Malay rulers of Melaka originated from Singapore that was after the defeat of the Malay kingdom of Singapore by the Siamese. The Malay Sultanate of Melaka lasted for little over a century, stretching from the end of the fourteenth century to the early part of the sixteenth century that is from 1394 to 1511. Under the reign of the Malay rulers, Melaka was not only a prosperous trading town but also the center for the spread of Islam for the whole of the Malay Archipelago. After the decline of the Seri Vijaya and Majapahit Empires at the end of the fourteenth century, it was Melaka, which raised and maintained Malay rule in the Malay Archipelago. Political stability and a just legal system attracted traders from all over the Archipelago to Melaka. Traders from China, Indian sub-continent, Pegu in Burma and Arabia came to Melaka to trade.

James Brooke, a soldier-trader-explorer, arrived in Singapore in May 1839 on his way to explore Borneo. Just before his arrival, some British seamen had been shipwrecked in Brunei and hade been well treated by a relative of the Sultan of Brunei, Raja Muda Hussin. Governor Bonham of the Straits Settlements and the British merchants asked Brooke to take letters of thanks and some gifts to the Raja. Raja Hussin was in Sarawak at this time trying to put down a rebellion against the Sultan of Brunei. The Sultan asked Brooke to help him and Brooke soon put an end to the rebellion. In gratitude the Sultan of Brunei made Brooke Raja of Sarawak in September 1841. Raja Brooke worked hard to stamp out piracy and bring law and order to the coasts of North Borneo. As a result the population doubled within a few years of his trade. When coal was discovered in Labuan, Raja Brooke advised the British Government to annex Labuan from the Sultan of Brunei so that it could be used as a coaling station by the steam ships voyaging in Eastern Seas. In 1847, James Brooke was knighted and made Governor of Labuan and British Consul-General in North Borneo. He retired from Borneo in 1863 and went to live in England. When he died in 1868, his nephew succeeded him as Raja. In 1888, Sarawak was made a British Protectorate. The Brooke dynasty ruled Sarawak for a hundred years that is from 1841 till 1941 when the Japanese occupied Malaya. Sarawak was ceded to Great Britain by Sir Charles Vyner Brooke on 1st July 1946 when it became a crown colony.

[edit] Early life
Sir James stayed at home in India until he was sent, aged 12, to England and a brief education at Norwich School from which he ran away. Some home tutoring followed in Bath before he returned to India in 1819 as an ensign in the Bengal Army of the British East India Company. He saw action in Burma until seriously wounded in 1825, and sent to England for recovery. In 1830, he arrived back in Madras but was too late to rejoin his unit, and resigned. He remained in the ship he had travelled out in, the Castle Huntley, and returned home via China.

[edit] Sarawak
He attempted to trade in the Far East, but was not successful. In 1833, Brooke inherited £30,000, which he used as capital to purchase a 142-ton schooner, The Royalist[1]. Setting sail for Borneo in 1838, he arrived in Kuching in August to find the settlement facing a Bidayuh uprising against the Sultan of Brunei. Offering his aid to the Sultan, he and his crew helped bring about a peaceful settlement. Having threatened the Sultan with military force, he was granted the title of Rajah of Sarawak on 24 September 1841[2], although the official declaration was not made until August 18, 1842. Brooke began to establish and cement his rule over Sarawak: reforming the administration, codifying laws and fighting piracy, which proved to be an ongoing issue throughout his rule. Brooke returned temporarily to England in 1847, where he was given the Freedom of the City of London, appointed governor and commander-in-chief of Labuan, British consul-general in Borneo and was created a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath. His Highness became the centre of controversy in 1851 when accusations of misconduct against him led to the appointment of a royal commission in Singapore. Its investigation did not confirm the charges, but the accusations continued to haunt Sir James.

During his rule, Brooke faced threats from Sarawak warriors like Sharif Masahor and Rentap, but remained in power. Having no legitimate children, in 1861 he named Captain John Brooke Johnson-Brooke, his sister's oldest son, as his successor. Two years later, while John was in England, James deposed and banished John from Sarawak because John criticised him. He later named another son of the same sister, Charles Anthoni Johnson Brooke, who did indeed succeed him.

