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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
Cardiovascular disease is one of the main causes of death in the many countries and in 1999, it accounted for over 15 million deaths worldwide. In addition, several million people are disabled by cardiovascular disease (WHO, 1999). The delay between the first symptom of any cardiac ailment and the call for medical assistance has a large variation among different patients and can have fatal consequences. One critical inference drawn from epidemiological data is that deployment of resources for early detection and treatment of heart disease has a higher potential of reducing fatality associated with cardiac disease than improved care after hospitalization. Hence new strategies are needed in order to reduce time before treatment. Monitoring of patients is one possible solution. Also, the trend towards an independent lifestyle has also increased the demand for personalized non-hospital based care. This project Heart beat monitoring by GSM technology can be used in hospitals and also for patients who can be under continues monitoring while traveling from place to place. Since the system is continuously monitoring the patient and in case of any abnormal in the heart beat rate of the patient the system will immediately message to the concerned doctors and relatives about the condition of the patient and abnormal details. To perform these operations the system uses heart beat sensor, GSM modem, and to control all these devices the heart of the system micro controller (P89V51RD2) is used.

1.1 Proposed Work


Some severe diseases and disorders e.g. heart failure needs close and continual monitoring procedure after diagnosis, in order to prevent mortality or further damage as secondary to the mentioned diseases or disorders. Monitoring these types of patients, usually, occur at hospitals or healthcare centers. Heart arrhythmias for instance, in many cases, need continual long-term monitoring. However, the patients are often too early released, owing to need of hospital bed for another patient on the waiting list, who needs to be hospitalized immediately.

1.2 Scope of the Work


Long waiting time for hospitalization or ambulatory patient monitoring/treatment, are other well-known issues for both the healthcare institutions and the patients. This project provides healthcare authorities to maximize the quality and breadth of healthcare services by controlling costs. As the population increases and demand for services B.L.D.E.As College of Engg & Tech.,Dept. of E&C Page 1

Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology increases, the ability to maintain the quality and availability of care, while effectively managing financial and human resources, is achieved by this project. The use of modern communication technology in this context is the sole decisive factor that makes such communication system successful.

1.3 Design Methodology


In transmitter circuit the Heat Beat is measured by LED and LDR, then it is applied to the microcontroller. The Microcontroller maintains the records of the measured readings. It compares the measured heart beat with the normal readings and checks it is within the normal range or not. If it is normal, then it sends the message as normal otherwise it sends abnormal to the specified mobile number. The time specified for sending message is given by the user.

CHAPTER 2
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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Embedded systems are one of the emerging technologies which are touching every nook and corner of the mind. It is impossible to live without these embedded gadgets-says ELECTRONICS magazine. From the above statement, the liveliness of embedded system can be understood. Data communications is one of the most rapidly growing commercial market areas today, especially wireless communications. In the past few years, wireless data communications has grown from an obscure and expensive curiosity into a practical and affordable communication and networking technology.The convenience of wireless is very appealing as not to deal with running cables to and from devices in order to interconnect them, and wireless devices can be moved to any location within the transmission range, while still being able to communicate and broadcast data. Due to this, it is expected that wireless data communications will become even more popular and more extensively used in the medical field. Currently the most popular method of wireless communications is radio frequency transmission. As these devices have a very low power consumption and power output, perhaps more importantly devices can achieve good data transmission rates.

2.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM Transmitter


Heart Beat Sensor

Oscillator

Micro controller P89V51RD2

RS 232

Serial Switcher

Regulate DC Power Supply

GSM Modem

Receiver

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology

Mobile

2.2.1 POWER SUPPLY


The 230V line voltage is step-down, rectified, filtered and regulated using regulators to obtain desired voltages. This circuit can give +5V output at about 150 mA current and +3.8v and 12v respectively.

2.2.2 MICROCONTROLLER
The microcontroller used is P89V51RD2 operates at 11.0592 MHz at 5V D.C. Microcontroller controls all the operation. The microcontroller obtains the input from the heart beat sensors and monitors the heart beat rate.

2.2.3 LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD)


A Liquid Crystal Display is a low cost, low power device capable of displaying text. The LCD used is (2 lines X 16 characters) operates at 5V D.C. A microcontroller is connected to an LCD controller, which in turn is connected to an LCD. The LCD controller receives control words from the microcontrollers; it decodes the control words and performs the corresponding actions on LCD. Once the initialization sequence is done, we can send control words or send actual data to be displayed

2.2.4 GSM MODEM


This GSM-Modem should be a plug and play GSM 900 / GSM 1800 / GSM 1900 modem. A direct and easy integration with RS232 and with in voltage range for the power supply. A WAVECOM's GSM/GPRS modem is suitable for the GSM-SMS Transceiver System. The features of SIMCOM-Modem: Triband GSM GPRS modem(EGSM 900/1800/1900 MHz) Designed for GPRS, data, fax, SMS and voice applications GPRS multi-slot class 10 GPRS mobile station class B Designed for GPRS, data, fax, SMS and voice applications Fully compliant with GSM Phase 2/2+ specifications Page 4

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology Built-in TCP/IP Protocol Built-in RTC in the module AT Command based

2.2.5 HEARTBEAT SENSOR


Heart beat sensor is designed to give digital output of heat beat when a finger is placed on it. When the heart beat detector is working, the beat LED flashes in unison with each heart beat. This digital output can be connected to microcontroller directly to measure the Beats Per Minute (BPM) rate. It works on the principle of light modulation by blood flow through finger at each pulse.

2.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

CHAPTER 3

HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology

3.1 POWER SUPPLY


The transformer 230Volts will be stepped down to 12-0-12 one side of the 12V is given to the 7805 and Lm317.In this project the microcontroller requires +5V power supply. The design description of power supply is given below. The +5 Volt and 3.8V power supply is based on the commercial 7805 & Lm317 voltage regulator IC. This IC contains all the circuitry needed to accept any input voltage from 8 to 18 volts and produce a steady +5 volt & 3.8volt output, accurate to within 5% (0.25 volt). It also contains current-limiting circuitry and thermal overload protection, so that the IC won't be damaged in case of excessive load current; it will reduce its output voltage instead. The 1000f capacitor serves as a "reservoir" which maintains a reasonable input voltage to the 7805 throughout the entire cycle of the ac line voltage. The bridge rectifier (WM04) keep recharging the reservoir capacitor on alternate half-cycles of the line voltage, and the capacitor is quite capable of sustaining any reasonable load in between charging pulses. The LED and its series resistor(220ohm) serve as a pilot light to indicate when the power supply is on and also helps to the reservoir capacitor is completely discharged after power is turned off. Then I know it's safe to remove or install components for the next experiment.

Fig 1: Power supply Circuit Diagram 3.1.1 LM317: The LM317 series of adjustable 3-terminal positive voltage regulators is capable of supplying in excess of 1.5A over a 1.2V to 37V output range. They are exceptionally B.L.D.E.As College of Engg & Tech.,Dept. of E&C Page 6

Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology easy to use and require only two external resistors to set the output voltage.Further, both line and load regulations are better than standard fixed regulators. Also, the LM317 is packaged in standard transistor packages which are easily mounted and handled.

