Name (common, present, or historic): Year Built: 1916-17

Timken Roller Bearing Building

Street and Number: 313-321 E. Pine Street (apartment entry at 1535 Bellevue Avenue E.) Assessor's File No. 872560-0305 Legal Description: See attached Plat Name:
Twelfth Avenue Addition Replat

Block: 3

Lot: 14

Present Owner: M&P Partnership Address: 10510 NE Northup Way, Kirkland, WA 98033 Original Owner: Samuel Archer Company Original Use: Apartments, commercial/retail Architect: Builder:
Harry James Unknown

Present Use: Apartments, retail

Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination

January 25, 2013

This report was prepared by: David Peterson Nicholson Kovalchick Architects 310 First Avenue S., Suite 4S Seattle WA 98104 206-933-1150

Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination INDEX I. Introduction II. Building information III. Architectural description A. B. C. D. E. Adjacent neighborhood context Site Building exterior and structure Building interior Summary of primary alterations 9 3 4 5

IV. Historical context A. Early development of the neighborhood and the Pine Street regrade B. Building owners C. Building occupants D. The development of the Pike-Pine “Auto Row” on Capitol Hill E. The architect, Harry H. James F. Apartment buildings in Seattle and in the west Capitol Hill neighborhood V. Bibliography and sources VI. Preparer and Reviewer information VII. Report illustrations Tax assessor records, site plan, selected architectural images

22 24 25 Following

This report was prepared by: David Peterson Nicholson Kovalchick Architects 310 First Avenue S., Suite 4S Seattle WA 98104 206-933-1150

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


I. INTRODUCTION This report was written at the request of the owners of the property, M&P Partnership, as part of the Seattle land-use permit and SEPA process to ascertain the historical nature of the subject building. Sources used in this report include: • Records of permits from the Seattle Department of Planning and Development microfilm library • Assessor's photographs and property card from the Puget Sound Regional Archives in Bellevue, Washington. • Newspaper, book, city directories, and maps referencing the property (see bibliography). • Author's on-site photographs and building inspection, or by other NKA employees. • Information on owners and residents was derived from the sources above; a title search was not conducted on the property. • Historic photographs of the subject property provided an important source of information on changes to the exterior to the building: Unless noted otherwise, all images are by NK Architects and date from autumn and winter 2012.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


II. BUILDING INFORMATION Name (traditional): Name (original): Year Built: Street & Number: Assessor’s File No.: Original Owner: Present Owner: Timken Roller Bearing Building Pinevue Apartments 1916-17 313-321 E. Pine Street (apartment entry at 1535 Bellevue Avenue E.) 872560-0305 Samuel Archer Company M&P Partnership Contact: Tom Lee 10510 NE Northup Way Kirkland, WA 98033 425-889-9500 Apartments, retail Apartments, commercial/retail Harry James, architect Twelfth Avenue Addition Replat less street / Block 3 / Lot 14 Overall parcel legal description: Lots 1, 2, 3, 12, 13, and 14, Block 3, Replat of Twelfth Avenue Addition to the City of Seattle, according to the plat thereof, recorded in Volume 8 of Plats, page 54, in King County, Washington; Except the north 7.75 feet of Lots 1 and 14 condemned in King County Superior Court Cause No. 57057 for street purposes as provided by Ordinance 14500 of the City of Seattle. Legal description for portion containing this building only: Lot 14, Block 3, Replat of Twelfth Avenue Addition to the City of Seattle, according to the plat thereof, recorded in Volume 8 of Plats, page 54, in King County, Washington; Except the north 7.75 feet of Lot 14 condemned in King County Superior Court Cause No. 57057 for street purposes as provided by Ordinance 14500 of the City of Seattle.

Present Use: Original Use: Original Architect/Builder: Plat/Block/Lot: Legal Description:

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


III. ARCHITECTURAL DESCRIPTION A. Adjacent Neighborhood Context The site is located at the west end of the Capitol Hill neighborhood, in the Pike-Pine corridor, near where the two streets cross over Interstate 5 towards downtown. [Fig 1-Fig 2] The immediate neighborhood is primarily a dense mix of commercial, mixed-use, institutional and civic buildings, with few single-family houses nearby. While the neighborhood has been continuously developed every decade from the 1890s to the present, the area was heavily developed in the decades between 1900-1930, and the immediate area derives considerable character from automobile-related service buildings and showrooms built between about 1910 and 1925. [Fig 3-Fig 8] Since that period, the most significant alteration to the immediate neighborhood was the construction of the Interstate 5 highway two blocks west of the subject block, in the early 1960s. The work demolished several continuous blocks of residential and commercial buildings in the immediate area, and created a stark western boundary to the subject building’s neighborhood, albeit with spectacular downtown views just downhill from the subject site. Today, the Pike-Pine Corridor just north of the site is notable throughout the city for a vibrant urban living, working, and entertainment environment, particularly in recent decades. Seattle historic landmarks within about a six block radius include: • First Covenant Church (John Creutzer, 1906), originally the Swedish Tabernacle, at E. Pike Street and Bellevue Avenue • The Wintonia Hotel (1909), at E. Pike Street and Minor Avenue • The Summit School / Northwest School (James Stephen, 1905 with additions 1914 and 1928), at Summit, Crawford, and Union • The Stimson-Green mansion (Kirtland Cutter, 1898-1900), at Minor and Seneca • The Dearborn House (Henry Dozier, 1904-05), at Minor and Seneca • Paramount Theater and Building (B. Marcus Priteca, Frederick J. Peters, and Rapp & Rapp, 1927-28), at 9th Avenue and Pine Street • Camlin Hotel (Carl Linde, 1926), at 9th Avenue and Pine Street • Eagles Temple Building/ACT Theater (Henry Bittman, 1924-25), at 7th Avenue and Union Street • Baroness Apartment Hotel (Schack & Young, 1930-31), at Spring Street and Terry Avenue • Ward House (1882), at E. Denny Way and Belmont Avenue E. • Broadway Performance Hall (Edgar Blair, 1911), at Broadway and E. Pine Street • Seattle First Baptist Church, at Harvard and Seneca Some notable nearby buildings that are not landmarks include the following: • The former Butterworth Mortuary (Charles Haynes, 1922) across Pine Street from the subject building • The Area 51 building, originally the Carr Brothers Auto Repair building (1910), across Bellevue Avenue from the subject building • The McDermott (Gerald Field, 1926), an ornate brick and terracotta midblock seven-story apartment building, across Bellevue Avenue from the subject building • Utrecht Art Supplies, originally a Packard Automobile dealership (1920), a block away at Pike, Minor, and Melrose Partly in response to the Pike-Pine corridor’s early history as Seattle's original ‘auto row’, the City of Seattle Department of Planning and Development (which administers the Land Use Code and the Seattle Building Code) established the “Pike/Pine Conservation Overlay District” in 2012. The boundaries of the District extend on either side of Pike and Pine Streets, from about Interstate 5 to 15th Avenue, including the triangle between Madison, Broadway, and Union Streets. The purpose, among other things, is to identify “character structures” located within the district boundaries and to offer height and floor size bonuses if a character structure is retained, rather than demolished, in the

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


redevelopment of a site. 1 [Fig 42-Fig 43] The subject building is a listed “character structure” in the Pike/Pine Conservation Overlay District, but not within the “conservation core” which constitutes the highest concentration of targeted buildings. The Overlay District is unrelated to, and completely separate from, the Seattle Landmarks Preservation program administered by the Department of Neighborhoods Historic Preservation Office. B. Site The site is located in a NC3P-65 (Neighborhood Commercial 3 Pedestrian 65) zone, which extends along much of the core around Pike and Pine Streets. The property is also located in the Pike/Pine Urban Center Village, and the Pike Pine Conservation Overlay District (see section under Context explaining this district). The property is located on a rectangular parcel measuring approximately 105 feet east-west x 42.25 feet north-south, at the southeast corner of E. Pine Street and Bellevue Avenue E. There is no alley. The site slopes gently downward from the southeast corner to the northwest corner. A narrow, 7.75 foot wide strip along the north part of the original parcel facing Pine Street was shaved off in 1905 by City Ordinance 14500 in order to accommodate widening of the Pine Street right of way. Parcels south, southwest, and west of the site are held by the owner of the subject parcel. South of the site is a surface parking lot, serving approximately 25 parking stalls, accessed off of Bellevue Avenue. To the east is the Melrose Building, 301-309 E. Pine Street, a flat-roofed one-story structure built in 1915. This building contains professional offices, Bauhaus Books and Coffee, and is the subject of a concurrent Seattle Landmark nomination report. To the north, across E. Pine Street, there had been a c.1960s apartment building which suffered a fire and was demolished. Today, a mixed-use building is currently under construction on the site. Next door to it is the former Butterworth Mortuary, an ornate Beaux-Arts building constructed in 1922. Today it contains professional offices and a restaurant. To the east, across Bellevue Avenue, is 401 E. Pine, historically known as the Carr Brothers Auto Repair Building, constructed in 1910. In recent years, a furniture store called Area 51 has occupied the first floor storefronts. The building is two stories, and has recently been restored on the exterior. To the northeast, kitty-corner from the site at 400 E. Pine, is a three-story terracotta-clad building constructed in 1917. Originally the Hirsch Cycle Company, it today houses professional offices. A 1975 historic resources inventory of the Capitol Hill neighborhood by Victor Steinbrueck and Folke Nyberg (part of their citywide inventory project) describes three categories of historic building significance: significant to the city, significant to the community, or of no significance. Their inventory called out the subject building as being of no significance. 2 C. Building Exterior and Structure The subject building is a three-story mixed-use building constructed in 1916-17, clad in red brick with white terracotta details. The building fills the lot. The structure is reinforced concrete frame at the basement and first floors, with
1 The full purpose and intent, per Seattle Municipal Code 23.73.002, is “to implement Resolution 28657, calling for development of the Pike/Pine Overlay District in order to preserve and enhance the balance of residential and commercial uses, by encouraging residential development and discouraging large, single-purpose commercial development. In addition, a purpose of this chapter is to promote the conservation of Pike/Pine's existing historic character by limiting new development to a scale that is compatible with the established development pattern, accommodating arts facilities and small businesses at street level, and encouraging the retention of the existing structures and their architectural features that establish the District's architectural character; generally, those structures that have been in existence for 75 years or more ("character structures") and are related to the area's early history as Seattle's original ‘auto row’.” 2 Nyberg and Steinbrueck, 1975, unpaginated.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