H [edit] Early life
Sir James stayed at home in India until he was sent, aged 12, to England and a brief education at Norwich School from which he ran away. Some home tutoring followed in Bath before he returned to India in 1819 as an ensign in the Bengal Army of the British East India Company. He saw action in Burma until seriously wounded in 1825, and sent to England for recovery. In 1830, he arrived back in Madras but was too late to rejoin his unit, and resigned. He remained in the ship he had travelled out in, the Castle Huntley, and returned home via China.

[edit] Sarawak
He attempted to trade in the Far East, but was not successful. In 1833, Brooke inherited £30,000, which he used as capital to purchase a 142-ton schooner, The Royalist[1]. Setting sail for Borneo in 1838, he arrived in Kuching in August to find the settlement facing a Bidayuh uprising against the Sultan of Brunei. Offering his aid to the Sultan, he and his crew helped bring about a peaceful settlement. Having threatened the Sultan with military force, he was granted the title of Rajah of Sarawak on 24 September 1841[2], although the official declaration was not made until August 18, 1842. Brooke began to establish and cement his rule over Sarawak: reforming the administration, codifying laws and fighting piracy, which proved to be an ongoing issue throughout his rule. Brooke returned temporarily to England in 1847, where he was given the Freedom of the City of London, appointed governor and commander-in-chief of Labuan, British consul-general in Borneo and was created a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath. His Highness became the centre of controversy in 1851 when accusations of misconduct against him led to the appointment of a royal commission in Singapore. Its investigation did not confirm the charges, but the accusations continued to haunt Sir James. During his rule, Brooke faced threats from Sarawak warriors like Sharif Masahor and Rentap, but remained in power. Having no legitimate children, in 1861 he named Captain John Brooke Johnson-Brooke, his sister's oldest son, as his successor. Two years later, while John was in England, James deposed and banished John from Sarawak because John criticised him. He later named another son of the same sister, Charles Anthoni Johnson Brooke, who did indeed succeed him. He ruled Sarawak until his death in 1868, following three strokes over a period of ten years. He is buried in Sheepstor church near Burrator, Plymouth, as are his successors.

[edit] Personal life
Throughout his life, Brooke's principal emotional bonds were with adolescent boys, though his biographer and contemporary Spenser St. John gives an account of his love for and brief engagement to the daughter of a Bath clergyman. He also left a son (see below). Among his more notable relationships with boys was the one with Badruddin, a Sarawak prince, of whom he wrote, "my love for him was deeper than anyone I knew." Later, in 1848, Brooke

fell in love with 16 year old Charles T. C. Grant, grandson of the seventh Earl of Elgin, who reciprocated [3][4]. Victorian interpetations of these events differ from the accounts here cited. Brooke was influenced by the success of previous British adventurers and the exploits of the British East India Company. His actions in Sarawak were clearly directed to both expanding the British Empire and the benefits of its rule, assisting the local people by fighting piracy and slavery, and securing his own personal wealth to further these activities. His own abilities, and those of his successors, provided Sarawak with excellent leadership and wealth generation during difficult times, and resulted in both fame and notoriety in some circles. His appointment as Rajah by the Sultan, and his subsequent knighthood, is evidence that his efforts were widely applauded in both Sarawak and British society. Although he died unmarried, he did acknowledge one son. Neither the identity of the son's mother nor his birthdate is clear. The son was brought up as Reuben G. Walker in the Brighton household of Frances Walker (1841 and 1851 census, apparently born ca.1836). By 1858 he was aware of his Brooke connection and by 1871 he is on the census at the parish of Plumtree, Nottinghamshire as 'George Brooke', age '40', birthplace 'Sarawak, Borneo.' He was married (in 1862 [1]) and had seven children, three of whom survived their infancy; the oldest was called James. He died, travelling steerage to Australia, in the wreck of the SS British Admiral[2] on 23 May 1874.; a memorial to this effect - giving a birthdate of 1834 - is in the churchyard at Plumtree [3]. It has also been claimed that he married[citation needed], by Muslim rites, Pangeran Anak Fatima, daughter of Pangeran Anak Abdul Kadir and granddaughter of Omar Ali Saifuddin II, Sultan of Brunei. It is further said that he also had a daughter. However, as Rajah James died officially unmarried and without issue, his title passed to the second son of his sister, the heir he ultimately chose.