Fig 2: LM317 pin out A truly timeless circuit LM317 is a versatile and highly efficient 1.2-37V voltage regulator that can provide up to 1.5A of current with a large heat sink. Its ideal for just about any application. This was my first workbench power supply and I still use it. Since LM317 is protected against short-circuit, no fuse is necessary. Thanks to automatic thermal shutdown, it will turn off if heating excessively. All in all, a very powerful (and affordable!) package, indeed. Although LM317 is capable of delivering up to 37V, the circuit pictured here is limited to 25V for the sake of safety and simplicity. Any higher output voltage would require additional components and a larger heat sink. Make sure that the input voltage is at least a couple of Volts higher than the desired output. Its ok to use a trimmer if youre building a fixed-voltage supply. 3.1.2 LM7805:

Fig 3: IC Lm7805 pin out The 7805 is a +5V DC three-terminal fixed-voltage regulator chip. It is a popular low-cost voltage regulator used in many projects and it is relatively easy to build a power supply with.

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology The disadvantage of the 7805 is that it is a "lousy" regulator and therefore not very efficient. Thus it will not work well using AA batteries, for example. The 7805 is commonly packaged in a TO-220 case and is rated at 1.0 amp, plenty for the GPS-20. However, in order for the 7805 to handle its designed rating requires a heat sink be installed on the 7805. Bare this in mind when you build this version of the power supply. If the 7805 will be in the open air it may be okay without a heat sink, but if you install it inside an enclosure, it will require one. If the enclosure is aluminum, simply attach the 7805 to the enclosure, it will act as a heat sink.

3.2 MICROCONTROLLER P89V51RD2


1.General description The P89V51RB2/RC2/RD2 are 80C51 microcontrollers with 16/32/64 kB flash and 1024 B of data RAM. A key feature of the P89V51RB2/RC2/RD2 is its X2 mode option. The design engineer can choose to run the application with the conventional 80C51 clock rate (12 clocks per machine cycle) or select the X2 mode (six clocks per machine cycle) to achieve twice the throughput at the same clock frequency. Another way to benefit from this feature is to keep the same performance by reducing the clock frequency by half, thus dramatically reducing the EMI The flash program memory supports both parallel programming and in serial ISP. Parallel programming mode offers gang-programming at high speed, reducing programming costs and time to market. ISP allows a device to be reprogrammed in the end product under software control. The capability to field/update the application firmware makes a wide range of applications possible. The P89V51RB2/RC2/RD2 is also capable of IAP, allowing the flash program memory to be reconfigured even while the application is running. 2. Features 80C51 CPU 5 V operating voltage from 0 MHz to 40 MHz 16/32/64 kB of on-chip flash user code memory with ISP and IAP Supports 12-clock (default) or 6-clock mode selection via software or ISP SPI and enhanced UART PCA with PWM and capture/compare functions Four 8-bit I/O ports with three high-current port 1 pins (16 mA each) Three 16-bit timers/counters B.L.D.E.As College of Engg & Tech.,Dept. of E&C Page 8

Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology Programmable watchdog timer Eight interrupt sources with four priority levels Second DPTR register Low EMI mode (ALE inhibit) TTL- and CMOS-compatible logic levels Brownout detection Low power modes Power-down mode with external interrupt wake-up Idle mode 3.Block diagram of P89V51RD2

P89V51RB2/RC2/RD2

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology

Fig 4: DIP40 pin configuration 4. PIN DESCRIPTION VCC: Supply voltage. GND: Ground. Port 0: Port 0 is an 8-bit open-drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs. Port 0 may also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external pro-gram and data memory. In this mode P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming, and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification. Port 1: Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source) because of the internal pull-ups. Current (IIL B.L.D.E.As College of Engg & Tech.,Dept. of E&C Page 10

Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification. Port 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source) because of the internal pull-ups. In this application, it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. Port 3: Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source) because of the pull-ups. Memory organization The device has separate address spaces for program and data memory.

Flash program memory bank selection There are two internal flash memory blocks in the device. Block 0 has 16/32/64 kB and is organized as 128/256/512 sectors, each sector consists of 128 B. Block 1 contains the IAP/ISP routines and may be enabled such that it overlays the first 8 kB of the user code memory. The overlay function is controlled by the combination of the Software Reset Bit (SWR) at FCF.1 and the Bank Select Bit (BSEL) at FCF.0. The combination of these bits and the memory source used for instructions is shown in Table below.

Code memory bank selection

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Access to the IAP routines in block 1 may be enabled by clearing the BSEL bit (FCF.0), provided that the SWR bit (FCF.1) is cleared. Following a power-on sequence, the boot code is automatically executed and attempts to auto baud to a host. If no auto baud occurs within approximately 400 ms and the SoftICE flag is not set, control will be passed to the user code. A software reset is used to accomplish this control transfer and as a result the SWR bit will remain set. Therefore the user's code will need to clear the SWR bit in order to access the IAP routines in block 1. However, caution must be taken when dynamically changing the BSEL bit. Since this will cause different physical memory to be mapped to the logical program address space, the user must avoid clearing the BSEL bit when executing user code within the address range 0000H to 1FFFH. Power-on reset code execution At initial power up, the port pins will be in a random state until the oscillator has started and the internal reset algorithm has weakly pulled all pins high. Powering up the device without a valid reset could cause the MCU to start executing instructions from an indeterminate location. Such undefined states may inadvertently corrupt the code in the flash. A system reset will not affect the 1 kB of on-chip RAM while the device is running, however, the contents of the on-chip RAM during power up are indeterminate. When power is applied to the device, the RST pin must be held high long enough for the oscillator to start up (usually several milliseconds for a low frequency crystal), in addition to two machine cycles for a valid power-on reset. An example of a method to extend the RST signal is to implement a RC circuit by connecting the RST pin to VDD through a 10 mF capacitor and to VSS through an 8.2 kW resistor as shown in Figure 5. Note that if an RC circuit is being used, provisions should be made to ensure the VDD rise time does not exceed 1 ms and the oscillator start-up time does not exceed 10 ms. For a low frequency oscillator with slow start-up time the reset signal must be extended in order to account for the slow start-up time. This method maintains the necessary relationship between VDD and RST to avoid programming at an indeterminate location, which may cause corruption in the code of the flash. The power-on detection is designed to work during initial power B.L.D.E.As College of Engg & Tech.,Dept. of E&C Page 12

Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology up, before the voltage reaches the brownout detection level. The POF flag in the PCON register is set to indicate an initial power up condition. The POF flag will remain active until cleared by software. Following a power-on or external reset the

P89V51RB2/RC2/RD2 will force the SWR and BSEL bits (FCF[1:0]) = 00. This causes the boot block to be mapped into the lower 8 kB of code memory and the device will execute the ISP code in the boot block and attempt to auto baud to the host. If the auto baud is successful the device will remain in ISP mode. If, after approximately 400 ms, the auto baud is unsuccessful the boot block code will check to see if the SoftICE flag is set (from a previous programming operation). If the SoftICE flag is set the device will enter SoftICE mode. If the SoftICE flag is cleared, the boot code will execute a software reset causing the device to execute the user code from block 0 starting at address 0000H. Note that an external reset applied to the RST pin has the same effect as a power-on reset.