wood joist floors at the second and third floors. There are concrete floors at storefront level, and a full basement. The roof is flat, and the parapet originally featured a deeply projecting and ornate metal cornice, but this was removed for an unknown reason sometime after 1937. [Fig 9] There are eight efficiency apartments per floor on the top two floors, and five commercial storefronts at the sidewalk level along Pine Street. A seventeenth apartment is tucked above the westernmost storefront, at the mezzanine level (possible due to additional ceiling height as the sidewalk grade drops to the west). [Exterior photos Fig 10-Fig 21] The north or primary elevation faces Pine Street, and is divided into five equal bays. From the sidewalk, the building presents a large area of glazed storefronts stepping down Pine Street, an effect enhanced by a level of transoms composed of grids of small panes of glass, which deepen with the dropping sidewalk grade. The storefronts and transoms all appear to have original metal sash. Terracotta clads the piers between the storefront windows, and feature a decorative terracotta pilaster cap with a vertical terracotta element engaging the brick level above. Storefront windows rest on wood bulkheads. A stair vestibule, accessed at the westernmost part of Pine Street elevation, provides access to the basement, and secondary access to the upper level apartments. Above the storefronts are the apartment windows, which are variously sized according to the room use, and are accented with terracotta sills. All are double-hung, apparently original wood sash, with large panes below and subdivided lights in the upper sash. Living rooms are behind large, three-part windows, having 4-8-4 divided lights in the upper sash. Kitchens are behind smaller sized single windows, which have four divided lights in the upper sash. Kitchen windows also have a higher sill than the living room windows. Adjacent to the kitchen windows were originally screened openings to kitchen storage cabinets, keeping them cool, which on the exterior appearing as “missing” bricks (see 1937 tax assessor photo). These were filled in at some point after 1937. On the east elevation, facing Bellevue Avenue, the easternmost storefront window wraps the corner by one bay. Apartment windows on the upper floors reflect the larger units and stair hall on the interior of this side. A relatively ornate terracotta apartment entry on the Bellevue Avenue side of the building, which gives access to a small vestibule and stair to the residential floors above. Original metalwork balconies at the stair hall windows, and a fire escape stair, remain on this elevation. An original metal and glass marquee over this entry, visible in the 1937 tax assessor photograph, was removed at some unknown time after 1937. The south elevation faces a parking lot and was originally a party wall condition at the first floor. Above the first floor, the building is recessed to form a light well, providing light and air to the residential units above. Apartment windows on this elevation match the configuration of the street-facing windows, and also appear to have original sash. The portion of the first floor commercial spaces which are here roofed, have skylights lighting the rear portion of their space. The west elevation is also a party wall condition, although with one window on the property line per floor, which are original (rather than cut in at a later date). Overall, the building presents an eclectic but restrained appearance, difficult to categorize as any style. The building in form is simply designed to maximize storefront glazing along Pine Street, with residentially-scaled windows on the two floors above, all organized into repeating or mirrored bays. However, decorative terracotta features and the original metal cornice suggest a modest Beaux-Arts design influence, while the tri-partite apartment windows with multipane upper sash over single pane lower sash suggest a Craftsman design influence. Such eclecticism in applied historicist detail was typical for neighborhood commercial buildings in the early 20th century. D. Building Interior According to 1937 tax assessor records, ceiling heights are 8’-4” at the basement, 14’-0” to 19’-0” at the ground level, 10’-3” at the second floor, and 9’-0” at the third floor. [Interior photos Fig 22-Fig 33] Apartments on the upper two floors are arranged along a double-loaded corridor, with stairs at each end, accessed off the main entry at 1535 Bellevue, and a secondary entry at 311 Pine. At the Bellevue entry, a small vestibule holds

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


mailboxes and features a built-in bench and mirror, both apparently original. On the upper levels, the stair return above the vestibule features a door for a garbage chute to the basement. Stairwells feature turned-picket balustrades. Apartments are two or three-room units, but all are designed with efficiency in mind. Two apartments were observed for this report. Original drawings include built-in cabinets in the kitchenettes, which are still intact. Each apartment has a bathroom, and a large closet which was designed to hold a Murphy or retractable bed. While these beds are no longer in place, much of the original finishes appear to be intact. Walls are plaster, with fir floors and simple casework around doors and windows. Bathrooms are notable a step up from the main floor level, probably to accommodate plumbing drains. An unusual and apparently non-original feature of the corridor are cabinet doors at waist height, one for each unit, located on the corridor side of the bathroom. While these no longer open, it is not clear what their original function was. According to the building owner, they may have been used for providing fresh towels or linen to the occupants of the rooms. In any event, these do not appear in the original drawings, but they do appear to date from the 1920s1950s. The commercial spaces are nearly identical in plan, although ceiling heights differ due to the sloping sidewalk grade. Party walls separate the spaces. The rear of each space features a mezzanine level used as a storage loft, accessed by stair, or in some cases additional store space available to patrons. In one space, the mezzanine storage area is accessed by ladder and not open to the public. The current tenants are a pet food store, two clothing stores, a shoe store, and a record store. The entry to the commercial spaces are recessed from the sidewalk in the traditional manner, although with raised wooden platforms at the bulkhead level, projecting into the window display area. According to the original drawings, at the westernmost two storefront bulkheads, these raised platforms were originally intended to have operable windows providing light and air to the basement. If these were originally installed, they are not there now. The secondary stair hall accessed from Pine Street cuts into the westernmost commercial space, reducing the latter’s size. This commercial space is further reduced in volume because above it, in what would be its mezzanine level, is instead another apartment accessed from a mid-level landing in the stairhall. This unit’s windows consist entirely of the multi-light mezzanine transom window in this storefront bay. A small operable portion of the window allows fresh air into the unit. The rear of this apartment is lit by a skylight, which otherwise would have lit the rear of the store space below. It is not clear when this apartment was created; it could have been built as an add-on when the building was originally constructed, but it does not appear in the original drawings. The basement is full height and accessed from the Pine Street stair vestibule. Original drawings indicate that it was intended for resident storage, building storage, garbage disposal, and a laundry. The details for the laundry are relatively detailed, with an extensive apparatus for a drying room. It may indicate that the laundry was used by housekeeping staff, rather than residents, which would suggest a certain intended level of service (perhaps fresh sheets and towels) provided to the residents of this building by the original developers. Additionally, the amount of drying laundry required on a daily or weekly basis, and the associated need to vent steam from the basement, would explain the design intent of the basement windows at the storefront bulkheads. E. Summary of Primary Alterations Based on available historic photographs and physical investigation of the building, the building appears to have had little alteration since construction, both on the exterior and the interior. A comparison of contemporary photographs with the 1937 tax assessor photograph reveals a few alterations: • The most significant alteration was the removal of the metal cornice at some point after 1937; this change significantly degraded the appearance of the building. • The removal of the Bellevue Avenue entry marquee on the east elevation. • The removal of a metal pipe guardrail which ran the length of the parapet.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


The insertion of a 6-light, operable sash window within the transom of the westernmost storefront bay; this was presumably introduced when the mezzanine space was converted into an apartment at an unknown time.

The primary interior changes to the building have been minor interior alterations to meet the needs of commercial tenants. These have included repainting, construction or alteration of the mezzanine spaces, and occasionally cutting doorways through the interior party walls to expand store space. Known, permitted alterations (other than mechanical permits) on file at the building department are as follows: Building Permit 156098? 156192 186813? 1xx652? 306329 478830 492354 515736 539216 542677 542915 548105 548350 1310 (?) 551957 2009 (?) --575164 Date 1917 1917 1918 1918 1932 1959 1961 1965 1971 1971 1972 1973 1973 1974 1974 1975 1976 1978 Cost -----$250 $150 $350 $2000 $200 -$1500 $300 $300 $500 $500 $1200 $100 Work -----Erect and maint. sign (317) Install and maint. sign (319) Erect and maint. sign Alter por. of existing building and occupy as a restaurant Alter exist. bldg. Sign Comply w Housing Code Egress Amend. #1000015; corridor, doors, stairs Alt. exist. restaurant Erect and maint. s/f plywood sign Repair fire damage (E. I. exempt) Erect and maint. d/f (illegible) sign Alter interior of existing building, raise portion of floor for dining, cover one existing stair, add railing to mezzanine per plans. To alter interior of building, to complete work authorized under #567379

IV. HISTORICAL CONTEXT A. Early development of the neighborhood and the Pine Street regrade In the late 1800s, the still-undeveloped subject site was perched at the western edge of a long continuous ridge stretching north-south from Eastlake to First Hill. In the 1880s, the only building of significance in the immediate area had been the modest Grace Hospital, constructed 1885-87 by the Episcopalians of Trinity Church, as the city’s second hospital. The facility was located two blocks southeast of the subject site at Crawford Place, Union Street, and Summit Avenue. The hospital did not survive a local and national economic downturn in 1893, was used for a few years by a group of doctors, and by 1899 was abandoned. It operated as a boarding house and hotel, but finally in 1905 it was demolished and replaced with the Summit School, which was the largest institutional building near the subject site. 3 [Fig 34] At the turn of the 20th century, the growth of the early city of Seattle had centered around today’s downtown. Expansion was hemmed in by steep hills, such as the ridge where the subject site was located, consisting of glacial till shaped during the last ice age. A 1899 topographic map of Seattle shows the areas west of the subject site, at the base of this hill, more developed; the areas east of the site, at the top of the plateau, were less developed. [Fig 35] Pike Street as far east as 8th and 9th Avenues was more developed than Pine Street, because it was served by a streetcar for that length. At about 9th Avenue, the streetcar lines then angled northward along the gentle grades of Stewart and Howell Streets, to serve the Cascade neighborhood to the north, and entirely avoided the steep slopes up Pike or Pine Streets.