[edit] Fiction
Fictionalised accounts of Brooke's exploits in Sarawak are given in Kalimantaan by C. S. Godshalk and The White Rajah by Nicholas Montserrat. Brooke is also featured in Flashman's Lady, the 6th book in George MacDonald Fraser's meticulously researched Flashman novels; and in Sandokan: The Pirates of Malaysia (I pirati della Malesia), the second novel in Emilio Salgari's Sandokan series. Additionally, Brooke was a model for the hero of Joseph Conrad's novel Lord Jim. e ruled Sarawak until his death in 1868, following three strokes over a period of ten years. He is buried in Sheepstor church near Burrator, Plymouth, as are his successors.

[edit] Personal life
Throughout his life, Brooke's principal emotional bonds were with adolescent boys, though his biographer and contemporary Spenser St. John gives an account of his love for and brief engagement to the daughter of a Bath clergyman. He also left a son (see below). Among his more notable relationships with boys was the one with Badruddin, a Sarawak prince, of whom he wrote, "my love for him was deeper than anyone I knew." Later, in 1848, Brooke fell in love with 16 year old Charles T. C. Grant, grandson of the seventh Earl of Elgin, who reciprocated [3][4]. Victorian interpetations of these events differ from the accounts here cited. Brooke was influenced by the success of previous British adventurers and the exploits of the British East India Company. His actions in Sarawak were clearly directed to both expanding the British Empire and the benefits of its rule, assisting the local people by fighting piracy and slavery, and securing his own personal wealth to further these activities. His own abilities, and those of his successors, provided Sarawak with excellent leadership and wealth generation during difficult times, and resulted in both fame and notoriety in some circles. His

appointment as Rajah by the Sultan, and his subsequent knighthood, is evidence that his efforts were widely applauded in both Sarawak and British society. Although he died unmarried, he did acknowledge one son. Neither the identity of the son's mother nor his birthdate is clear. The son was brought up as Reuben G. Walker in the Brighton household of Frances Walker (1841 and 1851 census, apparently born ca.1836). By 1858 he was aware of his Brooke connection and by 1871 he is on the census at the parish of Plumtree, Nottinghamshire as 'George Brooke', age '40', birthplace 'Sarawak, Borneo.' He was married (in 1862 [1]) and had seven children, three of whom survived their infancy; the oldest was called James. He died, travelling steerage to Australia, in the wreck of the SS British Admiral[2] on 23 May 1874.; a memorial to this effect - giving a birthdate of 1834 - is in the churchyard at Plumtree [3]. It has also been claimed that he married[citation needed], by Muslim rites, Pangeran Anak Fatima, daughter of Pangeran Anak Abdul Kadir and granddaughter of Omar Ali Saifuddin II, Sultan of Brunei. It is further said that he also had a daughter. However, as Rajah James died officially unmarried and without issue, his title passed to the second son of his sister, the heir he ultimately chose.

[edit] Fiction
Fictionalised accounts of Brooke's exploits in Sarawak are given in Kalimantaan by C. S. Godshalk and The White Rajah by Nicholas Montserrat. Brooke is also featured in Flashman's Lady, the 6th book in George MacDonald Fraser's meticulously researched Flashman novels; and in Sandokan: The Pirates of Malaysia (I pirati della Malesia), the second novel in Emilio Salgari's Sandokan series. Additionally, Brooke was a model for the hero of Joseph Conrad's novel Lord Jim.
http://sejarahmalaysia.pnm.my/portalBI/detail.php?section=sm01&spesifik_id=4 36&ttl_id=60

