French Language Course

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection Second Edition
Published: March 18, 2006

The current version of this book can be found at

http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/French

Table of Contents I. Lessons
A. Introductory Lessons
0.01 Introduction 0.02 The Alphabet 0.03Accents 0.04 Greetings 0.05 Formal Speech 0.06 How are you? 0.07 Dates 0.08 Telling Time 0.00 Review

B. Level One Lessons
1.01Basic Grammar 1.02 Description 1.03 Family 1.04 Animals 1.05 The House 1.06 Weather 1.07 Recreation 1.08 Travel 1.09 Art 1.10 Science

C. Level Two Lessons
2.01 School 2.02 Culture 2.03 Shopping 2.04 Going out 2.05 Transportation 2.06 Everyday Life 2.07 Rural Life 2.08 Food and Drink 2.09 Dining 2.10 Communication

D. Level Three Lessons
3.01Vacations 3.02 Work 3.03 Health 3.04 Money 3.05 Youth 3.06 Adolescence 3.07 Ancient History 3.08 Revolution! 3.09 Modern France

3.10 Current Events

II. Grammar
01. Adjectives 02. Adverbs 03. Gender 04. Negation 05. Prepositions 06. Pronouns 07. Sentences 08. Tenses 09. Verbs

III. Appendices
01. Dates, Time, and Numbers 02. French authors 03. Hints and Common Errors 04. French History 05. Nations of the World 06. Phrasebook 07. Slang 08. Typing Characters 09. Web Resources

IV. GNU Free Documentation License

LESSONS

Introductory French Welcome to the course dedicated to teaching you the best and most beautiful language in the world! 01 Leçon 01 : L'introduction Lesson 01 : Introduction 02 Leçon 02 : L'alphabet Lesson 02 : The Alphabet 03 Leçon 03 : Les accents Lesson 03 : Accent Marks 04 Leçon 03 : Les salutations Lesson 03 : Greetings Leçon 05 : Le discours 05 formel Lesson 05 : Formal Speech 06 Leçon 06 : Ça va? Lesson 06 : How are you? 07 Leçon 07 : Les dates Lesson 07 : Dates 08 Leçon 08 : L'heure Lesson 08 : Telling Time .French Introductory Lessons Bonjour! .

Burundi. Algeria. Tunisia. A written document cannot teach much about listening to and speaking French. Luxemburg. Remember that. Try to master the simple stuff before moving on to the more complex. Senegal. Learning any new language requires some commitment. it was often the language used in diplomacy. Spanish. In medieval times and until the 19th century.0. generally long-term. like any skill. Madagascar. which is the only bilingual province. Burkina Faso. Try to make it a part of your schedule. and the European Union. and they will reinforce one another. being an official language of the United Nations. Switzerland. and yet we learnt it without the benefit of already knowing a language. it may be noted that English is also considered to be 'difficult'. Rwanda. this is only half of the skills that make up fluency. Niger. culture. the Congo. at least a third of the English lexicon is derived from French. Togo. While this course can teach you to read and write in French. We all have to add and subtract before we can do calculus. French is a complete language.notably New Brunswick. administration. royal courts across Europe and also in trade. Cameroon. Belgium. where it is the primary language. thus appropriately becoming the lingua franca of its time. This . Haiti. it is highly likely that you will begin to forget it. And if you do not practice your French regularly. You must train all of these skills. at least make it regular. and Canada (mostly in the province of Québec. All consumer product packages in Canada are required by law to have both English and French labels). even if it's not daily. descended from Latin and closely related to Portuguese. Advice on Studying French French tends to have a bad reputation amongst English speakers as hard to learn. it requires a certain amount of effort. Italian. Gabon. For this reason. It is spoken in France. although English is a Germanic language. the Olympic Games. and Romanian. While it is true that it poses certain difficulties to native English-speakers. It is the native tongue of over 77 million people and has an additional 68 million non-native speakers. finding a native speaker to help you once you have some skill will help you with these skills. the Seychelles. Remember that you are learning a new skill. The very best way to learn French is to get amnesia in France or another French-speaking country. Djibouti. Mali. it is still significantly used as a diplomatic language. In modern terms. most noticeably in the Norman Invasion of 1066. but it is also used in other parts of the country . For listening and speaking. Mauritius.01 • Introduction About French French is a Romance language. French-speaking people have made incursions upon the British Isles many times in the past. Chad. Morocco. the Ivory Coast.

see the lessons planning page.allows you to start with a clean slate. the most common past tense. a period of immersion (where you go to live in a Francophone culture) is a good idea once you are moderately studied. Listen. In the first level. and four increasingly complex lesson levels. The fourth level (still in development). the passé composé. along with many other irregular verbs. Again. speak. The introductory lessons will teach you pronunciation and phrases. However. Grab a French speaker you meet and talk to him or her in French. will be conducted in French and will focus on French litterature and prose writing. For more on course structure. Allons-y! Bonne chance! . If you are serious about learning French. Most countries are in the relative vicinity of a French-speaking country. and practice. you will learn several more tenses and complex grammar rules. If you can't travel to a French-speaking country. the present indicative. and several irregularly-conjugated verbs. then try listening to French-language programs on the radio. or the Internet. The next best thing is immersion. In the second level. is given. Read French newspapers and magazines. as babies do. Book Organization This book is divided into one set of preliminary lessons. including pronouns. Pay attention to pronunciation. the page of which you are reading now. TV. which will enrich your vocabulary. you will learn basic grammar. Rent or buy French-language movies. most common present tense. In the third level. an excellent source is Google's news page. and information on how you can help improve this book. which links to French-language news stories. most of us are unwilling to take that step.

ü. French uses several accents which are worth understanding. And also a tréma (French for diaerasis) for vowels: ä. (grave accents) and é (acute accent) which only applies to e. or u: like g in get aspirated h: see note below* non-aspirated h: not pronounced*** like ea in team like s in measure name in French (in IPA transcription) /a/ /be/ /se/ /de/ /ə/ /ɛf/ /ʒe/ /aʃ/ /i/ /ʒi/ . ë. A circumflex applies to all vowels as well: â. or u: like c in cat like d in dog approx. ù. î. like oo in book** like f in fog before e and i: like s in measure before a. è. ö.0. ÿ and combined letters: æ and œ Letters and Examples French Grammar • Alphabet • audio (info • 101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français letter Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj pronunciation like a in father like b in baby* before e and i: like c in center before a. ê. These are: à.02 • The Alphabet Introduction French Grammar • Alphabet • audio (info • 101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français Characters Characters Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Hh Ii Jj zhee Kk Xx Ll Yy Mm em Zz Pronunciation ah bay say day euh eff jhay ash ee kah el Uu Vv Ww Pronunciation enn oh pay ku air ess tay ue vay dubl-vay eeks ee-grehk zedh In addition. û. o. ï. ô. o.

The letters p (as in 'coup'). like v in violin Depending on the derivation of the word. when you pronounce the letters 'b' and 'p' in French. little to no air should be expended from your mouth. s (as in 'héros'). in English both aspirated and unaspirated variants (allophones) actually exist. Fortunately. like v as in violin. say the word 'pit' and then the word 'spit' out loud. like u in nut open: like o in nose like p in pen* like k in kite /ka/ /ɛl/ /ɛm/ /ɛn/ /o/ /pe/ /ky/ see 'u' for details force air through the back of your throat /ɛʀ/ just as if you were gargling like s in sister at begining of word or with two s's or like z in amazing if only one s like t in top Say the English letter e. b and p Unlike English. Did you notice the extra puff of air in the . If you're a native speaker. or /gz/ in exit like ea in leak like z in zebra /ɛs/ /te/ /y/ /ve/ /dubləve/ /iks/ /igrək/ /zɛd/ Final consonants and the liaison In French.Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz like k in kite like l in lemon like m in minute like n in note closed: approx. certain consonants are silent when they are the final letter of a word. are never pronounced at the end of a word. In terms of phonetics. or w in water either /ks/ in socks. but is a slight extra puff of air accompanies the stop). but make your lips say "oo". the difference in the French 'b' and 'p' and their English counterparts is one of aspiration (this is not related to the similarly named concept of 'h' aspiré below. but only in specific environments. t (as in 'chat') and x (as in 'paresseux').

If the paper didn't move.. depending on which language the word was borrowed from.. • • If the paper moved. (h non aspiré). the result is le héros. 2. Hold the piece of paper about one inch (or a couple of centimeters) in front of your face. or not aspirated. Other dictionaries will include it in the pronunciation guide after the key word by placing a (') before the pronunciation. it becomes l'héroïne. and try it again. the words must be memorized.) huit. pronounced like the English 'bell. The only way to tell if the h at the beginning of a word is aspirated is to look it up in the dictionary. your pronunciation is slightly off. Some dictionaries will place an asterisk (*) in front of the entry word in the French-English H section if the h is aspirated. because when the definite article le is placed before it. Now. . Grab an English-French-English dictionary. without making the piece of paper move. the 'p' in 'spit' is not (like the 'p' in any position in French). Notice how the paper moved when you said the 'b' and the 'p' respectively. 4. Get a loose piece of printer paper or notebook paper. 3. eight (le huit novembre) non-aspirated héroïne. say the words belle (the feminine form of beautiful in French. and ten nonaspirated h words 2. However. Here is a table of some basic h words that are aspirated and not aspirated: aspirated héros. heroine (l'héroïne) habiter. Look at it every day and memorize the columns. In short. héroïne is a non-aspirated h. (hero) has an aspirated h. (the French equivalent of "Dad"). What do these terms mean? • Ex.first word that doesn't come with the second? The 'p' in 'pit' is aspirated [pʰ].. non-aspirated h In French. and puppy like you normally would in English.) harmonie. Say the words baby. (h aspiré). hero (le héros) haïr.: the word héros. the letter h can be aspirated.'). the feminine form of héros. and both words must be pronounced separately.. Concentrate. Therefore. to hate (je hais or j'haïs. and is pronounced as one word. to live (j'habite. Exercise 1. congratulations! You pronounced the words correctly! Aspirated vs. and papa. when you put the definite artcle in front of it. Make a column of the two categories of h-word. harmony (l'harmonie) Exercise 1. 3. and find at least ten aspirated h words.

Punctuation From Wiktionary: & ' * " esperluette apostrophe asterisque guillemet barre oblique \ inverse [ ] crochets : deux points . a commercial. arobe . tiret ) parenthèses { } accolades % pourcent . = $ ! > < ( virgule égal dollar point d'exclamation supérieur à inférieur à moins. point virgule . point + plus # dièse point ? d'interrogation _ soulignement / barre oblique ~ @ tilde arobase.

chômage: unemployment. ambigüe and not ambiguë (acute(fem). ÿ** cedilla ç only français: French (cédille) • Note : As of the spelling reform of 1990. Pronounced like ï. île: island. it happened to me!) • Note : The letter ÿ is only used in very rare words. maïs: corn. It is only used with the letter e and is always pronounced /ay/. aigüe: acute(fem)* examples circumflex â. ï. most old town names : L'Haÿ-LesRoses (Paris surburb). Acute accent. là. î. to watch regardé. and the word begins with é. û diaeresis (tréma) ë. accent aigu) is the most common accent used in written French. dû: past participle of devoir Noël: Christmas. the diaresis indicating gu is not a digraph on words finishing in guë is now placed on the u in standard (AKA "académie française" French) : aigüe and not aiguë. (accent circonflexe) ô. cigüe and not ciguë. One use of the accent aigu is to form the past participle of regular -er verbs. être: to be. ü. to love past participle aimé. conium. They are: accent acute accent (accent aigu) grave accent (accent grave) letters used é only è.03 • Accents There are five different kinds of accent marks used in written French. ù éléphant: elephant fièvre: fever. ê. infinitive aimer. accent aigu The acute accent (French.0. ambiguous). both spellings can be used interchangeably (you might even get a point knocked off if you write "aigüe" in a text. there où: where gâteau: cake. watched Another thing to note is if you are unsure of how to translate certain words into English from French. à. Since this reform is relatively recent and not known in vulgar surrounding. or an approximation thereof: . loved regarder. replace that with the letter s and you will occasionally get the English word.

at. et al. the grave accent (Fr. is used to graphically distinguish one word from another. [edit] Grave accent. here is one last example: • étranglé (from étrangler) --> stranglé --> strangled NB: This will not work with every word that begins with é. In careful speech.) là (there) où (where) Unlike à and ù. The è is pronounced like the letter e in pet. accent grave • à and ù In the case of the letters à and ù. to. sing of avoir. an unaccented e is pronounced /euh/. to have) la (definite article for feminine nouns) ou (conjunction. è is not used to distinguish words from one another. accent grave). and in rapid speech is sometimes not pronounced at all. The è used for pronunciation.• Ex. or) • è with accent grave à (preposition.: • • • étable --> stable (for horses) école --> scole --> school il étudie --> il studie --> he studies • And to combine what you already know about the accent aigu. . without accent grave a (3rd pers.

Luc! • • • • • • • ^ me ^ so. Olivier: Salut. no big-thing) . Marie: À tout à l'heure. what's new) bun nwee (informal) (more formal than salut) (all day) Pas grand-chose. Marie: Euh? Tu t'appelles comment? Jacques: MoiT. Marie. à demain. Jacques. then ^ And you? (informal) [edit] V: Greetings French Vocabulary • Greetings • audio (upload) Greetings • Les salutations Salut Bonjour Bonsoir Bonne nuit Quoi de neuf? Hi. au revoir. Luc: Ah. (lit. Quoi de neuf. Luc: Bonjour. Jacques? Jacques: Pas grand-chose./Bye. oui. Hello Good evening Good night What's up (about you)? (lit.04 • Greetings D: Greetings • • • • • • Jacques: Bonsoir. à bientôt. Not much. Olivier: Salut. Marie: Ah. Olivier: Tu t'appelles comment? Luc: Luc. Alors. Et toi?T Olivier: Je suis Olivier.0. je m'appelle Jacques. oui. AlorsT. Marie. Olivier.

Bonne nuit. an Italian word commonly used in France. also means bye. Again. If you will be meeting someone again soon. See you tomorrow. In the next lesson. is used to say Good evening. À bientôt. is used. À demain. Bye. [edit] V: Names Tu t'appelles comment? is used to informally ask someone for his or her name.Greetings When talking to one's peers or to children./Bye.[edit] Formal Lesson . you will learn more formal ways of asking someone for their name. Au revoir. Check for understanding One of your good friends is introducing you to his younger cousin who is visiting on a trip from France. Salut. [edit] V: Good-bye French Vocabulary • Greetings • audio (upload) Good-bye • Au revoir Salut. À demain. à demain. should be used for anyone else.Good-byes In addition to being used as an informal greeting. Au revoir is the only formal way to say Good-bye. is used if you will be seeing the person the following day. Formal Lesson . is used to say Good night. It's English equivalents would be hi and hey. Bye. Salut! is used as a greeting. Another informal greeting is ciao. or À tout à l'heure. Bonjour. Ciao [edit] Hi. it should only be used among friends. tell him your name. and doesn't speak a word of English. (informal) ohrvwahr (ev not pronounced) ah duhman (Lit: To/Until Tomorrow) ah tootah luhr ah byantoe chow (Italian) Au revoir. and ask "What's up?" . You want to introduce yourself to him. À tout à l'heure. Good-bye. See you! See you soon. À bientôt. see you tomorrow. You respond to this with Je m'appelles [name]. Bonsoir. before going to bed. literally meaning good day.

to be polite or to be neutral. it signals disrespect. "you guys". Enchanté. otherwise use "vous". If it is used when speaking to a stranger. enchanted) [edit] G: Vous vs. Lambert above as an example of this use. In French. Monsieur Lambert Enchanté[2]. As a rule of thumb. je[1] suis Marc Bernard. ^ I (I is not capitalized in French (unless. It is used in occasions when talking to someone who is important. English doesn't have a singular and plural. Note the conversation between M. or someone you are unfamiliar with.05 • Formal Speech D: A Formal Conversation French Dialogue • Formal speech • audio (info • 65 kb • help) A Formal Conversation • Une conversation formelle Two people—Monsieur Bernard and Monsieur Lambert—are meeting for the first time: Monsieur Bernard Monsieur Lambert Monsieur Bernard Bonjour. This is known as w:Tutoiement. This is known as w:Vouvoiement. use "tu" only when you would call that person by his first name. of course. Et vous ? Moi. This is somewhat equivalent to "y'all". "Vous" is a plural form of "you". French people will make it known when they would like you to refer to them by "tu". Comment vous appelez-vous ? Je m'appelle Jean-Paul Lambert. tu This is an important difference between French and English. Conversely. formal version of "you" (although "thou" used to be the informal(arguably archaic) singular version in the days of Shakespeare). "Vous" is also used to refer to single individuals to show respect. someone who is older than you are. beginning a sentence)) ^ Nice to meet you (lit.0. It is commonly used when referring to a friend and a family member. it is important to know when to use "vous" and when to use "tu". [edit] . "tu" is the singular and informal form of "vous" (you) in French. except that it is much more formal than all but the last example. Bernard and M. "all of you". and also used between children or when addressing a child. "youse".

Young lady maydmwahzell Young ladies Formal Lesson .V: Courtesy French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (upload) Courtesy • La politesse Please Thanks (a lot) S'il te plaît. V: Titles French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (upload) Titles • Les titres French Singular Monsieur Plural Messieurs. [edit] V: Asking For One's Name French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (upload) Asking For One's Name • Demander le nom de quelqu'un Comment vous appelez-vous? How do you call yourself? (formal) . Je t'en prie. Gentlemen. De rien. When beginning to speak to a professor. Sir... madame. Ma'am. or mademoiselle. S'il vous plaît. without the last name of the person. Singular Madame Plural Mesdames Abbr. Merci (beaucoup). Je vous en prie [edit] (Lit: Of nothing. Mrs. Pronunciation M. madame.) (No problem. or generally someone older than you.) (Lit: Not of what.) (formal). Ladies Singular Mademoiselle lle Plural Mesdemoiselles M [edit] mahdmqoizell Miss. You're welcome. Usage Mr.) shtahn pree (informal) jzuh vooz ahn pree (formal) (Lit: If you please. employer. Mme muhsyur mehsyur mahdamn maydahm English. Pas de quoi. it is polite to say monsieur.Titles The titles monsieur. and mademoiselle are almost always used alone.

. ... I call myself... (lit... Je suis..) I am... What is your name? What is your name? (informal) (lit: You call yourself how?) My name is.Quel est votre nom? Tu t'appelles comment? Je m'appelle.

0.06 • How Are You?

D: A Simple Conversation
Two good friends—Marie and Jean—are meeting:
• • • • • • •

Marie: Salut Jean. Ça va ? Jean: Ça va bien, merci. Et toi, ça va ? Marie: Pas mal. Jean: Quoi de neuf ? Marie: Pas grand-chose. Marie: Au revoir Jean. Jean: Au revoir, à demain.

[edit]

V: How are you?
French Vocabulary • How are you? • audio (upload) How are you? • Ça va? Comment allez-vous? (formal), Comment vas-tu? (informal), How are you? Comment ça va?/Ça va ? (informal) Ça va (très) bien Oui, ça va. Très bien, merci. Pas mal. Comme ci, comme ça. pas si bien/pas très bien Désolé(e). et toi ? et vous ? I'm doing (very) well (lit. It's going (very) well) Yes, it goes. Very well, thanks. Not Bad So-So. not so well I'm sorry. and you? (informal) and you? (formal)

Check for understanding
Write down as many ways to respond to Ça va? as you can think of off the top off your head. Then go back to the vocabulary and learn other ways.

[edit]

E: 1.01 1 - Basic Phrases - Dialogue
French Exercise • How are you? • audio (upload) Basic Phrases • Expressions de base Exercise Put the following conversation in order: First 1. Michel Je ne vais pas très bien. Second Bonjour, Jacques Ça va très bien! Et vous? Allez-vous bien? Solution: First 1. Michel Bonjour, Jacques. 2. Jacques Salut, Michel! [edit] Second Comment ça va? Ça va très bien! Et vous? Allez-vous bien? Third Je ne vais pas très bien. Désolé. Fourth Au revoir. À demain. Third Au revoir À demain Fourth Comment ça va? .Salut, Michel!

2. Jacques Désolé.

Formal Lesson - Asking How One Is Doing
Ça va? is used to ask someone how they are doing. The phrase literally means It goes?, referring to the body and life. A more formal way to say this is Comment allez-vous?. You can respond by using ça va as a statement; Ça va. roughly means I'm fine. The adverb bien is used to say well, and is often said both alone and as Ça va bien. Bien is preceded by certain adverbs to specify the degree to which you are well. Common phrases are assez bien, meaning rather well, très bien, meaing very well, and vraiment bien, meaing really well. The adverb mal is used to say badly. Pas is commonly added to mal to form Pas mal., meaing Not bad. Comme-ci, comme-ça., literally translating to Like this, like that., is used to say So, so. To be polite, add merci, meaing thank you to responses to questions. Check for understanding
Pretend to have (or actually have) a verbal conversation with various people that you know, such as siblings, friends, children, teachers, coworkers, or heads of state. Address them in different ways, depending on their relation to you. Ask them how they are doing, and finally say goodbye.

0.07 • Dates

V: Numbers 01-31
French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (upload) Numbers 01-31 • Les nombres 01-31 un(e) deux trois quatre cinq six sept huit neuf dix onze douze treize quatorze quinze seize dix-sept dix-huit dix-neuf vingt vingt et un(e) trente trente et un(e) [edit] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 30 31 une douzaine (one dozen) une dizaine (one ten) une unité (a unity)

vingt [deux - neuf] 22-29

V: The days of the week.
French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info • 420 kb • help) The Days of the Week. • Les jours de la semaine. # French Pronunciation luhndee mahrdee maircruhdee juhdee vahndruhdee sahmdee English Monday Tuesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Origin Moon Mars Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun 1 lundi 2 mardi 3 mercredi 4 jeudi 5 vendredi 6 samedi

Wednesday Mercury

7 dimanche deemahnsh Notes:
• • • •

What day is it today? is equivalent to Quel jour sommes-nous ?. Quel jour sommes-nous ? can be answered with Nous sommes..., C'est... or On est... (last two are less formal). Nous sommes... is not used with hier, aujourd’hui, or demain. C'était (past) or C'est (present/future) must be used accordingly. The days of the week are not capitalized in French. French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (upload) Asking For The Day • Demander le jour

1a

Aujourd'hui on est quel jour ?

Today is what day? Today is [day].

ojzoordwee on ay kell jzoor

1b Aujourd'hui on est [jour]. 2a Demain c'est quel jour ? 2b Demain c'est [jour].

Tomorrow is what day? Duhman on ay kell jzoor Tomorrow is [day].

French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (upload) Relative Days • Les Jours relatives avant hier hier aujord'hui ce soir demain lendemain [edit] the day before yesterday yesterday today tonight tomorrow the day after tomorrow

see the phrasebook French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (upload) Asking For The Date • Demander la date 3a Quelle est la date (d'aujourd'hui) ? What is the date kell ay lah daht (today)? 3b C'est le [#] [month]. It's [month] [#]. • For phrases relating to the months of the year. [edit] V: Seasons le printemps l'été l'automne l'hiver spring summer autumn winter . jzahnveeyay fayvreeyay mahrse ahvrill maye jzwan jzooeeyay oot/oo septahmbruh oktuhbruh novahmbruh English January February March April May Juin July August September October November 01 janvier 02 février 03 mars 04 avril 05 mai 06 juin 07 juillet 08 août 09 septembre 10 octobre 11 novembre 12 decembre daysahmbruh December • The months of the year are not capitalized in French.V: The Months of the Year French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (upload) The Months of the Year • Les mois de l'année # French Pron.

“It’s nine. Time • Demander le jour/la date/le temps Asking for the time. French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info • 145 kb • help) Time • Le temps Quelle heure est-il ? What time is it? . in this case. It is [number] hours.” but this wouldn’t make sense in French. equivalent to “it is” (impersonal "il"). Date. eelay [nombre] er [edit] V: Time In French. “il est” is used to express the time. it is OK to say.0.08 • Telling Time V: Numbers 30-60 French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info • 337 kb • help) Numbers 30-60 • Les nombres 30-60 trente trente et un(e) trente [deux . it is actually. In English. 4a Quelle heure est-il ? 4b Quelle heure il est ? What hour/time is it? kell er ayteel kell er eel ay 5 Il est [nombre] heure(s). though it would literally translate as “he is”. Unlike in English.neuf] quarante cinquante soixante [edit] 30 31 32-39 40 50 60 V: Asking for the time French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info • 612 kb • help) Asking For The Day. it is always important to use “heures” (“hours”) when referring to the time.

It is four fifteen. V: Times of Day French Vocabulary • Time • audio (upload) Times of Day • L'heure relatif le lever du jour le lever du soleil le soleil levant le matin . Il est quatre heures quarante. It is a quarter past four. It is midnight. lit: of the mornng yesterday morning noon. It is three o’clock. midday afternoon evening.. in the evening P.. Il est dix heures. Il est midi. [edit] It is one o’clock.. It is five past four. Il est quatre heures moins le quart Il est quatre heures quinze. It is four forty. It is ten o’clock. Il est quatre heures trente.du matin hier matin le midi l'après-midi (m) le soir . lit: of the evening night ..du soir la nuit daybreak lit:the rise of the day sunrise lit: the rise of the sun rising sun.M. Il est quatre heures cinq.M. Il est quatre heures et demie. Il est quatre heures et quart..Il est une heure. Il est minuit. It is four thirty. It is half past four. Il est cinq heures moins vingt. It is twenty to five. It is a quarter till 4. Il est trois heures. morning A. It is noon.

