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and the two manned suborbital space flights. the modified Mercury Network. The performance discussions of the spacecraft and launch systems. conducted on February '20. mission support personnel. together with analyses o:f observed space phenomena and the medical aspects of the mission. form a continuation of the information previously published for the first United States manned orbital flight.FOREWORD This document presents the results of the second United State_ manned orbital space flight conducted on May 24. 1962. and the astronaut. 1962. iii .

........... NASA Goddard Division.... NASA Manned SpAcecraft Center.. and William C.......... NASA Manned Spacecraft Center.. Ph.. Air Force Missile Test Center.. White.. Fla....D.. 63 By Helmut A. Flight Crew Operations Division.... NASA Manned Spacecraft Center... B..D..... NASA Manned Spacecraft Center.. NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE ASTRONAUT . Naval School of Aviation Medlei_e. 2. M.. Life Systems Division. O'Keefe.. M............ NASA Manned Spacecraft Center.D..... APPENDIX. and Robie Hackworth... NASA Manned VOICE Spacecraft Center. MA-7 Astronaut.......... Donegan. NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. NASA Manned Spacecraft Center.. Manned Space Flight Support Division........... 77 V 69 By M........ NASA 43 43 35 By John A...... Knoblock.. Armstrong.... Mercury Project Office. Charles A........ Theoretical Goddard Sp_ce Flight Center......... Manned Space Flight Support Division.... McCutcheon. Edward C... Kranz. Hodge.. Flight Qperations Division........ Chief... Flight Crew Operations Division........ Fields...... SPACE SCIENCE REPORT . and James C.... 5. and Ashton Graybiel... William 0... ...........D.D. Scott Carpenter.... Rita M.. Flight Operations Division...... Fred Kelly. Hayes...... Ph.......... Aerospace Medical Operations Office... PILOT PERFORMANCE ... M.D... Aerospace Medical Operations Office. Winifred Sawtell Cameron........... Naval Air Station.... M... 4. M.D.. Fla..... Cecil Field. Mercury Project Office. Patrick Air Force Basej Fla. Johnson... MEDICAL OBSERVATIONS . NASA Manned Spacecraft Center..... Douglas. Aerospace Medical Operations Office. 27 By John D.. MISSION OPERATIONS .... 15 By James g... Theoretical Division...... 6... Aerospace Medical Operations Office.. Pensacola.. 7.. M..... MERCURY NETWORK PERFORMANCE ....S........ G..... M. AEROMEDICAL A....C..... Space Flight Center. Kuehnel... PILOT'S FLIGHT REPORT .. 3........ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.... Chief......... Asst.... Page iii 1 1....CONTENTS FOREWORD . Life Systems Division...... D. Rapp. NASA Manned Spacecraft Center.... Boynton. Asst...... U.....D... NASA Manned Spacecraft Center....... Van Bockel...D... Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. CLINICAL STUDIES . Washington.. 54 By Ernest P... Flight Crew Operations Division. and E. NASA Manned Spacecraft Center.... NASA Manned Spacecraft Center.... Minners..... John J... and Harold I. Stanley C........ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.. U. Jacksonville. Berry... AND LAUNCH-VEHICLE PERFORMANCE . Chief for Flight Control.... M... Jackson.. NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. Flight Operations Division.... Chief.S.. NASA Manned Spacecraft Center.. Flight Crew Operations Division. William K. SPACECRAFT By John H.. Eugene F.. By Howard A.. AIR-GROUND COMMUNICATION .

_.op. parachute om. . 1-L--Mercury spacecraft systems..]_.t."J. SPACECRAFT AND LAUNCH-VEHICLE PERFORMANCE By JOHNH. and E. The objectives of the flight were to evaluate the performance of the man-spacecraft system in a three-pass mission.k w_. identification of the airglow layer observed by Astronaut Glenn._--c. associated information was available which indicated continued well-being of the astronaut. ... The flight further qualified the Mercury spacecraft sysrems for manned orbital operations and provided evidence for progressing into missions of extended duration and consequently more demanding systems requirements. to evaluate the performance of spacecraft systems modified as a result of unsatisfactory performance during previous missions.1. The seventh Mercury-Atlas mission (MA-7) was planned for I three ntroducti orbi o tn al passes and wasa continuation of a program to acquire operational experience and information for manned or- couch . A modification of the spacecraft control-system thrust units were effective... notably that regarding liquid behavior in a weightless state. NASA Manned $pacecra/t Center. on toalobt in the yastr aut's opir naft ions sy on the op eu rt ati sa uit abilit oon f the spacec stems. and to exercise and evaluate further the Performance of the Mercury Worldwide Network. to evaluate the effects of space flight on the astro na . and photography of terrestrial features and meteorological phenomena. An experiment which was to provide atmospheric drag and color visibility data in space through deployment of an inflatable sphere was partially successful.. The intent of this paper is to describe briefly the MA-7 spacecraft and launch vehicle v. _.. The single missioncritical malfunction which occurred involved a failure in the spacecraft pitch horizon scanner._d. 1 . FIELDS. The spacecraft also served as an orbiting laboratory where the pilot could conduct limited experiments which would increase the knowledge in the space scienees. rm_z P.o_...0o. .. Mercury Project Office NASA Manned SpacecraJt Center Summary The performance of the Mercury spacecraft and Atlas launch vehicle for the orbital flight of Astronaut M.. ch _2-_"d . a component of the automatic control system.. Some uncertainties in the data telemetered from the bioinstrumentation prevailed at times during the flight. BoYl_VroN Mercur . Cabin and pressure-suit temperatures were high but not intolerable. however. y Project Office. as well as protection during the critical flight phases of launch and reentry. bital space fight. This anomaly was adequately compensated for by the pilot in subsequent infiight operations so that the success of the mission was not compromised.do.d .. The Aurora 7 spacecraft and Atlas launch vehicle used by Astronaut Carpenter in suScessfully the second States mannedperforming orbital mission (MA-7)United were nearly identical to those used for the MA-6 flight.. All primary mission objectives were achieved. M.o. The Mercury spacecraft provided a safe and habitable environment for the pilot while in orbit._ P..s. Scott Carpenter was excellent in nearly every respect. Equipment was included in the spacecraft which provided valuable scientific information.

mechanical and pyrotechnic. a more detailed description is presented in reference 1.ooo E 500 _. The data. Mechanical and Pyrotechnic Systems The mechanical and pyrotechnic system group consists of the separation devices. attitude control. The general arrangement of the spacecraft interior is schematical]_y depicted in figure 1-1.ilo. percent PmUaE1-2. as is evident in figure 1-2. Heat Protection System During flight through the atmosphere at launch and reentry. the per- J_ 4o 6o Thickness.. Performances of individual systems are discussed in the following paragraphs. the high velocities generate excessive heat from which the crew and equipment must be protected. The spacecraft must also be capable of withstanding the heat pulse associated with the ignition of the launch escape rocket. The outer conical surface of the spacecraft afterbody is made up of high-ternperature alloy shingles_ and the cylindrical portion is protected by beryllium shingles. 2. Although a very basic description of each systern accompanies the corresponding section. as well as the ablation-shield weight loss during reentry. three posigrade motors_ the launch escapeAll rocket. The many systems which the spacecraft comprises may be generally grouped into those of heat protection.. All separation devices worked properly during the mission. See pag 9 9 of reference 1 for additional description of the rocket motor systern. communications. The supporting structure behind the ablation shield was found to be in excellent condition following tha flight.--Maxinmm ablation-shield teml)eratures.. Although the MA-7 reentry trajectory was slightly more shallow than for MA-6. and instrumentation.systems and discuss their technical performance. _ I I so _o0 .. Sera. are comparable with previous flights.000 \ -'0 Predicted MA-4 Two temperature measurements were made in the ablation shield. The magnitudes of these temperatures. between the spacecraft and the escape tower. _ '__ _ The rocket motor system consisted of three retrorocket motors. since the pilot egressed through the top of the spacecraft after landing. Additional description of the heat protection system can be found on pages 7 to 9 of reference 1. life support. the rocket motors. This entire group functioned satisfactorily during the mission. _ . 2 o surfoce I 20 Inside s.. A more complete temperature survey of points around the afterbody than on previous flights was conducted for MA-7.. Nominal thrust and burning-time data are given in the following table: Although ignition of the retrorocket motors was about 3 seconds later than expected. were within expected ranges.soo i. which are shown in figure 1-3. one at the center and the other approximately 27 inches from the center. at the heat shield. The explosive-actuated hatch was not used. and the integrity of the structure was not affected by the thermal loads experienced.face . the spacecraft afterbody is composed of a doublewall structure with thermal insulation between the two walls. of these are solid-propellant type. and motors the small tower-jettison rocket. The major separation points are at the interface between the spacecraft and launch vehicle. the landing system. the heating effects were not measurably different. and the internal spacecraft structure. _q _ --Outside m A-5 _ M MA-S /k MA-7 .. I)_ Separation devices generally use explosive charges to cause separation or disconnection of components. This survey was made possible by the addition of a lowlevel commutator circuit. The spacecraft blunt end is fitted with an ablationtype heat shield. The performance of the MA-7 heat protection system was as expected and was quite satisfactory. To provide this protection. electrical and sequential. and around the spacecraft hatch. which is constructed of glass fibers and resin.. The maximum recorded values are graphically shown and compared with previously obtained orbital reentry values in figure 1-2. Rocket Motors i.

. 000 800 400 1...Number Nominal Rocket motor of motors thrust each. Landing System The landing system includes the drogue (stabilization) parachute. the main and reserve parachutes.. An analysis of radar tracking data for the flight yielded a velocity increment at retrofire which indicated that the retrorocket performance was 3 percent lower than nominal.. While such barostat malfunctions had not been detected in previous flights or during ground tests.... 0130 Ii00 l:30 2100 Elapsed temperature 2:30 time ..... The landing system is described in greater detail on pages 98 to 30 of reference 1. lb Appr imateoxburning time each.OOO = 800 600 Representative temperature pick up _ ! :? ::!!_ ° Q. In the MA-6 and prior missions.. This was acceptable and within the allowable deviation from nominal performance of -5 percent. Retrograde . Tower jettison ..000 1 1.. a control barostat was added to the automatic sequence circuit of the MA-7 spacecra/t.... ... because of the unexplained early deployment of the drogue parachute during the MA-6 missiom Consequently.... hrs: from 3:00 lin 3_$0 4:00 4:30 I 5:00 l_etmE 1-3. The latter system attenuates the force of landing by providing a cushion of air through the deployment of the landing bag and heat shield structure.i _o I. 3 . E -_ c= i? 400 200 0 . The Ianding system performed satisfactorily and as planned.200 \\ 't ....5 i 10 formance of the rocket motors was satisfactory... These units initiate automatic deployment of the parachutes when the spacecraft descends to the proper pressure altitude during reentry. it was believed that an additional safety mar_n would be desirable. The MA-7 landing system differed from the MA-6 system in the manner of arming the barostats (pressure-sensing devices)... and the landing shock-attenuation system (landing bag).--Afterbody low-level commutator circuit... 1 1 3 3 52. The landing system can be actuated automatically...... sec ally by the astronaut.. the barostats were armed when above the atmosphere durlng exit flight and thus were in readiness to initiate the parachute-deployment mechanisms when the barostats sensed the appropriate pressure during spacecraft descent through the atmosphere. Posigrade . This armed status of the barostats would of course permit deployment of a parachute during orbital flight if a certain type of barostat mal/nnction should occur. which is supported by straps and cables. or manuAfterbody _'::_-_Rancje of temperature afterbody history temperatures (representative) 1. This barostat sensed pressure in the cabin and func(_ % Escape.

