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Switch Yard

Switch Yard

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Published by: jannumits on Apr 03, 2013
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Erection and Commissioning Services

We have with us rich industry experience in successfully handling the demands of Switchyard Erection services. With services offered to customers at industry leading rates, here we are able to offer switchyards in radial or lilo types with 8 to 10 bays. Further, the process expertise of our team also allows us to successfully undertake switchyard erection and commissioning services for generation by wind or thermal power. Following are specifications of our services:
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Erection done for switchyard of 22 kv, 33kv, 132 kv, 220kv substations Services include CT, PT & LA, Isolators, Gantries and Towers

We also offer customers EHV transmission towers at industry leading prices. These are procured from trusted vendors of the industry and are installed at client’s premises by our team of professionals. Here, our expertise lies in installing double circuit as well as multi circuit transmission lines for the customers. Our tower lines work involves:

EHV Transmission Tower Lines
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Survey Check survey Span calculations essential for tower extensions

Following are specifications of our products: Tower designs and prototype approval is done
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The towers are for 110 kv, 132 kv, 220 kv and 400 kv and tower line design with towers of 20, 150, 300 and 600 We ensure complete billing of the material The foundation details such as marshy land, water, hard rock and DFR are given Foundation tame plates are also supplied for erection

Substation Earthing System. Electrical power substation basically consists of number of incoming circuit connections and number of outgoing circuit connections connected to the busbars. transmission systems. Digital and voice signals are transmitted over the transmission lines via the Power substations. Various power substations located in generating stations. Transformers are necessary in a substation for stepping up and stepping down of a. The equipment are either indoor or outdoor depending upon the voltage rating and local conditions. Isolators. Optimum efficiency of plants and the network Supply of electrical energy to the consumers at lowest cost . transmission and distribution systems have similar layout and similar electrical components. Functions of Electrical Power Substations are:      Supply electric power to the consumers continuously Supply of electric power within specified voltage limits and frequency limits Shortest possible fault duration. The substations are interlinked with the load control centers via Power Line Carrier Systems (PLCC). voltage transformers. Modern Power System is controlled with the help of several automatic.Power Substation Types Power Substation: An Electrical Power Substation receives electric power from generating station via transmission lines and delivers power via the outgoing transmission lines. Busbars are conducting bars to which number of circuit connections is connected. the several other equipment include busbars. This large internetwork is controlled from load dispatch center. Besides the transformers. In a Power Substation there are various indoor and outdoor switchgear and equipment. In a large power System large number of Generating stations. surge arresters. etc. distribution systems and the load points. Each equipment has certain functional requirement. semi automatic equipment. current transformers. Each circuit has certain number of electrical components such as circuit breakers. automatic protection and control. Shunt Capacitors etc .c voltage. isolators. Shunt reactors. Digital Computers and microprocessors are installed in the control rooms of large substations. Substations are integral parts of a power system and form important links between the generating stations. Electrical Power Substations and load centers are interconnected. generating stations and load control centers for data collection. data monitoring. circuit breakers. earth switches.

Here the Sub transmission Voltages of Distribution Voltages (11kV or 33kV) are stepped down to Secondary Distribution Voltages (400kV or 230kV). 33kV) to 220kV or 400kV for transmitting the power so that huge amount of power can be transmitted over a large distance to load centers. This Secondary transmission lines are carried over to Secondary Power Substations situated at the load centers where the voltage is further stepped down to Sub transmission Voltage or Primary Distribution Voltages (11kV or 33kV).6. Primary Grid Electrical Power Substation: Such substations are located at suitable load centers along with the primary transmission lines. .3.Types of Electrical Power Substations: Based ON Nature Of Duties: Step up or primary Electrical Power substation: Primary substations are associated with the power generating plants where the voltage is stepped up from low voltage (3. Step Down or Distribution Electrical Power Substations: Such Power Substations are located at the load centers. 6. At primary Grid Power Substations the primary transmission voltage (220kV or 400kV) is stepped down to secondary transmission voltages (110kV). From these Substations power will be fed to the consumers to their terminals. 11.

This type of frequency conversion is required in connecting to Grid Systems. Extra High Voltage Electrical Power Substation: This type of Substation is associated where the operating voltage is between 132kV and 400kV. In HVDC transmission Converting Substations are employed on both sides of HVDC link for converting AC to DC and again converting back from DC to AC. .Basis Of Service Rendered: Transformer Substation: Transformers are installed on such Substations to transform the power from one voltage level to other voltage level. Converting Substation: Such Substations are located where AC to DC conversion is required. Different Switching Schemes are employed depends on the application to transmit the power in more reliable manner in a network. the various electrical equipments are installed in the switchyard below the sky. Converting Power Substations are also employed where frequency is to be converted from higher to lower and lower to higher. Based on Operation Voltage: High Voltage Electrical Power Substation: This type of Substation associated with operating voltages between 11kV and 66kV. Switching Substation: Switching substations are meant for switching operation of power lines without transforming the voltages. Electrical equipment are mounted on support structures to obtain sufficient ground clearance. At these Substations different connections are made between various transmission lines. Ultra High Voltage Electrical Power Substation: Substations where Operating Voltages are above 400kV is called Ultra High Voltage Substation Based On Substation Design: Outdoor Electrical Power Substations: In Outdoor Power Substations.