These are: à. ê. Comment vas-tu? (informal). ö. ô. what's up (about you)? (lit. û.00 • Review G: The French alphabet French Grammar • Review • audio (info • 101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français Characters Characters Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Hh Ii Jj zhee Kk Xx Ll Yy Mm em Zz Pronunciation ah bay say day euh eff jhay ash ee kah el Uu Vv Ww Pronunciation enn oh pay ku air ess tay ue vay dubl-vay eeks ee-grehk zedh In addition. ë. ï. (grave accents) and é (acute accent) which only applies to e. French uses several accents which are worth understanding. è. And also a tréma (French for diaerasis) for vowels: ä. ü. hi (informal) Comment allez-vous? (formal). It's going (very) well) thank you and you? (informal) and you? (formal) not bad well not so well so-so I'm sorry. what's new) not much (lit. comme ça Désolé(e) quoi de neuf ? pas grand-chose I'm doing (very) well (lit. ù. salut hello (formal). ÿ and combined letters: æ and œ [edit] V: Basic Phrases French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info • 353 kb • help) Basic Phrases • Les expressions de base bonjour. How are you? Comment ça va?/Ça va ? (informal) ça va (très) bien merci et toi ? et vous ? pas mal bien pas si bien/pas très bien comme ci.0. no big-thing) . A circumflex applies to all vowels as well: â. î.

à demain. akin to German auf Wiedersehen) see you tomorrow (lit.neuf] trente trente et un trente [deux . at tomorrow) Bye. [edit] bye (lit. see you tomorrow V: Numbers French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info • 337 kb • help) Numbers • Les nombres un deux trois quatre cinq six sept huit neuf dix onze douze treize quatorze quinze seize dix-sept dix-huit dix-neuf vingt vingt et un vingt [deux . with reseeing.neuf] quarante 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22-29 30 31 32-39 40 une douzaine (one dozen) une dizaine (one ten) une unité (a unity) .au revoir à demain Au revoir.

le temps Asking for the day. 1a Aujourd'hui c'est quel jour? Today is what day? 1b Aujourd'hui c'est [jour].51. but past this it is simply both words consecutivly (vingt-six.dix-neuf] quatre-vingts quatre-vingt-un quatre-vingt-[deux .000 Things of note about numbers: • • • For 70-79.dix-neuf] 91-99 (un) milliard 1.neuf] cents deux cent un neuf cent un mille (un) million 50 60 70 71 72-79 80 81 82-89 90 100 200-900 201 901 1. la date. 2a Demain c'est quel jour 2b Demain c'est [jour]. Time • Demander le jour. Date. 3a Quelle est la date Today is [day]. this continues up to 1000 and onward. trente-trois.etc) have "et un".41. [edit] V: Asking for the day/date/time French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info • 612 kb • help) Asking For The Day. etc) For 100-199.000 un millier (one thousand) une centaine (one hundred) quatre-vingt-[onze .000 1.000. it looks much like this list already save that "cent" is added before the rest of the number. Tomorrow is what day? Duhman say kell jzoor Tomorrow is [day]. What is the date kell ay lah daht ojzoordwee say kell jzoor . Asking for the date.000.31. it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for 8099 Only the first (21.neuf] quatre-vingt-dix cent [deux .cinquante soixante soixante-dix soixante-et-onze soixante-[douze .000.

4a Quelle heure est-il? 4b Il est quelle heure? 5 Il est [nombre] heure(s). It is twenty to five. What hour/time is it? It is [number] hours. Il est quatre heures trente. Il est quatre heures quinze. Il est quatre heures cinq.(aujourd'hui)? 3b C'est le [#] [month]. It is a quarter past four. Il est quatre heures quarante. [edit] What time is it? It is one o’clock. “It’s nine. # French Pronunciation English Origin . kell er ayteel eel ay kell er eelay [nombre] er V: Time In French. it is OK to say.” but this wouldn’t make sense in French. It is noon. It is four forty. [edit] (today)? It's [month] [#]. It is five past four. French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info • 145 kb • help) Time • Le temps Quelle heure est-il ? Il est une heure. it is actually. It is half past four. Il est trois heures. It is four thirty. it is always important to use “heures” (“hours”) when referring to the time. Asking for the time. in this case. It is ten o’clock. Il est midi. though it would literally translate as “he is”. V: The days of the week. It is four fifteen. In English. • Les jours de la semaine. “il est” is used to express the time. It is midnight. Il est quatre heures et quart. Il est quatre heures et demie. It is three o’clock. Il est minuit. Il est dix heures. Les jours de la semaine [lay jzoor duh lah suhmen] French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info • 420 kb • help) The Days of the Week. Unlike in English. Il est cinq heures moins vingt. equivalent to “it is” (unpersonal "il").

... or On est.. see the phrasebook. morning A... aujourd’hui.M.du matin hier matin le midi l'après-midi (m) le soir . midday afternoon evening.du soir la nuit avant hier daybreak lit:the rise of the day sunrise lit: the rise of the sun rising sun. Nous sommes. or demain.. Quel jour sommes-nous ? can be answered with Nous sommes... C'était (past) or C'est (present/future) must be used accordingly. (last two are less formal). is not used with hier. lit: of the mornng yesterday morning noon. in the evening P. lit: of the evening night Relative Days the day before yesterday .. [edit] V: Relative Date and Time French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info • 883 kb • help) Relative Date and Time • Date et heure relatives Times of Day le lever du jour le lever du soleil le soleil levant le matin . C'est. Notes: • • • What day is it today? is equivalent to Quel jour sommes-nous ?....1 lundi 2 mardi 3 mercredi 4 jeudi 5 vendredi 6 samedi luhndee mahrdee maircruhdee juhdee vahndruhdee sahmdee Monday Tuesday Thursday Friday Saturday Moon Mars Jupiter Venus Saturn Wednesday Mercury 7 dimanche deemahnsh Sunday Sun • The days of the week are not capitalized in French.M.. • For phrases relating to the day of the week.

A demain.spring l'été . I have invited (a set of) twenty friends. . 3 Hervé Le 3 mars. It goes well. How are you? [lit: How go you?] Je vais bien. On va danser toute la nuit. Est-ce que tu viens à mon anniversaire ? J'organise une petite fête. A bientôt. Comment vas-tu ? Hello. good day. J'ai invité une vingtaine d'amis. And you. Tu fais ça chez toi ? March 3rd. it goes (fine)? 2 Daniel Ça va bien. merci. Hervé Daniel C'est très gentil de m'inviter. So long. thank you. it's at my place. Hervé. March 3rd at 08:00 PM. Daniel Yes. You're having it at your place? Oui c'est chez moi. bonne journée. Until tomorrow. It's very nice to invite me.winter [edit] D: A Conversation Between Friends French Dialogue • Review • audio (upload) A Coversation Between Friends • Une conversation entre amis Daniel Hervé Bonjour Hervé.hier aujord'hui ce soir demain lendemain [edit] yesterday today tonight tomorrow the day after tomorrow V: Seasons and Seasonal Activities le printemps . Hervé Daniel C'est quand ? When is it? [lit: It is when?] Le 3 mars à 20h.1 thank you. We4 are going to dance all night. entendu. Et toi ça va ? I'm good. agreed. merci.summer l'automne . You're coming to my party? I'm organizing a little party.autumn l'hiver .

le temps de tout nettoyer. In the large conference room on the second floor. other than signifying that a question follows. Et vous voulez l'organiser où ? And you want to organize it where? Dans la grande salle de réunion au deuxième étage.1 Bien is an adverb meaning well. Et vous.. uses an action verb. meaning I go. 2 Est-ce que. Entendu! J'espère que je serais invité ? Agreed! I hope that I would be invited? Bien sûr ! Merci Beaucoup! Of course! Thanks a lot! Au revoir! Good-bye! Au revoir et encore merci! Good-bye and thanks again. Its adjective equivalent is bon(ne). Chez moi is used to say at my place... Mr. I'm well. Since je vais. We would need it until 04:00 PM. This is used in a similar manner to do in English. literally means Is is that. has no real meaning. is followed by an adjective rather than an adverb.. is a preposition meaning at the house of. [edit] D: The Director French Dialogue • Review • audio (upload) The Director • Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur (frappe à la porte : toc toc toc) (knocks on the door : knock knock knock) Entrez! Enter! Bonjour. Are you well? Je vais bien merci. On en aurait besoin jusqu' à 16 h. monsieur le directeur. which uses the linking verb am. comment allez-vous? I am well. which means good... the adjective bien is used. the time of cleaning everything.. I want to ask you if it is possible to organize a [?] for my birthday. In English. Je l'organiserais le 3 mars vers 14 h. Director. Instead of You want it?. I would organize it the third of March around 02:00 PM. one can say Do you want it? Est-ce que. Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel [edit] . Est-ce que vous allez bien? Hello. Chez [name] is used to say at [name's] place... 3 chez. and is often used to start questions. thank you. I'm good. 4 on can mean we or one.. Je veux vous demander s'il est possible d'organiser un pot pour mon anniversaire. And you. how are you? Je vais bien..

A l'école Toto est un personnage imaginaire qui est cancre à l'école.L'instituteur : Très bien Clément.L'instituteur : non Toto tu t'es trompé ! Huit plus six égal quatorze. Combien font huit plus six ? .Clément : quatorze ! . les enfants ! Aujourd'hui c'est mardi.Toto : treize. [edit] Exercices • • • • • • • • • • huit plus cinq égal : (treize) cinq et un égal : (six) neuf plus huit égal (dix-sept) trente-deux plus quarante-neuf égal (quatre-vingt-un) soixante plus vingt égal (quatre-vingts) cinquante-trois plus douze égal (soixante-cinq) dix-neuf plus cinquante égal (soixante-neuf) quarante-sept plus vingt-sept égal (soixante-quatorze) Soixante-trois plus trente-deux égal (quatre-vingt-quinze) soixante plus trente-deux égal (quatre-vingt-douze) . nous allons réviser la table d'addition. Et combien font cinq plus neuf ? . Il y a beaucoup d'histoires drôles sur Toto. monsieur ! . un jour je vous en raconterais une ! .L'instituteur : Bonjour.

Finally. Furniture Lesson 04 : The House 05 Leçon 05 : Le temps G: Negation. la. you're ready to begin your very first traditional French lesson! After you have completed this level. Aller V: Weather Lesson 05 : Weather 06 Leçon 06 : Récréation G: -er Verbs. Nouveau. spend a few minutes to first read the course's introductory lessons. you can move on to the next level. Sports. go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course. Subject Pronouns Lesson 01 : Basic Grammar V: 02 Leçon 02 : La description G: Conjugation. and les V: Family Lesson 03 : Family 04 Leçon 04 : Les animaux G: Aller V: Pets. Places. Numbers Lesson 02 : Description 03 Leçon 03 : La famille G: Avoir. Zoo Lesson 04 : Animals 04 Leçon 04 : La maison G: Faire. le. Adjectives V: Colors. nous. Environments. Directions Lesson 07 : Travel 08 Leçon 08 : L'art G: -re Verbs. te. Plays 09 Leçon 09 : La science G: V: Lesson 09 : Science . me. Beau. lui and leur V: Games. and vous V: Household. Housework. Playing Lesson 06 : Recreation 07 Leçon 07 : Les voyages G: -ir Verbs. 01 Leçon 01 : Grammaire de base G: Gender. Articles. Être. and Vieux Lesson 08 : Art V: Museums. Movies.French Level One Lessons Allons! . Possessive Adjectives V: Hotels.Basic French If you haven't done so already. Once that's done.

la voiture (the car) can only be feminine. even if the person is male.g. objects and abstract concepts) have only one form. for example. Examples French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info • 113 kb • help) Gender of Nouns • Genre des Noms Masculine le cheval le chien le livre le bruit the horse the dog the book the noise Feminine la colombe la chemise la maison the dove the shirt the house Common Endings Used With Masculine Nouns: -age -r -t -isme le fromage the cheese le professeur the teacher le chat the cat le capitalisme capitalism Common Endings Used With Feminine Nouns: -ie -ion -ite/-ité la boulangerie the bakery la nation the nation la fraternité . the word for person. they are masculine or feminine for the purposes of grammar only. which is used regardless of the actual gender of the entity. Most nouns that express entities with gender (people and animals) use both a feminine form and a masculine form. For example. is always feminine. personne. the two words for "actor" in French are acteur (m) and actrice (f). for example.1. professeur. This form can be masculine or feminine.01 • Basic Grammar G: Gender of Nouns In French. is always masculine even if the teacher is female. that is.. The nouns that express entities without gender (e. le stylo (the pen) can only be masculine. There are some nouns that express entities with gender for which there is only one form. all nouns have a grammatical gender. and the word for teacher.

and "L' " is used when the noun begins with a vowel or silent "h" (both masculine or feminine). "La" is used for feminine nouns. To help overcome this hurdle which many beginners find very difficult. there are many exceptions in French which can only be learned. Plurality 3. [edit] G: Definite and Indefinite Articles [edit] The Definite Article In English. but une livre (f) means a pound! Some words that appear to be masculine (like la photo. the definite article is changed depending on the noun's: 1. la foi is feminine and means a belief. but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine. starting with a vowel sound plural . First letter of the word There are three definite articles and an abbreviation. It is similar to english. whereas le foie means liver. and vice versa. un livre (m) means a book. There are even words that are spelled the same. Then there are some that just don't make sense. where "a" changes to "an" before a vowel. "Les" is used for plural nouns (both masculine or feminine). Gender 2. the definite article is always “the”. "Le" is used for masculine nouns. which is actually short for la photographie) are in fact feminine. French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info • 78 kb • help) The Definite Article • L'article défini singular feminine le la la fille the daughter le fils the son l’ les l’enfant les filles les fils the child the daughters the sons singular. be sure to learn the genders along with the words. In French. for example.brotherhood la liberté liberty -nce -nne -mme -lle la balance the scales la fille the girl l’indienne the Indian Unfortunately.

[edit] The Indefinite Article In English." ("I am looking at some photographs. elle. the definite article is used to talk about something in a general sense." you must tell which photographs you are looking at using an article. on ils. Again. French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info • 55 kb • help) The Indefinite Article • L'article indéfini singular plural 1"des feminine masculine une une fille un des un fils des filles des fils1 a daughter a son some daughters some sons fils" does mean "some sons" but is an homograph: it can also mean "some threads" Also note that des. If you were looking at a set of specific pictures. French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info • 61 kb • help) Subject Pronouns • Les pronoms soumis 1st person 2nd person singular plural singular plural singular 3rd person plural je nous tu vous il. and 3rd person singular and the 1st. elles I we you you he. and 3rd person plural. like les is used in French before plural nouns when no article is used in English. indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality. she. looking at nothing in particular. 2nd. The articles "Un" and "une" literally mean "one" in French. "Je regard photographs. "Je regard des photographs. "Some" is used as a plural article in English. you cannot say." In French." ("I am looking at the photographs. In English. you would say. a general statement or feeling about an idea or thing. 2nd. one they (masculine) they (feminine) .") If you were just flipping through the album.les enfants the children Note: Unlike English.") [edit] G: Subject pronouns French has six different types of pronouns: the 1st. Let's imagine you are looking at photographs in an album. we would say "I am looking at photographs. you would say "Je regarde les photographs. the indefinite articles are "a" and "an".

they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle". “vous” must be used. you could say either “On se rencontre au cinéma à sept heures. if a group of people consists of both males and females. For more. “on” is used.When referring to more than one person in the 2nd person. However. see the Wikipedia entry. In addition to the nuances between vous and tu. the French equivalents "ils" and "elles" do. so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun. even if there is only one male in a group of thousands of females. instead of “nous”. the French equivalent "On doit faire très attention à la grammaire française" is quite acceptable. to express “we”. For example. "One must be very careful in French grammar" sounds old-fashioned. while the third person plural "they" has no gender in English. French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns. The French third person "on" has several meanings. In everyday language. as discussed in lesson 1. Also. but most closely matches the now archaic English "one". “vous” or “tu” may be used depending on the situation.” (colloquial) or “Nous nous rencontrons au cinéma à sept heures. While in English. when pronounced. the male form is used. . to say "We (are) meeting at 7 o'clock". When referring to a single person. Also. see notes in lesson 1.” (formal). the verb is always used in the 3rd person singular.

He is handsome. you are. we are. he/she is. he/she sees. which is the only example of English verb conjugation. we see. The only exception is the verb "to be". they are. . Most French verbs will conjugate into many different forms. or present indicative. You are at the bank. which means they take different shapes depending on the subject.). English verbs only have one conjugation.) Examples Je suis avocat. (I am. they see). we will look at the conjugations in the present tense. [edit] Formation French Verb • Description • audio (info • 103 kb • help) être • to be Singular first person second person third person [edit] je suis jeuh swee I am tu es too ay il est eel ay elle est ell ay on est ohn ay you are he is she is one is vous êtes ils sont elles sont Plural nous sommes noo sumz we are voozett eelzont ellzohnt you are they are (masc. I am (a) lawyer. Tu es à la banque.02 • Description G: Conjugation French verbs conjugate.1. [edit] G: The verb être Être can be translated to “to be” in English. There is one conjugation for each of the six subject pronouns. or mized) they are (fem. you see. Here. Il est beau. that is the third person singular (I see. (thou art).

like gros. amusant. Elles sont moyennes. see the topic: French Adjectives: Describing Nouns in French [edit] V: Describing People French Grammar • Description • audio (upload) Describing People • Décrire des personnes Masculine Singular Feminine Singular Masculine Plural size and weight Il est petit. are affected by this rule. • • Masculine Pronuciation: intéressan. Adjectives that end in e in the masculine form do not change in gender. Most adjectives. the final consonant is pronounced only when it comes before an -e. Ils sont petits. Elles sont petites. French adjectives also have to match the nouns that they modify in gender and plurality. [edit] G: Adjectives Les adjectifs Just like articles. Feminine Plural . Elle est moyenne. such as those above. Other adjectives. lent For more advanced rules.Try to learn all these conjugations. [edit] Regular Formation Most adjective changes occur in the following manner: • • Feminine: add an -e to the masculine form • un garçon intéressant --> une fille intéressante • un ami amusant --> une amie amusante • un camion lent --> une voiture lente Plural: add an -s to the masculine form • un garçon intéressant --> des garçons intéressants • une fille intéressante --> des filles intéressantes [edit] Pronunciation Generally. Il est moyen. len Feminine Pronunciation: intéressant. amusan. Elle est petite. Ils sont moyens. They will become very useful in forming tenses. do not change in plurality.

Il est intéressant. Elles sont intéressantes. Elles sont intelligentes. hair color Ils sont blonds. Elle est grosse. Elle est blonde. Il est amusant.Il est grand. Elle est intéressante. Il est brun. Elles sont amusantes. Ils sont bruns. Il est blond. V: Common Adjectives Descripting People sympa(thique)(s) nice sociable(s) sociable timide(s) timid dynamique(s) outgoing gentil(le)(s) nice. Ils sont grands. Elle est amusante. Ils sont amusants. Elles sont grosses. Elle est brune. attitude and personality Elle est intelligente. Ils sont gros. Elles sont brunes. Il est gros. gentle strict(e)(s) strict Describing Actions mauvais(e)(s) bad bone(ne(s) good fort(e)(s) strong Describing Things facile(s) easy difficile(s) difficult [edit] V: Colors French Vocabulary • Description • audio (info • 160 kb • help) Colors • Les couleurs Masculine blanc gris noir rouge Feminine blanche grise noire rouge white gray black red English . Il est intelligent. Elles sont blondes. Elles sont grandes. Ils sont intéressants. [edit] Elle est grande. Ils sont intelligents'.

really [edit] G: Describing yourself Now that you have successfully said hello and how are you to your partner. . it is not necessary to say that you are 'un(e)' whatever-it-is."to live (somewhere)" and you form it using the first person "Je" form (I/me) present tense . and its gender. en. To say where you live now.truly. only that.dark haired) pink saffron G: Adverbs Detailing Adjectives • • • assez ."Je habite" .for males and females respectively. it would be a good idea to tell them a little about yourself.very vraiment . This is an exception to the normal rule. enough très . Please note that there is both a masculine and feminine form of saying your nationality . for example.rather. or aux. Please use the The Nations of the World Appendix to find out what your country is called in French. "Je suis Australienne".orange jaune vert bleu violet marron brun rose safran [edit] orange jaune verte bleue violette marron brune rose safranne orange yellow green blue violet brown (everything but hair) brown (hair . you use the verb habiter .which truncates to "J'habite". You then choose the right gender for the word "in". When stating your nationality or job.

03 • Family G: The verb avoir "Avoir" can be translated as "to have". [edit] Formation French Verb • Family • audio (info • 100 kb • help) avoir • to have Singular first person j' ai zjay I have Plural nous avons noozahvohn we have you have they have (masc.) second person tu as too ah you have vous avez voozahvay il a eel ah he has third person elle a ell ah she has on a ohn ah one has [edit] ils ont elles ont eelzohnt ellzohnt Examples J'ai deux stylos. Il a une idée. You have three brothers.1. He has an idea. [edit] I have two pens. V: The Family French Vocabulary • Family • audio (info • 1245 kb • help) The Family • La Famille Immediate Family ma famille my family les parents parents Extended Family ma famille éloignée my extended family les grand-parents grandparents . or mized) they have (fem. Tu as trois frères.

replaces a masculine singular direct object la .). such as "la boule". • • • • le . can be replaced by pronouns. tu.He throws them. la. because they are pronouns that are. used as direct objects.replaces a feminine singular direct object l' . la. and les le. • Il jette la boule. and les are called direct object pronouns. both masculine and feminine Il la jette. you must use the de mon/ma/mes form . . . tonton le neveu la nièce grandfather grandmother grandchildren grandson granddaughter uncle aunt nephew niece l'enfant(e) child (m or f) la tante. • • Le. and les can replace either people or inanimate objects. such as "my grandmother's cousin". A direct object is a noun that is acted upon by a verb. ."le cousin de ma grandmère". You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns (je.replaces le and la if they come before a vowel les . [edit] G: Direct Object Pronouns le. tati les enfants children la fille daughter le fils son le/la cousin(e) cousin (m or f) To speak about more complex family relations.replaces plural direct objects. The direct object pronouns come before the verb they are linked to. direct objects..He throws it. Il les jette. you guessed it. la. . Similary. In the above sentence la boule is the direct object..la mère le père la femme le mari la soeur le frère mother father wife husband sister brother le grand-père la grand-mère les petits-enfants le petit-fils la petite-fille l'oncle.He throws the ball.

1.04 • Animals V: Animals French Vocabulary • Animals • audio (upload) Animals • Les animaux Pets l'animal (m) le chat la chatte le chaton le chien la souris le lapin jaguar le singe jungle l'arbre (m) le cheval la vache le mouton [edit] animal (male) cat (female) cat kitten dog mouse rabbit Wild Animals jaguar monkey Environments jungle Plants tree Farm Animals horse cow sheep V: Going to the Zoo .

1.05 • The House V: The House French Vocabulary • The house • audio (upload) The House • La maison General la maison l'appartement(m) le quartier chez [person] house. home flat/apartment neigborhood habiter quitter Actions to live (somewhere) to leave arriver (à la maison) to arrive (home) at the house of [person] rentrer (à la maison) to go back home at [person]'s house Floors level lobby. ground floor Rooms le premier étage le deuxième étage le troisième étage second floor third floor fourth floor ceiling door window roof ground wall stairs to walk up stairs elevator l'étage (m) le rez-de-chaussée Parts of a Room le plafond la porte la fenêtre le toit le sol le mur l'escalier (m) monter à pied l'ascenseur (m) la pièce la salle de séjour la cave le grenier la cuisine la salle à manger la salle de bains les toilettes (f) (no singular) le garage le rideau la chaise room family room basement attic kitchen dining room bathroom la chambre à coucher bedroom water-closet Garage Furniture curtain chair monter en ascenseur to take the elevator Outside a House la voiture la terrase car patio .

.I make/have the stove repaired. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -re verb).to do badly refaire . [edit] Formation French Verb • The house • audio (upload) faire • to do.to remake [edit] .to have something done for oneself • Je fais réparer le fourneau.) Uses For Faire • • • • sports weather tasks le faire causatif • faire (conjugated) + infinitive . to make Singular first person je fais jeuh fay I do you do he does she does one does il fait eel fay third person elle fait ell fay on fait ohn fay [edit] second person tu fais too fay Plural nous faisons noo fezohn we do vous faites voo feht ils font elles font eel fohnt ell fohnt you do they do (masc.la table l'armoire (f) le lit le tapis [edit] table cupboard bed carpet le balcon le jardin la fleur l'arbre (m) balcony garden flower tree G: Faire The verb faire is translated to to do or to make.to demolish malfaire . [edit] Related Words • • • défaire . or mized) they do (fem.

us. formal) [edit] Place in sentences • These pronouns are placed before the verb that they modify . nous.to pay attention faire connaissance .Expressions with Faire • • • • • faire attention .me. to you (plural..to worry [edit] V: Housework French Vocabulary • The house • audio (upload) Housework • Le ménage faire la cuisine faire le jardin faire le lit faire le ménage faire la vaiselle faire les carreaux faire les courses faire le repassage [edit] to do the cooking to do the gardening to make the bed to do the housework to do the dishes to do the windows to do the shopping/errands to do the ironing faire la lessive/le linge to do the laundry G: me.to wait in line s'en faire . to you (singular. te. to me te .to scold faire la queue .you. and vous • Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns [edit] Meanings • • • • me . informal) nous . to us vous .you.to get acquainted faire la morale .

He throws it to us. Il nous voit. . Il te voit. • Je veux te voir. . Il vous voit. .He sees me. il y a un petit salon. . Nous avons aussi un bureau avec 3 ordinateurs : un par personne ! La salle de séjour est très grande et à coté.I see you. [edit] Exercises Try to describe your house or bedrooom using the vocabulary. à coté de Lyon en France. [edit] Chez moi J'habite une villa à Mornant. . La cuisine est toute petite et nous y mangeons le soir. Il nous le jette. Le jardin est assez grand et nous y faisons pousser des fleurs.He calls to me. Il te le jette. these pronouns go before the auxillary verb. . Il vous le jette. If a perfect tense is used. [edit] Indirect Object Replacement • • • • Il m'appelle. Don't forget prepositions. La deuxième est plus petite : c'est la chambre de mon fils. . Ma maison a 2 chambres : la première pour moi et ma femme avec un grand lit.• Je te vois. • Je t'ai vu.He sees you.He throws it to you.I saw you.I want to see you. Nous aimons regarder la télévision allongés dans le fauteuil. You may also wish to talk about what housework you do.He throws it to you. . . . . . Il y a une petite table et 4 chaises.He sees us. La maison est de plein pied et ne comporte pas d'étage. • [edit] Direct Object Replacement • • • • Il me voit.He sees you.