. B . and thrusters) A. A.. these leaks would have contributed only slightly to the water in the cabin.......q00 feet altirude. The control barostat did not alter the circuitry that was available to the pilot for manual deployment of the parachutes....... FBW and MP.data show that manual deployment was effected at about 9. FBW .. but accounting for the 6 hours prior fo spacecraft recovery. Astronaut Carpenter felt the need for additional spacecraft stabilization and manually deployed tile drogue parachute at an altitude of approximately 25.--Spaeeera/t dancy and Electrical Control system modes Control System RedwnPower Requirements Electrical power required Corresponding fuel system (fuel supply.... small leaks in the internal pressure vessel which probably occurred upon landing were disclosed during the normal postflight inspection....000 feet......000 feet or higher if added spacecraft stabilization prior to automatic deployment of the drogue parachute was desired.... is capable of operation in the modes listed in table 1-1... it is believed that this resulted from a surge of water which momentarily opened a springloaded pressure relief valve in the top of the cabin... CombinatiOns of modes ASCS and FBW. the majority of which is believed to have entered through the small pressure bulkhead when the pilot passed through the recovery compartment into the liferaft.. Actuation of the switch effectR. a considerable amount of sea water was found in the spacecraft...... MP . Page 11 of reference I presents an additional description of the spacecraft control system..... this egress activity may have prevented the return to a more nearly vertical flotation attitude.. it was planned for the pilot to deploy the drogue parachute manually at an altitude of 21. The spacecraft was equipped with two separate reaction control systems (RCS) shown as A and B in table 1-1. 4 The attitude control system. ASCS .. A "maneuver" switch was added to the instrument panel for MA-7 and was included in the control circuitry to allow the astronaut to perform maneuvers without introducing errors in his attitude displays. each with its own fuel supply and each independent of the other.... The reaction control components were of the standard configuration. the . TaBnr 1-I. RSCS .. all system components performed normally during the entire flight.... With the single exception of the pitch horizon scanner. The pilot reported that at landing a small amount of water splashed onto the tape recorder in the cabin. the astronaut reported list angle on tho order of 60 ° from The spacecraft control system is designed to provide attitude and rate control of the Mercury vehicle while in orbit and during reentry. rather than waiting for automatic deployment at approximately 8.. The time normally required for the spacecraft to erect to its equilibrium angle exceeds the period that Astronaut Carpenter used to initiate egress.. with the exception of the 1-pound and 6-pound thruster assemblies which had been slightly modified to correct deficiencies which occurred on earlier flights... The . plumbing. therefore. Flotation After landing. ASCS---Automatic stabilization and control system FBW--Fly-by-wire MP--Manual proportional [Controlled by pilot system _ actuation of conRSCS--Rate trol system stabilization con.. The pilot also planned a manual deployment of the main parachute routinely at an altitude of about 10. B . ely disabled the yaw reference slaving system and the automatic pitch orbital precession of 4°/min and thus prevented generation of erroneous gyro slaving signals durlng maneuvers. or FBW and RSCS were available to provide "double authority" at the choice of the pilot..tioned in a manner intended to prevent auto- Spacecraft Control System matic deployment of the parachutes until the spacecraft cabin pressure corresponded to an acceptable altitude... d-e and a-c d-c None d-e and a-e a severe vertical.....J trol stick and postflight photographs the spacecraft taken after egress of the pilot of indicate approximately a 45 ° list angle..500 feet..... at the discretion of the pilot. Upon recovery..... In addition...500 feet..... In the MA-7 mission.....

. The only modification to the 6-pound units was the Sensors (]nd commands Calibrator vide a correction reference for the spacecraft at titude gyros which indi catfi eg dure in 1th5 e._ -- c_. '. MA-7 configuration l_otTaEl_... _ Altitude repeating switching I _ r.. 5 ._ c__ .--Control system schematic diagram. as all thrust units operated properly throughout the flight._. These changes proved to be effective.. I ! (A-C) > "l(Jnore roil and/or pitch commands m Pre-!aunch commands 5. reducing the volume of the heat barriers of the automatic RCS.... MA-6 configurati_l So_*_d vo_vs replacement of the stMnless-steel screens with platinum screens. and moving the fuel-metering orifice to the solenoid inlet.f'_ . _ i I III I I I ' [ i Yaw accelerometer gyro .... however. Horizon Tile horizon scanners Modified Stainless steel platx_ Heat barrier solenoid valve Scanners are employed to pro- 'q [11 _"-_.. postfiight inspection and analysis of these units were impossible.. Display and response sc "roH" anner Horizon "pitch" m i Ii I Slaving ..--Comparison between MA-6 and MA-7 t_rustem modification to the 1-pound units involved replacing the stainless-steel fuel distribution (Dutch weave) screens (see fig. . I 'Forging currents I { m Directional gyro Retro fire interlock i i L I II Vertical / I I I Attitude display To instrumentation /(O-C) f I L ._.e_ o..._ Losol. Since the scanners were lost when the antenna canister was jettisoned during the normal landing sequence.. /_-/_ '--'"""'.._===_. the failure is believed to have been in the scanner circuit and was apparently of a random nature in view of the fact that the scanner systern has been fully qualified on previous flights.05G sign al to. basi sch ematic diagram shis own in Anc error introduced by the pitch horizon scanner circuit was present during launch and apparent]y remained to some degree throughout the flight. teleme try - i I ! I I I I Sequence commands Rate gyro yaw I 'q * I_1 t -Torque switching Roll Roll Pitch Pitch [ _2_ Mode switching Reaction · ' control ] J Rate gyro pitch ] I ] I ] I I I roll gyro Rate I FIG_E 1-5._. 1-4) with platinure screens and a stainless-steel fuel distribution plate.. ../ _._..0_i.___-"-"_4Piot. o.. _ ..

the pilot was required to as_ sume manual control of the spacecraft during the retrofire period. Although these two independent measurements and calculations would support a theory that a constant bias of about 20° was present. in general. FIOURm l_. Switching to the transmitting mode could be accomplished without the normal warmup time.000 feet to stabilize the spacecraft. and the fly-by-wire high thrust units were accidently actuated during certain maneuvers. This calculated attitude was compared with a scanner-indicated attitude of -16 ° dnrlng retrofire... The manual-system fuel was depleted at about the o .l° at this time. by aerodynamic forces./_-lo -2o / _ - Tower separation Spacecra se ftparation 05:00 -40 -30 02:50 03:00 t _ t t 04:00 04:30 Elapse td ime. sco. the attitudes as indicated by instruments and eompared with observations by the pilot disclose possible horizon scanner errors of widely varying amounts during the orbital flight phase. both of spacecraft fuel indicated in figure which contributed to the high usage 1-7. Because of the malfunctioning scanner which matic-system f-uel was depleted at about halfway through the reentry period. Communication Systems The MA-7 spacecraft communication system was identical to that . rate In of addition.output --Spacecraft gyros Launch vehicle doto ] v/---'_J resulted in pitch errors in the spacecraft attitude-gyro system. rain:sec 03. as expected. yielding a difference of 20°. operation of the ASC_ mode while outside the required attitude limits resulted in unnecessary use of the high thrust units. and these rates were not sufficiently damped. indicating a scanner error of about 18° in pitch. This error apparently increased to about 20° at spacecraft separation. end of the of ret rofiear re lyma neuver.... Also shown is the attitude of the launch vehicle and spacecraft as determined from launch vehicle data which is about ..--Spacecraft launch.contained in the MA-6 configuration with one minor exception..3. H ori_o.0 attitudes during t . which is graphically depicted in figure 1_6. These oscillations to diverge until the pilot chose to deploy the drogue parachute manually at an altitude of approximately 25.50 40 3O [ _icle attitud in edications: . the output of the pitch scanner indicated a spacecraft attitude of approximately 17°. Additionally.. the MA-8 and subsequent spacecrafts will contain a switch which will allow the pilot to disable and reactivate the high-thrust units at his discretion.. a revision of fuel management and control training procedures has been instituted for the next mission.. since the transmitter was maintained in a standby condition . An automatic override will reactivate these thrusters just prior to retrofire.. As a result. attitude rates built up after the ASCS became inoperative because of the ]ack of fuel... In order to prevent inadvertent use of the high-thrust jets when using FBW mode of control. attitude control during reentry was not available for the required duration.. ' _/j_ J _ __ _ --- _ Double authority control was inadvertently employed at times during the flight... a nd aut the autoBecause the depletion of omaticsystem fuel. The voice power switch was modified to provide a mode whereby the astronaut could record voice on the onboard tape recorder without transmission to ground stations. a retrofire attitude of about -36 ° in pitch was derived.. and since this vector is alined with the spacecraft longitudinal axis. Some 40 seconds after escape tower separation. Radar tracking data at the time of retrofire provided the only additional independent information source and the radar data verify.°e. The thrust vector which produced the postretrograde velocity was calculated by using the radar measurements. the scanner error. Fuel Usage 20 Ia .

. but the large list angles of the spacecraft after landing placed the whip antenna near the surface of the water_ and this may have been a contributing factor.. The Super SARAH beacon was received at a range of approximately 250 miles.. L window alinement i RSCS and MP checks J .. Both beacons were rechecked after . The reason for lack of reception of this beacon has not been established.. --____ c_ 20 '_E 16 b...c _ 0---_-- t_---.. The whip antenna used by this beacon was reported by the recovery forces to be fully extended and normal in appearance.. The beacon was tested after the flight and found to be operating satisfactorily.--Fuel hr usage [ 3 rates... The SEASAVE rescue beacon (HF/DF) was apparently not received by the recovery stations. Reception ofHF voice in the spacecraft was satisfactory.... 12 0_--¥- _ x\ ". Recovery forces reported that the auxiliary beacon (Super SARAH) and UHF/DF signals were received.. SARAH (UHF/DF)... with cerrain exceptions discussed below. The communications system is described in more detail beginning on page 12 of reference 1.. however. horizon. Both the SARAH beacon and UHF/DF transmitter were received at ranges of 50 miles from the spacecraft. 1-7. although slightly inferior to that of the MA-6 mission.. when the switch was in the record position.36- A 28 ____ 24 ____Gyro 0 . Radar Beacons Performance of the C. Voice Communications the mission and found to be essentially changed from their preflight status. \ \ \ .. 7 The UHF voice communications with the spacecraft weresatisfactory. The amplitude modulation was possibly caused by the modulation presented by the phase shifter and the drifting mode of the spacecraft.and S-band beacons was entirely satisfactory. M 0 ASCS.. The reason for the poor HF transmission has not been determined. The MA-7 communication system. un- Location Aids The recovery beacons employed as postlandlng location aids include the SEASAVE (HF/ DF). etc -_ . which resulted in a less than optimum antenna orientation. as expected. performed satisfactorily. gyros caged Maneuvering to observe particles. Or entation mode of ASCS Manual sunrise. M 5x . Several stations reported some beacon countdown (missed pulses) and slight amplitude modulation on the C-band beacon. attempts on the part of the astronaut to accomplish HF voice transmission to the ground were unsuccessful. - Ret ro(3ttit ude meneuver . and Super SARAH (UHF/DF) units. I 4 Refrofi I 5 Drifting flight 0 I I FIeURE I 2 Time..