[edit] Singapore
[edit] Establishment
After a brief survey of the Karimun Islands, on 29 January 1819, he established a post at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. It was established that there was no Dutch presence on the island of Singapore. Johore also no longer had any control of the area, so contact was made with the local Temenggong, or Raja. The contacts were friendly and Raffles, knowledgeable about the muddled political situation, took advantage to provide a rudimentary treaty between the nominal chiefs of the area that called for the exclusivity of trade and the English protection of the area. Members of Raffles' party surveyed the island and proceeded to request the presence of the sultan, or whoever at the time had supreme nominal power, to sign a formal treaty, while Major Farquhar was ordered to do the same in Rhio. A few days later, the formal treaty signed by a man who claimed to be the "lawful sovereign of the whole of territories extending from Lingga and Johor to Mount Muar". This

man was Hussein Shah of Johor, who, although having had no previous contact with the British, had certainly heard of the might of the British navy and was in no position to argue against the terms. However, Raffles was able to charm the man and to reassure him that the Dutch posed no threat in the area. Hussein Shah had been the crown Prince of Johor, but while he was away in Pahang to get married, his father died and his younger brother was made sultan, supported by some of the court officials and the Dutch. To circumvent the situation of having to negotiate with a sultan influenced by the Dutch, Raffles decided to recognise, on behalf of the British Crown, Hussien Shah as being the rightful ruler of Johor. Farquhar's attempt to establish a more favorable treaty in Rhio was met with greater challenge, as the Dutch were present and made for a rather awkward position. The Dutch were alarmed and sent a small contingent to the island. Despite a covert offer of subterfuge against the Dutch offered by the Raja of Rhio, Farquhar returned and an official protest was sent by the Raja to Java regarding the matter. Raffles declared the foundation of what was to become modern Singapore on 6 February, securing the transfer of control of the island to the East India Company. Much pomp and ceremony was done, and the official treaty was read aloud in languages representing all nations present, as well as the Malay and Chinese inhabitants. Hussien Shah was paid $5000 a year while the local Temenggong received $3000 a year, both massive sums at the time, equivalent to several hundred thousand dollars now[citation needed]. Farquhar was officially named the Resident of Singapore as Raffles was named as "Agent to the Most Noble the GovernorGeneral with the States of Rhio, Lingin and Johor". Although ownership of the post was to be exclusively British, explicit orders were given to Farquhar to maintain free passage of ships through the Strait of Singapore and a small military presence was established alongside the trading post. After issuing orders to Farquhar and the remaining Europeans, Raffles left the next day, 7 February 1819.

[edit] Achin, and the early conflict/crisis with the Dutch
Raffles also planned to start a British presence in Achin, at the northern tip of Sumatra. As soon as he left, the Raja of Rhio sent letters to the Dutch, claiming innocence and a British encroachment. The Dutch in Malacca acted at once, and ordered that no Malays could go to Singapore. Raffles' bold claim of Singapore created a curious geographic situation where although Penang was clearly closer distance-wise to Singapore, Raffles, in his capacity as the Governor-General of Bencoolen, was in control. This undoubtedly irked the authorities in Penang to the point where they refused to send any sepoys to Singapore to complete the garrison. Official Dutch complaints came before the end of the month, and Raffles attempted to appease the situation by instructing Farquhar to not interfere with the politics of surrounding islands. Despite numerous threats and serious considerations by the Dutch Governor-General in Java, the Dutch did not take any military action. The muddled political situation in Johore and Rhio also created a certain uneasiness and instability for the two nations.Tengku Long was claimed to be a pretender to the throne, and since the succession laws in the Malay sultanates were not as clear cut as, for example, the Salic laws of Europe, the treaties signed between native rulers and the European powers always seemed to be on the verge of being invalidated, especially if a sultan is deposed by one of his siblings or other pretenders. Nevertheless, amidst the uncertainty and intrigue, Raffles landed in Achin on 14 March 1819, with the begrudging help of Penang. Once again, it seems that multiple people were in power, but none wanted to formally deal with the British. The hostile atmosphere created allowed for Raffles to cancel the only meeting he was able to arrange, with Panglima Polim, a powerful divisional chief, fearing treachery. As the influential merchant John Palmer, Raffles, and fellow commissioner John Monckton Coombs of Penang sat offshore, waiting for a response, Calcutta debated whether to reinforce Singapore or not. Evacuation plans were made, but the