The building remains there today as the Northwest School.
Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


To accommodate commercial and residential development in the explosively growing city at the turn of the century, the city undertook extensive programs to regrade streets, which involved flattening slopes and filling gullies. The City of Seattle had already undertaken other regrades in the downtown area (notably raising the grades around the waterfront and tideflat areas, and lowering the grades around Jackson and Madison Streets) at the turn of the 20th century. The primary advocate for the regrades was Reginald H. Thomson, who was the longtime City Engineer from the 1890s to 1911, and again briefly in the 1930s. The main purposes were to encourage development in parts of the city plagued by steep street grades (a serious problem in an age of horse-drawn vehicles, although soon to be a moot point with the advent of combustion engines), and to improve water and sewage systems in the city. In the process of regrading a primary street, the perpendicular intersecting streets had to be regraded as well, to keep slopes consistent across intersections. At Pike Street in 1899, on the three blocks between what is today’s 9th, Terry, Boren, and Minor Avenues, the elevation rose approximately 120 feet, with an average grade of over 12%. Pine Street was even steeper at an almost 19% grade, due to the same elevation change over just two blocks, between today’s Terry, Boren, and Minor Avenues (ie, immediately west of the subject site). Around 1900, a frame house addressed as 1535 Bellevue Avenue was constructed on the subject parcel. The two parcels to the west, at the corner of Melrose, remained undeveloped. In 1903, the city regraded Pike Street from 7th Avenue to Boylston to a steep but more manageable 7% grade, finally providing convenient access to this part of the growing Capitol Hill neighborhood. In 1907, Pine Street and Olive Street were regraded, with Pine Street reduced to a continuous 5.6% grade from 9th Avenue to Belmont. As part of this work, Pine Street at the subject block was also widened. According to press accounts at the time, Pine Street at Melrose was to be leveled by 5.9 feet, and Pine at Bellevue by 5.7 feet. Fill depths for this regrading work reached over 25 feet, at Pine and Terry. 4 [Fig 36] Both regrades affected the grades of Melrose Avenue, Bellevue Avenue, and other side streets. Two c.1906 houses midblock on Melrose Avenue, which were built prior to the regrading work, remain on the subject block. They tower approximately 18 feet above today’s sidewalk grade, providing an indication of the previous grades on that street. 5 [Fig 3] In the 1905 Sanborn map, the surrounding blocks have begun to fill in with modest c. 1900 single-family frame homes, like that on the subject site. [Fig 37] The maps are detailed enough to show corner turrets, bay windows, and projecting porches, following the Queen Anne style, typical of the period. Some outbuildings are shown in the rear yards. Probably because of the grades, the subject block was not platted with an alley. A few boarding houses are identified on the 1905 map as well, most frame buildings. By 1905, the wood-frame Swedish Mission Church [Fig 38] indicated on the map at the corner of Bellevue and Pike, a block south of the subject site, would be replaced in 1910 by the stone-built Swedish Tabernacle (today’s First Covenant Church). Other substantial masonry buildings constructed in the immediate area during this time were the six-story Wintonia Hotel in 1909 at Pike and Minor, and the three-story Hotel Avondale in 1908 at Pike and Boren. [Fig 44] Just a few years later, the 1912 Baist map [Fig 39] shows extensive streetcar lines serving the neighborhood, including along Pine directly in front of the building, along Pike and Melrose at the subject block, and along Summit and Bellevue north of Pine. During this decade, increasing numbers of apartment buildings , mixed use buildings, and automotiverelated businesses began to line the main streets of Pike and Pine, leading up to Broadway, the main north-south spine of the growing neighborhood. Around 1916, the existing frame house on the subject site was presumably demolished, and the subject building was constructed for the Samuel Archer Company, according to the original architectural drawings. The building was called

4 5

“Pine Street to be widened,” The Seattle Times, October 7, 1906, p.54. Ketcherside, Robert. “Undermining the Republican Senator from Melrose,” February 26, 2012, CHS Re:Take history column,
Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


The Pinevue Apartments, and classified listings for unfurnished apartments begin to appear in February 1917. Ground floor commercial spaces along Pine Street were occupied earlier, in September 1916. 6 B. Building owners No chain of title was available for this report. Tax roll ledgers from 1895 to 1941 at the Puget Sound Regional Archives were reviewed for information regarding possible owners of the property. The ledgers list the property’s fee owner every five years, generally in years ending in a 5 or 0. A fee owner is the person paying the taxes on the property, which is usually the owner, although not necessarily so. The property was platted in 1892. The first fee owner of the property listed in the tax roll ledgers is S. B. Glasgow for 1900 and 1905. This person was apparently Samuel B. Glasgow, who brought his family to Seattle from Iowa in 1896. 7 The Glasgow family home was located at the southeast corner of Broadway and E. John Street, and they were among the earliest settlers along Broadway. Around 1900, a frame house addressed as 1535 Bellevue Avenue was constructed on the subject parcel. Polk’s city directory indicate that Drew M. Peeples resided there in 1901. 8 Peeples at that time was unmarried, and a salesman for Louch, Augustine & Co., a large and early Seattle grocery located in the Colman Building at 1st Avenue and Marion. Boarding at 1535 Bellevue in 1901 was Cyrus C. Bemis. No additional information could be found about Peeples or Bemis. By 1905, the house is offered for rent in classified ads, with the description “7 rooms, nice lawn, $25.” By 1910, however, the house appears again for rent in classifieds, with the owner indicated as “Archer, Collins Block.” 9 Tax roll ledgers state that the fee owner for 1910 and 1915 was “Anna M. Glasgow et al.,” with the signature in the ledger (demonstrating payment of taxes) by Samuel Archer. In 1916, the existing frame house on the site was presumably demolished, and the subject building was constructed for the Samuel Archer Company. This owner of the Samuel Archer Company, with office location at the Collins Block downtown, was Samuel Archer, an early Seattle businessman and printer. The subject property appears to have been inherited by Archer’s wife, Ruhamah “Rue” Glasgow, whose father was Samuel B. Glasgow. Since there is no record of them living at this address, the house would appear to have been an investment property. According to his obituary and other research on Archer, he was born in 1868 and arrived in Seattle around 1890, working as a printer for the Seattle Times and the Post-Intelligencer. 10 Archer traveled to the Klondike in 1897 as part of the gold rush, and to Nome, Alaska for another gold rush, in 1900. Archer married Ruhamah in Seattle in 1900. From 1900 to 1910 they lived in Nome, where Samuel was president of Archer-Ewing & Co., a general merchandise company with stores in Nome, Solomon, and Dickson, Alaska. They returned to Seattle in 1909 or 1910 and lived at 229 13th Avenue N., and later at 600 35th Avenue. At some point during this period, they raised two daughters. Samuel was president of the Dearborn Printing Company, located at 212 Marion Street, and the Archer Linotyping Company with his brother and father, from the 1910s through the 1930s.

“Announcing a union service,” advertisement, The Seattle Times, September 10, 1916, p.6. “Mrs. Archer, 81, early student at UW, dies,” The Seattle Times, October 15, 1956, p.37; and Clarke, “Joseph M. Glasgow,” pp.609-11. 8 A full chain-of-title search, which would provide exact information about ownership of the property, was not performed for this report. 9 “For rent – houses – 28,” The Seattle Times, June 28, 1905, p.14; and “For rent – unfurnished houses – 28,” October 12, 1910, p.17. 10 “Rites set for Samuel Archer,” The Seattle Times, August 2, 1936, p.9; and Robert Ketcherside, “Hidden stories of love at Broadway and John,” updated November 4, 2011, CHS Re:Take history column,; Ketcherside references “A Shipwrecked Sourdough - An Adventure of Nome Gold Rush Days,” and “Recollections,” both unpublished manuscripts, by Samuel Archer and Minnie Lee Archer, Alaska State Library archives.
6 7

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Samuel’s wife, Ruhamah Glasgow Archer, was born in 1875, and came to Seattle from Iowa in 1896 with her parents. 11 Rue attended the University of Washington in her early 20s. Her brother was a prominent Seattle judge, and her family had amassed some wealth in real estate development. Following this family tradition, Rue and her husband Samuel also invested in property. The two operated two real estate investment companies during the 1910s, the Northwest Property Company and the Samuel Archer Company. Samuel Archer retired around 1921. In their later years, the Archers lived in the “Ferncliffe” area of Bainbridge Island, where they had maintained a summer home. Samuel Archer died in 1936. Ruhamah then moved to California, where she had a daughter in Santa Barbara, and died there in 1956. After Samuel’s death, his wife appears to have liquidated some of their holdings over the next several years. According to newspaper accounts, the subject property was sold by Ruhamah Archer to Evelyn G. Fillion in 1940 for $27,500. Little additional information could be found about Ms. Fillion, except that she was a Seattle schoolteacher who had apparently retired in 1936, and lived in an apartment in Belltown. On a $100-a-month pension, she invested in real estate, buying rooming and apartment houses, then operating or improving and selling them. When she died in 1952 at age 80, she left an estate valued at $275,000 (about $2.3 million today). 12 In 1948, Fillion sold the property to M.J. Feeley, who resided in the building and operated it as the Feeley Apartment Hotel. It was presumably during his ownership that the terracotta plaque at the parapet along Pine Street was painted with the signage “Feeley Apartments,” which remains today. Michael J. Feeley was a Seattle fireman at least as early as 1923, and that year lived at 169 Melrose Avenue N. Little additional information could be found about him. His name appears in Seattle Times listings of divorce proceedings, filed three separate times by his wife Vera, in January 1927, November 1931, and again in December 1935. A brief January 1933 article mentioning Feeley described him as a “real estate and insurance man” and residing at 4109 Beach Drive, a three-unit apartment building which he owned at that time; Feeley’s real estate company was called Union Realty. 13 A 1937 article mentions that he was a World War I veteran, and was the father of two children. 14 Feeley also appears to have owned the New Beach Hotel in Soap Lake, Washington, during the early 1950s. In 1962, Feeley sold the property to Mr. and Mrs. R.E. Washington (also that year, they bought the three-story Monteray apartment building at 622 First Avenue W). 15 In 1963, Washington sought to convert an unnamed number of the ground-floor commercial spaces into apartments, but the request was rejected by the city due to additional parking area required. 16 In 1964, according to tax records, the fee owner was the Thayer Realty Company—either the Washingtons sold the property to them, or more likely, Thayer Realty was the property manager for their investment. No additional information could be found regarding the Washingtons. Ownership in the later 1960s to the 1990s was not discovered for this report. Online tax records indicate that in 1999, owners Robert J. and Lynn D. Lucurell transferred the property to the Dodre Family Limited Partnership, which then transferred the property in 2006 to the M&P Partnership, the current owner. M&P Partnership also owns several parcels adjacent to the subject building.