1.06 • Weather

G: Standard Negation
In order to say that one did not do something, the ne ... pas construction must be used. The ne is placed before the verb, while the pas is placed after. Examples Il est avocat. He is [a] lawyer. Il n'est pas avocat. He is not [a] lawyer. Nous faisons nos devoirs. We are doing our homework. Nous ne faisons pas nos devoirs. We are not doing our homework. Je joue du piano. I play the piano. Je ne joue pas du piano. I do not play the piano. Vous vendez votre voiture. You sell your car. Vous ne vendez pas votre You do not sell your car. voiture. When negating with the indefinite article (un, une), the indefinite article changes to de. Examples Il est belge.. He is Belgian. Il n'est pas belge. He is not Belgian. Nous lisons un livre. We read a book. Nous ne lisons pas de We do not read a book. livre. Je mange une cerise. I eat a cherry. Je ne mange pas de cerise. I do not eat a cherry. • Simple negation is done by wrapping ne...pas around the verb. • Je ne vole pas. - I do not steal. • In a perfect tense, ne...pas wraps around the auxillary verb, not the participle. • Je n'ai pas volé. - I have not stolen. • When an infinitive and conjugated verb are together, ne...pas usually wraps around the conjugated verb. • Je ne veux pas voler. - I do not want to steal. • ne pas can also go directly in front of the infinitive for a different meaning. • Je veux ne pas voler. - I want to not steal. • ne goes before any pronoun relating to the verb it affects. • Je ne le vole pas. - I did not steal it. [edit]

V: Weather and Seasons

La météo (A French Weather Map)

French Vocabulary • Weather • audio (upload) Weather • Le temps General le soleil le ciel sun sky Warm Weather Il fait beau Il fait chaud. Le ciel est dégagé. Le ciel se dégage. Le soleil brille. la brume le brouillard la bruine It's nice. It's warm. Cloudy Weather le nuage Il y a des nuages. . nuageux(-euse) couvert(e)(s) l'éclaircie (f) Il fait froid. cloud It's cloudy. lit: There are some clouds. cloudy overcast, lit: covered clearing, break (in clouds) It's cold. wind It's windy. The wind blows. gust of wind Snowy Weather l'hiver (m) la neige Il neige. la grêle winter snow It's snowing. hail

Cold and Windy Weather

The skiy is clear. le vent lit: The sky is freed. Il fait du vent. The skiy is clearing up. Le vent souffle. The sun is shining. la rafale

Rainy Weather fog, haze, mist fog drizzle

Il tombe de la grêle. It's hailing. . lit: It falls of the hail. une goutte de pluie la pluie La pluie tombe. Il pleut. il a plu. Il va pleuvoir. a drop of rain rain The rain falls. It's raining. It rained. It's going to rain. Extreme weather un orage orageux(-euse) Il y a un orage! l'éclair (m) l'éclairage (m) a storm stormy There's a storm! flash (of lightening) lightening

rainy pluvieux(-euse) It's raining. Le temps est pluvieux. lit: The weather is . rainy. de gros nuages noirs. l'averse (f) large black clouds downpour

la tempête agité(e)(s) le tonnerre

storm, tempest stormy, agitated thunder

French Vocabulary • Weather • audio (upload) Seasons • Les Saisons Une saison (f) Le printemps (m) L'été (m) L'automne (m) L'hiver (m) [edit] A season Spring Summer Autumn Winter

G: Aller
• • •

The verb aller is translated to to go. Aller is used with the preposition à. Example: Je vais au stade. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -er verb).

[edit]

Formation
In the present indicative, aller is conjuagted as follows: French Verb • Weather • audio (upload) aller • to go Singular first person je vais jeuh vay I go Plural nous allons nouzah lohn we go

second person tu vas too vah il va eel vah third person elle va ell vah on va ohn vah [edit]

you go he goes she goes one goes

vous allez vouzah lay ils vont eel vohn

you go they go (masc. or mized) they go (fem.)

elles vont ell vohn

Futur Proche
The strucure aller + infinitive is used to say that something is going to happen in the near future.

Il va faire froid. - It's going to be cold.

[edit]

Idioms
• •

Allons-y - ahlonzee - Let's go there! (impératif) 1 Ça va? - How are you? (lit: It goes?)

[edit]

Liaison
Usually, whenever a vowel sound comes after ...ons or ...ez, the usually unpronounced s and z change to a sharp z sound and link to the next syllable. (This process is called liaison.) However, since allons and allez begins with vowels, nous allons is pronounced nyoozahloh and vous allez is pronounced voozahlay. In order to have a pleasing and clean sound, two liaisons should not go connsecultively. There is therefore no liaison in allons à when it comes right after nous and allez à when it comes after vous.
• •

In the phrase Vous allez à l'école?, vous allez à is pronounced vouzahlay ah. In the phrase vous et Marie allez à l'école?", allez à is pronounced ahlayzah.

as in "J'habite.07 • Recreation G: Regular -er Verbs Most French verbs fall into the category of -er verbs. Besides the new vocabulary you should also have a look at how the verbs are conjugated depending on the subject of the sentence. Example: J'attends.". [edit] D: Recreation Here is a short dialog about people planning/doing leisure activities. To conjugate.. Also. drop the -er to find the "stem" or "root". [edit] .to play French Grammar • Recreation • audio (upload) -er Verb Formation • Formation des verbes en -er pronoun je tu il/elle nous vous -e -es -e -ons -ez ending joue joues joue jouons jouez verb ils/elles -ent jouent Note: In all conjugations. Michel : J'attends mon ami.. Marie : Je finis mes devoirs. Pierre : Je vais au parc.1. Christophe : Je viens du stade. je changes to j ' when followed by a vowel. as a rule of thumb: "h" is considered a vowel. • • • • • • Jean-Paul : Qu'est-ce que vous faites ? Marc et Paul : Nous jouons au tennis. Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense. jouer .

.V: Recreation Qu'est-ce que vous faîtes? What are you doing? jouer finir attendre aimer détester (mon/ma) ami(e) [edit] to play to finish to wait (for) to like to hate (my) friend V: Places la bibliothèque library1 le parc la piscine la plage le restaurant le stade le théâtre 1Caution: park swimming pool beach restaurant stadium theater a librairie is a bookshop. salle de concert concert hall [edit] G: Indirect Object Pronouns lui and leur Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preoposition An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb.He throws the ball to Mary. • • lui .replaces a singular masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human leur . . An example follows: • . Il jette la boule à Jacques et Marie.He throws the ball to him.He throws the ball to Jack and Mary. . They replace nouns referring to people and mean to him/her and to them respectively. Il jette la boule à Marie. . Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. • • • Il jette la boule à Jacques.replaces a plural masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human Il lui jette la boule.He throws the ball to Jack.

When used with the direct object pronouns le. • Il la lui jette.He throws the ball to her. football golf tennis volleyball cards checkers/ draughts chess jouer de. la. . lui and leur come after those pronouns. and les. In English. lui is never shortened [edit] V: Jouer The verb jouer is a regular -er verb meaning to play. de la clarinette clarinet du piano de la guitare de la batterie piano guitar violin drums (singular in French) au football américain American football du violon . use jouer de. It can be used to refer to both sports and instruments.. but when referring to instruments. "He throws him the ball" is also said.• • Il lui jette la boule.. au baseball au basket au football au golf au tennis au volley aux cartes aux dames aux échecs baseball basketball soccer. lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things..He throws it to him.. Also note that unlike le and la.. Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context. and means the same thing.. jouer must be conjugated rather than left in the infinitive. use jouer à. Note that while le. and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects. As always. .He throws the ball to them. la. French Vocabulary • Recreation • audio (upload) Play • Jouer jouer a. which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel. Il leur jette la boule. When referring to sports. .

ses First person plural . leur. vos Third person plural . notre.leur.ton. Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense.mon.notre.son. sa.votre. To conjugate.08 • Travel V: Hotels [edit] G: Regular -ir Verbs The second category of regular French verbs is -ir verbs. leurs • • • . finir . drop the -ir to find the "stem" or "root".to finish French Grammar • Travel • audio (upload) -ir Verb Formation • Formation des verbes en -ir pronoun je tu il/elle nous vous ils/elles [edit] -is -is -it -issons -issez -issent ending finis finis finit finissons finissez finissent verb G: Possessive Adjectives • • • First person singular . tes Third person singular .1. votre. mes Second person singular (informal) . ma. ta. nos Second person plural (and polite form) .

To conjugate.09 • Art G: Regular -re Verbs The third category of regular verbs is made up of -re' verbs.1. Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense. as demonstrated below for the present tense. drop the -re to find the "stem" or "root". [edit] Formation attendre – to wait French Grammar • Art • audio (upload) -re Verb Formation • Formation des verbes en -re pronoun je (j') tu il/elle nous vous ils/elles [edit] -s -s -ons -ez -ent ending attends attends attend attendons attendez attendent verb Vendre The verb vendre is a regular -re verb: French Verb • Art • audio (upload) vendre • to sell Singular first person je vends jeuh vahn il vend eel vahn elle vend ell vahn I sell he sells she sells second person tu vends too vee ehn you sell third person Plural nous vendons noo vahn dohn we sell vous vendez voo vahn day ils vendent eel vahnde you sell they sell (masc. or mized) .

Nouveau. Plural de beaux garçons une belle fillette de belles fillettes de nouveaux ordres une nouvelle idée de nouvelles idées un vieux camion un vieil ordre de vieux camions une vieille idée de vieilles idées .on vend ohn vahn [edit] one sells elles vendent ell vahnde they sell (fem. Sing. Plural Fem. and Vieux Masc. Sing Vowel un bel individu un nouvel ordre Masc. Theaters. Cons. and Vieux French Grammar • Art • audio (upload) The Adjectives Beautiful. Sing. (all) Fem. Beau Nouveau Vieux [edit] un beau garçon un nouveau camion Masc. Nouveau. [edit] V: Going to a Museum [edit] V: French Museums.) Common -re Verbs Compared to -er verbs. New. and Old • Beau. You will however see the following verbs fairly often. and Opera Houses The Louvre [edit] The Louvre Pyramid G: Beau. -re verbs are not very common.

On entre la salle du cinéma pour regarder un film. • Prenez la place! . On achète les places au guichet.V: Movies French Vocabulary • Art • audio (upload) Movies • Les films General le film (domestique) (en vidéo) le film (étranger) (en DVD) l'acteur (m) l'actrice (f) louer le cinéma la salle du cinéma la séance le guichet la place le fauteuil coûter jouer • (domestic) movie (on V. où l'employé(e) vous les vend. (Version originale) unaltered video) les sous-titres sub-titles (foreign) movie (on DVD) actor actrice to rent la vidéo le DVD video DVD Film Genres le dessin animé le documentaire le film d’amour le film d’aventures le film d’horreur le film policier le film de sciencefiction cartoon documentary love story adventure movie horror film police film sci-fi film The Movie Theater the (movie) theater theater showing room lit: room of the the theater showing ticket window seat/place to sit chair1 to cost to play 1Un fauteuil is the physical chair that one sits on.Take a seat! Les films sont fascinants! Vous allez au cinéma? Pourquoi? Vous aimez les films? On parle Qu’est-ce qu’on joue au cinéma? pour démander les films qui jouent. Quel est votre genre de film préféré? Vous louez les vidéos? les DVDs? [edit] V: Plays French Vocabulary • Art • audio (upload) Plays • Les pièces At the Theater le théâtre la pièce (de théâtre) theater (theatrical) play lit: (theatrical) le ballet la comédie Play Genres ballet comedy . One would normally use "une place" whenever "a seat" is used in English.O.

ogg Edith Piaf.ogg Jacques Brel.ogg Garou.ogg .ogg Joe Dassin.ogg Gilbert Becaud.ogg Robert Charlebois.ogg Raymond Devos.ogg Celine Dion.piece l'acte (f) la scène l'entracte (m) act scene intermission la comédie musicale musical comedy le drame la tragédie drama tragedy chanter to sing le (la) chanteur (-euse) singer danser to dance le (la) danseur (-euse) dancer [edit] V: French Artists and Entertainers • • • • • • • • • • Charles Aznavour.ogg Juliette Greco.

En. Computers . Envoyer. Boire. Inside. After you have completed this level. How to Get to Places. Mettre V: Meat. -rir Verbs (Ouvrir). Movies G: -uire Verbs (Conduire). Passé Composé with Être V: Local Travelling. -cer Verbs. the most common French past tense. Dairy Products. Naître. Clothing. Lire. you will learn the passé composé. Sleep G: Suivre. Directions. Passé Composé of Regular Verbs V: School. and each lesson now gives much more information.French Level Two Lessons Toujours Là? . Holidays. -aître Verbs. Places to go. -enir Verbs (Venir). Religions. Driving to Work. 01 Leçon 01 : L'école Lesson 01 : School 02 Leçon 02 : La culture Lesson 02 : Culture Leçon 03 : Faire des courses Lesson 03 : Shopping 04 Leçon 04 : Sortir 03 Lesson 04 : Going Out 05 Leçon 05 : Le transport Lesson 05 : Transportation 06 Leçon 06 : Le quotidien Lesson 06 : Everyday Life 07 Leçon 09 : La vie rurale Lesson 09 : Rural Life 08 Leçon 07 : La nourriture Lesson 07 : Food and Drink 09 Leçon 08 : Dîner Lesson 08 : Dining Leçon 10 : La 10 communication Lesson 10 : Communication G: Introduction to Perfect Tenses. Recevoir V: Mail. you can continue on to Wikibook's second French course. Irregular Past Participles (so far) V: Shopping. Vivre. The grammar now becomes a lot more advanced. Reflexive Verbs V: Employment. Drinks. Vouloir & Pouvoir V: Meals. Servir. Bastille Day) G: exer Verbs (Acheter). Écire. Falloir. Connaître & Savoir. Shoes G: Sortir & Partir. Y. Passé Composé with Reflexive Verbs V: Pets. you can move on to the next level. Partitive Article. -éxer Verbs V: Leisure Activities. Preparing for work. Object Pronoun Review. Farm Animals G: Manger. -yer Verbs (Payer). Also remember to go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course. Celebrations (Birthdays. and review the grammar you have already learned. Waking up. Croire & Voir V: Life. Christmas. School Subjects G: Regular Verbs Review. Methods of transportation G: Devoir. Calling Others. Dining at a Restaurant G: Dire. Desserts G: Prendre. Silverware.Slightly More Advanced French Now that you know how to compose French sentences in the present indicative.

.I have finished it. • Je les ai finis. for example.01 • School G: Introduction to Perfect Tenses • • The perfect tenses are also called the compound or composed tenses.I have finished the games. .must be memorized [edit] Past Participle Agreement • The past pasticiple must agree with the direct object of a clause in gender and plurality if the direct object goes before the verb. The perfect tenses are all composed of a conjugated auxillary verb and a fixed past participle.I have finished the game. • When the auxillary verb is conjugated in the passé composé. .2. • J'ai fini les jeux. [edit] Auxillary Verb Formation • • The auxillary verb is always either avoir or être. .no change • J'ai fini le jeu.I have finished them.replace -re with u irregular verbs . the auxillary verb is conjugated in the present indicative.add an e to the past participle • J'ai fini la tâche. . [edit] Past Participle Formation • • • • -er verbs . • J'ai fini. • the direct object is feminine singular .I have finished it. • Je l'ai fini. .replace -er with é -ir verbs . • the direct object is masculine singular .I have finished. The tense of the verb depends upon the tense that avoir or être is conjugated in.replace -ir with i -re verbs .add an s to the past participle. . .I have finished the task. • the direct object is masculine plural . • Je l'ai finie.

under certain situations. [edit] V: School General le professeur teacher l'étudiant student (m) l'étudiante student (f) la bourse scholarship la bibliothèque library • The word professeur is considered masculine at all times. the subject of the verb is also its object. 6. • J'ai fini les tâches.I have finished the tasks. 3. However. [edit] Avoir ou Être? • • • In most circumstances. 7. 4. These are: 1. The only case when "professeur" can be preceded by feminine determinant is either when contracting it in colloquial language "la prof". even if the teacher is female. the passé composé is introduced.add an es to the past participle. the auxillary verb becomes avoir.I have finished them. • Note that when a direct object is used with these verbs. Each tense and lists of irregular verb conjuagtions will be given later in this course. . . passé composé (past) plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (farthest past indicative) plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (farthest past subjunctive) passé antérieur (farther past) futur antérieur (future past) conditionnel passé (conditional past) passé du subjonctif (subjunctive past) Don't worry if you don't completely understand the perfect tenses. • The verb is reflexive.• the direct object is feminine plural . • Je l'ai finies. This occurs when: • The verb is one of 16 special verbs that take être. [edit] List of Tenses There are seven perfect tenses in French. the auxillary verb is être. 5. the auxillary verb is avoir. In the next lesson. 2. . • That is. or when adding a few words before : "madame/mademoiselle la/le professeur".

Pendant During les cours classes le tableau chalkboard la craie chalk le pupitre desk l'examen (m) test les devoirs homework la classe class la cantine cafeteria la récréation recess la récré Des fournitures School scolaires Supllies le stylo(-bille) pen steeloh (bee) le crayon pencil krayoh la calculatrice calculator le livre book le bouquin le cahier notebook kie ay le papier paper la feuille de pahpeeyay sheet of paper papier le bloc-notes (small) notepad block nut le classeur three-ring binder le sac à dos backpack sack ah doe la gomme eraser gum le règle ruler rehgluh le feutre marker Schools l'école (f) school high school le collège (grades 6-9) high school le lycée (grades 10-12) l'université (f) university la fac(ulté) Verbs passer to take a test étudier to study écrire to write lever (la to raise (your hand) main) .

[edit] . With most verbs. and is therefore composed of an auxiliary verb and a past participle.poser to ask (a question) (une question) parler to speak écouter to listen (to) entendre to hear (of) regarder to watch déjeuner to (have) lunch Describing Sctudents intelligent(e) intelligent stupide stupid V: School Subjects French Vocabulary • School • audio (upload) School Subjects • Les matières d'enseignement les langues l'anglais le français l'espagnol l'allemand le russe l'italien les science naturelles la biologie la bio la chimie la physique [edit] languages English French Spanish German Russian Italian natural sciences biology chemistry physics les mathématiques les maths l'algèbre (f) le calcul la géométrie les science sociales l'économie la géographie l'histoire (f) d'autres matières le dessin l'informatique (f) la musique mathematics algebra calculus geometry social sciences economics geography history other subjects drawing computer science literature music la technologie engineering la littérature G: Passé Composé with Regular Verbs The passé composé is a perfect tense. that auxililary verb is avoir.

[edit] Basic Formation To conjugate a verb in the passé composé. j'ai I have nous avons we have tu as you have vous avez you have il a he has ils ont they have [edit] Past Participle • • • -er verbs .Avoir Conjugate avoir in the present indicative. the helping verb. it is only used in formal writing. You have played.replace -re with u Formation of the Past Participle Verb Group Infinitive Stem Past Participle -er verbs jouer jou joué -ir verbs finir fin fini -re verbs répondre répond répondu [edit] Avoir + Past Participle J'ai joué. Ils ont joué.replace -ir with i -re verbs .Meaning In English. .replace -er with é -ir verbs . • For example. [edit] Auxiliary Verb . is conjugated in the present indicative and the past participle is then added. While there is a simple past tense in French. I have played Nous avons joué. You have played. Tu as joué. the passé composé form of parler (to speak). so verbs conjugated in the passé composé can also be used to mean the English simple tense. usually avoir. but also means spoke. They have played. [avoir] parlé. He has played. Vous avez joué. verbs comjugated in the passé composé literally mean have/has ____ed. literally mean has/have spoken. We have played. Il a joué.

Ending Example -s -s -ez vends vends vend vendons vendez vendent Subject Ending Example Ending Nous -ons Vous -ez Ils [edit] -e -issons finissons -ons finissent -ent Irregular Verbs Ending in -er • aller [edit] Common -ir Verbs [edit] . Je Tu Il -e -es -e parle parle parle parlons parlez parlent -ir Verbs fin. try and reflect on how your culture is similar and different to French culture. [edit] Formation French Grammar • Culture • audio (upload) Regular Verbs • Les verbes réguliers -er Verbs Stem: parl. Others are regular -ir or -re verbs or are simply irregular.. Also. The culture of France is diverse.. G: General Verbs Review Most verbs in French are regular -er verbs.02 • Culture This lesson is on the culture of France.2... Verb finis finis finit finissez -is -is -it -issez -issent -re Verbs vend.. reflecting regional differences as well as the influence of recent immigration..

and is conjugated irregularly.to wait (for) répondre . French Verb • Culture • audio (upload) voir • to see past participle .) on croit ohn crah one believes elles croient ell crah Voir is not a regular -ir verb. French Verb • Culture • audio (upload) croire • to believe past participle .vu Singular first person je vois jeuh vwah I see you see he sees she sees il voit eel vwah elle voit ell vwah second person tu vois too vwah third person Plural nous voyons noo vwahyohn we see vous voyez voo voy ay ils voient eel vwah you see they see (masc. and is conjugated irregularly.to answer [edit] Irregular Verbs Ending in -re boire | conduire | connaître | croire | dire | écrire | être | faire | lire | mettre | prendre | rire | suivre | vivre [edit] G: Croire & Voir Croire is not a regular -re verb.Irregular Verbs Ending in -ir acquérir | avoir | s'asseoir | devoir | dormir | falloir | ouvrir | partir | pleuvoir | pouvoir | recevoir | savoir | servir | venir | voir | vouloir [edit] Common -re Verbs • • attendre . or mized) . or mized) they believe (fem.cru Singular first person je crois jeuh crah I believe you believe he believes she believes il croit eel crah third person elle croit ell craw second person tu crois too crah Plural nous croyons noo croy ohn we believe vous croyez voo croy ay ils croient eel crah you believe they believe (masc.

le gâteau le cadeau inviter V: Marriage [edit] V: Holidays Les jours fériés New Year's Day Labor Day Memorial Day . Armistice Day Independance Day Christmas Eve le Nouvel An La Fête du Travail l'Armistice la Fête Nationale le Reveillon .on voit ohn vwah [edit] one sees elles voient ell vwah they see (fem.) athiest Le Père noël Santa Clause le 14 juillet Bastille Day [edit] V: Birthday birthday How old are you? I am ____ years old. cake gift to invite [edit] l'anniversaire (f) Tu as quel âge? *J'ai ____ ans. lit: I have ___ years.) V: Religion la religion Chrétien L'Islam religion Christian Islam le musulman Muslim l'athée (m.

Yule [edit] Noel V: Bastille Day and Parades [edit] V: Islamic Holidays .Christmas .

quiches and pizzas. 3. 'Charcuteries' sell things besides pork products. . go to a charcuterie. including pâte. la centre commercial mall la vitrine le prix (plis/moins) cher(ère) (more/less) expensive Foods Stores supermarket hypermarket. In France. nor horsemeat.2. chemist outdoor market le supermarché le hypermarché la boucherie la boulangerie le dépôt de pain la charcuterie la crémerie la pâtisserie la poissonnerie l'épicerie (f) 1. big supermarket butcher shop 1 bakery 2 a place that sells bread 2 delicatessen 3 dairy store pastry shop seafood store grocery 4 French butchers do not sell pork. 2. store department store department small store pharmacy. For these products. pork products. salami. cold meats. bakeries only sell fresh bread. salads.03 • Shopping V: Shopping French Vocabulary • Shopping • audio (upload) Shopping • Les achats To Go Shopping faire des courses faire du shopping porter acheter payer vendre le magasin le grand magasin le rayon la boutique la pharmacie le marché to go shopping Buying Goods le(la) vendeur(euse) salesperson on sale display window price faire du lèche-vitrine to go window shopping en solde to wear. Places where they sell bread that is not fresh are called dépôt de pain. An alternative to an 'épicerie' is an alimentation générale (a general foodstore). to carry to buy to pay to sell General Goods Stores shop. 4.

?. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: lui to him. t' nous vous leur to us1 to you1 to them 1 me. in te phrase Je les ai eus. nous. and you respectively. It is called indirect because it occurs usually together with a direct object which is affected directly by the action: Il donne du pain à The man gives some bread to Pierre. te. A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence: Pierre vois le cambrioleur. or I had them. to you. it us1 you1 them 1 me. English me1 you1 it Notes: • • • • la. a tense that uses a past participle. He gives bread to him. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: French me.. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. les.[edit] G: Object Pronouns Review [edit] Direct Objects While the subject of a sentence initiates an action (the verb). m' te. to English to me1 to you1 her Notes: • • French me. and vous are also used as indirect objects to mean to me. you.? or From whom. the direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle. m' te. to us. [edit] Indirect Objects An indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom. the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object.. the direct object is the one that is affected by the action. and to you respectively. l' him. was referring to a masculine object. Il lui donne du pain... Pierre. When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense. For example. Pierre sees the burglar. t' le. nous. us. Pierre le vois. and vous are also used as direct objects to mean me. l' nous vous les her. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. and eues if les is referring to a feminine object. Pierre sees him. The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. te. .