Dutch never acted and finally Lord Hastings prompted Colonel Bannerman, the Governor of Penang, to send funds to reinforce Singapore. Raffles finally was able to convince his fellow commissioners to sign a treaty with Jauhar alAlam Shah, the ruler of Achin, which placed a British resident as well as the exclusivity of trade. By the time Raffles returned to Singapore, on 31 May, much of the immediate crisis that the establishment of the colony had caused in both Penang and Calcutta had passed. By then, the initial five-hundred villagers had grown to become five-thousand merchants, soldiers, and administrators on the island. Raffles was determined to both destroy the Dutch monopoly in the area, and create a gateway to the trade with China and Japan, the latter of which he attempted and failed to reach while governing Java.

[edit] The first year of Singapore
While in Singapore, Raffles established schools and churches in the native languages. He allowed missionaries and local businesses to flourish. Certain colonial aspects remained: a European town was quickly built to segregate the population, separated by a river; carriage roads were built and cantonments constructed for the soldiers. Otherwise, however, no duties were imposed and confident that Farquhar would follow his instructions well, he sailed for Bencoolen once again on 28 June.

[edit] Bencoolen, once again
Raffles was still the Governor-General of Bencoolen and having returned to it after the settling of Singapore, Raffles started more reforms that were, by now, almost trademarks of his reign upon colonies. Forced labor was abolished when he first arrived, and he declared Bencoolen a free port as well. Currency was regulated and as he had an excess of out-of-work civil servants, formed committees to advise him in the running of the colony. However, Bencoolen was not as self-sufficient as Singapore. The area was poor and disease-ridden, and the first reports from the committees reflected very poorly upon the condition of the colony. Unlike the salutary neglect Raffles granted upon Singapore, he slowed the European-inspired reforms and emphasized on the cultivation of whatever land that was available. Native authorities were given power in their respective districts and were answerable only to the Governor-General. The slave-debtor system was brought in in exchange instead of the old slavery system that Raffles abolished in Java, Borneo, and initially in Bencoolen. Slavedebtors were registered, and educational reforms started to focus on the children instead of the entire population. Raffles was looking into a long-term plan for a slow reform of Bencoolen. Unlike many other European colonizers, Raffles did not impose upon the colonized the language, culture, or other aspects of the colonizer. In addition to preserving the artifacts, fauna, and flora of his colonies, he also allowed religious freedom in his colonies, especially important as the Malay states were largely Muslim. However, Christian schools were started by missionaries in all of his colonies.

[edit] Consolidation of the Eastern Isles
The death of Colonel Bannerman of Penang in October 1819 brought upon a new opportunity for Raffles to expand his power to also include the other minor British factories and outposts from Sumatra to Cochin China. He sailed to Calcutta and as Lord Hastings sought to consolidate all of the small British possessions in the East Indies. During his sojourn, he had the opportunity to argue for free trade and the protection of the private enterprise. Education and the retention of small British outposts were also discussed. The Dutch claim on the Sultanate of Johore and hence, Rhio, and the diplomatic exchanges between Baron Godert van der Capellen and Calcutta continued throughout this time. The legitimacy of the British treaties were also questioned once again, but finally, as Singapore

grew at an exponential rate, the Dutch gave up their claim on the island, allowing the colony to continue as a British possession. However, the pressures put upon Calcutta ensured that no single governor of all British possessions in the Strait or on Sumatra was appointed, and Raffles, whose health was slowly ailing, returned to Bencoolen.