11 “Mrs. Archer, 81, early student at UW, dies,” The Seattle Times, October 15, 1956, p.37; and Clarke, “Joseph M. Glasgow,” pp.609-11. 12 “Fillon [sic] purchases 17-unit apartment,” The Seattle Times, September 8, 1940, p.23. Tax records state that the sale occurred in 1945. See also “Ex-teacher leaves estate of $275,000,” The Seattle Times, May 23, 1952, p.31. 13 “52 in race for council seats as books are shut,” The Seattle Times, January 29, 1933, p.7; and “60 autos destroyed in garage blast, fire,” The Seattle Times, July 19, 1934, p.1. 14 “M. J. Feeley released on recognizance,” The Seattle Times, March 31, 1937, p.3. 15 “Realty firm’s transactions top $365,000,”, The Seattle Times, May 13, 1962, p.32; and “Business building, apartments sold,” The Seattle Times, September 30, 1962, p.C-1. 16 “City Affairs: office building in residential zone ok’d,” The Seattle Times, June 15, 1963, p.11.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


C. Building occupants The Pinevue Apartments building was constructed in 1916 and completed in 1917, with apartments on the upper two floors, and five commercial storefronts along Pine Street. Advertisements in the Seattle Times indicate that the streetlevel commercial spaces were occupied by early September 1916, while the apartments on the upper two levels were not ready for occupancy until late February 1917. 17 The commercial spaces were addressed as odd-numbered 313-321 E. Pine Street. The primary entrance to the apartments portion was around the corner, addressed as 1535 Bellevue Avenue E. A secondary entrance leading upstairs to the apartments was located at 311 E. Pine Street, and sometimes appears in the city directories as such. In the mid-20th century, the building was called the Pinevue Apartment Hotel, then the Feeley Apartment Hotel. From at least 1971 until at least 1990, the residential portion of the building is listed in Polk’s as the Agnes Apartment Hotel, addressed at 1535 Bellevue Avenue. When it opened in 1917, fitted with two-and-three room apartments averaging 455 square feet, efficiency kitchenettes, and built-in Murphy beds, the Pinevue likely catered to working singles, young couples, or retired single persons. In the 1920s, apartment living was becoming increasingly acceptable to Seattleites, and socially acceptable for single young women, who were finding work outside the home. Several 1920s classified ads for the Pinevue listed it as “walking distance to 2nd Avenue” and “a few blocks from Frederick & Nelson’s,” a long-time Seattle department store. In 1921 a dressmaker living in the building announced her relocation to the Pinevue the classifieds; in 1924, a person advertised private English classes for foreigners. By 1926, 2-room apartments were listed at $40 (apparently a mid-range price compared to other listings), and rooms were advertised by the day, week, or month. By 1930, these were advertised for $32; and only $25 by the deep Depression year of 1932. Polk’s Seattle Directory introduced reverse listings starting in 1938, allowing a reader to find the name of the occupant for a given address, in addition to the normal listings which are the other way around. Prior to 1938, reverse listings are only available for one year, 1928. A review of names of residents every decade from 1928 to 1988 did not reveal any names of apparent significance. In 1938, of the 17 units, there appeared to be eleven single men (one being the manager), two single women, and two widows. A few names appear in another decade, indicating long-term residents, but most residents appear to have lived there for shorter terms. From the 1950s through the 1970s, when the building was operated by M.J. Feeley, as many as a quarter of the units are often listed as vacant. Commercial occupants were a wide mix of retail, sales and services. Particularly in early years, some were automobilerelated services, no doubt located in the building to take advantage of the growing “Auto Row” developing in the PikePine corridor at the time. Prior to reverse listings in Polk’s city directories available after 1938, advertisements are the main indicator of commercial tenants. Between 1917 and the 1990s, some tenants were occupants for many decades. The Timken Roller Bearing Company, for which the subject building is sometimes associated, was an occupant as early as 1916, until the mid-1940s (and visible in the 1937 tax assessor photo). According to a 1916 advertisement announcing the opening of the store at this location, the business was described as a service station which “will provide an immediate, efficient, on-the-spot bearings service. The owner of any motor vehicle—automobile, motor truck, farm tractor or motorcycle—or any garage or repair man may here secure any anti-friction bearing needed for any make of motor vehicle manufactured.” 18 Known occupants of the five street level storefronts for the following years were as follows; some occupied more than one commercial space: 1928 Art Picture Frame Shop John B. Fyfe (nature of this business unknown) B K Vacuum Brake Distributors, Boyle Valve Distributors, Grafild Brake Lining Distributors, Ernest Ingalls, Frank Nowell Distributors Inc., Northwest Motor Parts Company (all at one address) Timken Roller Bearing Company

“Announcing a union service for--,” advertisement, The Seattle Times, August 10, 1916, p.6; and unfurnished apartments classifieds advertisement, The Seattle Times, February 15, 1917, p.20. 18 “Announcing a union service for--,” advertisement, The Seattle Times, August 10, 1916, p.6.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013



Hart’s Crazy Cards greeting cards The Downtown Spokesman, an advertising publication Storer Company floral cards manufacturers Timken Roller Bearing Company Mrs. Amelia Hart art studio Vacant Bellevue Grocery (occupying two storefronts) Timken Roller Bearing Company, Services-Sales Division Smithson Service Shop machine and gun-smith (occupying two storefronts) Bellevue Grocery , owned by S.J. Ortiz (occupying two storefronts) Northwest Trophy & Award Co. The Republican Call, a newspaper Vacant Northwest Trophy & Award Co. Kissner Sales and Brokerage mfrs agts Union Realty (Feeley’s company, presumably) Vacant Northwest Trophy & Award Co. (occupying two storefronts) Northwest Bowing Supply Co. Aspenwall Realty, Union Realty Co. West Coast Security Systems Inc., burglar alarms Cafe Sabika In The Beginning gifts and antiques Space part of Calvin-Gorasht Architects (primarily located in the adjacent building) Cafe Sabika Erica Williams Anne Johnson Art Gallery Sergio’s Restaurant Azuma Fine Art & Gallery Cafe Sabika Mike Mueller Fine Furniture Maker & Antiques Chautrelle’s Restaurant








D. The development of the Pike-Pine “Auto Row” on Capitol Hill Some of the early commercial occupants of the subject building were automobile-related service companies, and therefore the building might be considered to have a relationship with the Pike-Pine “Auto Row” which developed in the early part of the 20th century. Capitol Hill is one of the oldest neighborhoods in the city. Seattle’s founders had settled on Elliott Bay only in 1852, and incorporated in 1869. While First Hill developed first as the fashionable neighborhood for the growing elite in the expanding city, Capitol Hill followed close behind, being developed by about 1880-1900. Both neighborhoods were convenient to downtown, enjoyed water views and fresh air, and were some of the earliest areas served by streetcar lines. A map showing 1896 street railways shows two lines serving First Hill via Yesler Way and James Street, while several lines were serving Capitol Hill via Pike, Union, Howell, Stewart, and other streets. Neighborhood development