The stem change involves adding a grave accent ( ` ) over the e in the stem. The indirect object pronouns do not agree with the past participle like the direct object pronouns do. [edit] G: -exer Verbs -exer are regular -er verbs. but also are stem changing. nous.to take along amener . The bread is given by the man (direct). and vous are used in a perfect tense. Pierre gets the given apple (indirect).to raise soulever . the writer must decide whether they are used as direct or indirect object pronouns. When me. The stem change applies to all forms except nous and vous.) on achète ohn ahshet one buys elles achètent ell ahshet Other -exer Verbs • • • • • • • peser . te.to overwork lever .• • The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject.acheté Singular first person j' achète jzah shet I buy second person tu achètes too ahshet you buy il achète eel ahshet he buys third person [edit] elle achète ell ahshet she buys Plural nous achetons noozashtohn we buy vous achetez voozahshtay you buy ils achètent eel ahshet they buy (masc. This is done by looking at the verb and seeing what type of action is being performed.to bring surmener . or mized) they buy (fem.to raise [edit] .to carry out emmener .to weigh mener . [edit] Formation French Verb • Shopping • audio (upload) acheter • to buy past participle .

when y is part of the last syllable. However. or mized) ils paient eel pay or ils payent .V: Clothing French Vocabulary • Shopping • audio (upload) Clothing • Habillement les vêtements habillés . [edit] Payer The verb payer translates to to pay. In the present indicative of -yer verbs.dress clothes les vêtements sport . [edit] Formation In the present indicative. this affects all forms except nous and vous.casual clothes la chemise la cravate le pantalon le complet le manteau le tailleur la robe le jchemisier la jupe [edit] button down shirt tie pants suit coat women's suit dress blouse skirt la casquestte le tee-shirt le polo le pull(over) le sweat-shirt le blouson la veste le jean les chaussettes cap t-shirt polo shirt a sweater sweatshirt jacket jeans socks G: -yer verbs -yer verbs are regular -er verbs. payer (and all other -yer verbs) is conjuagted as follows: French Verb • Shopping • audio (upload) payer • to pay Singular first person je paie jeuh pay I pay you pay he pays she pays il paie eel pay elle paie ell pay second person tu paies too pay third person vous payez Plural nous payons new pay ohn we pay voo pay yay you pay they pay (masc. it changes to i in order to keep the ay sound.

• • • • • avoir .fait voir .to support employer .to wipe nettoyer .vu [edit] V: Practise Conversations Let's practise some of these words and verbs in some everyday shopping talk: 1.to clean tutoyer .cru être .) Other -yer Verbs • • • • • • appuyer .to employ essayer .été faire . to call someone informally [edit] V: Shoes )les chaussures shoes la paire de chaussures pair of shoes les baskets basketball shoes les tennis tennis shoes les sandales sandals [edit] G: Irregular Past Participles Many of the verbs you have learned so far have irregular past participles. À la boulangerie (At the bakery) Bernard (le boulanger) : Bonjour madame Camille (la cliente) : Bonjour monsieur Bernard : Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ? .eu croire .to address as tu.to try essuyer .on paie ohn pay [edit] one pays elles paient ell pay or elles payent they pay (fem.

. je voudrais trois kilos. s'il vous plaît Bernard : C'est tout ? Camille : Non.A large range "Des cerises" .vendre (to sell) and payer (to pay). elles coûtent deux euros le kilo Clément : Bon.One must/You need to Remember your verbs .. Alors. 2.What do you have? "Un grand choix" ." .What would you like? "Je voudrais. . .. we use most of the time "Ce sera tout ?" (future tense) or "Et avec ceci ?" (and with this?). s'il vous plaît Marie : Très bien. "C'est tout ?" . pour trois kilos il faut payer six euros. monsieur. ?" . s'il vous plaît Camille : Merci beaucoup Useful vocabulary here: "Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ?" .That'll be two euros Remember your verb .They (feminine) cost two euros per kilo "Il faut" .... s'il vous plaît. Note of a frenchman : "Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ?" is a little abrupt..Some cherries "Elles coûtent deux euros le kilo" . Useful vocabulary here: "Qu'est-ce que vous avez.Camille : Je voudrais acheter une baguette. Same for "C'est tout ?". We use mostly "Que voulez-vous ?" or "Que désirezvous ?".acheter (to buy). Est-ce que vous avez des cerises ? Marie : Oui.I would like . je voudrais deux croissants aussi Bernard : Très bien .Is that all? "Ça fait deux euros" . Au marché (At the market) Marie (la marchande) : Bonjour monsieur Clément (le client) : Bonjour madame Clément : Qu'est-ce que vous avez à vendre ? Marie : J'ai un grand choix de fruits et légumes Clément : Très bien.ça fait deux euros.

[edit] V: Leisure Activites Les loisirs le cinéma la musique le baladeur une sortie un spectacle le théâtre le repos le vacancier la danse allumer/éteindre la télévision le(la) téléspectateur(trice) le sport [edit] cinema music walkman going out a show the theater rest a vacationer dance to turn on/turn off television television viewer sport . and several other things which will be covered later.2. When le follows à. the de and le combine into du. purpose. manner. measurement. When le follows de. possession. the à and le combine into au. a characteristic. contents. à and les combine into aux. and several other things which will be covered later. a location. de and les combine into des. cause. Similarly. a point in time. The preposition de can indicate an origin. Similarly.04 • Going Out G: À and De The preposition à can indicate a destination.

or mized) they go out (fem. or mized) they leave (fem.parti(e)(s) Singular first person je pars jeuh pahr I leave you leave he leaves she leaves il part eel pahr third person elle part ell pahr on part ohn pahr second person tu pars too par Plural nous partons noo partohn we leave vous partez voo pahrnay you leave ils partent eel part they leave (masc. [edit] Venir • • • • The most common -enir verb is venir.) one leaves elles partent ell part French Verb • Going out • audio (upload) sortir • to go out. • • repartir . to take out past participle .) on sort ohn sore one goes out elles sortent ell sort Some other verbs use sortir and partir as stems. venir is used with the preposition de.G: Partir & Sortir French Verb • Going out • audio (upload) partir • to leave past participle . **Je viens de finir mes devoirs (I've just finished my homework). When it means to come from. The verb venir is translated to to come. . • Nous venons du stade. You can also use venir with a verb to state that you have recently accomplished an action.to distribute [edit] G: -enir verbs • -enir verbs are irregularly conjugated (they does not count as regular -ir verbs).sorti(e)(s) Singular first person je sors jeuh sore I go out you go out he goes out she goes out il sort eel sore third person elle sort ell sore second person tu sors too sore Plural nous sortons noo sortohn we go out vous sortez voo sortay ils sortent eel sort you go out they go out (masc.to set out again répartir .

or mized) they come (fem. to detain retenir .[edit] Formation In the present indicative.to contain détenir .to support tenir . but are also stem changing.to retain se souvenir .to come back.to keep.to become appartenir . [edit] Formation French Verb • Going out • audio (upload) suggérer • to suggest past participle . to return devenir . venir (and all other -enir verbs) is conjuagted as follows: French Verb • Going out • audio (upload) venir • to come past participle .to hold • • • • • • • [edit] -éxer Verbs -éxer verbs are regular -er verbs.) ils viennent eel vee ehn one comes elles viennent ell vee ehn Other -enir Verbs • • revenir .venu(e)(s) Singular first person je viens jeuh vee ehn I come you come he comes she comes il vient eel vee ehn third person elle vient ell vee ehn on vient ohn vee ehn [edit] second person tu viens too vee ehn vous venez Plural nous venons noo venn ohn we come voo vennay you come they come (masc.to remember soutenir .to belong contenir .suggéré .

to hope oblitérer .to accelerate célébrer .to obliterate préférer .) you suggest vous suggérez he suggests she suggests one suggests ils suggèrent eel soo zjair third person elle suggère ell soo zjair on suggère [edit] ohn soo zjair elles suggèrent ell soo zjair Other -éxer Verbs • • • • • • accélérer .to celebrate espérer .to dry .to prefer sécher .Singular first person je suggère second person tu suggères il suggère jeuh soo zjair too soo zjair eel soo zjair I suggest nous suggérons Plural noo soo zjairohn voo soo zjairay we suggest you suggest they suggest (masc. or mized) they suggest (fem.

) third person elle conduit ell cohndwee she drives one drives on conduit ohn cohndwee [edit] Other -uire Verbs • produire .to produce [edit] V: Driving ouvrir to open fermer to close [edit] .2. [edit] Formation French Verb • Transportation • audio (upload) conduire • to drive past participle: conduit Singular first person je conduis second person jeuh cohndwee I drive nous conduisons Plural noo cohndweezohn we drive tu conduis too cohndwee you drive vous conduisez voo cohndweezay you drive il conduit eel cohndwee he drives ils conduisent eel cohndweez elles conduisent ell cohndweez they drive (masc. or mized) they drive (fem.05 • Transportation G: -uire Verbs -uire verbs are conjugated irregularly.

to suffer [edit] -rir Verb Exceptions [edit] Courir . A common -rir verb is ouvrir.to offer souffrir .G: -rir Verbs These verbs are conjugated irregularly.To Die • je meurs . • • • • couvrir .To Run • • • • • • • je cours tu cours il court nous courons vous courez ils courent past participle: couru [edit] Mourir . following the -er conjugation scheme.to discover offrir . [edit] Formation • • • • • • • j'ouvre tu ouvres il ouvre nous ouvrons vous ouvrez ils ouvrent past participle: ouvert [edit] Other Standard -rir verbs In past participle form.to cover découvrir . -rir is replaced with -ert for these verbs.

[edit] Acquérir . Je suis venu en france. She left to go to work. [edit] List of Verbs French Grammar • Transportation • audio (upload) Perfect Past with Être • Passé composé avec être Verb aller venir arriver partir rester Je suis allé au cinéma. I came to France. Example I went to the cinema. however there are a small number of verbs that are always conjugated with être. I stayed home.To Acquire • • • • • • • j'acquiers tu acquiers il acquiert nous acquérons vous acquérez ils acquièrent past participle: acquis [edit] V: Traffic Signs and Laws [edit] G: Passé Composé with Être Most verbs form the passé composé with avoir. Le train est arrivé. The train has arrived. Elle est partie travailler. Je suis resté à la maison. .• • • • • • tu meurs il meurt nous mourons vous mourez ils meurent past participle: mort(e)(s)1 1Mourir is the only -rir verb that takes être as its helping verb in perfect tenses (and therefore agrees with the subject as a past participle in a perfect tense).

Note that there is no agreement if these verbs are conjugated with avoir. Yet another example but with ils instead of Je: • Ils sont sortis with direct object "leur passport" • becomes: • Ils ont sorti leur passport. He got out of the train. I was born in october. The verbs that take être can be easily remebered by the acronym MRS. I climbed to the top. RD VANDERTRAMP: M R S R D monté resté sorti revenu devenu V A N D E R T R A M P venu arrivé né descendu entré rentré tombé retourné allé mort parti [edit] Direct Objects One must know that these verbs take their conjugated avoir when they are immediately followed by a direct object • For Example: • Je suis descendu with the direct object "mes baggages" • becomes: • J'ai descendu mes baggages. Je suis tombé dans la piscine. . Il est rentré tôt de l'école. Je suis sorti avec mes amies. He came back early from school. He died in 1917. I entered my room. tomber naître mourir passer monter sortir entrer rentre Je suis né en octobre. I fell into the pool. • • [edit] Subject-Past Participle Agreement The past participles of the above verbs must agree with the the subject of a sentence in gender and plurality. descendre Il est descendu du train. Je suis monté au sommet. He returned to the restaurant. It happened in front of the house. Il est mort en 1917. Il est passé devant la maison. Je suis entré dans ma chambre.retourner Il est retourné au restaurant. Another example: • Je suis monté with the direct object "mes baggages" • becomes: • J'ai monté mes baggages. I went out with my friends.

It's Done! J'y suis! . Note that lui and leur.Les hommes y vont. Elles sont allées. Vous êtes allé(e)(s). and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de. If the subject is masculine singular.to it. . [edit] V: Trains and Stations Taking the Train [edit] G: The Pronoun Y [edit] Indirect Object Pronoun .there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preoposition except de (for which en is used). Elle est allés. [edit] Idioms • • Ça y est! . • • Les hommes vont en France.• • • • If the subject is masculine singular. . . • • Je réponds à les questions. there is no change in the past participle. to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à. J suis allé(e). Nous sommes allé(e)s. an -es is added to the past participle.I get it! [edit] . Il est allé.The men go there. If the subject is masculine plural. and not y.J' y réponds. Note that en. an -e is added to the past participle. If the subject is feminine singular.I respond to them. [edit] Replacement of Places . The men go to France . Tu es allé(e). an -s is added to the past participle. Ils sont allés. are used when the the object refers the a person or persons. I respond to the questions.

V: Taking a Taxi Taking a Taxi .

or mized) they sleep (fem.) one sleeps elles dorment ell dorm V: Waking up and Getting Yourself Ready [edit] G: Pronominal Verbs Pronominal verbs are verbs that. put simply. There are three types of pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs. [edit] Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject. include pronouns. . se.06 • Everyday Life V: Sleep [edit] G: Dormir French Verb • Everyday life • audio (upload) dormir • to sleep past participle: dormi Singular first person je dors jeuh door I sleep you sleep he sleeps she sleeps il dort eel door third person elle dort ell door on dort ohn door [edit] second person tu dors too door Plural nous dormons noo doormohn we sleep vous dormez voo doormay ils dorment eel dorm you sleep they sleep (masc. and naturally pronominal verbs.2. nous. depending on the verb that they modify. and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects. reciprocal verbs. These pronouns are me. te.

. . Tu te souviens? . Ils se lavent. or mized) they have to (fem. Je vais me laver.They wash themselves. [edit] Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action. . • Nous nous aimons. • • [edit] Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs.We like each other. .) you have to vous devez voo dehvay ils doivent eel dwahve elles doivent ell dwahve . . .I was myself. people perform actions to each other. Nous nous lavons.• • • Je me lave.I'm going to not wash myself.We wash ourselves. Je vais ne pas me laver. Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives.You remember? [edit] V: Going to Work [edit] V: At Work [edit] G: Devoir French Verb • Everyday life • audio (upload) devoir • to have to.I'm going to wash myself. to owe past participle: dû Singular first person je dois jeuh dwah I have to il doit eel dwah third person elle doit ell dwah on doit ohn dwah he has to she has to one has to second person tu dois too dwah Plural nous devons noo dehvohn we have to you have to they have to (masc.

so I must study verb conjugations. it's tomorrow". .to be necessary il faut ." Devoir expresses more personally what someone must do.it was necessary (imparfait) il faudra . one must conjugate verbs correctly. "I want to pass my French test. Falloir is always used with the impersonal il only in the 3rd person singular. whereas devoir can be used with all subject pronouns in all tenses. owe). one must eat" or "To speak French well. such as "To live.it was necessary (passé composé) il fallait .it will be necessary il faudrait ." Avoir besoin de [faire quelque chose] expresses need.it is necessary il a fallu . duty.[edit] G: Falloir • • • • • • falloir .it would be necessary The verb falloir differs from similar verbs such as avoir besoin de [faire quelque chose] (to need [to do something]) and devoir (must. "I need to study for my test. Falloir expresses general necessities.

or mized) they follow (fem. or mized) they live (fem.) one follows elles suivent ell sweeve G: Vivre French Verb • Rural life • audio (upload) vivre • to live past participle: vécu [vaycoo] Singular first person je vis jeuh vee I live you live he lives she lives il vit eel vee third person elle vit ell vee on vit ohn vee [edit] second person tu vis too vee Plural nous vivons noo veevohn we live vous vivez voo veevay ils vivent eel veeve you live they live (masc.07 • Rural Life G: Suivre French Verb • Rural life • audio (upload) suivre • to follow past participle: suivi Singular first person je suis jeuh swee I follow you follow he follows she follows il suit eel dee third person elle suit ell swee on suit ohn swee [edit] second person tu suis too swee Plural nous suivons noo sweevohn we follow vous suivez voo sweevay ils suivent eel sweeve you follow they follow (masc.2.) one lives elles vivent ell veeve G: Naître French Verb • Rural life • audio (upload) naître • to be born .

or mized) they are born (fem. the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun. .We washed our hands. It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects. Elles se sont téléphoné. Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? .We liked each other. the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb. . in gender and plurality. . Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s. .You write to each other often? The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun. Elle s'est lavé les mains. [edit] G: Reflexive Verbs with Perfect Tenses When proniminal verbs are conjugated in perfect tenses. être is used as the auxiliary verb. . [edit] Reflexive Verbs In perfect tenses. [edit] Reciprocal Verbs • • Like reflexive verbs.We spoke to each other.past participle: né(e)(s)1 Singular first person je nais jeuh nay I am born il naît eel nay third person elle naît ell nay on naît ohn nay 1 Plural nous naissons noo nehssohn we are born you are born they are born (masc. . • • • • Elle s'est lavée. Nous nous sommes lavé les mains. Nous nous sommes parlé. • • • [edit] . Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s.She was herself. Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object. but not the indirect object pronoun.They called to one another.) second person tu nais too nay you are born vous naissez voo nehssay he is born she is born one is born ils naissent eel nesse elles naissent ell nesse Naître is the only -aître verb that takes être as its helping verb (and therefore agrees with the subject as a past participle in perfect tenses). .She washed her hands. Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb.We wash ourselves.

these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb. . the past participle of s'asseoir (to sit). Otherwise. .Naturally Pronominal Verbs • • • In perfect tenses. Elle s'est souvenue. Note that assis(e)(es). the past participle agrees with the subject. Le chien se couche. .The dog lies down. does not change in the masculine plural form.She remembered.

to swim soulager . This only applies in the nous form. the change is made to preserve the soft g pronunciation rather than the hard g that would be present if the e were not included. or mized) they eat (fem. [edit] Formation French Verb • Food and drink • audio (upload) manger • to eat past participle .to require nager .to travel [edit] . The most common -ger verb is manger. For manger and all other regular -ger verbs.to change exiger .mangé Singular first person second person je mange jeuh mahnge I eat tu manges too mahnge you eat il mange eel mahnge he eats third person elle mange ell mahnge [edit] she eats nous mangeons Plural noo vmahnge ohn we eat you eat they eat (masc.to relieve voyager . In this case.2.) vous mangez voo mahngay ils mangent eel mahnge on mange ohn mahnge one eats elles mangent ell mahnge Other -ger Verbs • • • • • changer . the stem change is adding an e after the g.08 • Food and Drink G: -ger Verbs -ger verbs are regular -er verbs that are also stem changing.

seafood La coquille SaintJacques(f) le crabe scallop crab la carotte les épinards l'oignon (m) les petits pois la pomme de terre la tomate les légumes .shellfish.V: Food French Vocabulary • Food and drink • audio (upload) Food • La nourriture les fruits .meat l'agneau (m) la dinde le jambon le porc le poulet le boeuf la saucisse le beurre le fromage le lait le yaourt/le yoghurt le bonbon le chocolat le gâteau la glace la mousse lamb turkey ham pork chicken beef sausage butter cheese milk yogurt candy chocolate cake ice cream mousse le dessert .fish anchovies salmon eel Other Foods crescent roll "French fries" crepe mayonnaise mustard bread butter slice of buttered bread pepper rice salt sugar jam les fruits de mer (m pl) .dairy products la tarte (aux pommes) (apple) pie la glace (à la vanille) (vanilla) ice cream [edit] la glace (au chocolat) (chocolate) ice cream le sucre .dessert les anchois (m pl) le saumon l'anguille (f) le croissant les frites la crêpe la mayonnaise la moutarde le pain le beurre la tartine du pain beurré le poivre le riz le sel la confiture le poisson .fruits la banane la cerise le citron la fraise l'orange (f) la pomme le raisin banana cherry lemon strawberry orange apple grape la viande .vegetables carrot spinach onion peas potato tomato les produits laitiers .

de and le contract (combine) into du. As learnt earlier.G: Boire The verb boire is translated to to drink. the word some.drinks la bière beer le café coffee le chocolat chaud hot chocolate le coca soda la limonade lemon soda le citron pressé lemonade l'eau (f) water le jus juice le jus d'orange orange juice le jus de pomme apple juice le jus de raisin grape juice le jus de tomate tomato juice le thé tea le vin wine [edit] G: Partitive Article The partitive article de indicates. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -re verb) as follows: French Verb • Food and drink • audio (upload) boire • to drink past participle .bu Singular first person je bois jeuh bwah I drink you drink he drinks she drinks il boit eel bwah third person elle boit ell bwah on boit ohn bwah [edit] second person tu bois too bwah Plural nous buvons noo boovohn we drink vous buvez voo boovay ils boivent eel bwahve you drink they drink (masc. as de and les contract into des. Also. .) one drinks elles boivent ell bwahve V: Drinks les boissons . or mized) they drink (fem. among other things. de l' is used in front of vowels. instead of du or de la.

As one has learnt in a previous lesson. Vous avez commandé de l'eau? Oui. art.. Note : Now you should understand better how that "Quoi de neuf?"(what's new?) encountered in the very first lesson was constructed. Similarly. I'm having some. Part. Ind. I don't play it. du. see French Pronouns Do you play piano? No. de la. We ate a pie. "Quoi de plus beau?!" (what is there prettier?) [edit] G: En Note how we say Je veux du pain to say 'I want some bread' ? But what happens when we want to say 'I want some' without specifying what we want? In these cases. J'ai mangé de la tarte. Nous n'avons pas mangé de tarte. art. We did not eat some pie/ We did not eat any pie. Nous préférons le steak. Did you order some water? Yes. In the negative construction. known quantity unknown quantity J'ai mangé une tarte.When speaking about food. Tu joue du piano? Non. certain rules apply. the partitive article is used at some times while the definite article (le. we can just say 'J'en ai besoin'. de la or des when there is nothing after it. Nous avons mangé une tarte. As well. nous en avons commandé. or des change to de in negative constructions. Def. I ate a pie. art. une) in yet another set of situations. la.. 'te' and other pronouns. j'en prends. I ate some pie. When speaking about eating or drinking an item. specific/whole items I ate the (whole) pie. Are you having fish? Yes. We prefer steak. un or une changes to de (meaning. en (meaning 'some') comes before the verb. For instance. Like with 'me'. in this context. We ate some pie. I like ice cream. there are specific situations for the use of each article. When speaking about preferences. les) is used at other times. Nous avons mangé de la tarte. For more detailed information. J'ai mangé la tarte. and the indefinite article (un. we ordered some. instead of saying J'ai besoin de l'argent. Nous n'avons pas mangé de tarte. any) in a negative construction. we use the pronoun 'en'. This is because what en does is replace du. Vous aimez les frites You like French fries. 'en' can mean 'of it' when 'it' is not specified. use the definite article: J'aime la glace. We did not eat a pie/ We did not eat any pie. if the idea of money has already been raised. . je n'en joue pas Vous prenez du poisson? Oui.

to put on.to get in shape .) one puts elles mettent ell met Related Words • • • • • • • mettre .to put an end to mettre la main à la pâte .to agree se mettre en forme .[edit] G: Mettre [edit] Formation French Verb • Food and drink • audio (upload) mettre • to put past participle .to bring to light mettre de l'argent de coté .to put money aside mettre fin à .mis Singular first person je mets jeuh may I put you put he puts she puts il met eel may third person elle met ell may on met ohn may [edit] second person tu mets too may Plural nous mettons noo mettohn we put vous mettez voo mettay ils mettent eel met you put they put (masc.to pitch in mettre le contact .to submit se remettre .to set the table se mettre à table .to sit down to eat se mettre d'accord .to put back remettre en place . to turn on.to recover from an illness se remettre en route . to place permettre . or mized) they put (fem.to get back on the road [edit] Idioms and Related Expressions • • • • • • • • • mettre au jour .to start the car mettre le couvert .to allow remettre .to set back into place soumettre .

2. 1. bakeries only sell fresh bread. French butchers do not sell pork. nor horsemeat. Places where they sell bread that is not fresh are called . go to a charcuterie. lunch is called dîner and dinner is souper.09 • Dining V: General Dining French Vocabulary • Dining • audio (upload) Dining • Diner Places la cuisine le restaurant le repas le déjeuner le dîner le goûter la boucherie la boulangerie la charcuterie l'épicerie (f) la crémerie la poissonnerie le marché kitchen restaurant Meals the meal lunch dinner snack Food Stores butcher shop 1 bakery 2 delicatessen 3 grocery 4 dairy store seafood store outdoor market le gramme Quantity gram liter bottle 5 can pack 6 packet pot le kilo(gramme) kilogran la bouteille la boîte la livre le pacquet le pot le petit-déjeuner breakfast la salle à manger dining room Actions and Feelings avoir faim avoir soif manger boire prendre vouloir to be hungry to be thirsty to eat to drink to take to want mettre le couvert to set the table préparer un repas to prepare a meal le dépôt de pain a place that sells bread 2 le litre la pâtisserie pastry shop Canadian and Belgian French has an off-by-one behaviour with meals : breakfast is called déjeuner. pork products. In France. For these products. 2.

or mized) they want (fem. An alternative to an 'épicerie' is an alimentation générale (a general foodstore).) on veut ohn veuh one wants elles veulent ell veuhl Pouvoir is conjugated in a similar manner: French Verb • Dining • audio (upload) pouvoir • to be able to past participle . salami. cold meats. salads.) il peut eel peuh he can/is able to she can/is able elle peut ell peuh third person to on peut ohn peuh [edit] one can/is able elles peuvent ell peuhve to . or mized) they can/are able to (fem. 4.voulu Singular first person je veux jeuh veuh I want you want he wants she wants il veut eel veuh third person elle veut ell veuh second person tu veux too veuh Plural nous voulons noo voolohn we want vous voulez voo voolay ils veulent eel veuhl you want they want (masc. including pâte. 'Charcuteries' sell things besides pork products.pu Singular first person je peux second person jeuh peuh I can/am able to you can/are able to nous pouvons Plural noo poovohn we can/are able to tu peux too peuh vous pouvez voo poovay you can/are able to ils peuvent eel peuhve they can/are able to (masc. G: Vouloir & Pouvoir The verb vouloir is translated to to want. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -ir verb) as follows: French Verb • Dining • audio (upload) vouloir • to want past participle . 6. quiches and pizzas.3. [edit] dépôt de pain. -eille is pronounced ay Do not confuse with le livre (book). 5.