Software reset A software reset is executed by changing the SWR bit (FCF.1) from 0 to 1. A software reset will reset the program counter to address 0000H and force both the SWR and BSEL bits (FCF[1:0]) = 10. This will result in the lower 8 kB of the user code memory being mapped into the user code memory space. Thus the user's code will be executed starting at address 0000H. A software reset will not change WDTC.2 or RAM data. Other SFRs will be set to their reset values. Brownout detect reset

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology The device includes a brownout detection circuit to protect the system from severe supply voltage fluctuations. The P89V51RB2/RC2/RD2's brownout detection threshold is 2.35 V. When VDD drops below this voltage threshold, the brownout detect triggers the circuit to generate a brownout interrupt but the CPU still runs until the supplied voltage returns to the brownout detection voltage VBOD. The default operation for a brownout detection is to cause a processor reset. VDD must stay below VBOD at least four oscillator clock periods before the brownout detection circuit will respond. Brownout interrupt can be enabled by setting the EBO bit (IEA.3). If EBO bit is set and a brownout condition occurs, a brownout interrupt will be generated to execute the program at location 004BH. It is required that the EBO bit be cleared by software after the brownout interrupt is serviced. Clearing EBO bit when the brownout condition is active will properly reset the device. If brownout interrupt is not enabled, a brownout condition will reset the program to resume execution at location 0000H. A brownout detect reset will clear the BSEL bit (FCF.0) but will not change the SWR bit (FCF.1) and therefore will not change the banking of the lower 8 kB of user code memory space. Watchdog reset Like a brownout detect reset, the watchdog timer reset will clear the BSEL bit (FCF.0) but will not change the SWR bit (FCF.1) and therefore will not change the banking of the lower 8 kB of user code memory space. The state of the SWR and BSEL bits after different types of resets is shown in below This results in the code memory bank selections as shown. Data RAM memory The data RAM has 1024 B of internal memory. The device can also address up to 64 kB for external data memory. Expanded data RAM addressing The P89V51RB2/RC2/RD2 has 1 kB of RAM The device has four sections of internal data memory: 1. The lower 128 B of RAM (00H to 7FH) are directly and indirectly addressable. 2. The higher 128 B of RAM (80H to FFH) are indirectly addressable. 3. The special function registers (80H to FFH) are directly addressable only. 4. The expanded RAM of 768 B (00H to 2FFH) is indirectly addressable by the move external instruction (MOVX) and clearing the EXTRAM bit

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology Since the upper 128 B occupy the same addresses as the SFRs, the RAM must be accessed indirectly. The RAM and SFRs space are physically separate even though they have the same addresses. Internal and external data memory structure

Dual data pointers The device has two 16-bit data pointers. The DPTR Select (DPS) bit in AUXR1n determines which of the two data pointers is accessed. When DPS = 0, DPTR0 is selected; when DPS = 1, DPTR1 is selected. Quickly switching between the two data pointers can be accomplished by a single INC instruction on AUXR1. Flash memory IAP 1.Flash organization The P89V51RB2/RC2/RD2 program memory consists of a 16/32/64 kB block. ISP capability, in a second 8 kB block, is provided to allow the user code to be programmed in-circuit through the serial port. There are three methods of erasing or programming of the flash memory that may be used. First, the flash may be programmed or erased in the end-user application by calling low-level routines through a common entry point (IAP). Second, the on-chip ISP bootloader may be invoked. This ISP bootloader will, in turn, call low-level routines through the same common entry point that can be used by the enduser application. Third, the flash may be programmed or erased using the parallel method by using a commercially available EPROM programmer which supports this device. 2.Boot block (block 1) B.L.D.E.As College of Engg & Tech.,Dept. of E&C Page 15

Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology When the microcontroller programs its own flash memory, all of the low level details are handled by code that is contained in block 1. A user program calls the common entry point in the block 1 with appropriate parameters to accomplish the desired operation. Boot block operations include erase user code, program user code, program security bits, etc. A chip-erase operation can be performed using a commercially available parallel programer. This operation will erase the contents of this Boot Block and it will be necessary for the user to reprogram this Boot Block (block 1) with the NXP-provided ISP/IAP code in order to use the ISP or IAP capabilities of this device. 3.ISP ISP is performed without removing the microcontroller from the system. The ISP facility consists of a series of internal hardware resources coupled with internal firmware to facilitate remote programming of the P89V51RB2/RC2/RD2 through the serial port. This firmware is provided by NXP and embedded within each P89V51RB2/RC2/RD2 device. The NXP ISP facility has made in-circuit programming in an embedded application possible with a minimum of additional expense in components and circuit board area. The ISP function uses five pins (VDD, VSS, TXD, RXD, and RST). Only a small connector needs to be available to interface your application to an external circuit in order to use this feature 3.1Using the ISP The ISP feature allows for a wide range of baud rates to be used in your application, independent of the oscillator frequency. It is also adaptable to a wide range of oscillator frequencies. This is accomplished by measuring the bit-time of a single bit in a received character. This information is then used to program the baud rate in terms of timer counts based on the oscillator frequency. The ISP feature requires that an initial character (an uppercase U) be sent to the P89V51RB2/RC2/RD2 to establish the baud rate. The ISP firmware provides auto-echo of received characters. Once baud rate initialization has been performed, the ISP firmware will only accept Intel Hex-type records UARTs The UART operates in all standard modes. Enhancements over the standard 80C51 UART include Framing Error detection, and automatic address recognition.

Mode 0

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology Serial data enters and exits through RXD and TXD outputs the shift clock. Only 8 bits are transmitted or received, LSB first. The baud rate is fixed at 16 of the CPU clock frequency. UART configured to operate in this mode outputs serial clock on TXD line no matter whether it sends or receives data on RXD line. Mode 1 10 bits are transmitted (through TXD) or received (through RXD): a start bit (logical 0), 8 data bits (LSB first), and a stop bit (logical 1). When data is received, the stop bit is stored in RB8 in Special Function Register SCON. The baud rate is variable and is determined by the Timer 12 overflow rate. Mode 2 11 bits are transmitted (through TXD) or received (through RXD): start bit (logical 0), 8 data bits (LSB first), a programmable 9th data bit, and a stop bit (logical 1). When data is transmitted, the 9th data bit (TB8 in SCON) can be assigned the value of 0 or (e.g. the parity bit (P, in the PSW) could be moved into TB8). When data is received, the 9th data bit goes into RB8 in Special Function Register SCON, while the stop bit is ignored. The baud rate is programmable to either 116 or 132 of the CPU clock frequency, as determined by the SMOD1 bit in PCON. Mode 3 11 bits are transmitted (through TXD) or received (through RXD): a start bit (logical 0), 8 data bits (LSB first), a programmable 9th data bit, and a stop bit (logical 1). In fact, mode 3 is the same as mode 2 in all respects except baud rate. The baud rate in mode 3 is variable and is determined by the Timer 12 overflow rate.

SCON REGISTER (address 98h) bit allocation

SPI SPI features B.L.D.E.As College of Engg & Tech.,Dept. of E&C Page 17

Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology Master or slave operation 10 MHz bit frequency (max) LSB first or MSB first data transfer Four programmable bit rates End of transmission (SPIF) Write collision flag protection (WCOL) Wake-up from Idle mode (slave mode only)

SPI description The SPI allows high-speed synchronous data transfer between the

P89V51RB2/RC2/RD2 and peripheral devices or between several P89V51RB2/RC2/RD2 devices. Figure below shows the correspondence between master and slave SPI devices. The SCK pin is the clock output and input for the master and slave modes, respectively. The SPI clock generator will start following a write to the master devices SPI data register. The written data is then shifted out of the MOSI pin on the master device into the MOSI pin of the slave device. Following a complete transmission of one byte of data, the SPI clock generator is stopped and the SPIF flag is set. An SPI interrupt request will be generated if the SPI Interrupt Enable bit (SPIE) and the Serial Port Interrupt Enable bit (ES) are both set. An external master drives the Slave Select input pin, SS/P1[4], low to select the SPI module as a slave. If SS/P1[4] has not been driven low, then the slave SPI unit is not active and the MOSI/P1[5] port can also be used as an input port pin. CPHA and CPOL control the phase and polarity of the SPI clock. Following fig shows the four possible combinations of these two bits

Watchdog timer The device offers a programmable Watchdog Timer (WDT) for fail safe protection against software deadlock and automatic recovery. To protect the system B.L.D.E.As College of Engg & Tech.,Dept. of E&C Page 18

Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology against software deadlock, the user software must refresh the WDT within a user-defined time period. If the software fails to do this periodical refresh, an internal hardware reset will be initiated if enabled (WDRE = 1). The software can be designed such that the WDT times out if the program does not work properly. The WDT in the device uses the system clock (XTAL1) as its time base. So strictly speaking, it is a Watchdog counter rather than a WDT. The WDT register will increment every 344064 crystal clocks. The upper 8-bits of the time base register (WDTD) are used as the reload register of the WDT. The WDTS flag bit is set by WDT overflow and is not changed by WDT reset. User software can clear WDTS by writing 1' to it. Figure below provides a block diagram of the WDT. Two SFRs (WDTC and WDTD) control WDT operation. During Idle mode, WDT operation is temporarily suspended, and resumes upon an interrupt exit from idle. The time-out period of the WDT is calculated as follows: Period = (255 - WDTD) 344064 1 / fCLK(XTAL1) where WDTD is the value loaded into the WDTD register and fosc is the oscillator frequency. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF WATCHDOG TIMER

Power-saving modes The device provides two power saving modes of operation for applications where power consumption is critical. The two modes are Idle and Power-down. Idle mode Idle mode is entered setting the IDL bit in the PCON register. In Idle mode, the program counter (PC) is stopped. The system clock continues to run and all interrupts and peripherals remain active. The on-chip RAM and the special function registers hold their data during this mode The device exits Idle mode through either a system interrupt or a hardware reset. Exiting Idle mode via system interrupt, the start of the interrupt clears the IDL bit and exits Idle mode. After exit the Interrupt Service Routine, the interrupted program resumes execution beginning at the instruction immediately following the

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology instruction which invoked the Idle mode. A hardware reset starts the device similar to a power-on reset. Power-down mode The Power-down mode is entered by setting the PD bit in the PCON register. In the Power-down mode, the clock is stopped and external interrupts are active for level sensitive interrupts only. SRAM contents are retained during Power-down, the minimum VDD level is 2.0 V. The device exits Power-down mode through either an enabled external level sensitive interrupt or a hardware reset. The start of the interrupt clears the PD bit and exits Power-down. Holding the external interrupt pin low restarts the oscillator, the signal must hold low at least 1024 clock cycles before bringing back high to complete the exit. Upon interrupt signal restored to logic VIH, the interrupt service routine program execution resumes beginning at the instruction immediately following the instruction which invoked Power-down mode. A hardware reset starts the device similar to power-on reset. To exit properly out of Power-down mode, the reset or external interrupt should not be executed before the VDD line is restored to its normal operating voltage. Be sure to hold VDD voltage long enough at its normal operating level for the oscillator to restart and stabilize (normally less than 10 ms). System clock and clock options Clock input options and recommended capacitor values for oscillator Shown in Figure below are the input and output of an internal inverting amplifier (XTAL1, XTAL2), which can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator. When driving the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left disconnected and XTAL1 should be driven. At start-up, the external oscillator may encounter a higher capacitive load at XTAL1 due to interaction between the amplifier and its feedback capacitance. However, the capacitance will not exceed 15 pF once the external signal meets the VIL and VIH specifications. Crystal manufacturer, supply voltage, and other factors may cause circuit performance to differ from one application to another. C1 and C2 should be adjusted appropriately for each design. Table below shows the typical values for C1 and C2 vs. crystal type for various frequencies.

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology By default, the device runs at 12 clocks per machine cycle (X1 mode). The device has a clock doubling option to speed up to 6 clocks per machine cycle . Clock double mode can be enabled either by an external programmer or using IAP. When set, the EDC bit in FST register will indicate 6-clock mode. The clock double mode is only for doubling the internal system clock and the internal flash memory, i.e. EA = 1. To access the external memory and the peripheral devices, careful consideration must be taken. Also note that the crystal output (XTAL2) will not be doubled. Oscillator characteristics (using on-chip oscillator)

Oscillator characteristics (external clock drive)

3.3 HEART BEAT SENSOR

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Fig 5:Heart beat sensor The Heart Beat Sensor provides a simple way to study the heart's function. This sensor monitors the flow of blood through Finger. As the heart forces blood through the blood vessels in the Finger, the amount of blood in the Finger changes with time. The sensor shines a light lobe (small High Bright LED) through the ear and measures the light that is transmitted to LDR. The signal is amplified, inverted and filtered, in the Circuit .By graphing this signal, the heart rate can be determined, and some details of the pumping action of the heart can be seen on the graph.

Fig 6: A sample measurement taken with the heartbeat sensor.

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology Figure 3.3.1 shows that the blood flowing through the Finger rises at the start of the heartbeat. This is caused by the contraction of the ventricles forcing blood into the arteries. Soon after the first peak a second, smaller peak is observed. This is caused by the shutting of the heart valve, at the end of the active phase, which raises the pressure in the arteries and the earlobe.

FEATURES Heat beat indication by LED Instant output digital signal for directly connecting to microcontroller Compact Size Working Voltage +5V DC

APPLICATIONS Digital Heart Rate monitor Patient Monitoring System Bio-Feedback control of robotics and applications

SPECIFICATIONS:

PIN DETAILS: Board has 3-pin connector for using the sensor. Details are marked on PCB as below.

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USING THE SENSOR Connect regulated DC power supply of 5 Volts. Black wire is Ground, Next middle wire is Brown which is output and Red wire is positive supply. These wires are also marked on PCB. To test sensor you only need power the sensor by connect two wires +5V and GND. You can leave the output wire as it is. When Beat LED is off the output is at 0V. Put finger on the marked position, and you can view the beat LED blinking on each heartbeat. The output is active high for each beat and can be given directly to microcontroller for interfacing applications.

HEART BEAT OUTPUT SIGNAL

WORKING The sensor consists of a super bright red LED and light detector. The LED needs to be super bright as the maximum light must pass spread in finger and detected by detector. Now, when the heart pumps a pulse of blood through the blood vessels, the finger becomes slightly more opaque and so less light reached the detector. With each heart pulse the detector signal varies. This variation is converted to electrical pulse. This B.L.D.E.As College of Engg & Tech.,Dept. of E&C Page 24

Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology signal is amplified and triggered through an amplifier which outputs +5V logic level signal. The output signal is also indicated by a LED which blinks on each heart beat.

The pulse signal is applied to the P1.0 input of U2 that is AT89S52 (Can be any 8051 type) which is monitored by the program whenever this input goes high. Internally to U2, there is a counter which counts how many 1ms intervals there are between two high going heart beat pulses. This number is then divided by 60,000 and the result is the pulse rate. For example, if the pulse rate is 60 BPM (beats per minute) there will be a pulse every second. The duration of one heart beat will be one seconds or 1000 x 1ms. Dividing 60,000 by 1000 will give the correct result of 60 which is shown on the display. If there is invalid result (BPM>200) it is invalid and waits for next cycle.

3.4 LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY


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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) offer several advantages over traditional cathoderay tube displays that make them ideal for several applications. Of course, LCDs are flat and they use only a fraction of the power required by cathode-ray tubes. They are easier to read and more pleasant to work with for long periods of time than most ordinary video monitors. There are several tradeoffs as well, such as limited view angle, brightness, and contrast, not to mention high manufacturing cost.16x2 LCD is used in this project to display data to user. There are two rows and 16 columns. It is possible to display 16 characters on each of the 2 rows. It has two registers, command register and data register.

P 0.5 P 0.4 P 0.3 P 0.2 P 0.1 P 0.0

D7 D6 D5 D4 LCD EN RS

Microcontroller

Fig 7: 8051 and LCD interface. Description of pins used: RS, Register Select (Pin 4): This pin is used to select command register and data register.