Such substations are usually for the rating of 66kV. Substations have galvanized Steel Structures for supporting the equipment. Busbars are supported on the post Insulators or Strain Insulators. In this Power Substations Circuit Breakers and Isolators. insulators and incoming and outgoing lines. Indoor Substations are preferred in heavily polluted areas and Power Substations situated near the seas (saline atmosphere causes Insulator Failures results in Flashovers) Indoor Substation  Electrical Interview Questions With Answers A Complete Portal for all Electrical Interviews. Clearances are the primary criteria for these substations and occupy a large area for installation. Transformers. Contains Electrical Questions With Answers Based on Design Configuration: Air Insulated Electrical Power Substation: In Air Insulated Power Substations busbars and connectors are visibe.Indoor Electrical Power Substation: In Indoor Power Substations the apparatus is installed within the substation building. . Current Transformers. Potential Transformers etc are installed in the outdoor.

.. Gas Insulated Substation    Different Components Of Substation Complete Explanation of all the Substation Components Such as Circuit breakers. Thus the size of Power Substation reduces to 8% to 10% of the Air Insulated Power Substation. Isolators etc are in the form of metal enclosed SF6 gas modules. CVT. Substation Grounding or Earthing The sole purpose of substation grounding/earthing is to protect the equipment from surges and lightning strikes and to protect the operating persons in the substation. Earth Switch. Voltage Transformers. Surge Arresters. Local Conditions available. area available and Cost. The various Live parts are enclosed in the metal enclosures (modules) containing SF6 gas at high pressure. Busbars.. . Busbars. Some bays in a Power Substation are Gas Insulated Type and some are Air Insulated Type.Gas Insulated Electrical Power Substation: In Gas Insulated Substation Various Power Substation equipments like Circuit Breakers. Current Transformers. Current Transformer. Voltage Transformer etc with Pictures. The design is based on convenience. The substation earthing system. Gas Insulated Substation Indoor Gas Insulated Substation: Gas Insulated Substation uses sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas which has a superior dielectric properties used at moderate pressure for phase to phase and phase to ground. Earth Switches.. The modules are assembled in accordance with the required Configuration... Substation Earthing. Hybrid Electrical Power Substation: Hybrid Substations are the combination of both Conventional Substation and Gas Insulated Substation. isolators.

Electric Substation Types The transmission and distribution lines carrying electric energy are terminated at the substations. So generator transformers (GT) are used at the power station to step up the voltage to transmission level. The transmission substations operate at Extra High Voltage (EHV). One can find here more numbers of transformers in comparison to other types of substations.   . These are transmission substations. One substation may be connected to one or more substations by transmission lines or to a generating station. But bulk quantity of power can be transmitted to very long distance only at high or extra high voltage. See Figure below. An actual transmission substation is shown below. the transmission company may feel that it is economical to transmit at a voltage level in-between the standard transmission and distribution level. Here the substation is not a separate entity rather it is switchyard of the Power Station. These lines operate at voltage levels as adopted by a particular region or nation. These substations are quite complex. Hence the requirement of establishing the substation. To step down the voltage to a lower level for further transmission (subtransmission) at an economic rate: Sometimes for shorter distance transmission of comparatively less power. To inter-connect two or more transmission lines at two or more different voltage levels: In a transmission system it is often planned or it is required to facilitate power flow between transmission lines at different voltage levels. Substations Types The main purposes for establishment of a substation are:  Need for connecting a generator to the transmission system: We have already discussed that generators generate electricity at a low voltage mostly below 22 kV. Inter connecting Transformers (ICT) are used for this purpose.

Switching substation: These are the substations meant for switching purposes only. The switching substations are meant for disconnecting and connecting a part of network and facilitating maintenance works.    Here I reproduce the SLD of a basic imaginary power system where we can see few types of substations and their relative configuration. where the voltage is again stepped down to a level suitable for house holds consumption. . HVDC substations have many advantages. Step down to low voltage for supply to consumers: These are area substations. The Switching substation does not have a transformer. 2) Direct current long distance bulk power transmission. HVDC substation: There are two main purposes of a HVDC substation. To step down the voltage to a lower level for feeding a high voltage distribution network: These are the substations where the voltage is stepped down to a voltage level suitable for forming the major distribution network for a township. 1) Two dissimilar systems with different frequency can be connected by HVDC link to facilitate power transfer from one side to the other side. In a power system these are few in numbers.

We have already discussed about transformer connection and Vector Group. power factor improvement and measurement and recording of system parameters and initiating proper action. A substation may be established primarily for the purpose of bulk power transmission but at the same time may have another transformer installed for stepping down the voltage to a lower level and distribute locally. potential transformer. batteries. The substation transformers can be connected several ways. We will discuss about all types of substations in future. The substations can be Air Insulated Substation (AIS) or Gas Insulated substation (GIS). Some important functions that are carried out in the substation are controlling the flow of energy. battery chargers. fire fighting equipments etc. It can be over ground or under ground. The other important major elements usually found in the substation are Capacitor bank and Reactor. isolator. The switching arrangement is chosen as per the requirement.A substation may not be exclusively for one of the above purposes. A substation has many types of equipment. current transformer. voltage control. measuring and recording instruments. A substation has switching arrangements to connect or disconnect these high voltage equipments or elements to the system. VAR compensation. relay and protective devices. . some of these are circuit breaker. surge absorber. Sometimes any combination from the above is adopted depending on the requirements.

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