[edit] Administration of Bencoolen, 1820 - 1822
Raffles returned to Bencoolen in ill-health, but as his health improved, he continued on his quest to learn about the island which he now called home. He studied the Batak cannibals of Tappanooly and their rituals and laws regarding the consumption of human flesh, writing in detail about the transgressions that warranted such an act as well as their methods. He also noted the rise of the Sikh religion in certain parts of Sumatra. By early 1820, Tunku Long had firmly established himself as the Sultan of Johore to the British, but the political situation in the area remains a befuddled mess, with the old sultan dying and many new ones attempting to gain either the crown or regency. As Farquhar was involving himself poorly in local politics, Raffles appointed Travers as the Resident of Singapore, replacing Farquhar. Upon his arrival, Travers found the colony a delightful smörgåsbord of different races and cultures, numbering over six thousand, and the Singapore trade was slowly overtaking the Java trade. As in Java, Raffles collected samples of local species of plants and animals, as well as described them in his journals. He also described other local tribes and their customs, especially their religions and laws. He brought the island of Nias under British rule as well, noting its more civilized state and production of rice. Yet, the production of food remained somewhat of a problem in Bencoolen. Raffles paid special attention to the agricultural methods of the Chinese, and wrote an introduction to the only issue of Proceedings of the Agricultural Society, in order to remedy this. His employer, the East India Company, however, had no other concerns outside of profit, and even as Raffles lived like a country gentleman and ran his colony as an estate, his expenditures in natural preservation was frowned upon. His removal was discussed in both Calcutta and London, while Castlereagh continued negotiations with the Dutch regarding the ongoing diplomatic conflicts. Luckily, the Singapore issue had its supporters in the House, so as negotiations went on in Europe, Raffles remained largely idle in Bencoolen. The only major issue, outside of the politics of local sultans, involved the replacement of Farquhar, who decided that he had no intention of leaving his post voluntarily, causing a moment of tension between him and Travers. Raffles' request for Travers to deliver dispatches to India nullified the issue late in the year, and Farquhar remained in charge in Singapore, with its survival still in doubt for many in both India and London, who believed that it would either be handed over to the Dutch or taken violently by the Dutch at the end of Castlereagh's negotiations. Farquhar, however, stirred up more trouble, conflicting especially with local English merchants over trivial matters of self-importance and overreaction over small infractions of white traders, for some of which he was reprimanded by Calcutta officially. Public works, commissioned by Raffles but undertaken by Farquhar, was becoming overwhelmingly expensive. Personal tragedies also started for Raffles. His eldest son, Leopold, died during an epidemic on 4 July 1821. The oldest daughter, Charlotte, was also sick with dysentery by the end of the year, but it would be his youngest son, Stamford Marsden, who would perish first with the disease, 3 January 1822, with Charlotte to follow ten days later. For the good part of four month the couple remained devastated. The year would be eventful with the suicide of Castlereagh and the appointment of Lord Amherst as the Governor-General of India,

replacing Hastings. As Raffles grew restless and depressed, he decided to visit Singapore, before heading home to England. Accompanying him would be his wife Sophia and only surviving child, Ella.

[edit] Singapore - 1822 - 1823

The Plan of the Town of Singapore, or more commonly known as the Jackson Plan Raffles was pleased at the fact that Singapore had grown exponentially in such short years. The colony was a bustling hub of trade and activity. However, Farquhar's development work was deemed unsatisfactory and Raffles drew up what is now known as the Jackson Plan, and replanned the city according to recommendations of a committee headed by the colony's engineer, Phillip Jackson. It was still a segregated plan, giving the best land to the Europeans, yet it was considered remarkably scientific for the time. It was also during the replanning and reconstruction of the town that allowed Farquhar to clash dramatically with Raffles, who now considered Farquhar unfit for the position of Resident. Raffles took direct control with a heavy hand. In 1823, Raffles instituted a code of settlement for the populace, and soon followed with laws regarding the freedom of trade. He also quickly instituted a registration system for all land, regardless of ownership, and the repossession of the land by the government if land remained unregistered. This act greatly asserted the power of the British government as it covered land previously owned by the Sultan as well. A police force and magistrate was then set up, under British principles. In a very short period of time, Raffles had turned a semi-anarchic trading post into a proper city with at least a semblance of order. Repeated efforts by Raffles for Calcutta to send a replacement for Farquhar remained unanswered. As Raffles started to hint at his impending retirement, he made Johore a British protectorate, causing a protest from van der Capellen. Finally, Calcutta appointed John Crawfurd, who had followed Raffles for over twenty years, as the Resident of Singapore. Captain William Gordon MacKenzie took over Bencoolen from Raffles. It's March 1823, and coincidentally, on the same day he was replaced, he received an official reprimand from London for the takeover of Nias. With politics against him, Raffles finally turned back to the natural sciences. He gave a speech regarding the opening of a Malay college in Singapore that heavily involved his observations of his years in Southeast Asia and the importance of both the local and the European languages. Raffles personally gave $2000 towards the effort, as the East India Company gave $4000. In 1823, Raffles drafted the first constitution for Singapore, which followed a fairly moralistic stance, outlawing gaming and slavery. A specific regulation in the constitution called for the multiethnic population of Singapore to remain as is, and there shall be no

