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**Power Factor Correction
**

Power Factor:

Power Factor is a measure of how efficiently electrical power is consumed

**Power Factor Correction
**

The power factor of an AC electric power system is defined as the ratio of the real power to the apparent power, and is a number between 0 and 1.

. Apparent power is the product of the current and voltage of the circuit.Power Factor Correction Real Power and Apparent Power: Real power is the capacity of the circuit for performing work in a particular time.

. When this happens the power is said to be 'real power'. voltage and current only remain in phase if the load is purely resistive.Power Factor Correction Real Power and Apparent Power: In alternating current circuits.

Power Factor Correction Real Power and Apparent Power: If instead the load is purely reactive (either Capacitive or Inductive). . resulting in total amount of power called the 'apparent power'. instead it draws only 'reactive power'. If a load is both resistive and reactive. The load is said to draw zero real power. its will have both real and reactive power. all of the power is reflected back to the generator.

attached loads that store energy behave like combinations of coils (inductors) and capacitors. . and therefore cause advance changes in currents (current leads). Coils store power as magnetic fields and cause delay changes in the current (current lags). Capacitors store power as electric charge.Power Factor Correction Real Power and Apparent Power: In AC power systems.

The portion of power flow due to stored energy which returns to the source in each cycle is known as reactive power.Power Factor Correction Real Power and Apparent Power: The portion of power flow averaged over a complete cycle of the AC waveform that results in net transfer of energy in one direction is known as real power. .

. which draws no real power itself. and energy is wasted. and consumes power because the supplied and reflected power dissipate away on the transmission line. due to a purely reactive load.Power Factor Correction Real Power and Apparent Power: In reality there are losses along AC power transmission lines.

Power Factor Correction For this reason an AC load should be designed to have as little reactive power as possible. .

Each of them is assigned with a different unit to differentiate between them): .Power Factor Correction Real Power and Apparent Power: The following terms are used to describe energy flow in a System.

Power Factor Correction Real power (P) [Unit: W] Reactive power (Q) [Unit: VAR] Apparent power (S) [Unit: VA] .

it is sometimes called "wattless" power). However. which stands for volt-amperes reactive (since reactive power flow transfers no net energy to the load. Apparent power is conventionally expressed in volt-amperes (VA) since it is the simple product of rms voltage and rms current. The unit for reactive power is given the special name "VAR". . this unit is generally reserved for the real power component.Power Factor Correction Real Power and Apparent Power: The unit for all forms of power is the watt (symbol: W).

This energy flowing backwards and forwards is known as reactive power. If the load is purely reactive. .Power Factor Correction Significance of the Power Factor Consider an ideal alternating current (AC) circuit consisting of a source and a generalized load. then the voltage and current are 90 degrees out of phase and there is no net power flow. If the load is purely resistive. the two quantities reverse their polarity at the same time. and only real power flows. where both the current and voltage are sinusoidal. the direction of energy flow does not reverse.

. Conventionally. capacitors are considered to generate reactive power and inductors to consume it.Power Factor Correction If a capacitor and an inductor are placed in parallel. then the currents flowing through the inductor and the capacitor oppose and tend to cancel out rather than adding.

energy storage in the loads result in a time difference between the current and voltage waveforms.Power Factor Correction In a purely resistive AC circuit. such as with capacitors or inductors. changing polarity at the same instant in each cycle. . voltage and current waveforms are in phase. a circuit with a low power factor will have higher currents to transfer a given quantity of real power than a circuit with a high power factor. Where reactive loads are present. This stored energy returns to the source and is not available to do work at the load. Thus.

Circuits containing inductive or capacitive elements (lamp . heaters. etc. .Power Factor Correction Circuits containing purely resistive heating elements (filament lamps.) have a power factor of 1. motors.0. cooking stoves.) often have a power factor below 1. etc.0.

0 require a utility to generate more than the minimum volt-amperes necessary to supply the real power (watts). This increases generation and transmission costs.Power Factor Correction The significance of power factor lies in the fact that utility companies supply customers with volt-amperes. . but bill them for watts. Power factors below 1.

An Example to understand the Power Factor Consider a canal boat being pulled by a horse. but. If the horse could walk on water then the angle (Phi) Ø would be zero and COSINE Ø=1. However the relative position of the horse influences the power. then angle Ø2 gets closer to zero and less power is wasted . As the horse gets closer to the barge. as the horse is positioned further away. Meaning all the horse power is being used to pull the load. angle Ø1 increases and power is wasted.