These extraneous signals were primarily attributed to rapid body movements of the pilot and possibly excessive perspiration during this period. but the inflight measurements were marginal because of the variations in head position and air density. attitudes and attitude rates. rewiring of the switches that sensed heat-shield fitting. shown in figure 1-8. The respiration rate sensor provided adequate preflight data. and temperatures of systems and structure throughout the spacecraft. many operational aspects of spacecraft systems were monitored. The second exercise of this mode.. electrical parameters. were of primary concern to flight control personnel. respiration rate and depth.'" Bio. primarily because of the magnitude of the data and the intermittency with which it was received. In addition. One exercise was successfully accomplished with the emergency-voice-mode of the command system while over Muchea. __ it_h_ iR ]. since an intermittent short either sends valid signals or none at all. vaIue was erroneous.solenoid The changes made since the MA-6 flight inlOW-level cluded commutator the incorperation circuit which of an additional. body temperature. ECS pressures and ternperatures. the instrumentation indicated that the astronaut's temperature had increased to 102° F. could not have affected the magnitude of the transmitted information.. and no component failure or damage in the BPMS has been detected to date. was unsuccessful because the spacecraft was below the line-of-sight of the range stations at this time. attempted during reentry. The BPMS was thoroughly checked during postflight tests in the laboratory using actual flight hardware.Command Reeeive_ Instrumentation Anomalies The two command receivers operated effectively during the MA-7 flight. accelerations along all three axes. This malfunction.rcutfs II ] '". The instrumentation system had direct readouts on the MA-7 spacecraft display panel for many of the instrumented parameters. 8 '"_?0 e_y"t 'telemetry Prea _Filter_' Fmrrar 1-8. Performance of the system was satisfactory except for those items discussed below..¢n [ rcuitr which monitored closure ofthe limit release and the substitution of a semi-automatic blood pressure measuring system (BPMS) for the manual device used for MA-6. . namely electrocardiogram (ECG) traces. and blood pressure. This anomaly has been experienced on previous flights and was of little concern. However. a number of uncertainties regarding the calibration and operation of the BPMS still Oc cluding ct _ . the earthpath indicator and the instrument-panel camera were deleted for MA-7. The instrumentation system sensed infurmation pertinent to over 100 items throughout the spacecraft.TP f[--F'__ " o$ _. The system also included a 16-mm motion picture camera which photographed the astronaut and surrounding portions of the spacecraft. System Modifications A problem in the instrumentation system occurred just after lift-off when erroneous ECG signals were temporarily recorded. provided a more complete temperature survey.. Instrumentation System The spacecraft instrumentation system was basically the same as that for the MA_6 mission which is described on page 19 of reference 1. The data transmitted from the blood-pressure measuring system were questionable at times during the flight.l_qtter/y _ _ f_O 2 _:_i'[_/'_ _ 1 . other medical information indicated that this 109° F. These quantities were transmitted to Mercury Network stations and recorded onboard the spacecraft.Programed :regulator /' Fill ' . . Dum p .--Semiautomatic blood-pressure measqn4ngsystm3a. In addition. For a short period during the orbital phase. However.Mmrophone solenoid Suit Mercta'y // .. Tests of the controller unit and amplifier were also conducted. however. and this caused momentary concern. These aspects included significant sequential events. with the exception of the microphone and cuff. The biological parameters of the pilot. _w. system _'cui_ ¢. control system operation and component outputs. The intermittent signals were found to have resulted from a broken cable in the microphone pickup.

1 psia. diffeted from that for MA-6 in only two respects: The constant bleed of oxygen into the suit circult was eliminated. and temperature are maintained at acceptable levels. and the automatic-supply function of the oxygen system has a manual override feature in case of a mMfunction. In the samefigures. and its quality and usefulness were somewhat limited. The environmental control system (ECS) installed in the MA-7 spacecraft. gaseous composition. both in the spacecraft cabin and in the pressure suit. with the exception of a noncritical failure of one temperature pickup. and these values rxouRs l-9. This indicator apparently operated satisfactorily during descent through the atmosphereand was found to be operating properly during postfiight evaluation. In-flight adjustment of the cooling system is provided for. the cabin and suit temperatures measured during the MA-6 mission are shown for comparison. Total pressure. of the environmental are plotted in figures 1-10 and 1-11.exist.--Sehemattc diasystem gram control . The suit and cabin pressures are maintained at 5. The remainder of the instrumentation systern performed satisfactorily. Pages 21 and 31 of reference i contain additional description of the life support system._abin-air temperatures. Both the cabin and suit environmental systems operate automatically and simultaneously from common oxygen. Life Support System The life support system prinmrily controls the environment in which the astronaut operates. but since this unit is activated hy atmospheric pressure. and electrical supplies.eo I I Daylight FT///ZI Darkness 70 SO I ! I 2 Time. a thermocouple located at the low clockwise automatic thruster. schematically shown in figure 1-9. The high temperatures were the only anomalies evident in the ECS during the flight. A brief indication of spacecraft descent occurred on the rate-ofdescent indicator toward the end of the orbital phase. Extensive testing is being conducted to correlate postflight and infiight BPMS readings more accurately with clinically measured values. The high cabin temperature is attributed to m M _. The pilot-observer camera film suffered sea-water immersion after the flight. respectively. coolant water. Higher-than-desired temperatures in the spacecraft cabin and pressure suit were experienced during the MA-7 flight. the indication was obviously false. and the oxygen partial pressure of the cabin atmosphere was measured. hr I 5 I 4 I 5 _o_yaE 1-10. 9 . oxygen is supplied to the pilot on demand. rather than that of the suit circuit. and water and food are available. and the atmosphere is nearly 100percent oxygen.

. The MA-7 electrical power systern performed satisfactorily during the MA-7 mission. flight. A study of the metabolic rate associated with a manned orbital flight was conducted in this mission. Based on the satisfactory performance of the suit system in the MA-(.. The comfort control valve settings are presented in figure 1-11. It has been further ascertained in postflight testlng in the altitude chamber that the suit temperature did respond to control valve changes.e MA-7 temperature Cool eo [ 1 J _'"' '-_.1 o I Warm 0 I I I I I I I 2 I Elapsed I time.0722 pound/hour or 408 standard cubic centimeters (sce) per minute. This level under weightlessness is comparable to that in a normal gravity field with similar work loads and is within the design speeificat ion of 500 see/min for the ECS.. such as the diilleul_y of achieving high air-flow rates and good oirculation of air in the cabin and vulnerability of the heat exchanger to freezing-blockage when high rates of water flow are used. some difficulty was experienced in obtaining the proper valve setting for the suit-inlet temperature control.e.. Electrical and Sequential System The electrical power system for MA-7 was of the same type as that used for MA-6.p_. The valve setting was reduced by the pilot during the first orbital pass when the cabin heat exchanger indicated possible freezing. . it is believed that the suit-inlet temperature could have been maintained in the 60° to 65° F range for the MA-7 flight. hr I 3 I I I 4 I I I 5 Plewa_1-IL--Suit-inlet temperature and comfort control valve setting. but this is not the primary cause of the above-normal temperature.at. a number of factors. mainly because of the inherent lag at the temperature monitoring point with control manipulations. This system is described more fully on page 91 of reference 1. Tests are currently being made to determine if the cabin temperature can be lowered significantly without requiring substantial redesign of the cabincooling system. and the results yielded a metabolic oxygen consumption of 0. and a diagonal line re fleets a lack of knowledge as to when the control setting was instituted. It is believed that some freezing at the heat exchanger did occur during the flight which may have resulted in less efficient cooling.-6 s_i. In the ease of the high suit temperatures.. had not the comfort control valve 10 been turn'ed down early in the flight.soI MA-7 8C Comfort Suit control --_ .

the casing of these fuses could be ruptured and significant quantities of smoke could be produced. He reported that an additional delay of about I second occurred before the retrorockets actually ignited. The balloon was 30 inches in diameter.. U. a zerogravity study. Sponsoring Langley organization Research The differences between the MA-6 and MA-7 sequential systems included changing of the horizon scanner slaving signal from programed to continuous and locking-in of the ¼-g relay at sustainer engine cutoff to prevent reopening by posigrade thrust. squib-circuit fuses were found to be blown. which normally would take place instantaneously..... However. No explanation is available for this additional 1-second delay..... The one anomaly that was experienced is discussed subsequently. above expected values. since exhaustive postflight testing has failed to reveal any trouble source in the ignition sequence circuitry.. Figure 1-12 shows schematically the retrosequence circuitry. that these fuses produce a smoke having the same color and odor as that encountered in flight at the time of retrofire. and was constructed of five equal-sized lunes of selected colors and surface finishes.. Lewis ResearchCenter Ground fisre visibility__ Ma nn er d Spacecraft Ce nte Horizon definition.. and observations of the airglow layer witnessed by Astronaut Glenn. Each was carefully evaluated prior to its approval for inclusion in the flight plan. Most Mercury experiments were proposed and sponsored by agencies outside the Manned Spacecraft Center. The MA-7 sequential system performed adcquately during the mission. This series included a balloon experiment. Results of the last experiment are presented in paper 4 and will not be discussed here... including the number 1 retrorocket switch fuse which also had a small hole on the side of the ceramic housing.. Astronaut Carpenter actuated the manual retrofire switch. Postfiight testing demonstrated that at the electric current levels experienced in flight. which is described in detail on page 26 of reference 1... a number of photographic exercises.. The sphere was constructed of a plastic and aluminum foil sandwich material. a ground flare visibility experiment. as in previous flights. The major change involved the addition of a control barostat in the landing sequence circult.. One sequential system anomaly was indicared in the mission when retrofire was reported to have been delayed about i second after the pilot actuated the manual switch to ignite the retroroekets. where he observed two similar fuses being blown. a change in the coolant valve setting by the astronaut later in the flight did decrease tile rate of rise in tile inverter temperatures. which is discussed in a previous section. this lack of permission was proper and indicated that se0545aa o--02 2 Center Zero-gravity..The sequential system for MA-7 deviated only slightly from that used for MA_.S. It was confirmed by the astronaut during postfiight tests... Sequential System quential circuitry performance was according to design. Since the attitude gyro in pitch indicated that the spacecraft pitch attitude was not within ±19 ° of the nominal --34% the attitude-permission circuitry could not pass the retrofire signal from the clock and thus. the automatic clock sequence could not ignite the retrorockets. Experiment Balloon . After waiting for about 2 seconds... Sponsoring agencies for the MA-7 experiments are shown in the following table.. Squib Fuses As expected.... Scientific Experiments It was planned that a series of research experiments would be conducted by Astronaut Carpenter during the MA-7 mission.. Inverters Temperatures of the inverters were. and 11 ..... Weather Bureau Goddard Center Space Flight Balloon Experiment The objectives of the balloon experiment were to measure the drag and to provide visibility data regarding an object of known size and shape in orbital space. MIT Instrumentation Laboratory Meteorological photography Airglow layer ...