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


generally followed streetcar lines. 19 On the interior of the hills and on lower slopes, such as around the subject property, more modest middle-class homes and small apartment buildings were built, with scattered commercial buildings, creating a relatively dense, pedestrian-scaled neighborhood. Pike Street was the first street as one departed north from the downtown area that was improved to reach Capitol Hill. In 1901, the streetcar line in the downtown portion of Pike Street was extended all the way up to Broadway. 20 Pine followed shortly after. Both were regraded in the early 1900s to provide a gentler slope from downtown to Broadway, by the turn of the century. Nearly flat Broadway—the main north-south spine of the developing neighborhood—was also an early paved street, and had one of the few north-south streetcar lines that did not go through downtown, but rather connected Capitol Hill and First Hill. Where streetcar lines went, automobiles soon followed. The first sold in 1905, but to a city still used to streetcars, horse transportation, or walking, the new automobiles were essentially toys for the wealthy. Because Pike and Pine were the easiest connection to Broadway, and Broadway connected the wealthy First Hill and Capitol Hill enclaves, the Pike-Pine-Broadway area began to develop into an early “Auto Row,” characterized by numerous dealerships, auto repair shops, parts suppliers, paint shops, parking garages, used car dealers, and the like. 21 Dealerships would have been the most prominent buildings in the Auto Row area, usually located at the most visible locations and in ornate, architect-designed buildings. The building type housing these dealerships were generally fireresistive construction of concrete or brick, two to four stories tall, with large showroom or garage spaces on the first floor, and parking on upper floors accessed by ramps or large elevators. At the beginning of the 20th century in Seattle, automobiles were purchased from local distributors after selecting a model from an auto show, a showroom, or from literature. The vehicle would be delivered months later. Unlike today, there were a wide range of manufacturers competing for market share—not only Ford and Chrysler, but now-departed brands like Federal, Menominee, Chalmers, Saxon, Bauch-Lang Electric, Seldon, Mitchell, Hubmobile, Pierce-Arrow, Case, Reo, Willys-Overbrand, Peerless, Packard, Studebaker, and others. 22 Seattle’s population in this period was growing exponentially, and automobile purchases grew with it, due to increased familiarity with the new technology, and increasingly moderate prices. From 1890 to 1900 the Seattle population had nearly doubled over the decade, to 80,761. City boundaries expanded through several 1907 annexations, such that by 1910 the population had nearly tripled to 237,194, and to approximately 327,000 in 1920. 23 The growth of vehicle ownership resulted in large numbers of secondary businesses springing up to provide support and services. Automobile-related listings in the Seattle Polk’s Directory had grown substantially; for example, by 1915, there were 55 businesses listed under “Automobile Manufacturers and Dealers,” but nearly twice as many—102— listed under “Automobile Repairs and Supplies.” These services included various headings such as “Automobile Accessories,” “Automobile Fenders, Lamps, and Radiators,” “Automobile Gasoline,” and so forth. Some automobile listings appear to be addressing a public still used to horses and carriages—for example, the 1915 directory has subheadings such as “Automobile Tops and Trimmings,” “Automobile Liveries (See Garages),” and even “Automobile Hospitals.” Unlike the automobile dealerships, auto services were often likely to be located in more utilitarian structures, and often on the side streets of the Auto Row area. Garages and some service buildings were built of masonry or concrete fire-resistive construction like the auto dealerships, except less ornate. Between these masonry structures were also found simple wood-frame shop or service buildings, usually only one story. Beginning around the 1920s, other “auto rows” began to appear over the decades in other parts of Seattle, and autorelated service businesses began to be not necessarily associated with the Pike-Pine-Broadway area. In the Depression years of the 1930s, many auto businesses closed and some dealerships moved to selling used cars. In the postwar years
Horse-drawn streetcars had been introduced in Seattle in 1884, cable cars in 1887, and electric streetcars in 1889. By 1892, Seattle had 48 miles of streetcar lines and 22 miles of cable car lines. 20 Williams, p.42. 21 Today also referred to as the “Pike-Pine Corridor.” 22 Sheridan, p.27; BOLA, p.5. 23 Ochsner, Shaping Seattle Architecture, pp. xviii-xxxii.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


of the late 1940s, dealerships moved to expansive outdoor lots and new buildings as they followed suburban development. In the Pike-Pine area during the past several decades, many former automotive-related concrete, masonry, and heavy-timber structures were adapted to residential, retail, entertainment, and institutional uses. Today, the Pike-Pine Corridor has several former automobile-related buildings that have been cited in city surveys as having a high degree of integrity. In 1999, an Environmental Impact Statement related to the Sound Transit Link light rail project included the Seattle Automobile Company (1000 E. Pike) and the Lieback Garage (1101 E. Pike), as properties possibly eligible for National Register or city landmark status. 24 Another survey, the Historic Property Survey Report for Seattle’s Neighborhood Commercial Districts, prepared by a historic consultant for the Historic Preservation Office, cites the following buildings as notable: 25 • Utrecht Art Supplies, a former Packard dealership (1120 Pike) • AEI Music, a former Packard dealership (1600 Broadway) • Former Tyson Automobile Company (901 E. Pine) • Former Graham Motor Cars (915 E. Pike) • Former Colyear Auto Sales, later occupied by REI (1021 E Pine)

E. The architect, Harry H. James The architect of the subject building was Harry H. James, according to the original drawings on file at the Department of Planning and Development microfilm library. Projects attributed to James which were found for this report are detailed below, and were identified primarily by accounts in The Seattle Times newspaper, so the list is by no means exhaustive. James was born in Dayton, Ohio, in 1871. His parents, John and Alice S. James, were early Seattle pioneers who moved their family, including Harry, to Seattle in 1888 from Ohio, when James would have been about 17 years of age. 26 According to his brief obituary, Harry James “took part in the reconstruction of the city following the disastrous fire of 1889.” From about 1907 until his death in 1937 he “designed many apartment buildings in the Bellevue and Summit Districts of Seattle”— referring to Bellevue and Summit Avenues on Capitol Hill. 27 Little information could be found regarding James prior to 1919. As early as 1900, and for several decades thereafter, he appears to have run for city council and even state representative on several occasions, as a Republican, but never won. In 1901 he submitted a building permit for a one and a half story frame house at 2213 15th Avenue which was estimated to cost $200. In 1909, a notice of sale was listed in the newspaper for a 20-acre fruit orchard in Wenatchee which James sold to one W. Gwinn, a local contractor, for $32,000. 28 In 1916, James designed the subject building of this report, which was completed in 1917. In 1919, James designed an automotive service and showroom building for E. E. Siegel, to be occupied by Mitchell Motor & Service Company, two blocks from the subject building at 417 E. Pine Street.[Fig 46] The three-story structure, which is today the Portofino Condominiums, is 120 feet by 92 feet and fills the entire street frontage of the narrow block on Pine between Crawford and Summit. The building was designed to accommodate an additional two stories on top of the original three, but this was apparently never carried out. The building is clad in brick, with large warehouse windows between flat engaged brick pilasters. Brick spandrel panels above and below the windows feature modest in-plane decorative brickwork. The tops of the pilasters are highlighted by relatively small terracotta panels. A
The other six buildings listed in the 1999 Sound Transit EIS which were identified as possibly eligible for National Register or city landmark status are the Lorraine Court Apartments (1025 E. Pike), First Christian Church (1632 Broadway, now demolished), Masonic Temple/Egyptian Theater (805 E. Pine), IOOF Temple/Odd Fellows Hall (911 E. Pine), Johnson & Hamilton Mortuary (1400 Broadway), and the Hotel Avondale/Villa Apartments (1100 Pike Street). 25 Sheridan, p.27. 26 “Mrs. James, pioneer of Seattle, is dead,” The Seattle Times, June 25, 1926, p.7. 27 “Harry H. James, architect, dies,” The Seattle Times, August 30, 1937, p.19. His headstone at Mt. Pleasant Cemetery in Seattle lists 1876 as his birth year. 28 “Building Permits,” The Seattle Times, May 16, 1901, p.7; “Orchard brings $32,000,” The Seattle Times, August 29, 1909, p.8.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


rendering of the original building shows a low brick pediment-like parapet, along the Pine Street elevation, which is no longer there. The building featured an automobile freight elevator, a dumbwaiter, terrazzo floors in the showroom, and a steam heating system capable of handling the additional two stories if built. Advertisements for Mitchell Motor Company automobiles first appears in the Seattle Times in 1908, when they were located at Pike and Broadway. The Mitchell-Lewis Motor Company, based in Racine, Wisconsin, was originally a wagon maker but manufactured automobiles from 1903 until 1924, when they were purchased by the Nash Motor Company. Another known work by Harry James is a 1923 three-story brick and terracotta mixed use building at 900 12th Avenue at the corner of Marion Street, which contained three shops at street level and six apartments above. The garage and basement level was leased to house the fleet of Shepard Ambulances, an early private ambulance company in the city. 29 The building is today extant, although slightly altered. [Fig 47] In the early 1920s his office was located in the American Bank building and later in the Alaska Building downtown. In 1926 he moved to larger offices in the Lowman Building, citing “a considerable amount of work for the coming year.” 30 Around 1924, James began to place advertisements offering real estate development loans and consultation services, and developing his own projects. 31 In a relatively unusual move during a period when architects did not generally advertise, in 1928 he placed an ad in the real estate section of The Seattle Times, with his photo, stating “Architect Harry H. James and associate are now in a position to finance building projects that are worthy of merit,” with contact information included. Another project designed by James was the Louisiana Apartments, constructed in 1925 at the southwest corner of Boylston Avenue and E. Harrison Street on Capitol Hill. According to a newspaper article featuring the project, the building was valued at $110,000 and built for Mrs. Paula Nichols, who “recently came to Seattle from the East, locating here after looking over a number of attractive investment centers.” 32 The building is a four-story block, 62 by 98 feet, with eight two-and-three room apartments on each floor. The apartments appeared to be typical of the 1920s, featuring small but efficient interior arrangements for a population increasingly acclimated to apartment living, such as large living rooms, dressing rooms, and dining alcoves in kitchens. The article mentions that five hotel rooms were located on the first floor, but there is no indication that the rooms differed in layout from the apartment units. The elevations are marked by identically-sized wood-sash windows symmetrically arranged across the facade, with three windows grouped together at living rooms. Although clad in brick with some decorative brickwork at the parapet, the building is relatively unadorned, except for an ornate terracotta surround at the main entry. A free-standing parking garage structure is located at the rear, accessed off the alley. The building is today known as the Homborness Condominiums. [Fig 48] In 1925, James designed an unbuilt apartment building valued at $125,000 at the corner of Roy and Broadway on Capitol Hill, for E. G. Peters, a “large property owner in California,” who began purchasing investment property in Seattle in the mid-1920s. The building was to be three stories with basement, brick and terracotta exterior, and contain 33 two-and-three room apartments. 33 The project did not go forward, because the property changed ownership several times between 1925 and 1930. In 1930 the site was sold to Seattle architect Arthur Loveless, who designed the Loveless Studio Building for the site in 1931, which remains there today. In 1926, James designed two nearly identical red-brick houses in Madrona for A. B. Mesher “to demonstrate how brick may be used in the building of attractively designed houses.” 34 One was to be Mesher’s own home. The structures, at the corner of 37th Avenue and Pike Street with views over Lake Washington, are symmetrical, two-and-a-half stories with hipped roofs originally in tile. Vaguely Mediterranean Revival in style, the houses are marked by a relatively ornate terracotta main entry surround, and terracotta window headers. [Fig 49]
“Lease negotiated for three-story building,” The Seattle Times, May 13, 1923, p.18. The Architect and Engineer, Vol. 84, Jan-June 1926, p.6. 31 See, for example, “Straight or monthly payment building loans...” under Financial-Real Estate Loans, section 25, classified ads, The Seattle Times, August 2, 1924, p.21, or “For attractive apartment house investments...” under Investment Property section 103, classified ad, August 9, 1928, p.4. 32 “Apartment to be built,” The Seattle Times, October 26, 1924, p.22; and “Two new apartments,” The Seattle Times, January 8, 1925, p.18. 33 “Cost to be $140,000,” The Seattle Times, April 19, 1925, p.21. 34 “Model brick homes being erected at 37th Ave. and Pike,” The Seattle Times, May 9, 1926, Section 8, p.1.
29 30