Power Factor Correction Much of the discussion is made about Power Factor. Now we switch towards the means and ways to solve the problem low power factor. .

.Power Factor Correction Power factor correction (PFC) is the process of adjusting the characteristics of electric loads that create a power factor that is less than 1.

Power Factor Correction Power factor correction may be applied either by an electrical power transmission utility to improve the stability and efficiency of the transmission network. correction may be installed by individual electrical customers to reduce the costs charged to them by their electricity supplier. . A high power factor is generally desirable in a transmission system to reduce transmission losses and improve voltage regulation at the load. or.

the reactive current does dissipate power when flowing through other resistive components in the system.Power Factor Correction Why Power Factor Correction? The current through the reactive component (Ireactive) dissipates no power. like the wires. . However. Wires have to be big enough to carry the entire current. etc. not just the active component. the switches. Switches have to interrupt the total current. and neither does it register on the watt hour meter. Therefore Correcting the power factor reduces the amount of oversizing necessary. and the lossy part of a transformer (Rline).

Power Factor Correction The introduction of Power Factor Correction capacitors is a widely recognized method of reducing an electrical load. thus minimizing wasted energy and hence improving the efficiency of a plant and reducing the electricity bill. .

Power Factor Correction Active Power Reactive Power Available Active Power .

The direction of the capacitive Reactive Power [VAr(c)] is opposite to the direction of the inductive Reactive Power (VAr) (Figure 2). but it leads the Active Power (W) by 90o. will also draw Reactive Power [VAr(c)]. if connected across the mains. It lags behind the Active Power (W) by 90o (Figure 1). draw Reactive Power (VAr) from the mains. .Power Factor Correction The inductive components. A capacitor.

Power Factor Correction Figure-1 .

Power Factor Correction Figure-1 .

.Power Factor Correction The power factor can also be improved by synchronous Motors. These machines draw leading kVAR when they are over-excited and. especially when they are running idle. They are employed for correcting the power factor in bulk and have the special advantage that the amount of correction can be varied by changing their excitation.

it behaves like an electrically variable capacitor. It operates at full leading power factor and puts VARs onto the network . It is started and connected to the electrical network. Its principal advantage is the ease with which the amount of correction can be adjusted. Phase advancer can also be used. . They are fitted with individual machines.Power Factor Correction The reactive power drawn by the synchronous motor is a function of its field excitation.

fluorescent lighting and AC induction motors. inductive or Capacitive.The most common is inductive load. resistive. All inductive loads require two kinds of power to operate: Active power (kwatts) . The active power does useful work in driving the motor whereas the reactive power only provides the magnetic field. Typical examples of this include transformers.Power Factor Correction Most loads on an electrical distribution system fall into one of three categories.to produce the motive force Reactive power (kvar) . . allowing the motor to function.to energise the magnetic field The operating power from the distribution system is composed of both active (working) and reactive (non-working) elements. Most inductive loads use a conductive coil winding to produce an electromagnetic field.

and a power factor of 0. therefore. should be to reduce the reactive power drawn from the supply by improving the power factor. The objective. since most motors are only 75% to 80% efficient. If an AC motor were 100% efficient it would consume only active power but. they operate at a low power factor.0 to 0.9 results in 15% more current being required for the same load. .7 requires approximately 43% more current.A power factor of 0.Disadvantages of Poor Power factor As the power factor drops the system becomes less efficient. This means poor energy and cost efficiency because the Regional Electricity Companies charge you at penalty rates for a poor power factor. A drop from 1.5 requires approximately 100% (twice as much) to handle the same load.

Disadvantages of Poor Power factor .

Most of the Utilities impose low power factor penalties. High power factor reduces the load currents. 4. Voltage regulation is improved . without increasing its generation capacity.Advantages of Power Factor Correction The main advantages of the Power Factor Correction are: 1. switchgear. this penalty can be avoided. such as cables. a considerable saving is made in the hardware cost. thereby allowing the Utility to supply the surplus power to other consumers. By correcting the power factor. The electrical load on the Utility is reduced. 3. etc. substation transformers. 2. Therefore.

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