.%J._'_.. ITM i'll ¢oafr_l ' F_0_RE 1--12. the orange and aluminum segments.- \ no. the pilot observed the rate of dispersion and the associated visual effects of the "confetti.'r _' .." The balloon was deployed at 01:38:00 ground elapsed time.. As intended. The cause has been attributed to a ruptured seam in the skin... -.3. 2 f_ I .. The apparatus consisted of a glass sphere containing a capillary tube which extended from the mterior surface to just past the center. A_.....__.... -_J .--._& _ -- q=' . . ......__ "emergencyretre· c_mond t / · / . I I r-q .. In addition..u_ .... While the balloon was deployed. The application of the results of this experiment is primarily in the design of fuel tanks for fu- . and consumed about 20 percent of the interal volume.. 24 vd cF_ \ ! ' _ ' i _l_q_ (l_t p_'m '. i I ..Jsoloted Squib buI Pilot switc_ f_ "No r retro focicll" 24 v d-c / Meln 24 v d-_ squib bus -ii _ F_ring Gircuit I _*ypical iocJ_ rocktf) Ji .. ... . as shown in figure 1-13...aerodynamic measurements were taken with the strain-gage pickup. No difficulty was during retrofire and the balloon during reentry. aerosol solution and silicon. thus preventing the of the balloon.. i i ' I .--__d _ r'--Y--r-T---q.. . A liquid mixture representing the viscosity and surface tension of hydrogen peroxide was composed of distilled water_ green dye.... The visibility portion of the experiment was also only partially successful because only two of the surface colors were visible..--_ -._ . was to be inflated with a small nitrogen bottle immediately after release from the antenna canister at the end of the first orbital pass. a series of spacecraft maneuvers evidently fouled the tethering line on the destabi12 lizing flap portion of jettisoning encountered burned up located on the end of the cylindrical the spacecraft. zero-G_avity Experiment The objective of the zero-gravity experiment was to examine the behavior of a liquid ot known properties in a weightless state using a particular container configuration..4 .I I I '_ .... but it failed to inflate properly.... I I ' ' I I att p_m : ' I I I t I (_'c_ _1_2 ....--l_trosequence schematic diagram. ----. but these are of little use since the actual frontal area of the partial inflated balloon is not known. .. I I i I I i _ i 1 / [.....II / I '1 II i i ' I 'l_'_ J I I 1_/ _ I . The diameter of the sphere was 3% inches.. I-_. _%1 .1:-... I a I I No3 .._._. numerous _4-inch discs of aluminized plastic were placed in the folds of the balloon and dispersed when the balloon was deployed.

000-candle-power flares located at Woomera. It was therefore discontinued for the remainder of the flight because of continulng cloud cover.3 to 130. and a sample photograph is shown in the Pilot Performance paper (paper 6).8 neutral density (99. This switch and the pressure transducer H52P for the susta iner hydraulic accumulator are connected to a eommon pressure-sensing line as shown in figure 1-14. This cloud cover. ture spacecraft. The MIT photographic study is discussed. launch. Stone of these photographs are displayed in the Pilot's Flight Report (paper 7). with a burning time of about 11/2minutes. were to be ignited approximately 60 seconds apart during passes over this station.S. Weather Bureau was not accomplished because of the lack of time. The results of the experiment showed that the liquid filled the capillary tube during weightless flight and during the low-acceleration portion of reentry. Ground-Flare-Visibility Experiment il. which was also experienced during a similar experiment in MA-0. hydraulic switch no. The exercise is scheduled to be repeated in a future flight. Launch Vehicle Performance The launch vehicle used to accelerate Astronaut Carpenter and his Aurora 7 spacecraft into orbit was an Atlas D missile modified for the Mercury mission. The MA-7 launch vehicle was essentially the same as that used for the MA-6 mission and is described in paper 4 of reference 1.1 seconds after lift-off. At sustainer engine cutoff (SECO). The performance of the launch vehicle was exceptionally good.1 neutral density to 3. The surface configuration of tho liquid under zero-gravity was expected to assume the position indicated in the final view of figure 1-13. The differences between the Atlas 107-D (MA-7) and the Atlas 109-D used for MA-0 involved retention of the insulation bulkhead and reduction of the staging time from 131. Photographic Studies A series of photographic exercises were planned for the MA-7 flight. The experiment was attempted and failed to yield results because of heavy cloud cover during the first pass. A meteorological experiment involving a series of special photographs for the U. with the countdown. 2 for the sustainer engine actuated to the abort position at 4:25 miuutes after lift-off. An astronaut report during the third pass over Cape Canaveral (see appendix) and a postfiight analysis of the pilotobsem.98-percent light reduction). The flares.. some of these studies were · Ii i/f/_ "Liquid Frontview Side view Frontview {a-_) {t-_) {zero-g) FIGURE 1-13. The earth-based apparatus consisted of ten 1. A few mosaic prints were derived from a series of exposures taken Technology sponsored a study and supplied the of the horizon. all spacecraft and launch-vehicle systems were got and only one anomaly occurred during launch which requires mention. but since operational requirements assume priority over sched- . Although the abort sensing and implementation system (ASIS) performed satisfactorily during the flight._tondpipe uled flight activities.000 feet. was approximately eight-tenths at 3. Australia. necessary equipment to determine horizon definition as applied to the design of navigation and guidance systems.--Zero-gravity experiment.er film verified the predicted behavior of the liquid.000. Astronaut Carpenter exposed an extensive series of general interest color photographs of subjects ranging from terrestrial features and cloud formations to the launch-vehicle tankage and the tethered balloon. and insertion eonforming very closely to planned conditions. The pilot was supplied with an extinction photometer with a filter variation from 0. For an unknown reason this transducer was apparently faulty and showed a gradual 13 The major objective of the ground-flarevisibility experiment was to determine the capability of the astronaut to acquire and observe a ground-based light of known intensity and to determine the attenuation of this light source through the atmosphere.

Reference 1.. I I wi _ " hydraulic diagram.S. '--_ _ A Id As m°m° wS 'fIS/T ' X proper levels throughout powered flight. 1962. Feb. I r I _. the signal which would have unnecessarily terminated the flight was not generated. this pressure switch did not actuate transducer located in the _ustainer control cir- i_ .--Launch-vehicle until the normal that time pressure after SECO Since both cuit indicated had.. o! the First U.... lq'xGmm 1-14.... Another .. Manned Orbital Space Flight.... A_oN: Results Center. _ Controlsystem return Il Sustoiner e_ine _r [ corllroI system I r_ I¥&_d°l I decrease in pressure from 2. 7_ L . therefore...F.940 psia to 0 between 190 and 312 seconds after lift-off. NASA Manned Spacecraft 14 . 20.. remained of these switches must be activated to initiateat an abort.

Mercury Network The Mercury Network configuration for the MA-7 flight shown in figure 9-1. Radar tracking was generally horizon to horizon. The major functions of this Network during the MA-7 mission were to: (1) Provide ground radar tracking of the spacecraft and data transmission to the Goddard computers. as ill the MA-0 flight. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Summary The Mercury Network performed very well in support of the Mercury Atlas-7 mission. (2) Provide launch and orbital computing during the flight with reM-time display data transmitted to the Mercury Control Center.--Mercury configuration 15 . Telemetry reception. (3) Provide real-time telemetry display data at the sites and summary messages to Mercury Control Center (MCC) for flight control purposes.2. For MA-7 there was no Mid-Atlantic Ship. California. The computers at the Goddard Space Flight Center accurately predicted the 250 nautical mile overshoot immediately after the FPS-16 tracking data from Point Arguello. the Indian Ocean Ship was repositioned in the Mozambique Channel as shown in figure 9-1. l0 · 180° 160° 140° 120° 100° S0 ° 60* 40 ° 20 ° Network 0° 20 ° 40 ° 60 ° for 80° MA-7. The Mercury Network consists of 15 Mercury sites supplemented by several Atlantic Missile Range (AMR) stations. MERCURY NETWORK PERFORMANCE By JAMES J. Manned Space Flight Support Division. JACKSONManned . The ground communications network performanee was generally better than that of the MA-6 mission. and JaMEs C. No problems were encountered with computing and data flow. All systems required to support the mission were operational at the time of launch and in some instances utilized backup equipment in the place of primary equipment. Introduction The purpose of this paper is twofold. and the resulting data provided to the Goddard computers resulted in good orbit determination duringthemission. was good. particularly when patched onto the conference network to allow monitoring by other stations. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. DONEES. The ground-to-spacecraft eommunications were slightly inferior to MA-0 performance. Space Flight Support Division. and the Goddard Space Flight Center communications and computing facility. The first is to present a description and the performance during the MALT mission of the Mcr50 o 40 ° 30 ° eury Network and its associated equipment. 100° 120° 140° 160° t60° FXO_E 2-1. was the same as that for MA-6. with but minor exceptions. were received. The second is to describe briefly the Mercury real-time computing system of the network and to give a brief account of its performance durlng the MA-7 mission.

--AN/FPS-16 radar Bermuda. is a precision C-band tracking radar with a 12-foot dish.0 o.500 to 5. or Vetlort. shown in figure 2-2. the overM1 performance of all major equipment of the Mercury Network during the MA-7 mission was excellent. The acquisition aid colmole and equipment racks are shown in figure '2-5. IthasabroaAbe_mwidthofP. A brief description of the performance of each specific network subsystem and an introduction to the equipment is presented in the following sections. Generally. and normally acquires the target first. radar. antenna at 16 . It operates on a frequency of 2.--Verlort radar ins Mexico .000 mc and has a beam width of approximately 9. The S-band. operates on telemetry frequencies (915 to 265 Fmvag 2-8.2° .5 °. Once the radar has acquired the spacecraft. The redundancy provided by both of these radar systems supplies the computers with sufficient data to determine the orbit. which is shown in figure P. It operates on a frequency of 5. the radar F'IGURE2-2. Tile AN/FPS-16.--4. shown in figalre 2-3. The major equipment subsystems located at each site are shown in table 2-1. The active acquisition aid has a quad-helix antenna.800 to 3.--Acquisition aid quad-helix Bermuda. should one of the spacecraft beacons fail. is a very longrange tracking radar with a 10-foot dish. Radar Tracking and Acquisition : Two principal types of precision tracking radars are used in the Mercury ground range to track the spacecraft: the AN/FPS-16 and Verlort radars. installation at FIGURE 2_. tallation at Ouaymas. It is the most accurate of our tracking devices. This acquisition capability is most critical at sites with the FPS-16 radar since this radar is a narrow-beam device requiring precise pointlng information to locate the target. (5) Provide ground-to-spacecraft voice communications and remote station-to-MCC voice and teletype eommunimtions. mc).(4) Provide eonnnand capability from various stations for astron'mt backup of critical spacecraft control functions.900 mc and has a beam width of approximately 1.