crimes based on being a race. He then went to work drafting laws, defining on exactly "what" constituted a crime. Finally, on 9 July 1823, feeling that his work on establishing Singapore was finished, he boarded a ship for home, but not before a stop in Batavia to visit his old home and adversary, van der Capellen. A final stop in Bencoolen ensued, and finally, a voyage home, interrupted by a harrowing experience when one of the ships caught fire off Rat Island, which claimed many of his drawings and papers. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 finally settled the score in the East Indies. The British gained dominance in the north, while the entirety of Sumatra became Dutch. The Malay Peninsula and the Indian subcontinent were both free of Dutch interference. Raffles finally returned to England 22 August 1824, over a year after he left Singapore. His longest tenure in Singapore was only eight months, but he was considered the founder of Singapore nevertheless.

[edit] England and death
Upon arrival in England in poor health, both Sir Stamford and Lady Raffles convalesced in Cheltenham until September, after which he entertained distinguished guests in both London and his home. He also made considerations to run for parliament during this time, but this ambition was never realized. He moved to London at the end of November, just in time to have a war of words in front of the Court of Directors of the EIC regarding Singapore with Farquhar, who had also arrived in London. Despite several severe charges put upon Raffles, Farquhar was ultimately unable to discredit him and was denied a chance to be restored to Singapore, but he was given a military promotion instead. With the Singapore matter settled, Raffles turned to his other great hobby - botany. Raffles was a founder (in 1825) and first president (elected April 1826) of the Zoological Society of London and the London Zoo. Meanwhile, he was not only not granted a pension, but was called to pay over twenty-two thousand pounds sterling for the losses incurred during his administrations. Raffles replied and clarified his actions, and moved to his country estate, Highwood, but before the issue was resolved, he was already much too ill. He died in London, England, a day before his forty-fifth birthday, on 5 July 1826, of apoplexy. His estate amounted around ten thousand pounds sterling, which was paid to the Company to cover his outstanding debt. Because of his anti-slavery stance, he was refused burial inside his local parish church (St. Mary's, Hendon) by the vicar, whose family had made its money in the slave trade. A brass tablet was finally placed in 1887 and the actual whereabouts of his body was not known until 1914 when it was found in a vault. When the church was extended in the 1920s his tomb was incorporated into the body of the building.

[edit] Coat of Arms
The Blazon of his Armorial Ensigns reads: "Or a double headed Eagle displayed Gules charged on the breast with an Eastern Crown on the first, on a Chief Vert pendent from a chain two oval Medallions in Pale the one bearing Arabic characters and the other a dagger in fess the blade wavy the point towards the dexter in relief Or, the said medallions and chain being a representation of a personal decoration called the Order of the Golden Sword conferred upon by him by the Chief or King of Atcheen in Sumatra as a mark of the high regard of the said King and in testimony of the good understanding which had been happily established between that Prince and the British Government; and for a crest out of an Eastern Crown Or a Gryphon's Head Purpure gorged with a collar gemel Gold."

The Coat of Arms has been adapted into the school arms of Raffles Institution and Raffles Junior College. It can also be found as part of a stained-glass window in St. Andrew's Cathedral, Singapore. The motto of the Raffles family is in cruce triumphans, meaning triumphing in the cross.

A representation of the Arms of Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stamford_Raffles

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