If RS=0, instruction command register is selected, allowing the user to send a command such as clear display, cursor at home, etc.

If RS =1, the data register is selected, allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD.

EN Enable (Pin 6): The LCD to latch information presented to its data pins uses the enable pin. When data is supplied to data pins, a high-to-low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins. This pulse must be a minimum of 450ns wide. R / W, Read/Write (Pin 5): This pin is connected to ground, as LCD is used only to display data. B.L.D.E.As College of Engg & Tech.,Dept. of E&C Page 26

Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology D4 D7 (Pin 11 Pin 14): Data to be displayed is sent to LCD on these pins. First MSB is sent, followed by LSB. D0 D3 (Pin 7 Pin 10): These pins are connected to ground, as they are not used to display data. Vcc (Pin 2): This pin is connected to +5v power supply. Vss (Pin 1): This pin is connected to ground. PIN OUT The module that we are using is a 16 character x 2 line display that we stock over here. It uses an ST7065C controller, which is HD44780 compatible. The figure below shows the LCD module and pin out.

Fig 8: LCD pin out

The last 2 pins (15 & 16) are optional and are only used if the display has a backlight. The circuit diagram below shows the LCD module with the basic plumbing wired up. You will notice that pin 5 (RW) is tied to ground. This pin is use to control whether you

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology are reading or writing to the display. Since reading from the display is very rare, most people just tie this pin to ground. The potentiometer connected to pin 3 controls the LCD contrast.

Fig9: LCD pin3 connection

3.5. GSM
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications originally from Group Special Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile telephony systems in the world. The GSM Association, its promoting industry trade organization of mobile phone carriers and manufacturers, estimates that 80% of the global mobile market uses the standard. The ubiquity of implementation of the GSM standard has been an advantage to both consumers, who may benefit from the ability to roam and switch carriers without replacing phones, and also to network operators, who can choose equipment from many GSM equipment vendors. Newer versions of the standard were backward-compatible with the original GSM system. For example, Release '97 of the standard added packet data capabilities by means of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Release '99 introduced higher speed data transmission using Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE). 3.5.1The GSM Network Circuit Switching Domain:

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology The GSM network was designed keeping in mind the voice activities of the user and its main purpose was to provide voice connectivity like Public Switched Telephone Networks but with mobility. The data communication was of secondary importance to this network but to support this also, designers have considered the circuit switching itself the mechanism for transmitting data packets. 3.5.2 GSM Architecture:

Fig 10: GSM Architecture The Mobile Station (MS) directly interacts with one of the Base Transceiver Stations, which in turn interacts with a Base Station Controllers (BSC). BTS and BSC combined together forms the BSS. More than one BTSs are connected with one BSC. The BSC further interacts with Mobile Station Controller (MSC) which is a the heart of the GSM network. MSC further gives connectivity to the PSTN and other PLMNs. MSC is also responsible to interact with HLR and VLR, which form the Permanent and Temporary data bases for all the subscribers static and dynamic information. 3.5.3 GSM Speech and Channel coding :

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology First of ALL speech is converted to 8 Ksps by going through a LPF and a A/D converter. Then each symbol is encoded as 13 bits giving 104 Kbps output. Now this is applied to a RPE/LTP encoder, which converts this to 13Kbps. Speech is divided into 20 millisecond samples, each of which is encoded as 260 bits, giving a total bit rate of 13 kbps.The words, Mobile Station (MS) or Mobile Equipment (ME) are used for mobile terminals supporting GSM services. A call from a GSM mobile station to the PSTN is called a mobile originated call (MOC) or outgoing call, and a call from a fixed network to a GSM mobile station is called a mobile terminated call (MTC) or incoming call. In this document, the word product refers to any product supporting the AT commands interface. LED Status Indicator: The LED will indicate different status of the modem: OFF ON Flashing Slowly Flashing rapidly Modem Switched off Modem is connecting to the network Modem is in idle mode Modem is in transmission/communication (GSM only)

Now every embedded system is used to communicate with other system using GSM and GPRS technology, In this project MODEM is used to access the message sent by the user to display in doctors mobile.

3.5.4 AT COMMANDS:
1 AT commands features:1.1 Wavecom line settings A serial link handler is set with the following default values (factory settings): auto baud, 8 bits data, 1 stop bit, no parity, RTS/CTS flow control. Please use the +IPR, +IFC and +ICF commands to change these settings. 1.2 Command line Commands always start with AT (which means ATtention) and finish with a <CR> character. 1.3 Information responses and result codes Responses start and end with <CR><LF>, except for the ATV0 DCE response format) and the ATQ1 (result code suppression) commands. B.L.D.E.As College of Engg & Tech.,Dept. of E&C Page 30

Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology If command syntax is incorrect, an ERROR string is returned. If command syntax is correct but with some incorrect parameters, the +CME ERROR: <Err> or +CMS ERROR: <SmsErr> strings are returned with different error codes. If the command line has been performed successfully, an OK string is returned. In some cases, such as AT+CPIN? or (unsolicited) incoming events, the product does not return the OK string as a response. In the following examples <CR> and <CR><LF> are intentionally omitted.

2 General behaviors:2.1 SIM Insertion, SIM Removal SIM card Insertion and Removal procedures are supported. There are software functions relying on positive reading of the hardware SIM detect pin. This pin state (open/closed) is permanently monitored. When the SIM detect pin indicates that a card is present in the SIM connector, the product tries to set up a logical SIM session. The logical SIM session will be set up or not depending on whether the detected card is a SIM Card or not. The AT+CPIN? Command delivers the following responses: If the SIM detect pin indicates absent, the response to AT+CPIN? is +CME ERROR 10 (SIM not inserted). If the SIM detect pin indicates present, and the inserted Card is a SIM Card, the Response to AT+CPIN? is +CPIN: xxx depending on SIM PIN state. If the SIM detect pin indicates present, and the inserted Card is not a SIM Card, the response to AT+CPIN? is CME ERROR 10. These last two states are not given immediately due to background initialization. Between the hardware SIM detect pin indicating present and the previous results the AT+CPIN? Sends +CME ERROR: 515 (Please wait, init in progress). When the SIM detect pin indicates card absence, and if a SIM Card was previously inserted, an IMSI detach procedure is performed, all user data is removed from the product (Phonebooks, SMS etc.). The product then switches to emergency mode.

2.2 Background initialization After entering the PIN (Personal Identification Number), some SIM user data files are loaded into the product (Phonebooks, SMS status, etc.). Please be aware that it might take some time to read a large phonebook. The AT+CPIN? Command response comes just B.L.D.E.As College of Engg & Tech.,Dept. of E&C Page 31

Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology after the PIN is checked. After this response user data is loaded (in background). This means that some data may not be available just after PIN entry is confirmed by OK. The reading of phonebooks will then be refused by +CME ERROR: 515 or +CMS ERROR: 515 meaning, Please wait, service is not available, init in progress. This type of answer may be sent by the product at several points: when trying to execute another AT command before the previous one is completed (before response), when switching from ADN to FDN (or FDN to ADN) and trying to read the relevant phonebook immediately, When asking for +CPIN? Status immediately after SIM insertion and before the product has determined if the inserted card is a valid SIM Card.