...:_ '_ .' _ = o _ _ .. .... J i 0 I I I 0 o _ _ _ '_ i L . ... I .. . I 3 i .. .... i i . I i i _ J k L i ... _. .. i i _ J i i _< oS o '_q_ . i J . __ '_ l? ..... 2 2 . ..... I I i I I _ I I I I I f J I .. .i i i i a_ _ _ m 1 I I t I L I ... _ ' '_ ..... .WW .... .......WW _ _ . '_ = _'_... ' ' ' ' _ ' I .... ... i . _ _'_ _ _ _ '_ '_'__ _ . .. .. I I (_ 0 _ i I i I i D I I i I I I _ ... .. _ i J i _0 · i ..

real-time equipment places the radar data from each tracking station automatically in the core storage of the computers. These data reveal that tile radar tracking was comparable with the horizon-to-horizon coverage obtained during MA_6. There was a total of 67. Dam from the worldwide Mercury Tracking Network are transmitted to the Go(tdard Communications Center via the data circults shown in figure 2-8. Two IBM 7090 computers operating independently but in a parallel fashion process the data.'_ izTnI 0:30 I[lllllllll I [dFFrdII'. the data are transmitted to the Goddard Computing Center_ shown in figure 2-9. !_r' _ N_inronge I1 I[_'tl [][[llll_l[[ ]1 II Irll_l[ [I 4:00 [_l ' ' ' ' ' ' ['il I I] tJ[l[[I IIIlt 3::30 _'[ ?-4 4:30 0:00 I:00 [:30 2:00 2:50 3:00 Ground elapsed time. However. : ! Fx(msE 2-5.m. From an examinetion of this fignlre.'2-II for the MA-7 flight.. il JlJJlllllilIl_. system coverage. it can be ascertained that the acquisition system received signals beyond the meaningful limits of horizon-to-horizon track.354 characters transmitted by the network radars with no error._. Some amplitude modulation and slight beacon countdown were noted at times.--Acquisition aid console and equipment racks.-6.. a brief description is given.-_' ' [ I_l_io_dU_ Much_ _emem Indion0ce_ShipZu'_l_'' _ Guoyrnos Whi_e Sonds Eglin IlIJ][/ l] II[ll[ll. Computing By way of introduction to the Mercury realtime computing system.--Acquisition 18 . azimuth.oe IIII Notinrange ]111 I Il 1ll Jill Ii [I I_1!1 ii _.and S-band systems_ is shown in figure 2-7. A comparison of the radar coverage for MA-6 and MA-7. the other computer may be switched on-line to sup_]lrllrllll Noti. Keno hlllll[I [_l[l[/ ]1[ _[11 I I_-_lllllll Il _ Il l[ I[ IIIIl'_lltll I_' I1-' [. during the first orbital pass._l j][llllllllllllll ItlllllJIl ld _ . ' ] ' ' _ Notln_lo*iiren' I _1 Ill/ IIIIll lilt _ . The acquisition system performance was very good.hr:rain FIaugE 2-6.u._M.d. system begins automatic tracking and does not require additional acquisition assistance unless the tracking is interrupted. The spacecraft beacons functioned very well during the launch phase and satisfactorily throughout the flight. Signal strengths received by the radars were noticeably weaker than in the MA-6 flight. | il _ _ I I_lJIlllllt [ [ ] [_ ] ' ' _' [ ' ' I / [ [ . The standard errors in range. which is located in an adjacent room. Should a computer malfunction during the mission. From the Communications Center. these conditions caused no noticeable deterioration of data presented to tile computers. for both C. The radar data transmission (via automatic teletype) was excellent with only minor errors in transmission of several lines of data from Muchea. This failure did not influence the reception of data since the operator was able to operate successfully the antenna elevation in the manual mode. Tracking was consistent from horizon to horizon. and elevation as a result of noise in the radar data collected by the Goddard computers and the quantity of data received are given in table c_r_ Se.'. the only difficulty encountered was the failure of the elevation drive motor at the Zanzibar station. Australia. Here. Tim coverage periods of the acquisition system for the Network are shown in figure 9.L_.

_ Space Flight _---_London -- lOS _ WOM J J CTN_) CNV SSI Mercury -----High speed data _ Radio ----A FraUds 2-8.q .I I _I Eg_in-MPQ-31III IIII I Ill II _ 0:00 0. 19 .i. port the mission while the malfunctioning computer is taken off-line and repaired. _uchea-Ver.30 I:00 1:30 i I I I I I I I I I I I II I_ III _ 2:00 2:30 Ground elapsed firne.I[ITII IIllltlllll_ {1111[111111111 j-r'l [ I I I I I [ I I I EI i I I ] IPqsSiv I I_ I I I I ] I I _1 j I I i I I I I I I [ I I I I I I_'.. places the data in the correct block of computer memoryt calls on the correct processor (whether it be . II I I I I ii II I I II I I I I I I I I I i I I I I_11 I I If I I I l_ I I III J IlllllJllllllll lit[Ill II Ii I_ _1 il II1:1 II I J leleek_ C_. The heart of the real-time computing system is Lhe monitor system which is shown schematically in figure 2-10.olModnll Il Il IIIIIEIIIIIII_IJlIIIIIIIJilIII IF IIIIIIili ]llll ' _1 III tilt I II I II III 'exas-Ver.. The Mercury computing program is a realtime automatic computing program designed to provide trajectory information necessary to the flight control of the Mercury mission. II1¢. --_ / / I/_ AW j.. This monitor control system directs the sequence of computer operations in _al time.--Goddard ComputingCenter.P_ssi_ I I [ 4 I I I I I I I I I I I [ '.--Data Submmine cable Land line Alternate route circuits for J Control Center ZZSl Perth _ Sydney I Project Mercury.J Son Francisco Goddord Center .. .. I'=_.CAP-16 XN-I _._* _ . _X_ F_ougr 2-9. ' /Ill ILII j J II I_iii ill III (a) C-band Al I ] I II _1 I J I I I I_1 I Ji Ilill lilY. 3alifornia -Var. Simply stated.l:1 sonG'and '"'l-Ill/llil[II[Jl[I [1[1111 sa.vod 111 111111111111 I I I I Ill L_] I I I I I I I I I I I I I lei_kcu HawailW°omera California White Sends Eglin Ii Il Jill Sanor_e_-Ve. 3uaymas-Ver. the monitor system accepts data from the remote sites.a_e.H°riz° I_ I ' I I I II I =.--Comparison Vonoouver MA-6 and MA-7.hr (b) S-band of radar coverage for 3:00 rain I I I I I I I I I I I I I I_11 :El I 3:30 4:00 4=30 II FIGURE 2-7.

12 0....... 05 ... Muchea . 30 1............ 7 76............ ......... Hawaii ........... White Sands . 0 40.. .. .24 1........... Texas .. 56 Second orbital Bermuda ............... . 50 2.............. 78 ......... 6 20. 21 1.... ......... 14 .....74 . California ....TASLE fl-II.... White Sands . 18 1..34 1..................... 6 0....... 5 21. 16 1...24 1... Woomera ......... 44 . 56 .... ... 74 74 68 84 79 52 29 72 82 81 61 31.... 9 10...... Guaymas ...... :___ FPS-16 ..... 1 12........... Cape Canaveral .. Muchea ... 8 18............. 80 1............. 4 10....... 7 8. 19 ... Cape Canaveral ........35 1................--Standard Station I Deviation........ Hawaii .......... 23 ....... 34 . Eglin ...71 11............... Canaries .......41 2.21 0.... Hawaii . mils Elevation....... FPS-16 ... Cape Canaveral ....32 . Verlort ..60 . 31 1.... Bermuda ............ FPS--16 ...... 44 ............ Eglin .....36 20 ... 4 16.... 11 1...... 0 17..... San Salvador . 67 .... 84 I. ....42 .... 65 2....... Hawaii ....... ........... 66 1.............. ... 84 ................ 5 21............ 8 11..40 1........... 14 2.... Verlort .... mils Bermuda ............ 54 2.6 39.33 . 76 71 61 82 74 53 52 45 45 38 70 88 89 59 pass 10... ...... 0 30..... 0 62....... 17 1. 93 ...23 2..... FPS-16 .. 9 2... 58 .... FPS-16 Verlort Verlort Verlort FPS-16 FPS-16 Verlort FPS-16 Verlort FPS-16 Verlort FPS-16 FPS-16 FPS-16 .... Verlort ... 0 4................ Verlort . 50 ...... 5 5........ 7 7. .. ..... White Sands . 15 ..... FPS-16 Verlort Verlort Verlort FPS-16 Verlort FPS-16 Verlort FPS-16 Verlort FPS-16 . 8 0............... 2 12.... 2 34. Eglin ........ .......... 64 1....... 7 91...... ....... Texas .................. 6 0. 16 0......... . 5 11...... Woomera .... yards First orbital pass Standard deviations Radar Azimuth..... 53 ............30 1....... Canaries ...... California ...... Verlort ............. 14 2.............. California .. 55 . 5 17.. 10 .28 . 0 22.... ..... 7 10... ...... 17 ... 8 0.....39 2.......... 61 61 41 61 74 20 14 pass 8.. Bermuda .....54 1.. .. 1 7..... 1 6...... 71 1................ 67 1...29 2.... 15 .......... ...........23 2......... 20 ... FPS-16 ... Eglin ... 82 ............................ 83 [ [ p 0....... Eglin ....73 Third orbital Bermuda ......19 1.. Texas .... 8 4.... Bermuda .... 1 62......... 9 31.43 ... 28 1......... 57 2. . Muehea ....22 .... of MA-7 Low-Speed Radar Data Total points Range............ 0 89............. 37 1.... . Verlort ......... FPS-16 .. 09 . 66 66 64 62 64 Reentry California .. ...... 14 1........... .....

. then provides the required output quantities to be transmitted to the proper destination at the correct time.. 350......... 0 304.....964. Point Arguello. Minor deviations in flight-path angle. 152. _v_ [_ o[_ FmtmE 2-10.. 1 SECO . 317..... Posigrade 1. was recommended by the Goddard computers based on a nominal landlng point of 68 ° W..464 e. Orbit-phaseswitch_ 318. Tower separation__ 7:45:16 128...t......... IP 7090 were used for the next 37 seconds as source data for the Goddard computers. and was used throughout the powered-flight phase and during the "go-no-go' computation as the selected data source by the Goddard computers.464 .. the ]aunch-vehicle guidance computer_ and the Bermuda range TABLE 2-IIL--Launch Telemetry Time Event Phase Discrete Eve_ts "tag" of arrival and data processed through the AMR IP 7090 computer were used as the data source for the Goddard computers for approximately the first 35 seconds of launch..t. the launch subsystem. 7 306...... 310. 153........ The l_trorockets were fired at approximately 04:33:09 g. The new dual-compilation system also worked well.... or reentry) to perform the proper computation on the data.. 3 Reentry phase.. launch...._....s... From a trajectory point of view it was a nearly perfect launch. and altitude during powered flight were corrected by steering prior to insertion by the Atlas guidance system........964....964 ....... BECO .. The orbit was determined accurately and verified early in the first pass... Posigrade 3. The lamlch-vehicle guidance complex acquired the vehicle in both rate and track at 00: 01: 0'2 g.Range At sources lift-off during FPS-16 .e.. the AMR range safety computer.... Insertion conditions computed on the basis of the three independent launch sources of data were in close agreement. A basic parameter which is usually indicative of the performance of the tracking-computing network is the computed time for retrorocket ignition for a landing in the normal mission recovcry area.e. Time of the telemetry discretes observed by Goddard during launch are shown in table 2III. 2 142.t.e.... 318.. The retrofire time actually used was 4 hr 33 min 06 sec g............ The data from all sources during the launch were excellent. As stated previously.. ... £aunch...... This parameter varied a maximum of 2 seconds from launch throughout the mission after the Bermuda correction. Orbital phase. Mark II Azusa data prostation... for example.t. continuous during High-speed input data were the powered phase of the flight from each of the three data sources.... the orbit phase was nearly nominal..t ..... ...964. sec since lift-off unless indicated General Electric/ Burroughs line Nominal Lift-off . were plentiful at GSFC. Calif.. Tower release .. 130..._____ _ _'__ .. the tracking data and accurate during orbit. orbit.. based on a more realistic reentry weight because of the actual fuel usage.. by See The computer data received cessed the figure AMR 2-11.. longitude.. The equipment...u_ _ from Atlantic launch were Missile the excellent....--A retrofira time of 4 hr 32 min 58 sec g.. 313. 1... During the MA-7 mission the computing system at Goddard performed well...464 ..--As a result of the extremely good insertion conditions provided by the Atlas launch vehicle..--Real-time monitor control system... Especially gratifying was the performance of the Bermuda high-speed data system and computations which were implemented after the MA-6 mission...--All the computing and data transmission equipment was operational during the entire countdown...... The orbital computation equipment functioned normally and automatically during the mission..e...964 153.2 ° at booster-engine cutoff.464.. and the highspeed line functioned properly during the entire mission.. .. Spacecraft separation........... tracked the spacecraft during 21 Posigrade 2..