. and is conjuagted differntly. G: Servir French Verb • Dining • audio (upload) servir • to serve past participle: servi Singular first person je sers jeuh sair I serve you serve he serves she serves il sert eel sair third person elle sert ell sair on sert ohn sair [edit] second person tu sers too sair Plural nous servons noo sairvohn we serve vous servez voo sairvay ils servent eel sairve you serve they serve (masc. or mized) they serve (fem.. [edit] .. [edit] to arrive an occupied table a free table to find to order to eat lunch to dine to eat dinner to desire waiter waitresse menu check tip to leave I would like.) one serves elles servent ell sairve G: Prendre Prendre is not a regular -re verb.V: Dining at a Restaurant arriver la table occupée la table libre trouver commander déjeuner dîner désirer le serveur la serveuse la carte l'addition le bourboire laisser je voudrais.

to gain weight prendre part (à) .to become aware (of) prendre la correspondance .) on prend ohn prahnn one takes elles prennent ell prehn Related Words • • • • prendre .to take.to take apprendre .to make a decision prendre des kilos . to have something to eat prendre conscience (de) .to eat breakfast prendre rendez-vous .to mistake [edit] Idioms and Related Expressions • • • • • • • • • • prendre .Formation French Verb • Dining • audio (upload) prendre • to take Singular first person je prends jeuh prahn I take you take il prend eel prahnn he takes third person elle prend ell prahnn she takes [edit] second person tu prends too prahn Plural nous prennons noo prenn ohn we take vous prenez voo prennay ils prennent eel prehn you take they take (masc.to surpass prendre le petit déjeuner . .to comprehend/understand méprendre . or mized) they take (fem.to change trains prendre une décision .to learn comprendre . but are also stem changing.to take part (in) prendre la parole .to make an appontment [edit] V: Ordering [edit] G: -cer Verbs -cer verbs are ragular -er verbs.to start talking prendre le pas sur . The most common -cer verb is commencer.

Etc. or mized) elles commencent ell coe mahnce they begin (fem. le couvert le bol le couteau la cuillère la serviette la nappe la tasse le verre cover bowl knife spoon napkin tablecloth cup glass l'assiette (f) plate la soucoupe saucer la fourchette fork .[edit] Formation French Verb • Dining • audio (upload) commencer • to begin past participle .to erase [edit] V: Silverware.commencé Singular first person je commence second person tu commences il commence third person elle commence on commence [edit] jeuh coe mahnce too coe mahnce eel coe mahnce ell coe mahnce ohn coe mahnce I begin you begin he begins she begins one begins nous commençons vous commencez Plural noo coe mahnsohn voo coe mahnsay we begin you begin they begin ils commencent eel coe mahnce (masc.) Other -cer Verbs • effacer .

or mized) they know (fem.10 • Communication G: -aître Verbs [edit] Formation French Verb • Communication • audio (upload) connaître • to know (personally) past participle: connu Singular first person je connais second person jeuh cohnay I know nous connaissons Plural noo cohnehssohn we know tu connais too cohnay you know vous connaissez voo cohnehssay you know il connaît eel cohnay he knows ils connaissent eel cohnesse elles connaissent ell cohnesse they know (masc.to disappear naître .to know disparaître . Savoir is used to say that you know .to be born1 has an irregular past participle (né) and takes être as its helping verb in perfect tenses.) third person elle connaît ell cohnay she knows one knows on connaît ohn cohnay [edit] Other -aître verbs • • • • apparaître .to appear connaître .2. 1Naître [edit] G: Connaître & Savoir Connaître is used to say that you know someone personally.

you call to someone. is also stem changing. In the present indicative. objects. would be Je téléphone à Jacques.. or mized) they know (fem. Appeler is a regular -er verb. but.. as you may have noticed. but in English you would say My name is.. or mized) they call (fem.someone by reputation or that you know a fact or piece of information. literally means I call myself. [edit] G: Appeler Appeler is used to say what your name is. so the verb is used with indirect.) on appelle ohn ahhpell one calls elles appellent ell ahhpell G: Dire French Verb • Communication • audio (upload) ... it is conjuagted as follows: French Verb • Communication • audio (upload) appeler • to call past participle: appelé Singular first person j' appelle jahhpell I call second person tu appelles too ahhpell you call il appelle eel ahhpell he calls third person elle appelle ell ahhpell she calls [edit] Plural nous appelons newzahh pell ohn we call vous appelez voozahh pellay ils appellent eel ahhpell you call they call (masc.. Je m'appelle. French Verb • Communication • audio (upload) savoir • to know (as a fact) past participle: su Singular first person je sais jeuh say I know you know he knows she knows il sait eel say third person elle sait ell say on sait ohn say [edit] second person tu sais too say Plural nous savons noo sahvohn we know vous savez voo sahvay ils savent eel sahve you know they know (masc.) one knows elles savent ell sahve V: Calling Others The verb téléphoner is used to say that you are calling (to) someone. In French. I'm calling Jacques. and not direct. For example.

) on écrit ohn aycree one writes elles écrivent ell aycreeve French Verb • Communication • audio (upload) lire • to read past participle: lu Singular first person je lis jeuh lee I read you read she reads il lit eel dee he reads third person elle lit ell lee [edit] second person tu lis too lee Plural nous lisons noo leezohn we read vous lisez voo leezay ils lisent eel leez you read they read (masc. or mized) they say (fem.) on lit ohn dee one reads elles lisent ell leez .) one says elles disent ell deez V: Mail [edit] G: Écire & Lire French Verb • Communication • audio (upload) écrire • to write past participle: écrit Singular first person j' écris jay cree I write second person tu écris too aycree you write il écrit eel aycree he writes third person elle écrit ell aycree she writes Plural nous écrivons newzay creevohn we write vous écrivez voozay creevay ils écrivent eel aycreeve you write they write (masc. or mized) they read (fem. or mized) they write (fem.dire • to say past participle: dit Singular first person je dis jeuh dee I say you say he says she says il dit eel dee third person elle dit ell dee on dit ohn dee [edit] second person tu dis too dee Plural nous disons noo deezohn we say vous dites voo deet ils disent eel deez you say they say (masc.

or mized) they receive (fem. or mized) they send (fem.G: Envoyer & Recevoir French Verb • Communication • 7 (• kb • help) envoyer • to send past participle: envoyé Singular first person second person j' envoie jahnvwah tu too envoies ahnvwah il envoie eel aycree third person I send you send he sends Plural nous newzahnvwahyohn we send envoyons vous voozahnvwahyay envoyons ils envoient eelzahnvwah elles ellzahnvwah envoient you send they send (masc.) tu reçois too rehswah you receive vous recevez voo resehvay il reçoit eel rehswah he receives ils reçoivent eel rehswahve elles reçoivent ell rehswahve third person elle reçoit ell rehswah she receives on reçoit ohn rehswah one receives [edit] V: Computers & the Internet .) elle she ell aycree envoie sends on ohn envoie ahnvwah one sends French Verb • Communication • audio (upload) recevoir • to receive past participle: reçu Singular first person je reçois second person jeuh rehswah I receive nous recevons Plural newzay rehsevohn we receive you receive they receive (masc.

Relative Pronouns (Qui. Asking Questions 09 moderne Review V: The 20th Century. Several verb tenses will be introduced in this level. 20th Century Advancements and Changes. Government. The Lesson 02 : Work Office. Interrogative Pronouns Antique V: Farming and Peasant Life. The Rennaissance. 01 Leçon 01 : Les Vacances G: Geography Prepositions. Possesive Pronouns. Plus-QueParfait Lesson 06 : Adolescence V: Pop Culture. PostLesson 08 : Revolution! Napoleon France. you can move on to the next level. Faire Causitif) V: Companies. But we didn't decide to stop there! This level will include longer lectures about a lesson's subject and will introduce you to real French literary works and news articles. Handling Money. you can graduate to the third level. and there will now be more vocabulary sections in each lesson. Present Conditional. Stem Changing Verbs Review V: Children's Games and Toys. Adverbs. Napoleonic Era.French Level Three Lessons Formidable! . Office Supplies 03 Leçon 03 : La santé G: Simple Future of Irregular Verbs. Noble Life. French Children's Poems. Blue-collar. Payment. Modern Lesson 09 : Modern War France . and Lesson 05 : Life as a Stories Child 06 Leçon 06 : L'adolescence G: Imparfait vs. International Travelling. Nationalities 02 Leçon 02 : Le travail G: Irregular Past Participles Review. Democracy. Dont) V: Enlightenment. Healthcare Lesson 03 : Health 04 Leçon 04 : L'argent G: Personal Pronouns Review. Commands V: Visiting the Doctor. Service. Leçon 09 : La France G: Past Conditional. Pronominal Verbs Review. After you have completed this level. the Dentist. This is a much more rigorous presentation of the French language. Que. such as Jean de La Fontaine's Fables. Songs. Lesson 07 : Ancient The Reformation History 08 Leçon 08 : Révolution! G: Passé Simple of Irregular Verbs. Mass Media. Emergencies. Pronouns with Commands Lesson 04 : Money V: Forms of Money..Intermediate French After having completed the second level of the Wikibooks French language course. The King. go to the lessons planning page. French Rev. Part-Time Jobs Leçon 07 : L'histoire 07 G: Passé Simple of Regular Verbs. Medecine. Going to a Bank 05 Leçon 05 : Jeunesse G: Imparfait. Comparative & Superlative. Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Review (Futur Proche. Perfect Tenses Introduction. Simple Future of Regular Verbs Lesson 01 : Vacations V: General Travelling. Also remember that if you would like to help develop this course. White-collar. Passé Composé. Industrial Rev.

Demonstrative Pronouns. Social Problems... Stating If.10 Leçon 10 : L'actualité Lesson 10 : Current Events G: Future Perfect. European Union. Politics . Government. France's Role in Global Politics. V: News.

underground la poste post office le taxi taxi le ticket ticket (for bus.) aircraft. airplane les bagages baggage le billet ticket (for train.) airport l’autobus (m. (d') I am from.. métro) le train train la valise suitcase la voiture car Audio : French native speaker Visiting Other Cities 1a Tu es d'où? (informal) Where are you from? D'où êtes-vous? 1b (formal) 1c Je suis de..01 • Vacations V: General Traveling Audio: Ogg French native speaker (Kb) General il y a there is. there are l’aéroport (m.. [edit] V: Geography Audio : French native speaker Geography the world le monde Political Geography a city une ville . airplane) le métro subway.) bus l’avion (m.3..

. Every continent is feminine. to • Je vais à Paris.Je reviens du Havre. .Je reviens de la NouvelleOrléans.a village un village a country un pays a state un état Natural Geography river le fleuve mountain la montagne lake le lac ocean l'océan (m) Cardinal Directions north le nord south le sud east l'est west l'ouest [edit] G: Geography Prepositions [edit] Cities French native speaker • • • à is used to say in. cities that have articles as part of their names contract with the preposition if the city is masculine.Je vais au Caire.Je vais à la Nouvelle-Orléans. • . en is used to say in. • le Havre . .I'm going to Paris de is used to say from.Je reviens du Caire.I go to France. . • Je reviens de Paris. Countries.I return from Paris. at. • le Caire . .Je vais au Havre. to for all feminine geographical areas except cities • Je vais en France. and Continents • • • Most geographical areas are feminine Every French geographical area. that ends in -e is feminine. with one or two exceptions. at. . [edit] Feminine Regions. • la Nouvelle-Orléans .

is used to say from for most regions. as if a plural article is part of the name of a country • Je vais aux Êtats-Unis.I'm going to the United States. to. If a region is thought of or considered as its own sovereign state. and states • Je reviens du Limousin. is used to say in. a contraction of de + le. . provinces. . a contraction of à + les.I return from Portugal.Je reviens du Québec. to for masculine countries beginning with a consonant • Je vais au Portugal. . . • Je vais au Texas. au is used instead of dans le • Je vais au Québec. .I return from the United States. a contraction of de + les. du. de is contracted to d' when followed by a vowel.• • de is used to say from for all feminine geographical areas except cities • Je reviens de France. Audio : French native speaker • • • [edit] Masculine Countries Starting With a Consonant • • all countries that do not end in a slient e are mascuiline le Cambodge and le Mexique are masculine au is used to say in. . is used to say from if a plural article is part of the name of a country • Je reviens des Êtats-Unis.I return from France.I return from Limousin. . .I'm going to Limousin. to for most masculine regions. provinces. at. • Je vais en Espagne. • [edit] Plural Countries Audio : French native speaker • • aux.Je reviens d' Espagne [edit] Masculine Regions • all regions that do not end in a slient e are mascuiline dans le is used to say in.I'm going to Portugal. and states • Je vais dans le Limousin. at.Je reviens du Texas. [edit] . . (pronounced aytahzoohnee) des. . • du is used to say from for masculine countries beginning with a consonant • Je reviens du Portugal.

machine.I return from Israel. to for all masculine countries beginning with a vowel • Je vais en Israël.the province of Quebec? [edit] V: Airports and Airplanes French Vocabulary • Vacations • audio: One • Two (• 258 + 205 kb • help) Airports and Airplanes • Les aéroports et les avions The Airport l'aéroport le passeport un chariot les arrivées les départs arriver (en avance/en retard) l'aérogare la compagnie (aérienne) le billet (d'avion/simple/allerretour) la classe tourisme la première classe passer à la douane airport (pronounced ahehrohpor) passport a (shopping/baggage) cart arrivals departures to arrive (early/late) The Airplane l'avion (m) l'appareil (m) plane plane.I'm going to Israel.. .Masculine Countries Starting With a Vowel • • en is used to say in. . [edit] Check For Understanding • • • • Are all French countries ending in e feminine? What geographical areas use the preposition dans le? What prepositions do countries beginning with vowels use? What prepositions does the city of Quebec use? .. at. d' is used to say from for all masculine countries beginning with a vowel • Je reviens d' Israël. (body) system to take off take-off flight (also theft) pilot les bagages (f pl) les bagages à main la livraison des bagages enregistrer (ses bagages) Baggage baggage carry-on bagage baggage claim to check in (one's baggage) The Terminal terminal a(n airline) company (plane/one-way/round trip) décoller ticket le décollage coach first class to go through customs le vol le pilote .

le contrôleur le contrôle de sécurité la porte embarquer [edit] security officer security check gate (also door) to board l'hôtesse (de l'air) (f) flight attendant le passager atterir l'atterrissage (f) passenger to land landing V: Places Audio : French native speaker French Regions Île-de-France .Caen Bourgogne .Paris Basse-Normandie .Dijon Bretagne .Rennes Continents l'Afrique (f) l'Amérique du nord (f) l'Amérique du sud (f) l'Antarctique (f) l'Asie (f) l'Australie (f) l'Europe (f) Oceans l'Océan atlantique (m) l'Océan glacial arctique (m) l'Océan indien (m) l'Océan pacifique (m) Audio : French native speaker Audio : French native speaker la France * Paris la Belgique * Bruxelles le Portugal * Lisbonne European Countries France * Paris Belgium * Bruxelles Portugal * Lisbon .

l'Espagne * Madrid l'Italie * Rome la Grande-Bretagne * Londres l'Irlande * Dublin le (grand-duché du) Luxembourg * Luxembourg les Pays-Bas * Amsterdam l'Allemagne * Berlin l'Autriche * Vienne la Suisse * berne La principauté de Monaco * Monaco la Pologne * Varsovie la République Tchèque * Prague la Slovaquie * Bratislava la Hongrie * Budapest la Roumanie * Bucarest la Grèce * Athènes La principauté d'Andorre * Andorre-la-Vieille la Moldavie * Chisinau la Biélorussie * Minsk la Lituanie * Vilnius la Lettonie * Riga l'Estonie Spain * Madrid Italy * Rome Great Britain * London Ireland * Dublin Luxemburg * Luxemburg Netherlands * Amsterdam Germany * Berlin Austria * Vienna Switzerland * Bern Monaco * Moncao Poland * Warsaw Czech Republic * Slovakia * Hungary * Romania * Greece * Athens Andorra * Moldavia * Belarus * Lithuania * Latvia * Estonia .

I have no idea where these are.* Tallinn * la Finlande Finland * Helsinki * Helsinki la Suède Sweden * Stockholm * Stockholm la Norvège Norway * Oslo * Oslo la Russie Russia * Moscou * Moscow l'Ukraine Ukraine * Kiev * Kiev • Nations of the World • More audio pronunciation: here. </ignorant American> [edit] V: Nationalities Here is a list of nationalities: Audio: Ogg (300Kb) Audio: French native speaker Audio: French native speaker Audio: French native speaker Masculine allemand américain anglais australien belge birman cambodgien canadien chinois coréen espagnol français indien indonésien italien japonais malaisien mauricien néerlandais Feminine allemande américaine anglaise australienne belge birmane cambodgienne canadienne chinoise coréenne espagnole française indienne indonésienne italienne japonaise malaisienne mauricienne néerlandaise English German American English Australian Belgian Burmese Cambodian Canadian Chinese Korean Spanish French Indian Indonesian Italian Japanese Malaysian Mauritian Dutch .

the French would not capitalize: l'arabe. • When the auxillary verb is conjugated in the passé composé. . for example. as in an Arab person or a Chinese person.replace -er with é -ir verbs . If you are referring to a person. le chinois. the French equivalent is un Arabe or un Chinois.must be memorized [edit] . [edit] Past Participle Formation • • • • -er verbs .+ [edit] G: Perfect Tenses You will be learning several new perfect tenses in this level. • • The perfect tenses are also called the compound or composed tenses.replace -re with u irregular verbs .philippin philippine Filipino portugais portugaise Portuguese singapourien singapourienne Singaporean suédois suédoise Swedish suisse suisse Swiss thaïlandais thaïlandaise Thai vénézuélien vénézuéliene Venezuelan vietnamien vietnamienne Vietnamese Nationalities are not capitalized as often in French as they are in English. The tense of the verb depends upon the tense that avoir or être is conjugated in. However. if you are referring to the Arabic language or Chinese language. the auxillary verb is conjugated in the present indicative. un livre chinois. • J'ai fini. If the nationality is used as an adjective.replace -ir with i -re verbs . This time. Review the grammar behind them. [edit] Auxillary Verb Formation • • The auxillary verb is always either avoir or être. un tapis arabe. The perfect tenses are all composed of a conjugated auxillary verb and a fixed past participle. it is normally left uncapitalized. make sure you know all the rules.I have finished.

• Je les ai finis. .I have finished it. . 3. • the direct object is masculine singular . These are: 1.no change • J'ai fini le jeu. • That is.I have finished the task. 2. . . [edit] Avoir ou Être? • • • In most circumstances.I have finished the tasks. under certain situations. • Note that when a direct object is used with these verbs.add an es to the past participle. • J'ai fini les jeux. • Je l'ai fini.add an e to the past participle • J'ai fini la tâche. . 7. . • the direct object is masculine plural . the subject of the verb is also its object. . [edit] passé composé (past) plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (farthest past indicative) plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (farthest past subjunctive) passé antérieur (farther past) futur antérieur (future past) conditionnel passé (conditional past) passé du subjonctif (subjunctive past) . the auxillary verb becomes avoir. This occurs when: • The verb is one of 16 special verbs that take être.I have finished the games. the auxillary verb is être. • The verb is reflexive. • the direct object is feminine plural . [edit] List of Tenses There are seven perfect tenses in French. However.I have finished it.add an s to the past participle. • Je l'ai finie.I have finished the game.I have finished them. 4.Past Participle Agreement Audio: French native speaker • The past pasticiple must agree with the direct object of a clause in gender and plurality if the direct object goes before the verb.I have finished them. • the direct object is feminine singular . the auxillary verb is avoir. 5. • Je les ai finies. . • J'ai fini les tâches. 6.

g. nous partirons en vacances au bord de la mer. as according to the table: Audio: French native speaker Add Ending Conjugated Verb Je -ai réussirai Tu -as réussiras Il / Elle / On -a réussira Nous -ons réussirons Vous -ez réussirez Ils / Elles -ont réussiront [edit] Subject Les vacances Audio: French native speaker Cet été. A midi nous mangerons puis nous ferons une bonne sieste car il fera certainement très chaud. L'après-midi. one takes the infinitive and appends the right form of avoir except for nous and vous which takes -ons or -ez. or she is going to pass) is the futur composé of elle réussit To conjugate a verb in the futur simple. and the futur antérieur(future perfect).G: Simple Future of Regular Verbs There are three versions of the futur tense in French. e. Vivement les vacances ! . Nous allons passer une semaine à Nice sur la côte d'Azur. elle va réussir (she will pass. nous irons visiter des expositions de peintures ou alors nous irons dans des parc d'attractions. Nous partirons en voiture et il y aura certainement beaucoup de bouchons sur l'autoroute. Nous nous baignerons le matin et je ferai des châteaux de sable avec mon fils. the futur simple the futur composé. The futur composé is formed by inserting the present form of aller before the infinitive.

3.02 • Work

G: Irregular Past Participles Review
Audio : french native speaker Audio : french native speaker
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

avoir - eu (to have) boire - bu (to drink) conduire - conduit (to drive) (and all other -uire verbs) connaître - connu (to know (personally)) courir - couru (to run) croire - cru (to believe) dire - dit (to say) devoir - dû (to have to, to owe) être - été (to be) faire - fait (to do, to make) falloir - fallu (to be necessary) lire - lu (to read) mettre - mis (to put (on)) (and all words adding prefixes to mettre) ouvrir - ouvert (to open) (and most other -rir verbs) pouvoir - pu (to be able to) pleuvoir - plu (to rain) prendre - pris (to take) recevoir - reçu (to receive) rire - ri (to laugh) savoir - su (to know (as a fact)) sourire - souri (to smile) suivre - suivi (to follow) vivre - vécu (to live) voir - vu (to see) vouloir - voulu (to want)

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G: Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Review
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Formation
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Aimer
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Vouloir
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Pouvoir
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Faire Causitif
Audio : french native speaker The faire causitif is formed by conjugating faire and adding an infinitive.

Je le fais fixer. - I have it fixed.

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Futur Proche
The future proche tense is formed by conjugating aller in the present indicative and adding an infinitive

Je vais aller. - I'm going to go.

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Pronouns
Pronouns come before the verb they modify, which is not necessarily the first verb in a sentence

Je vais le voir. - I'm going to see it.

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Negation
Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated, each meaning slightly different things.
• •

Je n'aime pas marcher. - I don't like to run. J'aime ne pas marcher. - I like to not run.

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V: Private Employment
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V: Government Occupations
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V: The Office
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V: Office Supplies
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Le chomage
Audio : french native speaker Avant j'avais un travail : je travaillais dans une banque. Mais la banque a fermé et je me suis retrouvé au chomage. Je n'ai plus de travail et j'en cherche tous les jours. Je lis les petites annonces et j'envoie des lettres de candidature. Je n'ai pas souvent une réponse. Mais aujourd'hui, j'ai obtenu un entretien d'embauche. Avec un peu de chance, j'obtiendrais le travail...

3.03 • Health

V: Illness
Audio : Native French Speaker French Vocabulary • Health • audio (upload) Illness • La maladie To ache avoir mal à... avoir mal à la tête to have a ...ache, to hurt avoir mal au ventre to have a headache avoir mal partout to have a bellyache to ache all over Actions éternuer s'évanouir saigner tousser vomir to sneeze to faint to bleed to cough to throw up

avoir mal â l'oreille to have an earache avoir mal aux dents to have a toothache Sickness and Pain être malade avoir la grippe avoir de la fièvre être enrhumé [edit] to be sick to have the flu to have a fever to have a cold

avoir des maux de cœur to feel sick, nauseaus

G: Simple Future of Irregular Verbs
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G: Issuing Commands in French - l'impératif
• •

The nous form commands are used to say "Let's...". The subject is not used when giving a command.

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Formation
Take away the ending and add on the following shown in the table. French Grammar • Health • audio (upload)

the adjective stem is sometimes modified to accommodate the suffix: Audio : Native French Speaker • • • If the adjective ends in an i. most adverbs are derived from adjectives. so the corresponding adverb is lentement ("slowly"). and French/Grammar/Verbs or clauses. [edit] Formation In French. rather than to the feminine singular form: • vrai → vraiment ("real" → "really") • poli → poliment ("polite" → "politely") If the adjective ends in -ant or -ent. are used to modify French/Grammar/Adjectives. other adverbs. respectively: • constant → constamment ("constant" → "constantly") • récent → récemment ("recent" → "recently") Some adjectives make other changes: • précis → précisément ("precise" → "precisely") • gentil → gentiment ("nice" → "nicely") . nor any characteristics of what they modify. similarly. that is. then -ment is added to the masculine singular (default) form.The Imperative • L'impératif -er Verbs Subject Ending Tu -e Nous -ons Vous -ez [edit] Verb Parle! Parlez! -is -issez -ir Verbs Ending Verb Finis! Finissez! -s -ez -re Verbs Ending Verb Vends! Vendons! Vendez! Parlons! -issons Finissons! -ons Affirmative [edit] Negative [edit] G: Adverbs French adverbs. heureux → heureusement ("happy" → "happily"). however. this is done by adding the suffix -ment ("-ly") to the adjective's feminine singular form. the feminine singular form of lent ("slow") is lente. They do not display any inflection. their form does not change to reflect their precise role. then the corresponding adverb ends in -amment or -emment. As in English. For example. like their English counterparts. In most cases. as in English.

Je vomis. this is true even of negative adverbs: • [edit] V: Visiting the Doctor Audio : Native French Speaker Le patient : • • • • • • Je suis malade. he began to walk" or "He began slowly to walk"). Jamais je n'ai fait cela or Je n'ai jamais fait cela ("Never have I done that" or "I've never done that") An adverb that modifies an Infinitive (verbal noun) generally comes after the infinitive: • But negative adverbs. as in English. J'ai de la fièvre. (I am ill). or before the clause: • Note that. (I am fevrish) J'ai mal au ventre. many common adverbs are not derived from adjectives at all: • [edit] Placement The placement of French adverbs is almost the same as the placement of English adverbs. unlike in English. J'ai mal à la tête. Audio : Native French Speaker An adverb that modifies an adjective or adverb comes before that adjective or adverb: • • • complètement vrai ("completely true") pas possible ("not possible") tellement discrètement ("so discreetly") marcher lentement ("to walk slowly") ne pas marcher ("not to walk") Lentement il commença à marcher or Il commença lentement à marcher ("Slowly. plus ("not any more").Some adverbs are derived from adjectives in completely irregular fashions. and jamais come before the infinitive: • An adverb that modifies a main verb or clause comes either after the verb. Je tousse. (I cough) . (I have a headache). such as pas ("not"). not even using the suffix -ment: • • • • bon → bien ("good" → "well") mauvais → mal ("bad" → "badly") meilleur → mieux ("better"-adjective → "better"-adverb) pire → pis ("worse"-adjective → "worse"-adverb) ainsi ("thus" or "thusly") And.