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


In 1927, James built and operated The James Apartments in West Seattle as his own real estate investment. Located on California Avenue at W. Walker Street in the Admiral neighborhood, the four-story structure was valued at $90,000, and was designed to include 20 apartments. Somewhat unusual compared to James’ other apartment buildings, this building is located in a midblock parcel, rather than a corner. A 1927 newspaper article described special features planned for the project, which included electric dishwashers in the kitchens; a ballroom and a children’s play room in the building; and a rear garage for sixteen cars. 35 Today the building has 23 apartments. Like most of James’ work, the building is clad in brick, ornamental terracotta and brickwork at the parapet, symmetrically placed windows, and an ornate terracotta entry directing attention to the center of the main elevation. [Fig 50] Also in 1927, James designed the DeLorges Apartments, at 325 Harvard Avenue E., at the southwest corner of Harrison Street, on Capitol Hill. Typical of James’ work in the 1920s, the building is brick with terracotta ornament, including terracotta sills, parapet work, and an ornate building entry. Also typical for James’ apartment buildings in this period, uniform window sizes are used throughout the project, but grouped together at living rooms to create variety across the elevations. The structure originally contained 27 two, three, and four-room apartment units, and “several hotel rooms.” At the time of its construction, the work was valued at $135,000. The structure was completed in 1928. 36 [Fig 51] In early 1929, James filed incorporation papers for the Gasoline Engine Manufacturing Company, with $5000 in capital recorded. Other incorporators listed were Ben Herz and A. E. James, Harry’s brother. No additional information could be found about this company. By December 1929 and into February 1930, James placed increasing numbers of advertisements offering property for sale or trade, perhaps himself having suffered financial losses following the October 1929 stock market crash, or handling transactions for others. Several buildings offered for sale or trade were Capitol Hill apartment buildings, a new West Seattle apartment building (the James?), as well as some empty lots, and even a five-acre chicken ranch near Kent. After early 1930, these ads disappear, as do any more articles about projects by James. He appears to have retired on or before 1935, the last year that he is listed as an architect in the city directory. James was one of the founders of, and active in, the Washington State Society of Architects, which was established with headquarters in Seattle in 1917. This was a professional organization, like the Washington State Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, which had been chartered in 1894, and which was also based in Seattle. 37 President of the Washington State Society of Architects in 1917 was Augustus Warren Gould, with Harry James serving as vicepresident. Other board members were W.J. Jones and J.L. McCauley. 38 James continued to serve as an officer and member of the board of trustees at least until 1930, and was president for a period in the 1920s. 39 The organization attracted architects of some prominence—in a 1921 article, other officers listed included Louis L. Mendel, Edgar Blair, and Frank Fowler of Seattle, as well as Julius Zittel of Spokane, Watson Vernon of Aberdeen, and Richard V. Gough of Okanagan. 40 The organization was active in the 1920s, among other things, for lobbying the state government for a uniform building code across the state. 41 The organization in the mid-1920s also pushed for Seattle municipal legislation that would have required all building plans for projects in the city limits to be prepared by accredited architects and engineers. 42 James was also appointed by the governor to serve on the three-member state board of architect examiners for several terms in the 1920s.

“West Seattle to get apartment house,” The Seattle Times, November 13, 1927, p.28. “$135,000 Apartment house being erected,” The Seattle Times, December 11, 1927, p.36. 37 At some point in about the 1940s, the organization was absorbed into the AIA. 38 “Washington State Society of Architects,” The American Architect, Vol. 111, April 4, 1917, p.218. 39 The Architect and Engineer, February, 1930. 40 “Washington State Society elects,” The Architect and Engineer, Vol. LXIV, No. 1, January 1921, p.115. 41 “Would limit plans to accredited architects,” December 9, 1923, p.23; and “Architects seek uniform building code legislation,” The Seattle Times, January 11, 1920, p.16. 42 “Fight amendment to building code,” The Seattle Times, April 24, 1924, p.1, 13; and editorial page.
35 36

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


In the 1920s, James and his family resided at 3228 63rd Avenue SW, a few blocks above Alki Beach in West Seattle, and he was an officer in the Admiral District Commercial Club in 1930. At the time of his death in 1937 at age 66, his obituary stated that he and his wife Anna resided at 1806 Harvard Avenue, a site now occupied by Seattle Central Community College. 43

F. Apartment buildings in Seattle and in the west Capitol Hill neighborhood The residential landscape of early Seattle was dominated by single family dwellings which housed the one hundred or so people that lived there. Visitors or new residents had the opportunity to stay at the Felker House, Seattle’s first hotel, which was established in 1853 and offered food and bedding to lodgers. In 1862 the population was only 182 persons, but the town grew steadily, reaching 1,107 by 1870, 3,553 in 1880, and jumping to 42,800 in 1890. 44 Multifamily housing options available for those who could not afford single family homes were essentially limited to boarding houses and hotels. After the late 1890s, Seattle experienced rapid urban and population growth, and the demand for housing became more acute in the following years. From 1890 to 1900 the Seattle population nearly doubled over the decade, to 80,761. City boundaries expanded through several 1907 annexations, such that by 1910 the population had nearly tripled to 237,194, and to approximately 327,000 in 1920. The pace of growth slowed considerably in the 1920s, so that by 1930, the population had reached only 365,500. 45 In the first decades after 1900, apartment buildings began to play more of a role in housing Seattle’s population, particularly in the denser neighborhoods. According to Diana James’ research into the development of local apartment buildings, the City of Seattle building code in 1907 defined the following multiple-dwelling structures: boarding houses, lodging houses, hotels, and apartments. 46 Boarding houses were defined by the ordinance as offering five to twenty sleeping rooms. By custom, they generally offered meals in a family-style setting. James describes the typical boarding house as operating like a family, and typical tenants of boarding houses might be teachers, gentlemen, families, or sometimes women only. By contrast, lodging houses were defined by ordinance as offering the same number of rooms, but differed in that they offered no food. Meals were taken at restaurants. This low-cost form of housing typically attracted laborers, recent immigrants, railroad workers, and the like. Hotels offered furnished rooms to visitors as well as locals, and terms were offered by the day, week, or month, as was typical across the country in the early 20th century. Hotels ranged from luxurious to modest, and every price range. Larger hotels had spaces available to the public, such as dining rooms, reception rooms, or outdoor verandas. Apartments offered an alternative to boarding houses, lodging houses, and hotels, and was defined by the City of Seattle in 1907 as a building containing separate housekeeping units for three or more families, having a street entrance common to all. 47 More specifically, apartment buildings (unlike boarding houses, lodging houses, or hotels) offered the same spaces and utilities that could be found in a single-family house—full bathroom on the premises, a kitchen for preparation of meals, hot and cold running water, standard-sized rooms, operable windows, and a street address. Apartment buildings could also sometimes offer additional semipublic spaces not found in single-family houses, such as foyers or rooftop gardens, to be shared by all the residents. 48 Apartment buildings as we know them today in the United States began to become popular in the larger, denser East Coast cities in the latter half of the 1800s. Some of the early buildings were tenement apartments, which housed large numbers of residents in rooms that often lacked windows, fire exits, or plumbing. Building codes aimed at preserving
43 “Admiral Way folk organize club,” The Seattle Times, December 10, 1930, p.5. Polk’s Directory lists completely different residential addresses for 1935, 36, and 37 than that shown above; this might have reflected financial difficulty. 44 Ochsner, Shaping Seattle Architecture, pp. xviii. 45 Ochsner, Shaping Seattle Architecture, pp. xviii-xxxii. 46 James, Shared Walls: Seattle Apartment Buildings 1900-1939, pp.8-10. 47 James, pp.8-10. 48 Hunter, pp.210-212.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