. No computer or equipment problems were encountered during the mission.--Telemetry antenna installation at Kano.l 2 0 M_n0 0Sec0 dlsploys Computing Cornmurications Center 7090 Goddard Space Flight Center I I 7090 II___l 'Mercury C°ntrelcenter _OURE 2-11. Telemetry and Timing The telemetry system provides reception of the aeromedical data for display of astronaut heartbeat rate. Nigeria. From an analysis of the data.Bermuda // / \ / / \ \ fII _11 / / / \ X / / Atlas \ \ \\ \ cGo om pu ter d dar ds Cope Canaveral Telemetry / / // / \ \ t t gu dance Loun eih -vehlele computers Plot boards . respiration.. the God dard computers immediately predicted a_ overshoot of 246 nautical milea The overshoot point was confirmed by the data from the White Sands and Texas statious and all subsequent tracking data. ECG. it appears the tracking and computing systems performed their primary tasks normally azxd without exception. Buffer IJ Buffer t 17 1B 141 191Digital . C_ock !1 I H..°plo.--Computer data sources during launch. Based on the Point Ar: ': :z guello FPS-16 tracking information. blood pres22 _ : _ PmVRE2-12. The position of the spacecraft was continuously and accurately displayed on the wall map of the Mercury Control Center in real time to an altitude of 60_000 feet. and after retrofire.

. It also provides the reception and display of data indicative of spacecraft performance for use by the Flight Control team at each tracking station._. all data received are recorded either on magnetic tape or on direct-writing oscillograph recorders. 'felea_t_ 'r. the ground eom- _. all tracking stations received telemetry signals from horizon to horizon.. The reception periods for each station. A typical telemetry antenna installation is shown in figure 2-12. Iqlc_'dar _ou_ 2-14. time "tags" with the radar data transmitted to the computers. This effect was recorded for MA-7 as commencing at a ground-elapsed time of 4 hours. A typical arrangement of display consoles for Flight Control at remote sites is shown in figure 2-14. As backup means of voice communications from the ground to spacecraft. Signal contact was regained at 4 hr 48 min and 47 sec for approxlmately 12 seconds at Grand Turk Island. identified in figure 2-15. Out of a total of 16 cornmend functions transmitted to the spacecraft.m. sure.--Continued. Final loss of telemetry during the landing phase was the result of extreme range and low elevation angle. 15 were effectively received._ _ m¢_aor6 F_OURr 2-13.tm. and body temperature.. 43 minutes and 58 seconds.a_. rock. The one exception WaS a calibration command transmitted from Muchea.--Typical telemetry receiving equipment. which was attempted when the spacecraft had passed beyond the optimum transmitting time. a blackout of ground reception results. Australia.--Typical display consolesat remote statlona 23 . This system provides ground command backup to critical spacecraft functions such as abort and retrofire. Although not all spacecraft systems quantities are displayed at the Flight Control consoles. and the associated electronic receiving and decommutation equipment is shown in figure 2-13. In general. A comparison of telemetry reception coverage for each site for MA-6 and MA-7 is given in figure 2-15 and the received signal strengths are given in table 2-IV.. Because the telemetry transmission frequency is severely attenuated by the reentry ionization sheath. The timing system provides time marks on all records for later verification and also provides The dual ground command system was installed at specific command sites shown in table 2-I.x.t_. are almost identical to the results shown for the MA-6 mission. Command Telemer tr oc yks Flightsurgeon recorder lrxotrm_ 2-13.

.... 100 Canaries ... 100 Guaymas ............ California ........................ 195 Woomera ................................... model 1434) Station Low (receiver 1....................................................... microvolts High (receiver 1................................................................... 300 100 275 70 90 70 175 300 120 80 30 300 100 60 150 50 20 195 300 100 Not in range 75 30 195 100 80 70 40 30 180 250' 150 80 30 300 Second orbital pass Mercury Control Center .. 45 Hawaii .................................. ll0 Kano ..........................................TABLE 2-1V......................... model 1415) High (receiver 2............................................................................ Muehea ........... 40 Zanzibar ..................................................................... 40- 90 95 59 200 60 80 325 24 ...... 300 Canton ...................... Kano ...................................... Bermuda ................................................... 37 Indian Ocean Ship ..................... model 1434) pass Mercury Control Center ......... Canton .. model 1415) First orbital Low (receiver 2.......................................................................... Guaymas ..................... Canaries ................ Woomera .......... 300 Canton .... Indian Ocean Ship .................. 40 ....................... Guaymas ....................................... _ .............. 150 Canaries . 30 Third orbital pass 150 170 30 46 200 185 190 45 50 75 Not recorded 80 100 40 60 48 50 180 160 40 45 60 30 110 40 30 26 60 165 120 50 40 55 75 50 Bermuda Mercury ............................--Telemetry Receiver Signal Estimated Strengths mean...................... Too low to estimate Not in range Not in range 120 200 65 135 100 150 60 60 64 Not in range 200 100 100 70 70 50 Not recorded 100 80 200 300 50 60 . Texas ....................................... 80 Muchea .................................... 60 . 80 California .... 46 Indian Ocean Ship ....................................................... 30 Texas ..................................................... Hawaii ... 90 Zanzibar ......................... 70 California ................. 195 Woomera ........................... 90 Kano ................... Bermuda ......... Control Center .................................... 100 Hawaii ............................ 80 Muchea ....................... Zanzibar ................ 80 Texas ...............................

and retransmission assured message continuity. This backup teclmique was tested successfully during the first orbital pass over Muchea._lt I I I _ I IIIIIIIII1111 Notioronge L I II II II permo Kano Zanzibar Indian Ocean Shi k4uch. and White Sands. Mex.°fs'hi e pchang df°rMA-7 t--l. The teletype network perfornted well with only three difficulties occurring: (1) The teletype circuit between Goddard and Guaymas was open for a 7-minute period beginning at 00:30 g.lapsed time.t. J [ [ IJ hillII I 11 0:_0 _L..l. (3) Teletype traffic to the Indian Ocean Ship was interrupted for about 6 minutes due to propagation._1 i PO0 1:30 2:00 2:30 Ground .I I I i I I I I I I I I I I I I I". hr:rain Nqtinr on . (2) The Australian cable gave trouble for a short period at 01:00 g. The HF and UHF receiving and transmitting equipment permits direct and successive voice contact during the flight between tbe astronaut and the Flight Control team over each station.e. The voice communications circuits between the Mercury Control Center and selected remote stations provide a direct and rapid means of information transfer between the Flight Control personnel at these locations. 'r_i.llllllllltlll'. a_o.oUe I'_ IIIIIIIII i--i'lll. Teletype and ground vo/ce.I I I I I'r'l I II I [I l II C::_II I Il i Ill II Elac_'_t _.1_ ¢UlanficOceon_ Notinronge eon d MA'7 .lllliillllllllllllllllil l ill llG l_= JNotuse do nMA-7 _ ]Ill ll[ll iiiiilllll/lllll ll. Communications The communications facilities for the Mcrcury Network consist of: (l) Teletype between all remote stations and the Mercury Control Center through the GoddardSpace Flight Center.I lillllll _11 I I I I I I [ I I I I I I I I II I Iii I I_111 III I I I I II 1 I I I I I_i_l I I I EI [ I I I II [111 l lll II IIII Il II IIII IIII Ill I Il I 1_4_.. (3) HF and UHF communications from all stations except Eglin. N. to the spacecraft.--All regular.o ILtlllllllflllltl_'llllll II IIIIIl_ IIIIl111111111 I11'_ Turkl_.. The teletype circuits are utilized for flightcontrol message traffic and radar data from radar tracking stations to the Goddard eomputers. _MA6 ''"lll ozo f111NO"n i1[r111111 °n'= t I I I I.a Woomera Canton I I[S_II IIIIII III II II Il 7!if FI I111_" I IIIIIIIIIIIFlllim_l I IIII I. The command system operated normally in spite of several minor malfunctions and had no effect on the mission. Australia.. Fla. The spacecraft was not over Guaymas at the time.1 II] I II_IWl III III II II Ill I I I lliJrllllllllllllllll Illll[lllllllll[IJ_lli]lll III Ill I I I I1[ II IIl_Imrl I Eli III II III / IIFIl_d IIIIIIIIIl111111 I_--_I I III I I I I I I III _i I I r'_! *'0" California Toxo. In both cases the standby system functioned satisfactorily._omparison of telemetry coverage times for MA-6and MA-7. A patching arrangement permits all stations which have ground voice communications to the Control Center to monitor all ground-to-spacecraft communications during the flight. This sharing of eircuits restricts all but priority messages from a station during the radar tracking period.:OnOVE_O) c_-_. _m._LL III III I [_-'li lll. Standby systems were called upon to maintain command coverage at two stations.t.ll llllllllllllll il_lJl 3:00 J_' 3:_0 4:00 4:30 I I I I I I 1_1 JJJ I LI I I LI I [ t I I I_---J_ Pmu_z 2-15. and alternate circuits were active and operative on launch day.e.. Qe II III] IIIII Not_nRon I Qe IIIIIIIllll I Itl I i'"kl I I I I 1111111 I I 11 I I I I I--_-iI I I I I I I II II Ill I I Ill III III I I I I I I I I I Noi* nrange] II _11 I I I I I _uoyrnas WhlteSonds 1MA'7 r_lH_fi 0:00 Eg. _W.. the interrup25 . x _a__. No.io.. which resulted in loss of four lines of Woomera radar data.-_milL°coi'!_. (9) Direct-line telephone communications between selected stations and Mercury Control Center. Minor trouble was experienced at the California station during the first orbital pass when a fuse opened in the primary system.d° 'lStl 1tlt t NOt I I us II ti I I I I I I_l I I I I I i I I _i. The propagation prediction was for good conditions for those teletype circuits which utilize radio links to reach certain stations. maud system employs a voice modulator which may be utilized in the event both the HF and UHF voice systems are inoperative. part-time. and the transmitter in the primary command system at Guaymas failed during the thirdpass. however.