3 General commands
3.1 Select TE character set +CSCS 3.1.1 Description: This command informs the ME which character set is used by the TE. The ME can convert each character of entered or displayed strings. This is used to send, read or write short messages. See also +WPCS for the phonebooks character sets. 3.1.2 Syntax: Command Syntax: AT+CSCS=<Character Set>

COMMAND RESPONSES
AT+CSCS=GSM Note: GSM default alphabet Note: Command valid AT+CSCS=PCCP437

POSSIBLE
OK

OK

Note: PC character set code page 437 Note: Command valid AT+CSCS=? +CSCS: ("GSM","PCCP437","CUSTOM","HEX") OK Note: Get possible values Note: Possible values

3.1.3 Defined values: <Character Set> GSM............................................. GSM default alphabet. B.L.D.E.As College of Engg & Tech.,Dept. of E&C Page 32

Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology PCCP437......................................PC character set code page 437. CUSTOM .....................................User defined character set (cf. +WCCS command). HEX...............................................Hexadecimal mode. No character set used ; the user can read or write hexadecimal values.

4 Operator selection +COPS


4.1 Description: There are three possible ways of selecting an operator (PLMN): The product is in manual mode. It then tries to find the operator specified by the application and if found, tries to register. The product is in automatic mode. It then tries to find the home operator and if found, tries to register. If not found, the product automatically searches for another network. The product enters into manual/automatic mode, and then tries to find an operator as specified by the application (as in manual mode). If this attempt fails it enters automatic mode. If this is successful, the operator specified by the application is selected. The mobile equipment then enters into automatic mode. NOTE: The read command returns the current mode and the currently selected operator. In anual Mode, this PLMN may not be the one set by the application (as it is in the search phase). These commands are not allowed during one communication. 4.1.1 Syntax: To force an attempt to select and register on a network, the application must send the following command: Command syntax: AT+COPS=<mode>, [<format> [ , <oper> ] ] Possible responses: AT+COPS=<mode>: OK (Network is selected with full service) +CME ERROR: 30 (No network service), +CME ERROR: 32 (Network not allowed emergency calls only) +CME ERROR: 3 (Not allowed during one Communication) +CME ERROR: 4 (Incorrect parameters) +CME ERROR: 527 (Please wait, and retry your selection later) +CME ERROR: 528 (Location update failure emergency calls only) B.L.D.E.As College of Engg & Tech.,Dept. of E&C Page 33

Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology +CME ERROR: 529 (Selection failure emergency calls only) Response syntax for AT+COPS?: +COPS: <mode> [, <format>, <oper> ] Response syntax for AT+COPS=?: +COPS: [list of supported (<stat>, long alphanumeric <oper>, short alphanumeric <oper>s, Numeric <oper>) s]

4.2 Network registration +CREG 4.2.1 Description:


This command is used by the application to ascertain the registration status of the product.

4.2.2 Syntax:
Command Syntax: AT+CREG= <mode> Response Syntax: +CREG : <mode>, <stat> [ ,<lac>,<ci> ] for AT+CREG? Command only

COMMAND RESPONSES
AT+CREG?

POSSIBLE
+CREG: <mode>,<stat> OK

Note: As defined here-above AT+CREG=0 Note: Disable network registration unsolicited result code AT+CREG=1 Note: Enable network registration unsolicited result code AT+CREG=2 Note: Enable network registration and location information unsolicited result code AT+CREG=? Note: 0,1,2 <mode> values are supported +CREG: (0-2) OK Note: Command valid OK Note: Command valid OK Note: Command valid

5 AT COMMANDS TO SEND SMS+CMGS:

Description:
This command is used by the application to send the text message of the product.

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology 5.1 Syntax:


Command Syntax: AT+CMGS= <mode> Response Syntax: + CMGS : <mode>, <stat> [ ,<lac>,<ci> ] for AT+ CMGS? Command only

COMMAND
AT+CMGS?

POSSIBLERESPONSES
+ CMGS: <mode>,<stat> OK

Note: As defined here-above AT+CMGS=0 Note: Disable message sending Unsolicited result code AT+ CMGS =1 Note: Enable message sending Unsolicited result code OK Note: Command valid OK Note: Command valid

CHAPTER 4

SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION
4.1 SOFTWARE USED 4.1.1 KEIL SOFTWARE
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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology The KEIL 8051 Development Tools are designed to solve the complex problems facing embedded software developers.In this project we select the KEIL software of version8.08 .Because it provides Device Database and the Vision IDE sets all compiler, assembler, linker, and memory options for you. Numerous example programs are included in this software, and also the KEIL Vision Debugger accurately simulates onchip peripherals (IC, CAN, UART, SPI, Interrupts, I/O Ports, A/D Converter, D/A Converter, and PWM Modules) of your 8051 device. Simulation helps you understand hardware configurations and avoids time wasted on setup problems. When testing the software application with target hardware, use the MON51, MON390, MONADI, or FlashMON51 Target Monitors, the ISD51 In-System Debugger, or the ULINK USB-JTAG Adapter to download and test program code on your target system.

4.1.2 EMBEDDED C
The C programming language is perhaps the most popular programming language for programming embedded systems. Most C programmers are spoiled because they program in environments where not only there is a standard library implementation, but there are frequently a number of other libraries available for use. The cold fact is, that in embedded systems, there rarely are many of the libraries that programmers have grown used to, but occasionally an embedded system might not have a complete standard library, if there is a standard library at all. Few embedded systems have capability for dynamic linking, so if standard library functions are to be available at all, they often need to be directly linked into the executable. Oftentimes, because of space concerns, it is not possible to link in an entire library file, and programmers are often forced to "brew their own" standard c library implementations if they want to use them at all. While some libraries are bulky and not well suited for use on microcontrollers, many development systems still include the standard libraries which are the most common for C programmers. C remains a very popular language for micro-controller developers due to the code efficiency and reduced overhead and development time. C offers low-level control and is considered more readable than assembly. Many free C compilers are available for a wide variety of development platforms. The compilers are part of an IDEs with ICD support, breakpoints, single-stepping and an assembly window. The performance of C compilers has improved considerably in recent years, and they are claimed to be more or less as B.L.D.E.As College of Engg & Tech.,Dept. of E&C Page 36

Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology good as assembly, depending on who you ask. Most tools now offer options for customizing the compiler optimization. Additionally, using C increases portability, since C code can be compiled for different types of processors.

4.2 PROGRAM
#include<p89v51rd2.h> //#include<Reverse.c> #define LINE1_ADDR #define LINE2_ADDR sbit LCD_CS sbit REG_SELECT #define NULL_00 #define CONTRL_Z #define RELOADLOW0 #define RELOADHI0 sbit ext =P3^2; sbit TEST =P2^0; 0x80 0xC0 = P3^4; = P3^5; '\0' 0x1A 0x59 0xDC

#define MAX_RECD_CHAR 120 #define NULL_00 '\0' #define CARRIAGE_RETURN 0X0D #define END_OF_LINE '\n' #include<define.h> static unsigned char ucsthreadState = INIT_STATE; unsigned char code ucOwnerMGMTNum1[] = "AT+CMGS=\"+919686044657\"\r"; unsigned char code ucOwnerMGMTNum2[] = "AT+CMGS=\"+919945345959\"\r"; void ClearRecdCharArray(void); void TxdCommandToModem(unsigned char *s);

void Sms_CommandToModem(unsigned char *s, unsigned char ucMGMTIndex); bit mystr_recdchar_ncmp(unsigned char *chkString, unsigned char StrLength); void check_Modem(void); void check_SIM_SIMPIN(void); void SIM_REG(void); void SIM_MODEM_INIT_CHECK(void); void LCD_INIT(void); void write_instr_bit(unsigned char value); void Prep_lcd_Write_Data(unsigned char *line1, unsigned char Line1Addr, unsigned char *line2, unsigned char Line2Addr); void MSDelay(unsigned int delay); void MSDelay_lcd(unsigned int delay); unsigned char i,j,ucbcd100,ucbcd10,ucbcd1,buffer[15]=" "; void serial_Init(void); void byte_hex_to_bcd_conversion(unsigned int); unsigned char Actual_KeyData,temp100,temp10,temp1; static unsigned int xttemp; static unsigned char xdata ucpulseCount=0,timecount=0,stop=0; unsigned char recd_count = 0; bit gbok_flag = 0; unsigned char xdata ABNORM[15]="ABNORMAL ";