basic health and safety standards for apartment dwellers developed in cities like New York around the turn of the 20th century. By about 1900, Seattle—although never as densely populated as such cities as New York or San Francisco— had adopted similar measures as well. 49 In the early 1900s, apartment buildings proliferated as the increasing value of close-in land prices made the construction of apartments more attractive to land owners. Nodes of apartment buildings developed—along with commercial buildings housing shops and services—along streetcar routes, both in-city and in developing streetcar suburbs. 50 Any initial public apprehension about a lack of privacy in apartment buildings, or living in the same building as complete strangers, was outweighed by the convenience of living near the city center or near transit routes. At the early part of the century, Seattle apartment buildings often advertised new or standard conveniences in units that might not have been available in older houses, including running hot and cold water, gas, and electricity; kitchens with gas or electric ranges; cooler cabinets, iceboxes, or refrigerators; dishwashers; even built-in radios. Buildings might include laundry rooms, additional storage space, or a parking garage, or feature extras such as elevators, or telephone service. 51 In James’ analysis of Seattle apartment buildings, she describes three classes of apartments which developed concurrently in the first third of the 1900s—luxury, efficiency, and intermediate. At the higher end, for those who could afford them, luxury apartment buildings featured distinctive exteriors, ornate lobbies and finishes, large suites of rooms, and occasionally servant’s quarters. Most affordable were efficiency apartment buildings, which emphasized compact living quarters, and did not focus expense on luxurious common areas. These apartments had one to five rooms—usually a living/sleeping room, small kitchen or kitchenette, eating alcove or dinette, bathroom, and a dressing room/closet which often concealed a hideaway bed. Space in efficiencies was maximized through the use of built-in cabinets, benches, or tables, and multipurpose rooms. Intermediate apartment buildings occupied the middle range of the three apartment classes--they offered more space than the efficiencies, and some finer finishes or amenities, but not at such higher rates as the luxury market. 52 James also addresses the term “apartment hotel,” which she describes as a subcategory of efficiency apartments. Beginning in the 1920s in Seattle, this term began to be applied to some multifamily buildings which offered hotel-like amenities such as housekeeping or dining service, as well as hotel-like ornate exteriors, elaborate lobbies, public dining rooms, elevators, and roof gardens—but the units inside were essentially efficiency apartments. 53 The first purpose-built apartment building in Seattle was the St. Paul, built in 1901 at the corner of Summit and Seneca on First Hill. The building, which still exists but has been substantially altered, was intended to attract the upper classes by featuring a private vestibule, reception room, library, parlor, dining room, kitchen, and two to three bedrooms, per apartment. 54 Besides First Hill, apartment buildings were also widely constructed in close-in neighborhoods or denser neighborhoods served by streetcar, such as the Denny Regrade, lower Queen Anne, the University District, and Capitol Hill. The west side of Capitol Hill—the neighborhood surrounding the subject property, from Melrose to Broadway and Galer to Pike—is noted by James as having “an embarrassment of riches related to the number of apartment buildings it contains.” 55 The close proximity to the central business district, and the early expansion of streetcar lines along Pike, Pine, Broadway, Bellevue, Summit facilitated a dense neighborhood and made it attractive for investors to construct apartment buildings in the area. “Schools, churches, entertainment venues, fraternal organizations, and women’s clubs, in addition to mom-and-pop stores, accommodated the growing number of people who were moving into newlyconstructed apartments, as well as the resident population who lived in a wide range of single-family homes.” 56
James, p.8; Hunter, pp.225-227; Sheridan, 1994, p.34. Sheridan, 1994, p.28. 51 James, pp.20-34. 52 James, pp.68-79. 53 James, pp.71-72. An example of an apartment hotel cited by James is The Camlin Hotel (1926), which originally had kitchenettes in all but eight of the units. 54 James, pp.131-133. 55 James, p.180. 56 James, p.144.
49 50

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Apartment building in this area remained strong throughout the 1920s, although World War I and a subsequent recession slowed development somewhat. Apartment buildings ranged from three story walk-ups to six or more stories with elevators. Materials were generally brick and terracotta for newer buildings, or wood for those constructed in the earlier part of the century, and often in eclectic styles. James cites over two dozen notable extant apartment buildings in this neighborhood—of those, about half were built prior to 1910. 57 The following apartment buildings, however, were constructed within a few years of the subject building: The Lauren Renee (1912) at 312 Olive Place; The Melrose (1916) at 1520 Melrose ; The Porter (1917) at 1630 Boylston; and The Lenawee (1918) at 1629 Harvard. Nearby apartment buildings from the later years of the 1920s were often brick and terracotta in a Colonial Revival or Tudor Revival styles which were popular by that time; examples cited by James include the Olive Crest (1924) at 1510 E. Olive Way, and the Biltmore (1924) at 418 Loretta Place. [Fig 44] Apartment buildings along commercial streets often had storefronts along the sidewalk, with residential units on upper floors, as in the case of the subject building. These mixed-use buildings were attractive to owners and investors because they provided two sources of rent—residential tenants, and commercial tenants. Nearby examples of such buildings constructed about the same time as the subject building are the Hotel Avondale (1908) at 1100 Pike, or the Wintonia (1909) at 1431 Minor (a designated Seattle Landmark). Examples farther afield, on the east side of Broadway, include the Tyson Oldsmobile/Triangle Auto Parts/Graham/REO Building (1912) at 905 E. Pike (which contained both residential and office space on upper floors), or an early wood-frame example, the Lorraine Court Apartments (1905) at 1023 E. Pike Street. [Fig 45]

57 The pre-1910 buildings listed are: The Celeste (1906) 304 E. Olive Place, The Glencoe (1907) at 1511 Boylston, The Starbird (1907) at 1512 Boylston, The St. Johns (1907) at 725 E. Pike, The Chardonnay (1907) at 203 Bellevue Avenue E., The Bel Fiore (1907) at 1707 Bellevue, Rialto Court (1907) at 1729 Boylston, Buena Vista (1907) 1633 Boylston, The Petra (1908) at 1703 Harvard, The Carroll (1908) at 305 Bellevue Avenue E., Summit Arms (1909) at 1512 Summit, The Alexander (1909) at 1711 Bellevue, and Thomas Park View (1909) at 411 East Thomas.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


V. BIBLIOGRAPHY Architect and engineer. (1919). San Francisco, CA: Architect and engineer. Berner, Richard C. Seattle 1900-1920: From Boomtown, Urban Turbulence, to Restoration. Seattle: Charles Press, 1991. BOLA Architecture + Planning, “1205 East Pine Street,” Seattle Landmark Nomination, June 2007. City of Seattle: • Department of Neighborhoods, Historic Resources Survey database, • Department of Planning and Development, Microfilm Library, permit records and drawings. • Department of Planning and Development Parcel Data, 2010. • Department of Planning and Development, Director’s Rule 3-2012, “Character structures that cannot be demolished if incentives allowing additional height and floor size are used on a lot within the Pike/Pine Conservation Overlay District,” February 27, 2012. Clarke, S. J. Seattle: Deluxe Supplement to the History of Seattle. Seattle: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1916. D.A. Sanborn. Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps. Seattle, Washington (various dates) maps accessed from Seattle Public Libraries, online. HistoryLink, the Online Encyclopedia to Washington State History. Hunter, Christine. Ranches, Rowhouses & Railroad Flats—American Homes: How They Shape Our Landscapes and Neighborhoods. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1999. James, Diana E. Shared Walls: Seattle Apartment Buildings, 1900-1939. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co: 2012. Ketcherside, Rob. “Undermining the Republican Senator from Melrose,” February 26, 2012, Re:Take history column, King County Assessor’s Records, at Puget Sound Regional Archives, at Bellevue Community College, Bellevue, WA. King County Parcel Viewer website. Kroll Map Company Inc., "Kroll Map of Seattle," various dates. Nyberg, Folke, and Victor Steinbrueck, for the Historic Seattle Preservation and Development Authority. “Capitol Hill: An Inventory of Buildings and Urban Design Resources.” Seattle: Historic Seattle, 1975. Nyberg, Folke, and Victor Steinbrueck, for the Historic Seattle Preservation and Development Authority. “First Hill: An Inventory of Buildings and Urban Design Resources.” Seattle: Historic Seattle, 1975. Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl, ed. Shaping Seattle Architecture: A Historical Guide to the Architects. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994. Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl, and Dennis Alan Andersen. Distant Corner: Seattle Architects and the Legacy of HH Richardson. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003. R.L. Polk and Company. Polk’s Directory to the City of Seattle. Seattle: various dates. Rosenberg, Casey. Streetcar Suburb: Architectural Roots of a Seattle Neighborhood. Seattle, WA: Fanlight Press, 1989.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Seattle House and Street Directory-1928. Portland, Oregon: H.C. Grey, 1928. The Seattle Times newspaper. Seattle, Washington. Includes previous incarnations as The Seattle Press Times, The Seattle Daily Times, and The Seattle Sunday Times. Sheridan, Frances Amelia. “Apartment House Development on Seattle’s Queen Anne Hill Prior to World War II.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Department of Urban Design, University of Washington, 1994. Sheridan, Mimi. “Historic Property Survey Report: Seattle’s Commercial Districts.” City of Seattle, Department of Neighborhoods, 2002. Veka, Clay H. “Seattle’s Street Railway System and the Urban Form: Lessons from the Madison Street Cable Car.” Unpublished paper, University of Washington, March 14, 2007. Washington State Division of Archives and Record Management. Historic Photo and Assessor Documentation. Williams, Jacqueline. "A New Seattle Neighborhood, Courtesy of J. A. Moore." Columbia Magazine, Spring 2002, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 30-35. Williams, Jacqueline. The Hill With A Future: Seattle's Capitol Hill, 1900-1946. Seattle: CPK Ink, 2001. Woodbridge, Sally, and Roger Montgomery. A Guide to Architecture in Washington State. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1980.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


VI. PREPARER AND REVIEWER INFORMATION Submitted & Prepared by: Nicholson Kovalchick Architects 310 First Avenue S., Suite 4-S Seattle WA 98104 Phone: 206-933-1150 Contact: Email: Direct: David Peterson 206-494-9791


January 25, 2013

Reviewed by:


Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013



Fig 1 - Site map; red box indicates location of site. North is up. (Google Maps, 2012)

Fig 2 - Site map; red dotted box indicates location of site. North is up. (Google Maps, 2012)
Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 3 – Neighborhood context: East side of Melrose, between Pike and Pine. House at center was built prior to the regrading of the local streets; the apartment building at left was built after regrading.

Fig 4 – Neighborhood context: View west along E. Pine Street. Arrow indicates subject property.

Fig 5 – Neighborhood context: View south along Bellevue Avenue. Arrow indicates subject property.
Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 6 – Neighborhood context: View north along Bellevue Avenue; First Covenant Church (the former Swedish Tabernacle) is at far right in left photo, and featured more clearly in right image (from Arrow indicates subject property.

Fig 7 – Neighborhood context: View east along E. Pine Street. Arrow indicates subject property.