. ._.II{IIIIIIIILIIII I...1 IIIIII .."i-= I1{1111111[{}_1 Ill IIIlllll II II .'{I I I I I I I I I I I I II11!1!1 II I 1. i. ... In some of these cases the signal level was 2 to 5 times greater for the earlier mission._cati_ofshipc_n_f d _ MA-7]II I ! I { I { I I I I I I I I I I . I IIIIit/ IIIl'lJ41111111il IIIIl. IIIIIIII Illlllll[_llllllllll{llllll_ll HF Illlllllll{ll IlL'II c_o_ero._111111 _1_ mMA'6' II lq. the quality was not as good as the M_A-6 mission.!. The general]y weaker sig_nal strength may account for part of this problem.hr. I_llllll{llllllllll_[llll Illl{lllll_lI{lllllllllll III1:{:1 _dBo_als. Figure '2--16 shows the /-IF and UI-IF coverage for both the MA-6 and MA-7 missions. This effect is being investigated by studying the recordings made at various locations on the circuits. I I I I I Wml' I I I I{I I II II I I _1111111111 W {[[ III I[[11111 II II I1{I l!ll II1{ z_z_bo_ {n_on Ocea Ship n I I I_ Locatiof on shi pchange forMA d -7 _ Much_o III I I I Illll I1111 I II[ I I I { I II_mrl I III I I Woomera [{{111 _ 1111111.--HF for MA-6 and MA-7._a_e.o. -u o conc_ies K_o Canton _llllill]lllllllll_llllllllll{llllllr_l '_11 III III I I III III II III IIIl_!FIIIlilllllllllill!lllll{llll)lllll _1IIIi1111111{11 I1_11 I I I I I I III I11[iRTI{III{IIIIII IIXll III I{llllll I I{I I I'll i. IIIIIIII Illllllfillli{lllllllll{l{ltllllllllll{[ll c_.. A study of the character of the average signal strength at the ground systems reveals that the majority of the stations reported a lower signal level for MA-7 than was experienced during MA-6. i. LLj Li. it was not as good as that for the iVIA-6 mission.. II111 ill =..fom_ OOWO uaymas H U Texas MA_7 I Ill 0=$0 t----IHorizon Eglin o:oo Illl l{ l:oo Il I l]lll I{1111111!M III11rllllllllllrJl_llll I_ I lllll I{1{I Illll I!_l I { Ill I lllllll II I Imrl I I I/r_l I { I I I I I I I I I I { I I I _1_I I i I { I I { I I { I I I I I IX l I I 131'1{ { I I I Il I I I I I I I I I_ { III II II 11 II Il Il I_¥l I . _1111{ _dSo_ G. AI I IIlllllllllll II_lll ._I IIII II1{111111111.t4--_l I I I I I I I I ) I I _ IJ-LI Il Ill )111 I I I I I I I'_-J) I 1ll I I Il {I I II I I !_11 II II III] W_em J-L{IIII III1{ II ilIIIA-J II III{IIIAI II II I{I I co.. . It was noted that when the ground-to-spacecraft circuit was patched to the between-stations voice conference.O_ T. tion occurred at a time when the spacecraft was approaching the west coast of the United States and did not interrupt critical traffic.rk._ .1 N antic Ocean Ship Not used on _IA-7 I I I I I I _-LI I I I I I I I I I I Ii_x_t Ko_o I.i i. ._1 {1111111111111111:1:1 _T_kls {i11111{11{11 Bermuda l I[l]llllll{lllllllllllll{ll [-I'11 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I_' I I I I I {lllllllll{I I I I I I I { I I {J-l. 26 .---The quality of the ground-to-spacecraft communications was acceptable throughout the mission.1. ii } ..o.min UHF and UHF coverage 3:00 3:30 4:00 4:30 FIGURE 2-16._ {111{1111111111_4[1111]1{111111111.{ .. IIIIIllllllllllllll"l III III III IIIIIIIIll)ll II II I_ II II II I1:1'. however.-I-J I I { II II II I ILl [ I _oy_o_ IIIIII II-r_LIIlilIIIIIIIIIIIIJ..._ll 1=30 2:00 2:30 Groundelapsedtirne.J_l I){I California I 'l--i_J I J Il I I I III ) {1 I I 1I.. HF and UIIF voice. .llllll IIIIIIIIII1_111]11 _i IIIIII1{11 II IIIll1111...-L{[ _1111111111111)111111111111111{'llll zo_ IIII'IJ-L II1[1111111111 I_-JIIIl{llllllll {ITIT'IIIIIIII III)1l IndimC_Ship I I I I IA. .

No major flight discrepancies were evident durlng the orbital phase until just prior to retrofire. Ch:el [or Flight Control. The first part is conducted on the day before the launch and lasts approximately 4½ hours. KaANZ. and the Mercury spacecraft was inserted into a nominal orbit with exceptional precision. four flight controller network exercises were performed.3. and WmUAM C. this activity is given only minor emphasis. and recovery phases. light OperationsDivision.4S_4MannedSpacecra[t Center. HODGE. Following contingency recovcry procedures. HAYESF . The astronaut was instructed by ground personnel to effect a manual retrofire maneuver. The second part of the countdown was probably as close to perfeet for the launch vehicle. Flight Controllers quickly obtained a high degree of confidence in various site and network procedures and reached a high level of performance very early in the schedule. when it was discovered that the automatic control system was not operating properly. There were some minor problems throughout the network. Asst. the flight control and recovery operations for the MA-7 mission will be discussed in detail. the astronaut was recovered by helicopter some 3 hours after landing. Radar tracking data subsequent to this maneuver indicated that the spacecraft would land 250 nautical miles downrange of the planned landing point. is presented. Introduction In the present paper. and a high degree of confidence was established in tim countdown format during this time. N. and the coordination between the various agencies involved was excellent. A new network countdown . The flight was satisfactorily monitored by the ground stations of the Mercury Network.. This part of the countdown was conducted with no major problems or delays. with only a last-minute hold for weather. most of which were associated with the development of ap654533 o----62 s propriate support procedures for the future missions of longer duration. These drills were very similar in content to those performed for the MA-6 mission. MISSION OPERATIONS By JOHND. and their activities are presented chronologically. They maintained this performance level throughout all the network simulations and during the actual MA-7 flight. and the spacecraft was retrieved by a recovery destroyer approximately 3 hours later. spacecraft. it was found that the total recovery support used for MA-6 could be slightly reduced for MA-7. Flight OperationsDivision. The launch phase proceeded almost perfectly. it will be only discussed briefly: Some small changes from the MA-6 operational support were made. Since the launch support procedure was discussed in the MA-6 flight report (ref. and a large humber of experiments were to be accomplished. NASA MannedSpacecra[t Center Summary A discussion of the detailed operational support provided during the MA-7 mission.Flight Operations Division. Since the launch vehicle countdown and prelaunch phase was nearly identical to that for MA-6. Based on previous experience. EtJCENEF. including prelaunch. NASA Manned Spacecra[t Center. however. 1). Powered flight was normal. flight. A hold of about 45 minutes occurred at T-II minutes 27 .'as used. Network support is discussed in detail in paper 2. Prelaunch Activities I)uring the prelaunch period. The flight plan was basically the same as that for the MA-6 mission with two significant differences: the astronaut was given a greater amount of manual-control tasks to perform. and network as could ever be expected. none of these resulted in the necessity for a hold. launch. The countdown for launching the MercuryAtlas vehicle is conducted in two parts.

....... at 5 minutes (g.......... rain:see ..8 04:44:44 04:50:54 04:51:48..--Actual cutoff conditions: Altitude.7 7.. Retro (right) No............... the astronaut was given all 1)ertinent data involved with orbit parameters and the necessary retrofire times were transmitted.......9 00:05:10......... Retro (left) No........6 04:50:37.........6 04:55:22....... Retro assembly jettison ........ Retro (bottom) No.................. hr:min:sec 00:02:10. Entry acceleration.. g units .. Drogue parachute deployment ......... Apogee altitude............6 04:33:55.2 00:05:05....6 04:32:55. deg. 1.e...........2 00:05:12.3 04:32:25. ft .0004 86.....................ill anticipation of better camera coverage and to allow aircraft to check the atmospheric refraction index in the vicinity of Cape Canaveral for the launch-vehicle guidance equipment.... 06 88:32 32. TABLE 3-I..... Period... hr:min:sec 00:02:08... Velocity....................3 04:33:15...0" capability as indicated by Space Flight Center computers and transmitted to the astronaut at 5 minutes 33 seconds......6 Actual time... Inclination angle...8 527. Retrofire sequence initiation ......... This facility enabled the Mercury Control Center Capsule 28 Communicator craft systems (Cap Com) to transmit spacedata and orbital information to the astronaut in real time....... Sustainer engine cutoff occurred 10 seconds ground elapsed time "_.... and the astrohaut was able to make all of the planned eommunications and observations throughout this period.6 04:55:22................m.. Exit dynamic pressure........ 0. A comparison of the planned and actual times at which the major events occurred are given in table 3-11.2 00:02:32. the .........6 04:33:05. Powered The launch May '24. Orbit parameters: Perigee altitude..2 00:02:32..... The powered portion of flight was completely normal... 55 7....... Hoavever..05 g relay ............ and there was no doubt that conditions very close to nominal had been achieved......... · Based on the atmosphereat CapeCanaveral.. A remoting facility for transmitting air-toground voice for the Mercury Control Center through the Bermuda site transmitters . ft/see .. nautical miles .3 04:33:20.......... 1962.. Water impact .t................... Tower release .... Maximum conditions: Exit acceleration.... Spacecraft separation .... 87 144.......... Tile tim Goddard was obtained occurred Flight Phase on tile actual cutoff conditions that were obtained..2 04:55:57 04:56:04........ deg .....t...............e.. 5 429 Flight Uonditlon..... 717 --0..' lb/sq ft .... 3. it became readily apparent that the suit cooling system was not correctly adjusted and that the astronaut was uncomfortable............ Table 3-1 presents TAr.. 2..........859 25.vas iraplemented for the MA-7 mission.... Escape rocket firing ...... Entry dynamic pressure........6 04:43:55.....--Seque_ce Event of Events During Booster-engine cutoff (BECO) ......5 04:33:10...... 8 :){............ Tail-off complete ......... The Mercury Control Center go-no-go decision at cutoff was made rapidly........2 00:05:09..6 04:33:00.......1 00:02:32..... Main parachute jettison .....3 00:05:06.....6 04:50:00...... Plight-path angle..5 04:34:10........................s...6 00:02:32.................). LE 3-If... lb/sq ft .. Main parachute deployment ....... nautical miles ... g units . From the summary messages received from the African sites........... Orbital Flight Phase After separation of the spacecraft from the launch vehicle.._ at 07: 45: 16 a................ therefore......... Sustainer-engine cutoff (SECO) ........ much of the requirement for relaying infornmtion between the Canaveral and Bernmda Flight Controllers was eliminated.. M'A-7 Flight Preflight predicted time.......2 04:32:36.......