C'est grave ! Je vais aux urgences. Je dois procéder à une extraction. SAMU=Service Ambulancier Médical d'Urgence En cas d'accident grave. J'ai eu un accident de voiture. midi et soir Il faut passer un "scanner" Il faut passer des radios. il faut téléphoner au SAMU (15) ou aux pompiers (18) ou au 112. Ahhhhhhhhhh ! [edit] V: Healthcare [edit] V: Emergencies Audio : Native French Speaker • • • • • • Je vais à l'hôpital. Je vais utiliser la roulette. Vous avez une carie. [edit] V: Visiting the Dentist Audio : Native French Speaker • • • • • • J'ai mal aux dents. Prenez une cuillère de sirop matin. (Il va enlever la dent) J'ai un appareil dentaire.Le docteur • • • • • • • Comment allez-vous ? Prenez de l'aspirine. [edit] V: Medecine [edit] . Il faut vous opérer. Je vais vous prescrire un médicament.

V: Body parts Here is the vocabulary to speak about body parts : Audio : Native French Speaker Audio : Native French Speaker French English La tête Head Le corps Body Le bras Arm La jambe Leg La poitrine Chest Le ventre Belly L'épaule (f) Shoulder >Le coude Elbow Le poignet Wrist La main Hand Le doigt Finger Le genou Knee Le pied Foot L'orteil (m) Toe L'oeil (m) Eye (pl. les yeux) La bouche Mouth La dent Tooth Le nez Nose L'oreille (f) Ear Le cou Neck La langue Tongue Les cheveux Hair L'ongle (m) Nail Le poumon Lung L'estomac (m) Stomach Le coeur Heart Le foie Liver L'instestin (m) Intestine L'os (m) Bone Le crâne Skull Le muscle Muscle Le cerveau Brain La rate Spleen L'utérus Womb .

". Example: J'ai mal à la tete. you say "J'ai mal à [body part] . When you're sick.Le nombril [edit] Navel. (I have a headache). J'ai mal aux dents (My teeth hurt). [edit] E: 3. belly button V: Body position And here is the vocabulary for body positions : French Debout Assis Couché À genoux Accroupi [edit] English Standing Seating Laying down Kneeling Squatted V: Common sentencies When you 'catch a cold' you 'attrapes un rhume'.. tu es malade.Body Parts .03 1 ..Visual Memorization • Point to different parts of the body and recite its name in French par cœur. . When you wish to say that parts of your body are sore.

was referring to a masculine object.04 • Money G: Personal Pronouns Review French personal pronouns [edit] Direct Objects While the subject of a sentence initiates an action (the verb).. nous. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: French me.? or From whom. and vous are also used as indirect objects to mean to me. the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object. He gives bread to him. t' le. les. It is called indirect because it occurs usually together with a direct object which is affected directly by the action: Il donne du pain à The man gives some bread to Pierre. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. and to you respectively. te.?. a tense that uses a past participle.. [edit] Indirect Objects An indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom. the direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle. to us. When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense.. Pierre le vois. Pierre. The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. in te phrase Je les ai eus. Pierre sees the burglar. Il lui donne du pain. it us1 you1 them 1 me. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: . l' him. A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence: Pierre vois le cambrioleur. l' nous vous les her. the direct object is the one that is affected by the action. to you. m' te. or I had them.. and eues if les is referring to a feminine object.3. For example. Pierre sees him. English me1 you1 it Notes: • • • • la.

and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de. us.I get it! [edit] . to English to me1 to you1 her Notes: • • • • French me. When me. to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à. This is done by looking at the verb and seeing what type of action is being performed. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. nous.I respond to them. • • Je réponds à les questions.lui to him. and vous are also used as direct objects to mean me. The bread is given by the man (direct). are used when the the object refers the a person or persons.to it.there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preoposition except de (for which en is used). and you respectively. . you. Pierre gets the given apple (indirect). and vous are used in a perfect tense. [edit] Idioms • • Ça y est! . I respond to the questions. [edit] The Pronoun Y [edit] Indirect Object Pronoun . m' te. te.The men go there. The indirect object pronouns do not agree with the past participle like the direct object pronouns do. . t' nous vous leur to us1 to you1 to them 1 me.Les hommes y vont. • • Les hommes vont en France.J' y réponds. [edit] Replacement of Places . Note that lui and leur. The men go to France .It's Done! J'y suis! . the writer must decide whether they are used as direct or indirect object pronouns. Note that en. . The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. nous. and not y. te.

we use the pronoun 'en'. if the idea of money has already been raised.En Note how we say Je veux du pain to say 'I want some bread' ? But what happens when we want to say 'I want some' without specifying what we want? In these cases. we can just say 'J'en ai besoin'.L'impératif When expressing positive commands. Tu joue du piano? Non. Like with 'me'. de la or des when there is nothing after it. [edit] G: Present Conditional To conjugate a verb in the Conditional. • Donnez-le-moi.Give it to me. there are several rules one must remember when using object pronouns. j'en prends. Are you having fish? Yes. . Me and Te become moi and toi. Did you order some water? Yes. • Donnez-moi les vidéos. G: Commands with Pronouns . This is because what en does is replace du. For instance. je n'en joue pas Vous prenez du poisson? Oui. instead of saying J'ai besoin de l'argent. Le. Theses are: • • • The pronouns are attached the the verb with a hyphen. we ordered some. as according to the table: Add Ending Conjugated Verb Je -ais réussirais Tu -ais réussirais Il / Elle / On -ait réussirait Nous -ions réussirions Vous -iez réussiriez Ils / Elles -aient réussiraient [edit] Subject . I'm having some. 'te' and other pronouns. and les precede all other object pronouns. nous en avons commandé. 'en' can mean 'of it' when 'it' is not specified.Give me the videos. la. As well. [edit] Do you play piano? No. one takes the infinitive and appends the same endings as when using the imparfait. • Retrouve-la. Vous avez commandé de l'eau? Oui. . en (meaning 'some') comes before the verb. .Find it. I don't play it.

V: Forms of Payment [edit] V: Economics [edit] V: Handling Money saving. etc [edit] V: Going to a Bank . investing.

The imperfect ending are added to ét___. Every other verb uses the nous form of the present indicative as its root. [edit] G: Possesive Pronouns Possessive pronouns replace possessive article + noun sets.3.05 • Youth G: Imperfect . An example in English being: "We were singing when Dad came home. the above example would be: "Nous chantions quand papa est rentré. and add these endings: French Grammar • Youth • audio (upload) The Imperfect • L'imparfait subject ending je tu il/elle/on nous vous -ais -ais -ait -iez jouer finir attendre (nous jouons) (nous finissons) (nous attendons) jouais jouais jouait jouiez finissais finissais finissait finissions finissiez attendais attendais attendait attendions attendiez -ions jouions ils/elles -aient jouaient finissaient attendaient • Note: The only verb that has an irregular stem (one not derived from the nous form of the present idicative) is être.Imparfait The imparfait is used to "set the tone" of a past situation. • take the 1st person plural of the verb you want to conjugate: jouer . In French." It tells what was going on when a particular action or event occured. Audio1 Audio2 .to play singular plural first person je joue nous jouons second person tu joues vous jouez third person il joue ils jouent • Remove the -ons ending to find the stem." In order to conjugate the imperfect.

. [edit] G: Stem Changing Verbs Review [edit] -exer Verbs -exer are regular -er verbs. . • • Elle est ta voiture? . the accent aigu above the e ( é ) changes to an accent grave ( è ). The stem change applies to all forms except nous and vous. but also are stem changing.Is that your car? Oui.Yes. . it is mine. les vôtres yours les leurs theirs À + a stress pronoun is used when the noun replaced is also the subject of the sentence.French Grammar • Youth • audio (upload) Possesive Pronouns • Les pronoms possesifs mon copain ton copain son copain notre copain votre copain leur copain my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend le mien mine le tien yours le sien his/hers le nôtre ours le vôtre yours le leur theirs mes copains tes copains ses copains nos copains vos copains leurs copains my friends your friends his/her friends our friends your friends their friends les miens mine ma copine my friend la mienne mine les tiens yours les siens his/hers les nôtres ours les vôtres yours les leurs theirs ta copine sa copine notre copine votre copine leurs copine your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend le tienne yours le sienne his/hers la nôtre ours la vôtre yours la leur theirs mes copines tes copines ses copines nos copines vos copines leurs copines my friends your friends his/her friends our friends your friends their friends les miennes les tiennes les siennes les nôtres mine yours his/hers ours • Vous avez votre voiture? . The stem change involves adding a grave accent ( ` ) over the e in the stem. This usually occurs in sentences with être. we have ours.Yes.You have your car? • Oui. elle est à moi. nous avons la nôtre. • Tenses affected by this rule: [edit] -éxer Verbs Like -exer verbs.

this affects all forms except nous and vous. • Tenses affected by this rule: [edit] Appeler All forms except nous and vous have the l doubled. une ps2) des jeux de société : le monopoly. when y is part of the last syllable. le cluedo. • Tenses affected by this rule: [edit] -cer Verbs The last c in the verb changes to ç in the nous form. However. la bonne paye des "transformers" [edit] . une gameboy. • Tenses affected by this rule: [edit] -ger Verbs An e is added after the g in the nous form. In the present indicative of -yer verbs.• Tenses affected by this rule: [edit] -yer Verbs -yer verbs are regular -er verbs. it changes to i in order to keep the ay sound. • Tenses affected by this rule: [edit] V: Children's Games and Toys • • • • • • • • • • un hochet un cheval de bois une poupée une dinette un train électrique des légos un ours en peluche une console de jeu (une nintendo.

.V: The Carnival transfer [edit] V: French Children's Poems. .. and Stories [edit] Petit Papa Noël Petit Papa Noël Quand tu descendras du ciel Avec des jouets par milliers N'oublies pas mes petits souliers Mais avant de partir Il faudra bien te couvrir Dehors tu vas avoir si froid C'est un peu à cause de moi . Songs.

. Je ne vais pas me laver.I wash myself.06 • Adolescence V: Pop Culture [edit] G: Pronominal Verbs Review Pronominal verbs are verbs that. There are three types of pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs. Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb. [edit] Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject. être is used as the auxiliary verb. . te. When proniminal verbs are conjugated in perfect tenses. Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s. .I'm not going to wash myself.They wash themselves. and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects. Ils se lavent. reciprocal verbs. nous. se. .We wash ourselves. . depending on the verb that they modify. and naturally pronominal verbs. Nous nous sommes lavé les mains. Elle s'est lavé les mains. . Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object.We washed our hands. • In perfect tenses. in gender and plurality.She washed her hands. but not the indirect object pronoun. . Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives. These pronouns are me. Je vais me laver.3. • Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated each with slightly different meanings. .I'm going to wash myself. [edit] . the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun. . • • • • Elle s'est lavée.She was herself. include pronouns. put simply.We wash ourselves. Nous nous lavons. • • • Je me lave.

the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb. Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s. Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? . but they occur at different times. the past before the past.You remember? • • In perfect tenses. Otherwise. Nous nous sommes parlé. .We like each other. Passé Composé [edit] G: Plus-Que-Parfait The plus-que-parfait is used when there are two occurrences in the past and one wants to symbolise that one occurrence happened before the other." In this example. Essentially. one finds the appropriate auxiliary verb (avoir). Elles se sont téléphoné. this is used in a phrase like "I had given him the toy before he went to sleep. to give back se rendre (à) . So. I had eaten. So to conjugate je mange (I eat) in the plus-que-parfait.You write to each other often? The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun. In French.We liked each other.to go (to) Some verbs have different meanings as pronominal verbs. the past participle agrees with the subject. in English. • • • [edit] Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action.She remembered. people perform actions to each other.to return. . [edit] . . the plus-que-parfait is formed by conjugating the auxiliary verb in the imparfait and adding the past participle.We spoke to each other. . these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb. Elle s'est souvenue.They called to one another. • • [edit] G: Imparfait vs. Tu te souvenu? . It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects. there are two past tenses. In English. . conjugates it (avais) and finds the past participle of manger (mangé). the conjugation of Je mange in the plus-que-parfait becomes j'avais mangé or.Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs. The plus-que-parfait can be used to indicate the occurrence of one before the other. Like reflexive verbs. • • • Nous nous aimons. rendre .

Examples
J'ai parlé français. Je parlais français. I spoke French (on one particular occasion). I spoke French (during a period of time, and I don't speak French any more).

Nous avons réussi We passed the test. l'examen. Il a été mon ami. He was my friend (and he is not my friend any more) Il était mon ami lorsque... He was my friend when . . . Ils ont fait leurs devoirs. They did their homework. Il est venu. He came (and I don't need to say when) Il vint le lendemain. He came the day after. Il venait tous les jours. He came/used to come every day. Il était déjà venu. He had already come. It should be noted that these examples are making use of all the possible past tenses; not just the plusque-parfait. [edit]

V: Mass Media
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V: Part-Time Jobs

3.07 • Ancient History

L'hisoire de la France jusqu'en 1700. [edit]

G: Interrogative Pronouns
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G: Passé Simple of Regular Verbs
Unlike English, there is a literary past tense, used when writing formally. This past tense is named the passé simple. It is relatively simple to predict when to use this tense; for every occurrence of the passé composé in conversational French, one simply uses the passé simple in literary French. Note that the passé simple is not a composed tense, and therefore does not have an auxiliary verb like the pssé composé does. [edit]

Formation
To conjugate in this tense, one finds the stem and appends the following, as according to the table: French Grammar • History • audio (upload) The Simple Past • Le passé simple Subject Edning Conjugated Verb Je Tu Il Nous Vous Ils [edit] -ai -as -a -âmes -âtes -èrent Je dansai. Tu dansas. Il dansa. Nous dansâmes. Vous dansâtes. Ils dansèrent. English I danced. You danced. He danced. We danced You danced. They danced.

Regular Normally-Irregular Verbs
The following verbs are irregular in the present indicative, put are regular in their passé simple stems. Stem Je... -ir verbs dormir dorm dormis partir part partis sentir sent sentis servir serv servis sortir sort sortis -rir Verbs couvrir couvr couvris découvrir décrouvr découvris offrir offr offris ouvrir ouvr ouvris souffrir souffr souffris -re Verbs combattre combatt combattis rompre romp rompis suivre suiv suivis [edit] Infinitive

V: Farming and Peasant Life
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V: Noble Life
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V: The King
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V: The Rennaissance
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V: The Reformation

Others must be memorized.3.08 • Revolution! Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen . [edit] Ending Formation je -is je -in_ Endings -ins je -u_ Endings -us [edit] -i_ Endings tu -is tu -ins tu -us il -it il -int il -ut nous -îmes nous -înmes nous -ûmes vous -îtes vous -întes vous -ûtes ils irent ils inrent ils urent Irregular Verb List French Grammar • Revolution! • audio (upload) Simple Past Irregular Verbs • Des verbes irréguliers du passé simple Infinitive Past Part.Historical Text for this lesson. je s'asseoir conduire construire craindre dire dit assis m'assis conduisis tu t'assis conduisis conquis craignis dis il -i_ Endings s'assit conquit craignit dit nous assîmes vous assîtes s'assirent conduisîtes conquîtes craignîtes dîtes conduisirent conquirent craignirent dirent conquîmes craignîmes dîmes conduisit conduisîmes Passé simple nous vous ils conquérir conquis conquis craignis dis construisis construisis construisit construisîmes construisîtes construisirent . [edit] G: Passé Simple of Irregular Verbs Some passé simple stems are based off the past participle.

faire écrire mettre naître peindre prendre rejoindre rire sourire vaincre devenir tenir venir avoir boire connaître courir croire devoir être falloir lire mourir plaire pleuvoir pouvoir recevoir savoir valoir vivre vouloir [edit] plu plu pu reçu su valu vécu voulu fallu lut eu bu couru cru dû ri souri pris mis fis écrivis mis naquis peignis pris rejoignis ris souris vainquis devins tins vins eus bus courus crus dus fus fallus lus mourus plus plus pus reçus sus valus vécus voulus fis écrivis mis naquis peignis pris rejoignis ris souris vainquis devins tins vins eus bus connus courus crus dus fus fallus lus mourus plus plus pus reçus sus valus vécus voulus fit écrivit mit naquit peignit prit rejoignit rit sourit vainquit -in_ Endings devin tint vint -u_ Endings eut but connut courut crut dut fut fallut lut mourut plut plut put reçut sut valut vécut voulut fîmes écrivîmes mîmes naquîmes peignîmes prîmes rejoignîmes rîmes sourîmes vainquîmes devînmes tînmes vînmes eûmes bûmes connûmes courûmes crûmes dûmes fûmes fallûmes lûmes mourûmes plûmes plûmes pûmes reçûmes suûmes valûmes vécûmes voulûmes fîtes écrivîtes mîtes naquîtes peignîtes prîtes rejoignîtes rîtes sourîtes vainquîtes devîntes tîntes vîntes eûtes bûtes connûtes courûtes crûtes dûtes fûtes fallûtes lûtes mourûtes plûtes plûtes pûtes reçûtes sûtes valûtes vécûtes voulûtes firent écrivirent mirent naquirent peignirent prirent rejoignirent rirent sourirent vainquirent devinrent tinrent vinrent eurent burent connurent coururent crurent durent furent fallurent lurent moururent plurent plurent purent reçurent surent valurent vécurent voulurent connus connus .

it is shortened to qu'. que is the direct object of the clause it introduces • Il est l'homme que j'ai vu. even when followed by a vowel qui and que can modify both people and things • Je vois la voiture qui est cassé.He is the man that he has seen. . which literally mean that which. the past participle agrees with the direct object in gender and plurality if the direct object comes before the verb • Elles sont les femmes que j'ai vues.I see the car that is broken. .The man that did it is here. • L'homme qui l'a fait est ici. . remember that in perfect tenses. qui is never shortened. If que is folled by a vowel.They are the women that I have seen. ce is the noun [edit] V: French Revolution [edit] V: Democracy [edit] V: The Napoleonic Era [edit] .I see the man that did it. qui and que can modify both masculine and feminine nouns qui and que can modify both singular and plural nouns in the phrases ce qui and ce que. . . • Il est l'homme qu'il a vu.G: Relative Pronouns Qui and Que Les pronoms relatifs qui et que • • • • • • • • • • relative pronouns begin adjective clauses • the man that was here • the man that I saw qui is the subject of the clause it introduces • Je vois l'homme qui l'a fait. .He is the man that I have seen. but more naturally mean what.

V: Post-Napoleon France [edit] V: The Industrial Revolution [edit] V: The Enlightenment [edit] Les Lumières Jean-Jacques Rousseau Voltaire .

Denis Diderot .

you.09 • Modern France G: Past Conditional [edit] G: Comparative French Grammar • Modern France • audio (upload) The Comparative • Le Comparatif Adjectives Sub. you. Je I Comparative plus/aussi/moins more as much less Nouns Sub. Comparative Object que than que than que as toi. + Verb Je vois I see Comparative plus more moins less aussi as Comparative more as less Verb joue play Adjective intelligent intelligent intelligent intelligent intelligent intelligent Adverbs Adverb Comparative Object que than as than toi. plus/aussi/moins clairement clearly Verbs Sub. you. . + Verb Comparative Noun Comparative Object Comparative Object que than as than toi. you toi. you toi. + Verb Je suis I am Je suis I am Je suis I am Sub.3.

[edit] V: The 20th Century [edit] V: 20th Century Advancements and Changes Europaturm . G: Superlative [edit] G: Asking Questions Copy from French/Grammar/Sentences when complete.Je joue plus de autant de moins de more as many less jeux que than as than toi I play [edit] games toi.

Paris. France La Tour Eiffel [edit] . France Paris.

V: Modern War .

Past Part. [edit] Formation The future perfect is a perfect tense. and therefore consists of an auxiliary verb and a past perfect. Past Part. All rules that apply to the passé composé and other perfect tenses. avoir or être. This construction is used to say that before an event occurs. such as certain verbs using être as an auxiliary verb. Subject Être Conj.10 • Current Events G: Future Perfect In French. [edit] . The auxiliary verb. something else "will have" occured by that time. is conjugated in the future tense. French Grammar • Current events • audio (upload) The Future Perfect • Le futur antérieur parler j' tu il elle nous vous ils elles [edit] aurai auras aura aura aurons aurez auront auront parlé parlé parlé parlé parlé parlé parlé parlé je tu il elle nous vous ils elles passer serai seras sera sera serons serez seront seront passé(e) passé(e) passé passée passé(e)s passé(e)(s) passés passées Subject Avoir Conj.3. the future perfect tense is called the futur antérieur. appy to the future perfect as well. Use Phrases constructed in the future perfect tense mean "will have ___ed" in both French and English.

) le vandalisme l'acte de terrorisme (m.) or un attentat la criminalité [edit] burglar a thief fire vandalism terrorism crime V: European Union [edit] . current events news local news items the frontpage un hebdomadaire a weekly magazine se tenir informé(e) to stay informed V: France's Role in Global Politics [edit] V: French Social Problems le cambrioleur un voleur l'incendie (f.. [edit] V: News un quotidien l'actualité les nouvelles les faits divers la une [edit] a daily newspaper news..G: Demonstrative Pronouns [edit] G: Stating If.

il y a un candidat du PS et un candidat de l'UMP au deuxième tour. à la surprise générale. Le Président de la République est donc obligé de choisir un Premier Ministre ayant la majorité des députés à l'Assemblée Nationale. Jacques Chirac l'a largement emporté avec 80% des voix. Jean-Marie Lepen (FN) est arrivé deuxième au premier tour devant Lionel Jospin (PS). Le sénat : • Il est élu au suffrage indirect : seul les maires et les autres élus peuvent voter pour les sénateurs. En général. [edit] . • Le Président de la République est le chef des armées et il désigne le Premier Ministre. Les 2 candidats arrivant en tête au premier tour s'affrontent lors du deuxième tour.V: French Government French government • • L'élection présidentielle : • Le président de la république est élu pour 5 ans au suffrage universel direct. petits ou grands. Il existe aussi de nombreux candidats soutenus par aucun parti. Le Premier Ministre doit alors démissionner. proposent un candidat. L'élection comporte 2 tours : au premier tour la plupart des partis. Les sénateurs peuvent modifier certaines lois mais ont assez peu de pouvoir. • L'Assemblée Nationale vote les lois proposées par le gouvernement. Le second tour a donc opposé Jacques Chirac (UMP) et Jean-Marie Lepen (FN). • En 2001. L'Assemblée Nationale : • Les députés sont élus au suffrage universel direct à 2 tours. Il y a souvent entre 10 et 15 candidats au premier tour. • Les députés peuvent renversé le gouvernement si la politique qu'il conduit ne leur convient pas.

V: French Politics President of the Republic Jacques Chirac on the right. . French political party division.

GRA M M AR .

len Feminine Pronunciation: intéressant. Singular > -s -s un plafond bas des plafonds Notes No .Adjectives Regular Formation [edit] Spelling Most adjective changes occur in the following manner: • • Feminine: add an -e to the masculine form • un garçon intéressant --> une fille intéressante • un ami amusant --> une amie amusante • un camion lent --> une voiture lente Plural: add an -s to the singular form • un garçon intéressant --> des garçons intéressants • une fille intéressante --> des filles intéressantes [edit] Pronunciation Generally. such as those above. Masc. are affected by this rule. amusan. Most adjectives. -Masc. Plural Sing. the final consonant is pronounced only when it comes before an -e.M. • • Masculine Pronuciation: intéressan. amusant. > Pl. lent [edit] Irregular Formation [edit] Irregular Plural Formation Examples M -.

. cabbage). sociable. sympathique * When the masc. un pou (des poux. un caillou (des cailloux. un joujou (des joujoux. timide. énergique. louse). No change -e -el -il Final -on Consonant Doubled -en -os -as -eux -eux change -if -if change -Fem. récital et régal take an 's' Notes:While most -ou adjectives have an s added in the plural form. un hibou (des choux. cal. knee) Exceptions:landau (landaus). * The final consonant is pronounced on the masc. un genou (des genoux. pal. pneu (pneus) __x -ou -oux un bijou des bijoux [edit] Irregular Feminine Formation Examples Masc. there is no change. populaire. seven are the exception. toy ). owl). These are: un bijou (des bijoux. sarrau (sarraus) Exceptions:bleu (bleus). chacal. form. form ends in an -e. Masculine --> Feminine > Notes -e égoïste. stone)). dynamique.-x -x change -z -z -au -eu -eau -al -aux -eux -eaux -aux un gros porc un homme généreux un garçon furieux un gaz dangereux un journal un pieu un château un journal bas des gros porc des hommes généreux des garçons furieux des gaz dangereux des journaux des pieux des châteaux des journaux Exceptions:bal. jewel). festival. carnaval. un chou (des choux.