Fig 8 – Neighborhood context: (Left) View southward towards Pike Street of east side of Bellevue Avenue, showing the McDermott Apartments and First Christian Church, formerly the Swedish Tabernacle; (Right) View northward towards Pine Street of east side of Bellevue Avenue, showing the 400 E. Pine and Area 51/Carr Brothers buildings.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 9 – 1937 Tax Assessor photo (Puget Sound Regional Archives)

Fig 10 – View of the north and east elevations in 2012.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 11 – North elevation in 2012.

Fig 12 – North elevation in 2012, showing storefronts at street level, and apartments above.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 13 – North elevation in 2012. The secondary entry to the upstairs apartments, mezzanine apartment, and the basement is located at the far right of the building. The Melrose Building is the white building at right.

Fig 14 – View of south (rear) elevation and east elevation (facing Bellevue Avenue) in 2012. The main entry to the upstairs apartments is covered by the blue canopy.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 15 – South (rear) elevation in 2012.

Fig 16 – East elevation in 2012.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 17 – North and west elevations, in 2012.

Fig 18 – Storefronts along Pine Street, in 2012.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 19 – Detail: (Left) Terracotta plaque painted with “Feeley Apts,” not the original name of the building; (Right) Terracotta entry on Bellevue Avenue.

Fig 20 – Detail: (Left) Fire alarm (?) at Bellevue Avenue entrance; (Right) Transom for mezzanine apartment along Pine Street; note operable sash, which is not original.

Fig 21 – Detail: (Left) Terracotta pilaster cap; (Right) Metal fire escape balcony on east/Bellevue Avenue elevation.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 22 – Interiors in 2012: (Left and Right) Mud Bay shop, occupying the easternmost storefront on the Pine Street elevation, and the only corner shop location (at Bellevue Avenue).

Fig 23 – Interiors in 2012: (Left), Mud Bay, showing no mezzanine; (Right) Edie’s Shoes, showing mezzanine for storage.

Fig 24 – Interiors in 2012: (Left and Right) Edie’s Shoes, the second storefront from the east. Note concrete frame structure.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 25 – Interiors in 2012: (Left and Right) Le Frock, the third from east or center storefront. Note stair to mezzanine.

Fig 26 – Interiors in 2012: (Left) Stair at Le Frock; (Right) Wall of Sound, the fourth storefront from the east on the Pine Street elevation.

Fig 27 – Interiors in 2012: (Left and Right) Wall of Sound music store. Note ladder to mezzanine.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 28 – Interiors in 2012: (Left and Right) Scout clothing store, the fifth and last storefront from the east along the Pine Street. The mezzanine space above was converted into a studio apartment at an unknown time (see fig. below).

Fig 29 – Interiors in 2012: (Left and Right) The mezzanine apartment above the westernmost storefront along the Pine Street elevation (see fig. above).

Fig 30 – Interiors in 2012: (Left) Basement; (Right) Small entry vestibule for apartments, on Bellevue Avenue.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 31 – Interiors in 2012: (Left) Stairwell at Bellevue Avenue side; (Right) Upper level hallway accessing apartments. Enframed elements mid-height on walls (now sealed) may have been pass-through cabinets for laundry/towel service..

Fig 32 – Interiors in 2012: (Left) Typical apartment, view from bedroom to living room; (Right) Typical apartment, pocket doors between bedroom and living room.

Fig 33 – Interiors in 2012: (Left) Typical apartment showing kitchen, and bathroom with raised floor; (Right) Original kitchen built-in cabinets.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 34 – (Left) Grace Hospital, b.1885-87; (Right) Summit School which replaced it, b.1905 (both images from

Fig 35 – Detail, USGS 1899 topographic map of Seattle. Contour lines represent 20 feet in elevation; darker blocks represent denser settlement. Red box indicates site; arrows indicates Capitol Hill ridge. (UW maps, T-2421)

Fig 36 –Pine Street regrade, (Left) diagram showing existing and proposed grades (SPU 76-24-1) ; (Right) Undated view north along Melrose at Minor, from Pike Street towards Pine Street (a block from the subject parcel), showing regrading underway (UW Spec Coll SEA1305).
Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 37 – Detail, 1905 Sanborn maps #191 and 219 (two maps stitched together); red dotted box indicates location of site. North is up. Note Swedish Mission Church at Bellevue & Pike, and Grace Hospital at Crawford, Union, & Summit.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 38 – Development of neighborhood. (Left) Swedish Mission Church at Pike and Bellevue in 1900, later replaced by the Swedish Tabernacle in 1910 (; (Right) House at NW corner of Pike and Melrose in 1909 (today the location of the Six Arms pub); the roof peak of the Swedish Mission Church is barely visible at far right (UW Spec Coll LEE219).

Fig 39 – 1912 Baist map; red dotted box indicates location of site. North is up.

Fig 40 – Development of the neighborhood. (Left) Butterworth Mortuary, b.1922, in 1923 (MOHAI 1983.10.2561.3); (Right) 400 E. Pine (kitty corner from the subject building), b.1917, in 1957 (SMA 75827).

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 41 – Detail, 1951 Sanborn maps #191 and 219 (two maps stitched together), showing the development of the neighborhood, with increased commercial development along Pike and Pine; red dotted box indicates location of site. North is up. Note Swedish Tabernacle at Bellevue & Pike, and Summit Public School at Crawford, Union, & Summit.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


(Left) Packard dealership at Pike and Melrose, b.1920; (Right) Seattle Automobile Co. at 1000 E. Pike, b.1912.

(Left) Universal Auto Repair at 1611 Boylston, b.1923; (Right) Triangle Auto Parts at 1001 E. Pike, b. 1916.

(Left) Liebeck Garage at 1101 E. Pike, b.1911; (Right) Carr Brothers Auto Repair at 401 E. Pine, b.1910. Fig 42 – Automobile-related buildings which are listed as “character structures” in the DPD’s Pike/Pine Conservation Overlay District, from approximately the same period as the subject building. Names listed are historic names. Images are all tax assessor photos.

Fig 43 – Boundaries of the DPD Pike/Pine Conservation Overlay District (yellow), showing “conservation core” of the densest location of targeted properties (blue). Subject site indicated by red arrow. North is up.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


(Left) The Lauren Renee at 312 Olive Place, b.1912; and (Right) The Melrose at 1520 Melrose, b.1916. (Both Department of Neighborhood photos)

(Left) The Porter at 1630 Boylston, b.1917; and (Right) The Lenawee at 1629 Harvard, b.1918. (Both tax assessor photos)

(Above) the Biltmore at 418 Loretta Place, b. 1924. (Tax assessor photo) Fig 44 – This page: Nearby apartment buildings on Capitol Hill which date from approximately the same period as the subject building.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


(Left) Lorraine Court Apartments at 1023 E. Pike, b.1905; (Right) Hotel Avondale at 1100 Pike, b.1908. (Both tax assessor photos)

(Left) The Wintonia Apartments at 1431 Minor, a designated Seattle Landmark, b.1909 (Joe Mabel,; (Right) Tyson Oldsmobile/Triangle Auto Parts/Graham/REO at 905 E. Pike, b.1912 (tax assessor photo). Fig 45 – This page: Mixed-use apartment buildings on Capitol Hill which date from approximately the same period as the subject building. Each of these buildings had commercial space at the street level, with floors above occupied by a residential use—often identified by windows that are scaled smaller than office or commercial windows. Like the subject building of this report, the upper residential levels of the buildings shown above sometimes functioned both as apartments and as a hotel. According to city directory listings, the Tyson Oldsmobile building, at lower right, appears to have had both apartments and office space on its upper floors, distinguishable by the larger end windows (offices) and the smaller mid-elevation windows (apartments/hotel units). Because the Tyson building has multiple ground floor entries, a separation of such uses above could be easily achieved.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 46 – Other work by Harry James: 417 E. Pine Street (1919), built for Mitchell Motor & Service Company, later known as the Rowland Motors Building, and today is the Portofino Condominiums. The building has three street-facing elevations on an unusually narrow block of Pine Street, between Summit Avenue and Crawford Place. It was designed to be five stories, with three stories built first; the other stories were apparently never pursued. (Images from Seattle Times, May 25, 1919, p.5; and DON photo 2011).

Fig 47 - Other work by Harry James: 900 12th Avenue, b.1923 (tax assessor photo).

Fig 48 - Other work by Harry James: The Louisiana Apartments, aka Homborness Condominiums (1926), at Boylston Avenue and E. Harrison Street on Capitol Hill. (Left) Image from The Seattle Times, January 8, 1925, p.18; (Right) King County tax assessor photo, c.2011.

Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013


Fig 49 - Other work by Harry James: Two identical brick and terracotta houses at 1430 and 1434 37th Avenue (1926), at E. Pike Street in Madrona. The houses were built for local builder and developer A. B. Mesher, who resided in one of the homes, “to demonstrate how brick may used in the building of attractively designed houses.” 58 Mesher also built the Averill-Lowden Apartments (1930, by an unknown architect but perhaps James) on Summit Avenue at Harrison Street, not far from the subject building, similar in scale and materials to James’ other apartment building work. Both King County tax assessor photos (Left) c.1937 and (Right) 2011.

Fig 50 - Other work by Harry James: The James Apartments (1927) at 2124 California Avenue SW in the Admiral district of West Seattle. This building was also owned and developed by Harry James. (Left, rendering from The Seattle Times, November 13, 1927, p.28; Right, tax assessor photo).

Fig 51 - Other work by Harry James: DeLorges Apartments (1927-28), now Condominiums, 325 Harvard Avenue E., at Harrison Street. (King County tax assessor photo, c.2011). Ad, The Seattle Times, October 7, 1928, p.34.

“Model brick homes being erected at 37th Ave. and Pike,” The Seattle Times, May 9, 1926, Eighth Section front page.
Nicholson Kovalchick Architects – Timken Roller Bearing Building Seattle Landmark Nomination – January 25, 2013



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