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unsigned char xdata NORM[15]="NORMAL "; unsigned char xdata recd_char[MAX_RECD_CHAR]; enum ucsthreadState123 { INIT_STATE = 0, MODEM_CHK, SIMPIN_CHK, SIMREG_CHK, SEND_CMNDS,HEART_BEAT_MONITORING,STOP, NO_ACTION } #include<variable.h> void main(void) { while(1) { switch(ucsthreadState) { case INIT_STATE: TEST=0; ext=0; LCD_INIT(); buffer[14]=NULL_00; buffer[3]=' '; buffer[4]=' '; buffer[5]=' '; buffer[9]=' '; serial_Init(); Prep_lcd_Write_Data(" Heart Beat ",LINE1_ADDR,"Project", LINE2_ADDR); ucsthreadState=MODEM_CHK; break; case MODEM_CHK : check_Modem(); ucsthreadState=SIMPIN_CHK; break; case SIMPIN_CHK : check_SIM_SIMPIN(); ucsthreadState=SIMREG_CHK; break; case SIMREG_CHK : SIM_REG(); ucsthreadState=SEND_CMNDS; break; case SEND_CMNDS : TxdCommandToModem("AT+CMGF=1\r\n"); MSDelay(10);

TxdCommandToModem("AT&W\r\n"); MSDelay(10);

//Store current parameter to user defined profile

TxdCommandToModem("AT+CMGD=1,4\r\n"); MSDelay(300);

//Delete All SMS

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Prep_lcd_Write_Data(" Heart Beat ",LINE1_ADDR,"", LINE2_ADDR); ucsthreadState=HEART_BEAT_MONITORING; break; case HEART_BEAT_MONITORING : while(TEST==0); MSDelay(5); while(TEST==0); TR0 = 1; Prep_lcd_Write_Data(" Heart Beat ",LINE1_ADDR,"Testing Starts", LINE2_ADDR); while(1) { while(ext==0); xttemp++; byte_hex_to_bcd_conversion(xttemp); buffer[0]=ucbcd100; temp10=ucbcd10; buffer[1]=ucbcd10; temp100=ucbcd100; buffer[2]=ucbcd1; temp1=ucbcd1; //Prep_lcd_Write_Data("Heart Beat ",LINE1_ADDR," Project ", LINE2_ADDR); Prep_lcd_Write_Data("PUL SEC PULSRTE",LINE1_ADDR,&buffer[0], LINE2_ADDR); MSDelay(10); } MSDelay(100); Prep_lcd_Write_Data(" Heart Beat ",LINE1_ADDR,"Testing Stop", LINE2_ADDR); ucsthreadState=STOP; break; case STOP : byte_hex_to_bcd_conversion(ucpulseCount); buffer[6]=ucbcd100; buffer[7]=ucbcd10; buffer[8]=ucbcd1; //Prep_lcd_Write_Data(" ISHWAR ",LINE1_ADDR," ", LINE2_ADDR); if(stop) { if((xttemp<65)||(xttemp>80)) { ABNORM[9]=' '; ABNORM[10]=temp100; ABNORM[11]=temp10; ABNORM[12]=temp1; Sms_CommandToModem(&ABNORM[0],1); MSDelay(10); Sms_CommandToModem(&ABNORM[0],2); MSDelay(10); xttemp=0; TR0 = 0; TL0 = RELOADLOW0; TH0 = RELOADHI0; TR0 = 1; } else if((xttemp>=65) && (xttemp<=80))

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{ NORM[7]=' '; NORM[8]=temp100; NORM[9]=temp10; NORM[10]=temp1; Sms_CommandToModem(&NORM[0],1); MSDelay(10); Sms_CommandToModem(&NORM[0],2); MSDelay(10); xttemp=0; TR0 = 0; TL0 = RELOADLOW0; TH0 = RELOADHI0; TR0 = 1; } } ucsthreadState=HEART_BEAT_MONITORING; break; } } }

void serial_Init(void) { unsigned char int_temp = 0; ////////////////////// Timer 0 10 ms init ////////////////////////// IEN0 = 0; TR0 = 0; TL0 = RELOADLOW0; TH0 = RELOADHI0; int_temp = TMOD; int_temp |= 0X01; TMOD = int_temp; // TR0 = 1; int_temp = IEN0; int_temp |= 0x02; IEN0 = int_temp; TF0 = 0; int_temp = IEN0; int_temp |= 0x80; IEN0 = int_temp;

//////////// Timer 1 serial init with 2400 baud rate ///////////////// int_temp = PCON; int_temp |= 0x80; PCON = int_temp; TMOD |= 0x20; TH1=0xFA; // 9600 Baudrate

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SCON=0x50; TR1 = 1; TI = 1; RI=0; ES = 1; PS=1; } void serial_interrupt(void) interrupt 4 { unsigned char temp_char; if(TI) { TI = 0; } else if(RI) { temp_char = SBUF; RI = 0; if((temp_char>='A' && temp_char<='Z') || (temp_char>='a' && temp_char<='z') || (temp_char>='0' && temp_char<='9') || (temp_char=='"') || (temp_char==',') || (temp_char=='+') || (temp_char==':')) { recd_char[recd_count++] = temp_char; if(recd_count >=MAX_RECD_CHAR) recd_count = 0; } } } void byte_hex_to_bcd_conversion(unsigned int tmp_hex_value) { int hex_value = (int)tmp_hex_value; unsigned char hex_wt; /* variable to store the weights of hex no */ ucbcd100 = ucbcd10 = ucbcd1 = 0; hex_wt = 0x64; /* hex digit 3 weight value */ while(1) { hex_value -= hex_wt; if(hex_value<0) break; ucbcd100++; } ucbcd100 = ucbcd100 + 0x30; hex_value += hex_wt;

hex_wt = 0xA; /* hex digit 2 weight value */ while(1) { hex_value -= hex_wt; if(hex_value<0)

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break; ucbcd10++; } ucbcd10 = ucbcd10 + 0x30; hex_value += hex_wt;

ucbcd1 = hex_value+0x30; } void LCD_INIT(void) { write_instr_bit(0x38);//8-bit data -2-line display MSDelay(10); write_instr_bit(0x0e);//cursor on MSDelay(10); write_instr_bit(0x01);//clear display MSDelay(10); write_instr_bit(0x06);//increment cursor MSDelay(10); } void write_instr_bit(unsigned char value) { P1=value; REG_SELECT=0; LCD_CS=1; MSDelay(1); LCD_CS=0; } void Prep_lcd_Write_Data(unsigned char *line1, unsigned char Line1Addr, unsigned char *line2, unsigned char Line2Addr) { unsigned char i; write_instr_bit(0x01);//clear display MSDelay_lcd(1); write_instr_bit(Line1Addr); for(i=0;((line1[i]!=NULL_00) && (i<16)); i++) { P1=line1[i]; REG_SELECT=1; LCD_CS=1; MSDelay_lcd(5); LCD_CS=0; } write_instr_bit(Line2Addr); for(i=0; ((line2[i]!=NULL_00) && (i<16)); i++) { P1=line2[i]; REG_SELECT=1; LCD_CS=1; MSDelay_lcd(5);