-en is pronounced euhn and -enne is pronounced ehne. There is no change of pronunciation when changing from -el to -elle and -il to -ille. "pauvre" can mean . but be careful. When it comes after the noun. -on is pronounced ohhn and -onne is pronounced uhhne. This rule works most of the time. it means unfortunate. However. -et is pronounced ay and -ète is pronounced ette. the ending of the feminine form is doubled. -as is pronounced ah and -asse is pronounced ahse. [edit] Special Rules [edit] Adjectives That Precede Nouns [edit] List Adjectives that are used frequently go before nouns. when pauvre goes before a noun.er change -er -et change -et -elle cruel -ille gentil bon -onne breton ancien -enne parisien -osse gros -asse bas furieux -euse généreux sportif -ive actif étranger -ère cher cruelle gentille bonne bretonne ancienne parisienne grosse basse -ète inquiet complet furieuse généreuse sportive active étrangère chère inquiète complète When an adjective has one of these endings. it means tall. Likewise. These are: • • • beau nouveau vieux bon mauvais petit grand long joli jeune gros [edit] Changes in Meaning When grand goes before a noun. when it goes after the noun. -eux is pronounced euhh and -euse is pronounced euhsse. it means financially poor. -os is pronounced oh and -osse is pronounced ohse. it means great. -er is pronounced ay and -ère is pronounced air.

ta. leur. It is not the owner who determines the gender of the possessive adjective but the object owned. ma. tes Third person singular . nos Second person plural (and polite form) . First person singular ."financially poor" even when used before the nouns.leur. sa. votre. Masc. [edit] Beau. In French. Vowel Beau un beau garçon un bel individu un nouveau Nouveau un nouvel ordre camion Vieux un vieux camion un vieil ordre [edit] Masc. ses First person plural .mon. Sing Cons. notre.notre.votre. Sing.ton. Plural de belles fillettes de nouvelles idées de vieilles idées Possessive Adjectives In English. and Vieux Masc. they say "sa voiture" even if the owner is a male. Plural de beaux garçons de nouveaux ordres de vieux camions Fem. Sing. Nouveau. we say "her car" when the owner of the car is a woman and "his car" when the owner is a man. mes Second person singular (informal) . leurs .son. (all) une belle fillette une nouvelle idée une vieille idée Fem. vos Third person plural .

this is done by adding the suffix -ment ("-ly") to the adjective's feminine singular form. then -ment is added to the masculine singular (default) form. as in English. like their English counterparts. however. are used to modify French/Grammar/Adjectives. and French/Grammar/Verbs or clauses. the feminine singular form of lent ("slow") is lente. many common adverbs are not derived from adjectives at all: • [edit] . then the corresponding adverb ends in -amment or -emment. respectively: • constant → constamment ("constant" → "constantly") • récent → récemment ("recent" → "recently") Some adjectives make other changes: • précis → précisément ("precise" → "precisely") • gentil → gentiment ("nice" → "nicely") Some adverbs are derived from adjectives in completely irregular fashions.Adverbs French adverbs. so the corresponding adverb is lentement ("slowly"). rather than to the feminine singular form: • vrai → vraiment ("real" → "really") • poli → poliment ("polite" → "politely") If the adjective ends in -ant or -ent. heureux → heureusement ("happy" → "happily"). similarly. [edit] Formation In French. As in English. They do not display any inflection. as in English. the adjective stem is sometimes modified to accommodate the suffix: • • • If the adjective ends in an i. For example. most adverbs are derived from adjectives. their form does not change to reflect their precise role. that is. not even using the suffix -ment: • • • • bon → bien ("good" → "well") mauvais → mal ("bad" → "badly") meilleur → mieux ("better"-adjective → "better"-adverb) pire → pis ("worse"-adjective → "worse"-adverb) ainsi ("thus" or "thusly") And. In most cases. other adverbs. nor any characteristics of what they modify.

afterwards On va au cinéma après We'll go the cinema afterwards 2. he began to walk" or "He began slowly to walk"). An adverb that modifies an adjective or adverb comes before that adjective or adverb: • • • complètement vrai ("completely true") pas possible ("not possible") tellement discrètement ("so discreetly") marcher lentement ("to walk slowly") ne pas marcher ("not to walk") Lentement il commença à marcher or Il commença lentement à marcher ("Slowly. unlike in English. also a preposition . Jamais je n'ai fait cela or Je n'ai jamais fait cela ("Never have I done that" or "I've never done that") An adverb that modifies an Infinitive (verbal noun) generally comes after the infinitive: • But negative adverbs.Placement The placement of French adverbs is almost the same as the placement of English adverbs. plus ("not any more"). this is true even of negative adverbs: • [edit] List of Common Adverbs • après 1. or before the clause: • Note that. and jamais come before the infinitive: • An adverb that modifies a main verb or clause comes either after the verb. such as pas ("not").

personne. objects and abstract concepts) have only one form.Gender Gender of Nouns In French. and the word for teacher. le stylo (the pen) can only be masculine. There are some nouns that express entities with gender for which there is only one form. that is. the two words for "actor" in French are acteur (m) and actrice (f). For example. is always feminine. This form can be masculine or feminine. Most nouns that express entities with gender (people and animals) use both a feminine form and a masculine form. even if the person is male. is always masculine even if the teacher is female. which is used regardless of the actual gender of the entity. for example. The nouns that express entities without gender (e. Examples French Grammar • Gender • audio (info • 113 kb • help) Gender of Nouns • Genre des Noms Masculine le cheval le chien le livre le bruit the horse the dog the book the noise Feminine la colombe la chemise la maison the dove the shirt the house Common Endings Used With Masculine Nouns: -age -r -t -isme le fromage the cheese le professeur the teacher le chat the cat le capitalisme capitalism Common Endings Used With Feminine Nouns: -ie -ion la boulangerie the bakery la nation the nation -ite/-ité la fraternité . the word for person. all nouns have a grammatical gender. professeur. they are masculine or feminine for the purposes of grammar only.. for example.g. la voiture (the car) can only be feminine.

In French. and "L' " is used when the noun begins with a vowel or silent "h" (both masculine or feminine). Then there are some that just don't make sense. "La" is used for feminine nouns. Gender 2. the definite article is changed depending on the noun's: 1. Plurality 3. but une livre (f) means a pound! Some words that appear to be masculine (like la photo. To help overcome this hurdle which many beginners find very difficult. la foi is feminine and means a belief. First letter of the word There are three definite articles and an abbreviation. starting with a vowel sound les enfants the children .brotherhood la liberté liberty -nce -nne -mme -lle la balance the scales la fille the girl l’indienne the Indian Unfortunately. which is actually short for la photographie) are in fact feminine. French Grammar • Gender • audio (info • 78 kb • help) The Definite Article • L'article défini singular feminine le la la fille the daughter le fils the son l’ l’enfant les filles plural les les fils the child the daughters the sons singular. the definite article is always “the”. "Le" is used for masculine nouns. there are many exceptions in French which can only be learned. "Les" is used for plural nouns (both masculine or feminine). where "a" changes to "an" before a vowel. It is similar to english. un livre (m) means a book. [edit] Definite and Indefinite Articles [edit] The Definite Article In English. There are even words that are spelled the same. whereas le foie means liver. be sure to learn the genders along with the words. for example. and vice versa. but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine.

The articles "Un" and "une" literally mean "one" in French. you would say "Je regarde les photographs. "Je regard des photographs. Again. the definite article is used to talk about something in a general sense. If you were looking at a set of specific pictures. elles 3rd person . French Grammar • Gender • audio (info • 55 kb • help) The Indefinite Article • L'article indéfini singular plural 1"des feminine une une fille a daughter un fils a son des filles some daughters des fils1 some sons masculine un des fils" does mean "some sons" but is an homograph: it can also mean "some threads" Also note that des. "Some" is used as a plural article in English. Let's imagine you are looking at photographs in an album.") [edit] Subject pronouns French has six different types of pronouns: the 1st. indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality. you cannot say. the indefinite articles are "a" and "an". one they (masculine) they (feminine) When referring to more than one person in the 2nd person. she. looking at nothing in particular. French Grammar • Gender • audio (info • 61 kb • help) Subject Pronouns • Les pronoms soumis 1st person 2nd person singular je plural plural nous vous singular tu I we you you singular il. like les is used in French before plural nouns when no article is used in English. elle. and 3rd person plural. In English." ("I am looking at the photographs. 2nd. on he. a general statement or feeling about an idea or thing. When referring to a plural ils. we would say "I am looking at photographs. you would say." In French. “vous” must be used. "Je regard photographs.") If you were just flipping through the album." ("I am looking at some photographs.Note: Unlike English." you must tell which photographs you are looking at using an article. 2nd. and 3rd person singular and the 1st. [edit] The Indefinite Article In English.

Also. as discussed in lesson 1. instead of “nous”. see the Wikipedia entry. to say "We (are) meeting at 7 o'clock". so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun. they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle". if a group of people consists of both males and females. . “on” is used. you could say either “On se rencontre au cinéma à sept heures. For example. While in English.” (formal). “vous” or “tu” may be used depending on the situation. even if there is only one male in a group of thousands of females. the verb is always used in the 3rd person singular. the French equivalent "On doit faire très attention à la grammaire française" is quite acceptable. However. but most closely matches the now archaic English "one". the French equivalents "ils" and "elles" do. the male form is used. see notes in lesson 1. when pronounced. Also. French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns. while the third person plural "they" has no gender in English. to express “we”. The French third person "on" has several meanings. In addition to the nuances between vous and tu. In everyday language.” (colloquial) or “Nous nous rencontrons au cinéma à sept heures. For more. "One must be very careful in French grammar" sounds old-fashioned.single person.

. either direct or indirect.I did not give it too anyone. • Je ne veux pas voler.I do not steal..ni.I did not steal it.aucun(e)....I want to not steal. None.I am not able to see neither my brother nor my sister.. • Je n'ai pas volé.I have never stolen.I do not want to give it to anybody.. ...I do not want to steal. . . .. [edit] Other Negative Expressions ne. • Je ne l'ai donné à personne.He has no sheet of paper. ne.nor ne.. .ni.pas • • • • • Simple negation is done by wrapping ne.jamais ne.pas du tout not at all ne.Negation ne..... None. • Je veux ne pas voler.ni not any. ...He has no friend. When an infinitive and conjugated verb are together. • Je ne peux voir ni mon frère ni ma sœur. • Il n'a aucun ami... .plus no longer • ne.personne wraps around the entire verb set. • In ne. • Je ne veux le donner à personne.pas wraps around the auxillary verb..pas around the verb.. ni à ma sœur. In a perfect tense. • ne.. Aucune.. and comes before them.I gave it neither to my brother nor my sister. . no never neither.. • Je ne le vole pas..aucun(e) ne. ne goes before any pronoun relating to the verb it affects.personne nobody ne..pas encore not yet ne...ni requires two objects. aucun(e) goes before an object. ne pas can also go directly in front of the infinitive for a different meaning. • Je ne l'ai donné ni à mon frère.. • Il n'a aucune feuille de papier..pas usually wraps around the conjugated verb.. not the participle. . • Je ne vole pas. .. . Aucun. ne. none.. .

the 'ne' sometimes disappears when one speaks. it is always used in written French and in formal conversations.[edit] Spoken French Now. However. • • Je l'ai donné à personne (I didn't give it to anyone) Je sais pas (I don't know) .

Prepositions Common Prepositions Prepostion Translation Example Je vais à Paris. besides inside after beyond with at the home of against in 1. price. manner. -. -This is John's car. from 2.Introduced a complement of indirect object or a complement of attribution.(golf) par . Notes -Expresses a report/ratio of place (to). of 4. des IPA: /də/ Also a noun: le par . Je pars à cinq heures.I am leaving at five C'est un ami à moi. Contractions: du. to 2. à 1. a complement of the name or adjective. Also a pronoun. . La paille est contre la maison the straw is against the house Synonym: en Also an indefinite artcle. possession (of or 's). means. Alternative: dedans (rarely used as a preposition) On mange après avoir bu We eat after we drink Also an adverb. time (at). at 3. through Used mostly to indicate distance in time or space. C'est la voiture à John. of. in à côté de à l'intérieur de après au-dela avec chez contre dans de dehors derrière devant en entre ici loin de par next to. Also a cinjugation of the verb entrer.I am going to Paris. about outside behind in front of in between here far 1. -.This is a friend of mine. -.

by. above 5. according to 2.près de pour sans selon 2.penny. peanuts Synonyms: au-dessus de (above) Antonyms: sous (below. under) Antonyms: dessous. on 2. on top of 4. under 1. upon 3. au-dessous-de (below) Also an adjective: m sing. out of 6. in accordance with below. wothless thing. sept sur dix (seven out of ten) IPA: /pur/ sous Related term: dessous Also a noun: m pl of sou . for near for without 1. meaning sour IPA: /syr/ (audio) sur .

you. these pronouns go before the auxillary verb. she) . moi Second person singular (you) .Vous Third person plural (them) . to me te . • Je veux te voir.Nous Second person plural (you) . . Elles (female) [edit] me. informal) lui . If a perfect tense is used.I saw you.Vous (polite). and vous • Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns [edit] Meanings • • • • • • me .Il (male). to you (plural.I see you.to him nous .Je. nous. .us.me. to us vous .you. [edit] . to you (singular. formal) leurs .Pronouns Subject Pronouns • • • • • • First person singular (I. Tu (informal. . te. Elle (female) First person plural (we) .to them [edit] Place in sentences • • These pronouns are placed before the verb that they modify • Je te vois.I want to see you. well-known acquaintances only) Third person singular (he. me) .Ils (male). • Je t'ai vu.

He throws the ball to Mary. They replace nouns referring to people and mean to him/her . • • • Il jette la boule à Jacques. .He calls to me. . .He throws it.replaces le and la if they come before a vowel les . Il te le jette. [edit] Indirect Object Replacement • • • • Il m'appelle.Direct Object Replacement • • • • Il me voit. .He sees you. Il vous le jette. .He sees me. A direct object is a noun that receives the action of a verb.replaces a masculine singular direct object la . Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns.. both masculine and feminine Il la jette.He throws it to us. . .)..He throws the ball. • • [edit] lui and leur Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preoposition An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb.He throws the ball to Jack and Mary.He sees you. Il vous voit. Il nous voit. • Il jette la boule. . . .He throws it to you. . Il nous le jette. and les le. In the above sentence la boule is the direct object.He sees us.He throws them. tu. . can be replaced by pronouns. la. You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns (je.replaces a feminine singular direct object l' . la. Il les jette. [edit] le. you guessed it. • • • • le . because they are pronouns that are. Il jette la boule à Jacques et Marie.He throws the ball to Jack. Il te voit. Similary.He throws it to you. Il jette la boule à Marie. and les are called direct object pronouns. The direct object pronouns come before the verb they are linked to. . direct objects.replaces plural direct objects. used as direct object. such as "la boule". .

replaces a plural masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human Il lui jette la boule. la. and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de. Note that lui and leur. In English. When used with the direct object pronouns le. Il leur jette la boule. and les.He throws the ball to her.to it. [edit] .Les hommes y vont.there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preoposition except de (for which en is used). . . and means the same thing. • • Les hommes vont en France. to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à. • Il la lui jette. • • lui . Also note that unlike le and la. which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel. lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things. Note that en. [edit] Replacement of Places . An example follows: • • • Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context. . are used when the the object refers the a person or persons. Note that while le. . la. and not y. and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects.J' y réponds.and to them respectively. .The men go there. • • Je réponds aux questions.He throws it to him.I respond to them. I respond to the questions. Il lui jette la boule. lui and leur come after those pronouns. "He throws him the ball" is also said. . The men go to France .He throws the ball to him. lui is never shortened [edit] y [edit] Indirect Object Pronoun .He throws the ball to them. .replaces a singular masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human leur .

. • Je viens de Paris.It's Done! J'y suis! . . and not en are used if the object refers to a person or persons.I come from Paris.I come from it.Idioms • • Ça y est! .I get it! [edit] en [edit] Replacement of a Partitive Construction [edit] Replacement of Quantified Nouns [edit] Replacement of Phrases withde • • The pronoun en replaces prepositional phrases beginning with de if the object of the preposition is referring to a thing or place. . the pronouns are embedded as follows: Subject Pronoun Neg (or noun) je tu il (elle) ne nous vous ils (elles) Direct or Indirect Direct Obj Indirect Pronouns Objects Neg me le te la nous l' vous les se (reflexive) lui leur pas conjugated past y en plus verb participle etc. • J' en viens.. Note that stress pronouns. [edit] Pronoun Order [edit] Order Chart If a sentence uses no infinitive. .

la. the pronouns are embedded as follows: Subject Direct or Direct Obj Indirect Pronoun Neg Neg Indirect Pronouns Objects (or noun) je me tu le pas te il (elle) conjugated past la lui ne plus nous y en infinitive nous verb participle l' leur etc. [edit] Possesive Pronouns Possessive pronouns replace possessive article + noun sets.He gave it to him/her. . [edit] L'impératif When expressing positive commands. • Donnez-le-moi. . and les precede all other object pronouns. and vous go first. When a sentence uses the indirect object pronouns lui and leur with the direct object pronouns le. there are several rules one must remember when using object pronouns. le. y goes after all of them with the exception of en. te. • Retrouve-la.There exist several ones.Find it. and vous with the direct object pronouns le. .He takes me to Paris. • Il le lui donne. Theses are: • • • The pronouns are attached the the verb with a hyphen.He takes me there.Give me the videos. • Il m'y emmène. . nous. When y is used in the same sentence as other pronouns. • Il m'emmène à Paris. When there are two pronouns in a sentence.. te. vous vous les se (reflexive) ils (elles) [edit] Order Rules • • • • • When a sentence uses the indirect object pronouns me. . me. and les. . Le.. and les go first. Y in conjunction with en is only used a few times. nous. • Donnez-moi les vidéos. la. la. . .If a sentence uses an infinitive. . la. Me and Te become moi and toi. and les.He gave it to me. en always go last. • Il me le donne.Give it to me. • Il y en a.

nous avons la nôtre.Yes.Is that your car? Oui. .You have your car? • Oui. it is mine. elle est à moi. les vôtres yours les leurs theirs À + a stress pronoun is used when the noun replaced is also the subject of the sentence. .French Grammar • Pronouns • audio (upload) Possesive Pronouns • Les pronoms possesifs mon copain ton copain son copain notre copain votre copain leur copain my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend le mien mine le tien yours le sien his/hers le nôtre ours le vôtre yours le leur theirs mes copains tes copains ses copains nos copains vos copains leurs copains my friends your friends his/her friends our friends your friends their friends les miens mine ma copine my friend la mienne mine les tiens yours les siens his/hers les nôtres ours les vôtres yours les leurs theirs ta copine sa copine notre copine votre copine leurs copine your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend le tienne yours le sienne his/hers la nôtre ours la vôtre yours la leur theirs mes copines tes copines ses copines nos copines vos copines leurs copines my friends your friends his/her friends our friends your friends their friends les miennes les tiennes les siennes les nôtres mine yours his/hers ours • Vous avez votre voiture? . . we have ours. • • Elle est ta voiture? .Yes. This usually occurs in sentences with être.

Direct Object . [edit] Inversion [edit] Question Words • • • • Où? ....How? .Verb ..Indirect Object [edit] If.When? Pourquoi? . Si. [edit] Interrogation [edit] Formation [edit] Intonation [edit] Est-ce que.Why? Comment? ..Sentences Subject ..Where? Quand? .

[edit] Commands Main article: French/Grammar/Tenses/Imperative .

Tenses Moods • • • • L'Indicatif (The Indicative Mood) L'Impératif (The Imperative Mood) Le Conditionnel (The Conditional Mood) Le Subjonctif (The Subjunctive Mood) [edit] Verb Tenses Sorted by Mood [edit] L'infinitif (The Infinitive) • • L'infinitif (The Infinitive) L'infinitif passé. (The Past Infinitive) [edit] L'indicatif (The Indicative Mood) Simple Tenses Présent de l'indicatif (Present Indicative) Imparfait de l'indicatif (Imperfect) Passé simple (Literary Past) Futur (Future) Perfect Tenses Passé composé (Past) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (Farthest Past Indicative) Passé antérieur (Farther Past) Futur antérieur (Future Past) Passé du subjonctif (Subjunctive Past) Components of Perfect Tenses Participe présent (Present Participle) Participe passé (Past Participle) Auxiliary Verb .

Other Tenses Passé récent (Near Past) Futur proche (Near Future) [edit] Le subjonctif (The Subjunctive Mood) • • • • Le subjonctif (The Subjunctive) L'imparfait du subjonctif (The Imperfect Subjunctive) Le subjonctif passé (The Past Subjunctive) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect Subjunctive) [edit] L'impératif (The Imperative Mood) • • L'impératif (The Imperative) L'impératif passé (The Past Imperative) [edit] Le conditionnel (The Conditional Mood) • • • Le conditionnel (The Conditional) Le conditionnel passé (The Past Conditional) Le deuxième forme du conditionnel passé (The Second Form of the Past Conditional) [edit] Verb Tenses Sorted by Type [edit] Simple Tenses Présent de l'indicatif (Present Indicative) Imparfait de l'indicatif (Imperfect) Passé simple (Literary Past) Futur (Future) Conditionnel (Conditional) Présent du subjonctif (Present Subjunctive) Imparfait du subjonctif (Imperfect Subjunctive) [edit] .

Perfect Tenses Passé Composé (Perfect Past) Plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (Farthest Past Indicative) Plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (Farthest Past Subjunctive) Passé antérieur (Farther Past) Futur antérieur (Future Past) Conditionnel passé (Conditional Past) Passé du subjonctif (Subjunctive Past) [edit] Perfect Tense Components Participe présent (Present Participle) Participe passé (Past Participle) Auxiliary Verb [edit] Other Tenses Passé récent (Recent Past) Futur proche (Near Future) L'Impératif (Imperative) L'impératif passé (Past Imperative) .

are in italics. only the masculine form will be used for the sake of brevity. For instance. . Literary tenses. In tables showing the endings or conjugations of verbs. The general uses of a particular mood will be covered in the page linkd to by the section heading. In this appendix. it is assumed that the reader will know that derivative verbs are similarly conjugated. devenir and revenir follow the same patterns as venir. Derivatives of a verb are conjugated in the same manner as that verb. The verb tenses here are organized by mood. an accent mark is shown without a letter below it indicates that the accent mark is placed above the last letter of the stem.Verbs • • • • Irregular Verb Conjugations Verb Negations Reflexive verbs Verb Tenses General Notes • • • • • The masculine form and feminine form of the third person are conjugated in exactly the same manner. Instead of mentioning both. when the conjugation of the root verb is given. One may assume that il includes elle and ils includes elles unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. which are only used in formal writing.

Appendices .

[edit] Les mois de l'année • The months of the year. • Les jours de la semaine. and numbers • audio (upload) The Days of the Week. # French Pronunciation luhndee mahrdee maircruhdee juhdee vahndruhdee sahmdee English Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Origin Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn 1 lundi 2 mardi 3 mercredi 4 jeudi 5 vendredi 6 samedi 7 dimanche deemahnsh Sunday Sun • The days of the week are not capitalized in French. • For phrases relating to the day of the week. and numbers • audio (upload) The Months of the Year • Les mois de l'année # 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 French janvier février mars avril mai juin juillet Pron. [lay mwah duh lahnay] French Vocabulary • Dates.Dates. and Numbers Les jours de la semaine • The days of the week. see the phrasebook. time. jzahnveeyay fayvreeyay mahrse ahvrill maye jzwan jzooeeyay English January February March April May Juin July . [lay jzoor duh lah suhmen] French Vocabulary • Dates. time. Time.

see the common French phrases appendix [edit] V: Seasons le printemps l'été l'automne l'hiver spring summer autumn winter [edit] Les numéros French Vocabulary • Dates. For phrases relating to the months of the year. and numbers • audio (info • 337 kb • help) Numbers • Les nombres Cardinal Numbers 001-019 # French Pron.08 09 10 11 12 • • août septembre octobre novembre oot/oo septahmbruh oktuhbruh novahmbruh August September October November decembre daysahmbruh December The months of the year are not capitalized in French. time. English # Cardinal Numbers 02 020 vingt 021 vingt et un vahn vahntay uhn French Pronunciat 2n deuxième deuhzee ehm d 3rd troisième trawhzee ehm 4th quatrième catree ehm 5th cinquième sankee ehm 6th sixième 7th septième 8th huitième seesee ehm setee ehm weetee ehm 2ième second 3ième third 4ième fourth 5ième fifth 6ième sixth Numbers twenty-two to twen configured in the form of vin For example twenty-two is v 030 trente 031 trente et un trahnt trahntay uhn Numbers thrity-two to thirtyconfigured in the form of tren 7ième seventh For example thrity-three is tr 8ième eighth 040 quarante cahrahnt . zairo uhn deuh trawh catr sank seese set weet English zero one two three four five six seven eight 1st premier(èr prem me ay e) (air) 1er first # 000 zéro 001 un 002 deux 003 trois 004 quatre 005 cinq 006 six 007 sept 008 huit Ordinal Numbers 001-010 French Pronunciation Abbr.

une dizaine (one ten) une douzaine (one dozen) 100 200-900 1. it looks much like this list already save that "cent" is added before the rest of the number. For example forty-four is qua 050 cinquante sankaunte 051 cinquante sankauntay u et un 014 quatorze catorz 015 quinze 016 seize canz sehz Numbers fifty-two to fifty-ni configured in the form of cin 10]. For example seventy is soixante-dix (60-10).000 1.41.000. and seventy-seven is soixante-dix-sept (60-10-7).000. .009 neuf 010 dix 011 onze 012 douze 013 treize neuhf deese ohn dooz trehz nine ten eleven tweleve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen 9th neuvième neuhvee ehm 10t dixième h deezee ehm 9ième ninth 10ièm tenth e 041 quarante cahrahntay u et un Numbers forty-two to forty-n configured in the form of qua 10].etc) have "et un". ninty is quatre-vingt-dix (4*2010). For example sixty-six is soix • This pattern changes slightly after the sixties: • Numbers seventy to seventy-nine are configured in the form of soixante-[10-19].neuf] cents mille (un) million (un) milliard 1. and ninty-four is quatre-vingt-quatorze(4*20-14). it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for 8099 • Only the first (21.51. but past this it is simply both words consecutivly (vingt-six. |080||quatre-vingts||catr vahn||eighty • Numbers eighty-one to ninty-nine are configured in the form of quatre-vingts-[01-19]. For example fifty-five is cinq 060 soixante 061 soixante swahsahnt 017 dix-sept deeset swahsahntay uhn 018 dix-huit deezweet eighteen 019 dix-neuf deeznuf • nineteen Numbers sixty-two to sixty-n configured in the form of soi 10]. this continues up to 1000 and onward.000 un millier (one thousand) une centaine (one hundred) • • cent [deux .000 • For 70-79.000. For example eighty-one is quatre-vingt-un (4*20-one). trente-trois. etc) • For 100-199. seventy-three is soixante-treize (60-13).31.

1799) [edit] .1778) Denis Diderot (1713 .a.1784) Beaumarchais (1732 .French Authors Middle Age • Chrétien de Troyes (around 1135 .around 1183) [edit] 16th century • • • Francois Rabelais (around 1483 or 1494 – 1553) Pierre de Ronsard (1524 – 1585) Louise Labé (a.1650) Pierre Corneille (1606–1684) Jean de La Fontaine (1621–1695) Molière (1622–1673) Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Charles Perrault (1628–1703) Jean Racine (1639–1699) [edit] 18th century • • • • • • Marivaux (1688–1763) Montesquieu (1689–1755) Voltaire (1694–1778) Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 .1565) [edit] 17th century • • • • • • • René Descartes (1596 .1526 .

