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Selective Coordination of Protective Devices
8.1.0 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3 8.1.4 8.1.5 8.1.6 Introduction Recommended Procedure for Conducting a Selective Coordination Study Example System One-Line Diagram for Selective Coordination Study Time-Current Curve No. 1 for System Shown in Figure 8.1.2 with Analysis Notes and Comments Time-Current Curve No. 2 for System Shown in Figure 8.1.2 with Analysis Notes and Comments Time-Current Curve No. 3 for System Shown in Figure 8.1.2 with Analysis Notes and Comments Shortcut Ratio Method Selectivity Guide
It is not enough to select protective devices based solely on their ability to carry the system load current and interrupt the maximum fault current at their respective levels. A properly engineered system will allow only the protective device nearest the fault to open, leaving the remainder of the system undisturbed and preserving continuity of service. We may then define selective coordination as “the act of isolating a faulted circuit from the remainder of the electrical system, thereby eliminating unnecessary power outages. The faulted circuit is isolated by the selective operation of only that overcurrent protective device closest to the overcurrent condition.”
8.1.1 Recommended Procedure for Conducting a Selective Coordination Study
The following steps are recommended when conducting a selective coordination study: 1. One-line diagram. Obtain or develop the electrical system one-line diagram that identifies important system components, as given below. a. Transformers. Obtain the following data for protection of and coordination information about transformers: (1) kVA rating (2) Inrush points (3) Primary and secondary connections (4) Impedance (5) Damage curves
The best reference voltage is the voltage level at which most of the devices being studied fall. Devices at other voltage levels will be shifted by a multiplier based on the transformer turn ratio. If the largest branch device will coordinate and the branch devices are similar. c. It is good practice.) (5) Type of overload relay (class 10. and equipment grounding. they generally will coordinate as well. calculating maximum available short-circuit currents at critical points in the distribution system (such as transformers. and large motors and generators). etc. f. 240. however. Short-circuit study. Commencing the analysis. conductors. Fuse characteristics. panelboards. Relay types should be identified on the one-line diagram. Most computer programs will make these adjustments automatically when the voltage levels of the devices are identified by the input data. Determine the reference (base) voltage. short-circuit withstand curves can be developed. Conductors.2 Section Eight (6) Primary and secondary voltages (7) Liquid or dry type b. 3. Fuse types/classes should be identified on the one-line diagram. 20. Determine the ampere scale selection. studies begin with the main circuit devices and work down through the feeders and branches (right to left on your log-log paper). c. Circuit breaker characteristics. Relay characteristics. Refer to the preceding section. This is accomplished by multiplying or dividing the ampere scale by a factor of 10. motor control centers. b. . the reference voltage will be 208. (The designer may wish to verify other areas of protection on those branches. It is most convenient to place the time-current curves in the center of log-log paper.8.) e. Check phase. Do not overcrowd the study. The system one-line diagram should include motor information such as (1) Full-load currents (2) Horsepower (3) Voltage (4) Type of starting characteristic (across the line. to have a minimum of three devices in a coordination sequence so that there is always one step of overlap. The starting point can be determined by the designer. e. or 480 V. main switchgear. etc. load centers. Many computer-generated studies will allow a maximum of 10 device characteristics per page. d. On most low-voltage industrial and commercial studies. The best reference voltage will require the least amount of manipulation. Circuit breaker types should be identified on the one-line diagram. Perform a short-circuit analysis. 2. 30) Overload protection of the motor and motor circuit can be determined from these data. Motors. The one-line diagram should include information such as (1) Conductor size (2) Number of conductors per phase (3) Material (copper or aluminum) (4) Insulation (5) Conduit (magnetic or nonmagnetic) From this information. This provides information on how overcurrent devices will protect conductors from overload and short-circuit damage. Helpful hints a. Multiple branches. the largest rated branch-circuit device should be checked for coordination with upstream devices. d. If many branches are taken off one feeder and the branch loads are similar. Typically. neutral.
1. applicable to the three feeders/branches shown. The designer should be aware that when conducting a coordination study on an existing system. it is generally safe to ignore possible damage to conductors from short circuits because the philosophy is to isolate a fault as quickly as possible.4 Time-Current Curve No. the contrary is true. 8.3 f. thus the I2t energy damage curves do not have enough time to come into play (become a factor). optimal coordination cannot always be achieved.11) This selectivity guide may be used for an easy check on fuse selectivity regardless of the short-circuit current levels involved.1.1. thus it can be a significant factor. 2 for System Shown in Figure 8.5 ) 8.and high-voltage systems. h.1. In low-voltage (600 V or less) systems. Where medium.1. and compromise may be necessary. g. Existing systems.9) 8.4) The following example will analyze in detail the system shown.Selective Coordination of Protective Devices 8. 1 for System Shown in Figure 8.1. The designer must set priorities within the constraints of the system under study.3 Time-Current Curve No. A one-line diagram of the study should be drawn for future reference.7 ) 8. . It also may be used for fixed thermalmagnetic trip circuit breakers (exercising good judgment) with a reasonable degree of accuracy. One-line diagram. however.2 with Analysis Notes and Comments (see page 8. It is understood that a short-circuit study has been completed and that all protective devices have adequate interrupting ratings. 8.3 through 8.1.2 with Analysis Notes and Comments (see page 8.1. In medium. It is then necessary to exercise experience and judgment to achieve the best coordination possible to mitigate the effects of “blackout” conditions. This simple radial system will involve three separate time-current studies.1.5).5 Time-Current Curve No.1. where the philosophy is to have the overcurrent protection “hang in” as long as possible.and high-voltage primary fuses and relays are involved. A selective coordination analysis is the next step. Conductor short-circuit protection. The three time-current curves and their accompanying notes are self-explanatory (Figures 8. 3 for System Shown in Figure 8.6 Shortcut Ratio Method Selectivity Guide (see page 8.2 Example System One-Line Diagram for Selective Coordination Study (see page 8. the time-current characteristic curves should be plotted on standard loglog graph paper for proper study.2 with Analysis Notes and Comments (see page 8.
2 .1.8.4 Section Eight 8.
Selective Coordination of Protective Devices 8.3 (continued) .5 8.1.
3 (Continued ) .6 Section Eight 8.8.1.
Selective Coordination of Protective Devices 8.1.4 (continued) .7 8.
4 (Continued ) .8 Section Eight 8.8.1.
1.Selective Coordination of Protective Devices 8.5 (continued) .9 8.
10 Section Eight 8.1.5 (Continued ) .8.
1.11 TABLE 8.6 .Selective Coordination of Protective Devices 8.
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