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LCD_CS=0; } } void MSDelay(unsigned int delay) { unsigned int i,j; for(i=0;i<delay;i++) for(j=0;j<2000;j++); } void MSDelay_lcd(unsigned int delay) { unsigned int i; for(i=0;i<delay;i++); }

void timer_Interrupt(void) interrupt 1 { TR0 = 0; TL0 = RELOADLOW0; TH0 = RELOADHI0; TR0 = 1; if(timecount>=100) { timecount=0; if(ucpulseCount<60) ucpulseCount++; else { stop=1; buffer[10]=temp100; buffer[11]=temp10; buffer[12]=temp1; } } else { timecount++; } } void TxdCommand(unsigned char *s) { while(*s!=NULL_00) { SBUF = *s; MSDelay(1); s++; } SBUF = CARRIAGE_RETURN; SBUF = END_OF_LINE; MSDelay(10); }

//10MS TIMER INTERRUPT

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void check_Modem(void) { unsigned char count = 0; gbok_flag = 0; while(1) { ClearRecdCharArray(); recd_count=0; TxdCommandToModem("AT\r\n"); gbok_flag = mystr_recdchar_ncmp("OK",2); if(gbok_flag) break; count++; if(count == 10) { Prep_lcd_Write_Data("Modem init",LINE1_ADDR, "Fail", LINE2_ADDR); } } } void SIM_REG(void) { unsigned char count = 0; gbok_flag = 0; ClearRecdCharArray(); recd_count = 0; while(1) { MSDelay(100); Prep_lcd_Write_Data("Network",LINE1_ADDR, "Searching.......", LINE2_ADDR); TxdCommandToModem("AT+CREG?\r\n"); MSDelay(20); gbok_flag = mystr_recdchar_ncmp("+CREG:0,1",9); if(gbok_flag) break; gbok_flag = mystr_recdchar_ncmp("+CREG:0,5",9); if(gbok_flag) break; ClearRecdCharArray(); recd_count = 0; count++; if(count == 180) Prep_lcd_Write_Data("Network",LINE1_ADDR, "Reg Failed", LINE2_ADDR); } }

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology


bit mystr_recdchar_ncmp(unsigned char *chkString, unsigned char StrLength) { unsigned char uChar1,uChar2=0x00;

while((uChar2+StrLength)<MAX_RECD_CHAR-5) { uChar1=0x00; while(uChar1<StrLength) { if(recd_char[uChar2+uChar1]!=*(chkString+uChar1)) break; uChar1++; } if(uChar1==StrLength) return(1); uChar2++; } return(0); }

void ClearRecdCharArray(void) { unsigned char gucloop; for(gucloop=0; gucloop<=MAX_RECD_CHAR; gucloop++) recd_char[gucloop] = NULL_00; } void Sms_CommandToModem(unsigned char *s, unsigned char ucMGMTIndex) { Prep_lcd_Write_Data("Sending.SMS.....",LINE1_ADDR,"", LINE2_ADDR); if(ucMGMTIndex == 1) { Prep_lcd_Write_Data("Sending.SMS.....",LINE1_ADDR,&ucOwnerMGMTNum1[9], LINE2_ADDR); TxdCommandToModem(&ucOwnerMGMTNum1[0]); } if(ucMGMTIndex == 2) { Prep_lcd_Write_Data("Sending.SMS.....",LINE1_ADDR,&ucOwnerMGMTNum2[9], LINE2_ADDR); TxdCommandToModem(&ucOwnerMGMTNum2[0]); } MSDelay(50); ClearRecdCharArray(); recd_count = 0; while(*s!=NULL_00) { SBUF = *s; MSDelay(1); s++; }

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology


SBUF = CONTRL_Z; MSDelay(10); s++; SBUF = CARRIAGE_RETURN; MSDelay(10); while((!mystr_recdchar_ncmp("OK",2)) && (!mystr_recdchar_ncmp("ERROR",5))); if(mystr_recdchar_ncmp("OK",2)) Prep_lcd_Write_Data("Message Sent ",LINE1_ADDR, "Successfully ", LINE2_ADDR); else if(mystr_recdchar_ncmp("ERROR",5)) Prep_lcd_Write_Data("Message Sending",LINE1_ADDR, "Failed MSDelay(50); ClearRecdCharArray(); recd_count = 0; } void TxdCommandToModem(unsigned char *s) { while(*s!=NULL_00) { SBUF = *s; MSDelay(1); s++; } SBUF = CARRIAGE_RETURN; SBUF = END_OF_LINE; MSDelay(10); }

", LINE2_ADDR);

4.3 CHARACTERS DISPLAYED IN LCD SCREEN


1. INITIAL DISPLAY HEART BEAT PROJECT 2. WHEN SIM CARD INSERTED NETWORK SEARCHING

3. WHEN FINGURE PLACED AND PUSH BUTTON PRESSED

PUL

SEC

PULSTR

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology 4. WHEN MSG SENT SUCCESFULLY MASSAGE SENT SUCCESFULLY

5. IF MSG NOT SENT

MASSAGE SENDING FAILED

4.4.APPLICATIONS
It can be used in hospitals, may be in ICU or general wards so that always a bulky ECG unit is not required. It can also be employed in the houses so that the doctor can come to know about the abnormalities when away. The use of GSM technology simplifies the delivery of health care services and enhances communication between health care providers and their patients.

CHAPTER 5

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


It is neccesarry to monitor the heart beat rate of patients those already receiving some forms of surgical treatment,so our device will be nearly helpful for them. Our device will be able to Provides early detection of heart attacks Eliminates delays in receiving medical treatment Improves healthcare services to at risk population Saves lives and improves quality of living

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology

FIG:Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology

B.L.D.E.As College of Engg & Tech.,Dept. of E&C

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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology


a

FIG:Microcontroller With LCD Unit and mobile

FIG:GSM Modem with sim card inserted

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS


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Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology

6.1 CONCLUSION
Cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of untimely deaths in world, heart beat readings are by far the only viable diagnostic tool that could promote early detection of cardiac events. Wireless and mobile technologies are key components that would help enable patients suffering from chronic heart diseases to live in their own homes and lead their normal life,while at the same time being monitored for any cardiac events. This will not only serve to reduce the burden on the resources of the healthcare center but would also improve the quality of healthcare sector. In this project,the heart beat rate of the patient is sensed.When the implant detects a heart beat rate, it will alert the microcontroller which in turn will automatically send the message and provide the patients condition so that the patient will be given medical attention within the first few critical hours, thus greatly improving his or her chances of survival.

6.2 FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS


This algorithm deals only with single patient. This algorithm can be extended to multiple doctors and multiple patients. In future we can also design PC software to analyze this received signal and generate the report and this can be sent back to the doctor. With the connection established between two ends we can also send patients body temperature, blood pressure to doctors side. In addition to ECG rate, we can also send EEG (electroencephalogram) and EMG (electromyogram) signals for analyzing. Using GSM technology we can display the ECG signal on doctors mobile phone.

7.REFERENCES
Kenneth J. Ayala The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture, Programming and Applicatins, 2nd Edition, Penarm International, 1996 B.L.D.E.As College of Engg & Tech.,Dept. of E&C Page 50

Heart Beat Monitoring By GSM Technology Muhammad Ali Mazidi an Janice Gillispie The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture and Embedded systems, Pearson Education, pearson Eduction, 2003 Boylested and Nashelsky- Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, EEE, 8th Edition 2002 Gsm Technology By Lokesh Raghavan Electronics For You - Magazine www.Wikipidea.com www.google.com

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