1980) Robert Merle (1908 . .1918) [edit] 20th century • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Paul Claudel (1868 .1857) Charles Baudelaire (1821 .1880) Jules Verne (1828 .1998) Georges Perec (1936 .1955) Marcel Proust (1871 .1963) Louis-Ferdinand Céline (1894 .1976) Jean-Paul Sartre (1905 .1848) Honoré de Balzac (1799 .1896) Henri Bergson (1859 .1977) André Malraux (1901 .1897) Emile Zola (1840 .1902) Paul Verlaine (1844 .1966) Jacques Prévert (1900 .1885) Alexandre Dumas (1802 .19th century • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • François-René de Chateaubriand (1768 .1870) George Sand (1804 .1922) Guillaume Apollinaire (1880 .1974) André Breton (1896 .1876) Alfred de Musset (1810 .1961) Jean Giono (1895 .1905) Alphonse Daudet (1840 .1850) Victor Hugo (1802 .2004) Nicolas Bouvier (1929 .1941) Edmond Rostand (1868 .1976) Raymond Queneau (1903 .1970) Marcel Pagnol (1895 .1870) Prosper Mérimée (1803 .1982) [edit] Links List of French authors in the french wikipedia.1867) Gustave Flaubert (1821 .1918) Jean Cocteau (1892 .

qu'est-ce que. tout.qui.ce que. toutes [edit] false cognates [edit] ap/em/porter [edit] a/em/mener [edit] em/s'en aller/vouloir/s'enfuir/s'envoler [edit] pronominal verbs with meanings different than regular version [edit] tomber [edit] .Hints and Common Errors quoi.est-ce que.qui est-ce qui [edit] tous.que.

plus [edit] bon vs bien [edit] capitalization [edit] an/année. jour/journée [edit] negation other that ne. faire mal. ce vs il vs one [edit] mal. le mal. etc .pas in detail [edit] c'est vs il est. malade. malaise..

. see that page.French History See: European History For the history of this book.

Nations of the World A French l'Afghanistan (m) l'Afrique du Sud (f) l'Albanie (f) l'Algérie (f) l'Allemagne (f) Andorre (f) l'Angleterre (f) l'Angola (f) l'Arabie saoudite (f) l'Argentine (f) l'Arménie (f) Aruba l'Australie (f) l'Autriche (f) l'Azerbaïdjan (f) [edit] English Afghanistan South Africa Albania Algeria Germany Andorra England Angola Saudi Arabia Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Antigua-et-Barbuda (m) Antigua and Barbuda B French le Bahreïn le Bangladesh la Barbade la Belgique English Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium les Bahamas (f) The Bahamas .

le Belize le Bénin le Bhoutan la Biélorussie la Birmanie la Bolivie le Botswana le Brésil le Brunéi la Bulgarie le Burundi [edit] Belize Benin Bhutan Belarus Burma Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burundi le Burkina-Faso Burkina Faso C French le Cambodge le Cameroun le Canada le Cap-Vert le Chili la Chine Chypre (f) la Colombie les Comores (f) le Congo English Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Chile China Cyprus Columbia Comores Congo la Corée du Nord North Korea la Corée du Sud South Korea le Costa Rica la Côte d'Ivoire la Croatie Cuba [edit] Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba .

D French Djibouti English Djibouti le Danemark Denmark la Dominique Dominica [edit] E French l'Écosse (f) l'Égypte (f) les Émirats arabes unis (m) l'Équateur (m) l'Érythrée (f) l'Espagne (f) l'Estonie (f) les Étas-Unis (m) l'Éthiopie (f) [edit] Scotland Egypt The United Arab Emirates Equador Eritrea Spain Estonia The United States Ethiopia English F French English les Fidji (f) Fiji la Finlande Finland la France [edit] France G French le Gabon la Gambie English Gabon Gambia .

la Géorgie le Ghana la Grèce la Grenade le Guatemala la Guinée la Guinée-Bissao la Guyana [edit] Georgia Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guniea Guinea-Bissau Guyana la Guinée-équatoriale Equatorial Guinea H French Haïti la Hongrie [edit] English Haiti Hungary le Honduras Honduras I French l'Île Maurice (f) les Îles Cook (f) les Îles Marshall (f) les Îles Salomon (f) l'Inde (f) l'Indonésie (f) l'Iran (m) l'Iraq/l'Irak (m) l'Irlande (f) l'Islande (f) Israël (m) l'Italie (f) English Mauritius Cook Islands Marshall Islands Solomon Islands India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Iceland Israel Italy .

[edit] J French le Japon English Japan la Jamaïque Jamaica la Jordanie Jordan [edit] K French le Kenya Kiribati (f) le Koweït [edit] English Kenya Kiribati Kuwait le Kazakhstan Kazakhstan le Kirghizstan Kyrgyzstan L French le Laos le Lesotho la Lettonie le Liban le Libéria la Libye la Lituanie English Laos Lesotho Latvia Lebanon Liberia Libya Lithuania le Lichtenstein Lichtenstein le Luxembourg Luxembourg [edit] .

M French la Macédoine la Malaisie le Malawi le Mali Malte le Maroc la Mauritanie le Mexique la Micronésie la Moldavie Monaco la Mongolie English Macedonia Malaysia Malawi Mali Malta Morocco Mauritania Mexico Micronesia Moldavia Monaco Mongolia Madagascar (f) Madagascar les Maldives (f) The Maldives le Mozambique Mozambique [edit] N French la Namibie la Nauru le Népal le Nicaragua le Niger le Nigeria la Norvège English Namibia Nauru Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway la Nouvelle-Zélande New Zealand [edit] O French English .

l'Oman (m) Oman l'Ouganda (m) Uganda l'Ouzbékistan Uzbekistan [edit] P French le Pakistan le Panama le Paraguay les Pays-Bas (m) le Pays de Galles (m) le Pérou les Philippines (f) la Pologne la Polynésie français le Portugal [edit] English Pakistan Panama Paraguay The Netherlands Wales Peru The Philippines Poland French Polynesia Portugal la Papouaise-Nouvelle-Guinée Papua New Guinea Q French English le Qatar Qatar [edit] R French English la République centrafricaine Central African Republic la République dominicaine Dominican Republic la République tchèque la Roumanie le Royaume-Uni la Russie Czech Republic Romania The United Kingdom Russia .

le Rwanda [edit] Rwanda S French Saint-Christophe-et-Niévès (m) Sainte-Lucie (f) Saint-Marin (m) le Saint-Siège (le Vatican) Saint-Vincent-et-les-Grenadines (m) le Salvador les Samoa (f) Sao Tomé et Principe (m) le Sénégal les Seychelles (f) la Sierra Leone Singapour la Slovaquie la Slovénie la Somalie le Soudan le Sri Lanka la Suède la Suisse le Surinam le Swaziland la Syrie [edit] Saint Lucia San Marino The Holy See (The Vatican) Saint Vincent and the Grenadines El Salvador Samoa Sao Tomé and Principe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Somalia Sudan Sri Lanka Sweden Switzerland Surinam Swaziland Syria English Saint Kitts and Nevis T French la Tanzanie English Tanzania le Tadjikistan (m) Tajikistan .

le Tchad la Thaïlande le Togo les Tonga (f) la Tunisie le Turkménistan la Turquie Tuvalu [edit] Chad Thailand Togo Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Turkey Tuvalu Trinité-et-Tobago Trinidad and Tobago U French l'Ukraine (f) English Ukraine l'Uruguay (m) Uruguay [edit] V French Vanuatu le Vatican English Vanuatu The Vatican le Venezuela Venezuela le Viêt-Nam Vietnam [edit] W [None] [edit] X [None] [edit] .

Y le Yémen la Yougoslavie (m) [edit] Yemen Yugoslavia Z French la Zambie English Zambia le Zimbabwe Zimbabwe .

it goes./Bye. Sir. ça va. It goes well. Abbr.Phrasebook TravelWiki phrase book Greeting People French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (upload) Greetings • Les salutations Salut Ça va? Bonjour Bonsoir Hi. Comme-ci. Not Bad So-So Titles French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (upload) Titles • Les titres French Singular Monsieur Plural Messieurs. comme-ça. Très bien. merci. muhsyur mehsyur English. [edit] Yes. Very well. Gentlemen. thanks. Usage Mr. Pronunciation M. (informal) (more formal than salut) (all day) bun nwee How's it going? (Lit:It goes?) Hello Good evening Bonne nuit Good night [edit] Answers to Ça va? French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (upload) How are you? • Ça va? Oui. Ça va bien. thanks. merci.. . Pas mal.

Ladies Singular Mademoiselle lle Plural Mesdemoiselles M [edit] mahdmqoizell Miss. A bientôt. Je t'en prie. De rien. À tout à l'heure. Good-bye.) (No problem. Au revoir. Merci (beaucoup). la date. la temps Asking for the day. À demain. Bye. S'il vous plaît. Young lady maydmwahzell Young ladies Courtesy French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (upload) Courtesy • La politesse Please Thanks (a lot) S'il te plaît..) shtahn pree (informal) jzuh vooz ahn pree (formal) (Lit: If you please. See you! Asking for the day/date/time French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (upload) Asking For The Day. Date. Je vous en prie [edit] (Lit: Of nothing.Singular Madame Plural Mesdames Mme mahdamn maydahm Mrs. Good-bye.) (formal). 1a Aujourd'hui c'est quel jour? Today is what day? ojzoordwee say kell jzoor . (informal) ohvwahr (rev not pronounced) ah toot ah luhre ah byantoe chow (Italian) See you tomorrow. You're welcome.) (Lit: Not of what. Ciao [edit] Hi. ah duhman (Lit: To/Until Tomorrow) See you soon. Time • Demander le jours. Ma'am./Bye. Pas de quoi. French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (upload) Good-bye • Au revoir Salut.

2a Demain c'est quel jour 2b Demain c'est [jour]. Asking for the date. Quelle est la date (aujourd'hui)? Today is [day]. 4a Quelle heure est-il? 4b Il est quelle heure? 5 Il est [nombre] heure(s). kell er ayteel eel ay kell er eelay [nombre] er 3a kell ay lah daht 3b C'est le [#] [month]. Physical and mental health [edit] Reacting to events [edit] Thanking [edit] Complementing [edit] (Dis)agreeing [edit] Inviitaions [edit] . Tomorrow is what day? Duhman say kell jzoor Tomorrow is [day]. Asking for the time. [edit] What hour/time is it? It is [number] hours. What is the date (today)? It's [month] [#].1b Aujourd'hui c'est [jour].

Meetings [edit] Expressing opinions .

depending greatly upon your overall fluency in spoken French. comment.e. Therefore the translation of 'fuck' into french depends on the corresponding part of speech. as a foreigner. When doing this with interrogatives (qui. only the raised tone at the end of the sentence. exclamation. it is important to maintain a consistency of style.with a strong accent and odd rythym of speech-. i. I totally was just like 'fuck off o-sheezy'". think on how it would sound to you if a foreigner-. place them at the end of the sentence.came up to you and said "Dude. it is quite finely rawkin'". etc. [edit] Slang: consistency & style To use slang effeciently. no matter how much slang you use in your native language. what a sketchy-ass hater that bizz-natch was. verb. [edit] Examples noun .Slang Notes on how to use slang [edit] Foreign speakers It is important to note that. Therefore. There is no such equivalent usage of any word in the French language. Mixing styles might sound like saying: "Thy face. adjective. and others. "On va bouffer quand?" [edit] Translating 'Fuck' The English term 'fuck' is exceptional as it can serve as noun. quand. Avoid subject-verb inversion in questions. To understand this.). • • Avoid vous unless a plural is necessary. Use rather question formations where there is no inversion or 'est-ce que'. limiting your use of slang in French (proportionally to your level of fluency) will also limit how much you are patronized and giggled at by native listeners. your use of slang will often be received as cute or funny.

j'essaie de bosser" exclamation "Fuck!" = "Merde !" .: these can also be compounded in French.e. "Bordel !" n.b. gargle with water. là. "Putain !" . niquer. That is what your throat should be doing when pronouncing the R. i. an idiot ah-BROO-tee . insulting: foutre. enculer "I fucked up on my French test" = "J'ai raté/niqué mon examen de français" "I fucked (up) my car" = "J'ai niqué ma bagnole" "He fucked me over" = "Il m'a trahi" "I fucked your mom" = "J'ai baisé/niqué ta mère" "Fuck off" = "Fous-moi la paix".. see the scene in the film Matrix Reloaded with the Frenchman in the restaurant) [edit] Glossary Notes on Pronunciation: *To feel how R should be pronounced. "Putain de merde !" "Putain de bordel de merde" (for stringing these together. A retard. but the lips should be in a tight circle as if you are saying "ooo". then try gargling without water. The back of the throat should be stretched out as if you see a mouse and are saying "eee!". ça craint"/"C'est bordelique"/"C'est de la merde" "I am so fucked-up" = "Ça va pas du tout" (mental state). "Fous le camp" (see the verb 'Foutre') "Fuck you"/"Go fuck yourself" = "Va te faire foutre/enculer" adjective "This is fucking awful" = "Putain."He's a great fuck" = "Il est bien baisable" (although 'baisable' = fuckable) "He is such a fuck(er)" = "C'est un enfoiré/enculé/connard/salaud" (insert any insult) "He's such a fuck-up" = "C'est un pauvre con/un raté" verb sexual: baiser. "J'suis totalement bourré(e)" (drunk) adverb "I am trying to fucking work here" = "Putain. *The U is hardest for English speakers.. Audio1 Audio2 Audio3 Audio4 Abruti(e) n. coucher avec .

Short for après-midi.. often used at the beginning of a phrase.. short for 'adolescent' AH-doh Apero n. for 'well'. addict ack-RO Ado n. Slang for 'high school' (formerly for 'factory') Barj' or Barjot adj....... short for 'appartement' ah-PARR Aprèm n. a crazy person BARge BAHR-joe Bander v.Accro n. and followed by "ouais" or "non" Baañ ('baa' like the sound a sheep makes with a nasalized sound at the end) Bite n. Loser bl-AIR-roh . to get a hard-on BAHN-day Ben interj. crazy n. ah-PAIR-roh Appart n. flat or apartment. dick bEEt Blaireau n.. teenager.. ah-PRIm Bagnole n.. Short for apéritif.. Slang for 'car' ban-YOLE Bahut n. to become erect.

. food BOOF-fay Bosser v. Synonym for 'tête'. ça a été ?" = "How'd your presentation go?" .. Answers to this question: "Ouais. litt... to masturbate (lit. it went well) / "Pas du tout" (Not at all) saw ah AY-TAY Chaud Lapin n.Le Bled n. to wobble) suh BRAhn-lay Ça a été exp.. to eat n. litt.. ghetto see-TAY Con adj.... A night at the movies SEE-noh-sh La Cité n... ça a été" (Yes. 'ball'. also a question "Ta présentation. or 'head' in its slang usage. it went well.. Sex maniac (lit. hot rabbit) show lah-PAÑ Cinoche n.. stupid "J'ai été con quand j'ai décidé de sortir" = "I was dumb when I decided to go out" n.: "Ta boule me manque" = "I miss seeing your sweet face" bOOL Bouffer v. "Quel con" = "What an idiot" . i. la bouffe.e. a rough equivalent in English would be 'face' rather than 'head'. to work boss-SAY Boulot n. 'cunt' (as used in UK English). job bOOL-oh Se Branler v. the boondocks blED Boule n.

"J'ai cet examen à la con" = "I have this stupid test" cohÑ Crever v.exp.. To fuck. 'really' .. Synonyms: 'bouder'(to brood). "to fuck flies in the ass") means "to nit-pick". Equivalent to "fuck in the ass" ("cul"="ass"). or adj. college or university fack Faire la tête exp. dear-loh Enculer v. la crève. creh-vay lah crehve Débile n. and means "bastard" or "asshole". to die. stupid. exp. to burst or explode. Vulgar equivalent of the verb 'faire'. slang for "stupid" DAY-beel Dirlo n. "go get fucked in the ass") which stands for "fuck off". fer lah tet Foutre n. a cold. to do or to make. 'very'. "Je suis hyper triste" = "I'm really sad" EE-pair Kiffer . 'to kick the bucket' adj. exhausted. eñ-CU-lay La Fac n. with you)" FOO-truh Hyper adj. : "enculer des mouches" (litt. crevé(e). Widely used under the form "va te faire enculer" (litt. Commonly employed in vulgar/familiar expressions such as: "Va te faire foutre" = "Go get fucked" "J'en ai rien à foutre (ici. "faire la gueule".. exp. "enculé" is the participle turned into a substantive.: "J'ai la crève". As in "Je suis crevé(e)" = "I'm exhausted" n. to bugger. Sperm.. v.. Colloquial word meaning 'headmaster'. the flu. in a stupid way. Also. to pout. avec toi)" = "I have nothing to do (here. "à la con"..

'Je vais te niquer ta gueule (vulgaire)' : je vais me battre contre toi ! . "sensational" or "awesome" j-knee-al Grave adj. It can be used in "Ta gueule!" which can be translated into 'Shut up!'..g "je la kiffe grave!" (I really like her). maRed / with emphasis or in exclamation: mare-DUH N'importe quoi exp. roughly meaning "a lot" or "really" e. ce qu'il dit" nahm-poRt-UH-kwah Niquer v. Sometimes used under the form faire kiffer..g. Often used in insults such as 'Nique ta mère' (Fuck your mother). an exact transcribed meaning of the English phase "four-letter word". When used with a predicate. e. Metaphorically. "severe". 'Arrête de me gueuler dessus' could be translated into 'Stop shouting at me'. slang for 'to reprimand'. slang for 'mouth' or 'face'.v. That is to say. for example 'Ce repas. c'est de la merde'. it can be placed before or after it. Means 'to shout'. "great". Slang for 'to have sexual intercourse'. oñ-guh-lay Macdo Short for MacDonald's. merde is not seen as vulgar as 'shit'. or 'The meal is crap' This word has produced the phrase «le mot de cinq lettres».. Exists also engueuler.g "il est débile grave. lui!" or "il est grave débile.g "mes parents sont graves" (my parents are stupid) adv. roughly means "stupid" e... e. guh-lay . bullshit as in "C'est du n'importe quoi. keef-ay Génial adj. litt. 'whatever' n. mack-doh Merde n. as well as the youth. Colloquial word meaning "genius" (as used in UK English). adults use it often. gull Gueuler v. Colloquial word from arabic meaning 'to like'. e. slang.g Tu me fais trop kiffer. sometimes reduced to 'Ta mère!'. slang for 'to break' or 'to be great'. lui!" (he's really stupid) grah-ve Gueule n. translated as 'shit'. It can also mean 'rubbish'. excl.. "brilliant".

slang. [edit] . For example . and can be translated in some cases for the English adjective 'quite'. Literally "cowly".. Colloquial word meaning 'face'. Roughly equivalent to 'merde' when used as an exclamation. as an exclamation. France.. As a name. It can however be used sometimes as an exclamation of surprise or amazement 'la vache! c'est genial ce truc' vah-shuh.'Il est vachement idiot' could be translated as 'He is quite stupid'.'tu as perdu!' could be greeted with 'la vache!' or 'mince!' or other such expressions of discontent. work. Colloquial word meaning 'crazy'. means 'damn!' or 'darn!'. excl. 'Putain' is the closest equivalent to the English 'fuck' (see note on 'fuck'). For instance . TRon-shuh Vachement adj. 'Cette porte est niquée.' (This door is out of order. a popular French phrase is 'la vache!' which. vachement is a synonym for "very". Stuff trew-uhk Tronche n.g. old form for 'pute' (whore). task taff Truc n. job. pew-tAÑ Super adj.' (This game is great..) NEEK-ay Ouais 'yeah' (as opposed to "oui" = "yes") waay Putain n. 'really' . vah-shuh-MAWÑ Zinzin n. Whilst on the subject of 'vache'.) 'Ce jeu nique tout.e. 'very'. "Je suis super content" = "I'm really happy" soup-air Taff n.

Fishy.. Venère adj. gross. The word verlan is in itself an example of this. angry. [edit] Common Chat Abbreviations There are two general guidelines: • é can be susbstituted for all homophonic equivalents including "-ais". awful. it comes from the word l'envers (meaning 'backwards'). from fête. Verlan is. from fou. Used commonly in the expression "c'est un truc de ouf" ("that is some crazy shit"). Relou adj. unlike Pig Latin. something that sucks.. Party. Keuf Policeman (not polite) from flic "Il est chelou ce mec ! j'vais le balancer aux keufs. from pourri Ripou = un policier qui commet des actes graves illégaux pl : des ripoux Teuf n. from enervé(e). "-ait". if you have word [12].. from louche.. Crazy. heavy." Meuf n.. chick. from lourd. For example. pissed off.Verlan Verlan is roughly similar to English Pig Latin.. 'reub'). in verlan it will become [2-1]. A person of Arab descent. but do not necessarily retain all letters (due to French pronunciation patterns). (the d is dropped in Verlan because the final d does not pronounce in lourd). and the two componenents switch positions.. Common verlan expressions include: Beur ou rebeu n. and the verb "est" (third person sing. aggravated. in that certain words are split in half. ('Beur' is so commonly used that it now has its own Verlan form. difficult. Ripou adj. . from arabe. suspicious.. quite commonly used among young adults and even adults. Woman. ridiculous. girl. Not funny. Ouf adj. Chelou adj. the conjunction "et" (and). shady. "-es" (such as in the articles les and des). Rotten. from femme.

mdr exp. "why". from the Verlan form of enervé(e). vnr adj. bisous. words that end in a silent -s commonly drop this s: such as pas (pa). ke interr... pour. dsl adj. "bursting with laughter". also seen in pourkoi. (equivalent of lol.. tout(e).. laughing out loud). koi interrogative. "that". ct subj+verb. donc. il faut que. désolé(e). "what". and vois (voi). "all". angry. "therefore. pissed off. "that" or "which". laughing out loud). peté(e) de rire. and rel. ki interr. (equivalent of lol. mort(e) de rire. mais. also seen in the expression tout le monde. "it is". fok exp. aggravated. mé conj. pr prep. "laughing myself to death". ptdr exp. "sorry". imparfait (past) conjugation of c'est. .. "to be"). "for". "it was". que. pron. c'était. so".. "it is necessary". "but". dc conj.. n.• conjugation of être. qui. quoi. biz c subj+verb.. stronger than mdr.... "kisses". and relative pronoun. tt adj. c'est.

See http://www. but there is a much better method. however. Under Keyboard layout/IME. 2.. For longer texts. this can . 4. ì. choose United States-International.. ù Alt+151 or Alt+0249 û Alt+150 or Alt+0251 ü Alt+129 or Alt+0252 [edit] In Mac OS X You could change your keyboard layout in System Preferences->International->Input Menu or with the default qwerty keyboard layout you can use meta keys to create the accents. The keystrokes for the diffent accents are. you prefix the letter with either ` ' " ~ or ^ So. One can change their keyboard configuration from their previous setting to a US (Qwerty) International setting. To get Ë.Typing Characters International Keyboard Configuration Commonly one memorises the alt-number code for inserting non-English characters (below).. Start -> Settings -> Control Panel Regional and Language Options Languages -> Details . Under Input language.. to get è. For instance if you want to create an "`" accent you would press option+` then press the vowel you want to appear under the letter to create à. Click Add. Just try to pull up a web page or a document that contains the special characters and paste them into your text. one types " and then E. 6. In Windows XP: 1. ò. one types ` and then e. or ù.starr. è. option option option option + + + + "`" "e" "i" "u" = = = = ` ´ ˆ ¨ [edit] Copy & Paste This method can be useful if you are just writing a short text (for example an e-mail) and don't have a computer where you can/want change language settings. 3. Now to form accents. 5.net/kbh for more information. choose your native language.

[edit] Unix and the Compose key If you are using Unix or a derivative operating system (such as Linux) with XFree86. [edit] Search & Replace If you are working with a text editor you have the option to search for text and replace it with other text.become quite tedious. è é ê ë É Compose Compose Compose Compose Compose + + + + + e e e e E + + + + + ` ' ^ " ' î Compose + i + ^ ï Compose + i + " ô Compose + o + ^ ö Compose + o + " ù Compose + u + ` û Compose + u + ^ ü Compose + u + " . press and release the Compose key. you can define a compose key by opening a terminal window and typing: To use the xmodmap -e To use the xmodmap -e To use the xmodmap -e Windows menu key (between the right Windows key and right Ctrl key: "keysym Menu = Multi_key" right Windows key: "keysym R_Meta = Multi_key" right Alt key: "keysym Alt_Gr = Multi_key" To use the Compose key. but the point is that you only have to do it once for the whole text and not for every single à that you want to type. After you have written your text you replace marked characters (the ~a) with special characters (the à). The idea is to mark a character for becoming a special character. Of course you have to either type in the Alt number code or paste the character. Combinations useful for typing in French follow: à Compose + a + ` â Compose + a + ^ ä Compose + a + " ç Compose + c + . This feature can be used to 'type' special characters. then type two characters. for example typing ~a when you mean à.

Web Resources Wikipedia French language external links . and lots more! [edit] French grammar • • • • • Portail lettres Clo7 French grammar lessons Exercises on French grammar (Dr.org) Dictionnaire de langue francaise. Conjugaisons.Dozens of valuable links.automatic translate on mouseover of a word (English to French only) [edit] Learning french • • • • • • • • • • • • • About. Dictionnaire de synonymes. Dictionnaire francais/anglais.com French Language Anne Fox BBC Jump-Gate University of Adelaide. Meul Etienne) Online verb conjugator [edit] . Dictionnaire anglais/francais.tv5. Translators • • • Google Translator Babelfish Translation : A translation website Google Toolbar . Australia French Language Learning Software Free Online French Tutorial BBC Bitesize grammar TravelWiki Phrasebook Orbis Latinus French MIT French I Assignments MIT French II Assignments Useful information on the French language can be found on the site of tv5 (www.

Dictionaries • • Lexilogos : all online French dictionaries French dictionary [edit] French Culture • • • Le portail de la culture Cortland Ambassade de France en Nouvelle-Zélande [edit] Travel in France • • Ministère des Affaires Etrangères français TravelWiki [edit] French Administration • Le portail de l'administration .

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