the astronaut reported that he could temporarily change the spacecraft attitude by moving his arms and body. The air-toground transmissions relayed via the Goddard voice loop during the first orbit were of good quality and provided the Mercury ControlCenter with information available from the airground voice communications of the astronaut. and it was noted at California acquisition that the astronaut had used rather large amounts of nmnual fuel and was down to approximately 42 percent as he began the third orbit. The balloon was deployed during contact. continued to be usable throughout the remaining orbits and provided one of the best tools for maintaining surveillance of the flight. the astronaut reported that he took four swallows of water and that his bitesized food tablets had crumbled in the container and some particles of food were floating free in the cabin. the Mercury Control Center surgeon felt such a rapid increase was not probable and that the transducer had either failed or had been affected by the telemetx_¢calibrate command transmitted from the Muchea site. These indications generally occurred while the astronaut was in the fly-bywire mode. the network radar systems were able to obtain excellent tracking data and these data. the astronaut was obviously in good condition and performing satisfactorily throughout the first orbit. but again showed a decrease in trend before acquisition by the Muchea and Woomera stations. although not as good as the previous MA-0 mission. and thereafter. Over the Woomera station. However. The only other problem was the large amount of automatic control system fuel being used by the astronaut during the first orbit. He was cautioned against further excessive usage of this fuel during the orbital pass over the United States.suit temperature began to decrease when the astronaut increased the water flow in the suit cooling circuit. The mission continued normally throughout the remainder of the second orbit. The initial clo& error of -1 second remained constant throughout the mission and was compensated for in the retrosequenee settings that were transmitted to the astronaut. The low automatic and manual fuel quantities caused considerable concern on the ground and resulted in a further request to the astronaut to conserve his fuel in both the automatic and manual systems. It was obvious throughout the flight that the pilot. This temperature decreased and tended to stabilize at about 100° during the remainder of this orbit and the first portion of the third orbit. The Canary Island site transmitted radar data to the Goddard eomputers. was having difficulty in achieving the proper waterflow setting for the suit cooling system. Cabinair-temperature readings were slightly higher with the MA_ flight. A maximum temperature of 108° was monitored by the Hawaii stat ion near the end of the second orbit. Over the Woomera site. During the first orbit. provided very adequate information on the space- craft position and orbit. the retrosequence time computed at insertion was changed only 11 seconds by the Bermuda data. the suit temperature had decreased to approximately 82° and during the remaining one and one-half orbits the suit temperature indicated a steady decrease to a value between 64° and 67°. a slight increase in body temperature was noted. As an example. However. Toward the end of this pass. the time varied within only ±1 second throughout the mission. During the first portion of the second orbit. was difficult to determine an adcquate setting. The Canton Island site then reported a body ternperature of 102°. There is about a 30-minute lag in the cooling system in response to a change in the valve setting and as a result it. The astronaut was behind the flight-plan schedule by several items. Other than the slight discomfort due to the high suit temperature. and it appeared that he was employ29 . when the loss of sigual (LOS) occurred at Woomera. He was able to eat some of the crumbled food. with Cape Canaveral 1 hour 38 minutes after lift-off. The network air-ground voice quality. and these data confirmed the orbital insertion parameters and an extremely good orital definition was obtained. the suit temperature indicated a rise from 70° at Cape Canaveral to approximately 90° during contact with the Indian Ocean Ship. By the end of the first orbit it had reduced to a satisfactory value. together with the data obtained at cutoff. The spacecraft clock performed satisfactorily throughout the entire mission. Site evaluation of telemetry recordings during the first and second orbits indicated considerable high thruster activity.

From both astronaut reports and telemetry readouts during the periods in which the astrohaut was using automatic control over remote sites during the mission. the astronaut made a number of voice reports regarding visual observations and discussed various experiments carried out in the flight. by the astronaut while in contact with the Muchea station. The Mercury Control Center made a go decision for the beginning of the third orbit at 2 hours 55 minutes g. with advice from the capsule communicator. the increased water flow reduced the rate of this temperature increase to an acceptable level. The coundown was transmitted from California. Reentry Phase Upon contact with Hawaii at the end of the third orbit. Because of the small amount of automatic fuel remaining following retrofire and the complete depletion of manual fuel. Initial reports from the astronaut indicared that the attitudes had been held fairly well during retrofire. However.e.lng high thrusters excessively during attitude changes.e. he reported having trouble with this system and. as additional radar data became available from other sites. and most of the transmission was received by the astronaut. periscope. the astronaut was instructed to use as little fuel as possible in returning the spacecraft to reentry attitude and to conserve the fuel for use during reentry. while he was in contact with Cape Canaveral. all systems appeared to be normal. it was obvious that the California radar data were correct and that the landing point would be approximately 950 nautical miles beyond the planned position. The clock was reset to 04:32:31. they were not considered to be any reason for concern because of the control configuration at the time. During the third orbit. These reports are explained in more detail ill paper 7.t. elected to perform the retrofire maneuver using manual control. and attitude displays. Therefore. However. The inverters had indicated an increase in temperature similar to the previous MA-6 flight. The astronaut was cantioned to conserve his fuel and it was suggested that he increase his water flow to the inverter cold plates. When voice communications were established with the Call fornia station. as a result. As a result of the request to conserve fuel. The astronaut was directed to initiate retrofire manually and to bypass the attitude permission circuit. howe?r. The astronaut reported the automatic stabilization and control system (ASCS) to be performing satisfactorily on several occasions. The radar data from California indicated an overshoot but the indication was suspected to be in error because of previous reports. Although some differences between horizon scanner outputs and spacecraft attitudes had been noted. He was also instructed to use the ASCS auxiliary damping . Throughout the flight. it appeared that no major difficulty was experienced while using this system. was unable to complete the list. the retrofire time for the end of the third orbit. Over the Indian Ocean Ship. the astronaut attempted to jettison the balloon manually and reported that he was unable to accomplish this although the switch was cycled several times. the ground was unable to confirm that it had been 30 received because of the limited UHF range of the spacecraft. During this period the astronaut used a coinbination of window reference. but it was apparent that the retrofire had taken place several seconds late. Over Mcrcury Control Center during the third orbit. the a_tronaut entered a period of drifting flight at 3 hours 9 minutes g. The retrosequencecheck listwas started but when the astronaut returned to automatic control. The California station reported that the velocity change indicated by the integrating accelerometer was normal. the failure of the ASCS system to maintain proper attitudes when engaged by the astronaut over Hawaii was unexpected. the astronaut was instructed to begin his preretrosequence check list and to revert from his present manual control mode to the automatic mode in preparation for retrosequence. 45 percent of the fuel in the automatic system and 42 percent of the fuel in the manual system remained. the astronaut continued to have problems on ASCS and.t. The capsule communicator at Hawaii continued transmitting the remainder of the preretrosequence check list after loss of telemetry contact. This caused no major concern.

... zo° 3-1.......... 31 ... .. D . Area H is the planned landing area for the end of the third orbit.... the recovery forces in the planned landing areas is shown in table 3-III................. 3 · Launch site recovery forces consisted of 3 helicopters... an Air Rescue Service SC-54 aircraft with a specially trained pararescue team aboard was dispatched as a precautionary measure from Roosevelt Roads.. Puerto Rico......--Planned landing areas............... A number of communications were attempted with the command voice system and the normal UHF and HF voice system on the chance that he might receive this information.......... hr Area Helicopters Ships A........ Recovery Operations The operation of recovery forces for this mission was very similar to that for the MA-6 mission. 0 1 0 0 3 3 2 2 3 3 H .... As soon as the calculated landing position was established about 250 nautical miles downrange of the CChter of area H. Special aircraft were predeployed on a standby basis to locate the spacecraft and render pararescue assistance within 18 hours of landing at any point along the ground track....... E . w.. 40* 3o* zo* Turk pu_to Of the flight.... 4 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 1 1 1 1 3 to 6 6 3 6 6 F ....... During the entire mission................. an occurrence which lent further evidence to the longer reentry range predicted by the radar... C ....... and these radar data continued to predict approximately the same landlng point... the astronaut queried as to his face-plate position............ W...l_.. several amphibious vehicles... 2 11 1b 3 3 9 3 20 . Shortly after the astronaut began the third pass..... and assigned a position at the downrange end of landing area H...... 63051 ... and recovery in this area could be effected within 3 hours of landing........ and small boats..... Upon contact with Cape Canaveral previous to the loss of communications result of ionization blackout. Total ............Azores : ! Caqaries ...do A R _/.. The astronaut was told that his landing point would be long and would Occur at approximately 19°23 ' IV.. Tile communication blackout occurred about 40 seconds late.... All operating C-band radars at Cape Canaveral and San Salvador tracked the C-band beacon until the spacecraft went below the local horizon indicating that the spacecraft had reentered satisfactorily..... The disposition of TASLE 3-III........... and proceeded to close it. He indi- cated that it was still open......... From this point no voice communications were received from the astronaut..--Di_position of Recovery Search aircraft _o* so* rm_z 60' 40..._......1ot......... G . c :. all units in area H were instructed Forces in Planned Search and rescue aircraft Landing Areas Maximum recovery time.... Planned landing areas were established in the Atlantic as shown in figure 3-1 to 'cover aborts during powered flight and landing at the end of each orbital pass... b Launched az a precautionary measure when the astronaut began the third orbital pass............ _/ : )Cape Canaveral p_.... all recovery forces were informed of the flight progress by the Recovery Control Center.... B .......... however a brief period of telemetry data was obtained after blackout........mode during the atmospheric reentry portion just as a was N.

12:35 12:41 12:44 p. 1:21 p. As a precautionary Roosevelt H. 3:42 p. The Retrorockets measure. p.m. Air Rescue Service SA-16 (amphibian) was launched and instructed to proceed to this point.S.m.m.t.m . 02:49 02:59 03:01 03:24 03:39 04:11 05:35 06:11 06:34 Helicopter retrieved pararescue team....S..S.....S....S.m. 01:58 02:11 3:30 p.m. There was no direct communication with astronaut. 1:40 p.S. Initial medical examination onboard U. p... 1:40 p... in sight.S. UHF/DF 64005 ' at 12:47 12:58 12:59 p. and debriefing of astronaut was completed Astronaut departed for Grand Turk Island. p.m. 00:06 00:17 00:18 00:39 00:40 00:46 00:53 00:59 00:59 01:09 01:15 01:34 01:40 U.m.S. Air Rescue Service SC-54 was launched from 12:22 12:33 p. Intrepid swimmers aboard.. 1:34 p. 7:15 p. Intrepid. John R. 00:00 00:03 All units Spacecraft in area H were landed... Had with spacecraft position. Pararescue flotation was deployed.m.. and waved to aircraft. Astronaut arrived aboard U. 4:05 p.. with Mercury Two HSS-2 helicopters were launched Project doctor and specially equipped The SA-16 arrived on-scene.S.m. Farragut was 18 miles from spacecraft. U. Farragut was proceeding aircraft were executing search with spacecraft.. Calculated landing position was reported as being 19°24 _ N.S.TASLE 3-IV. 2:39 p. 2:15 p.S.. Auxiliary flotation collar was attached to spacecraft and inflated..S.--Uhronological Summary o/ Post-Landing Events e. landing positive 1:20 p. hr: mtn Event 11:18 a. aircraft reported visual contact with green dye at 19o29 ' N. The SA16 reported sea condition satisfactory for landing and take-off.m.. p. The SA-16 descended to evaluate sea-state condition for possible landing. U.m.S.m . 1:27 p. Intrepid) was designated mission coordinator. Search Search reported possible UHF/DF contact to calculated plan. "Feel fine. Astronaut Carpenter reported.. Helicopters were cnroute to spacecraft. was in helicopter.. The SA-16 was instructed not to land unless helicopter retrieval could not be made.. 1:50 p. Pierce had spacecraft onboard. p.m. Helicopters returned to the U.m. to take station on downrange end of Area SC-54 had specially trained pararescue team aboard. Intrepid. Farragut had spacecraft in sight.m. Farragut U.. p...t.S...) aircraft reported astronaut in liferaft attached to spacecraft.m." Destroyer U.S.m..S..m.. 32 ..m. Astronaut appeared normal..m.S. Destroyer All search contact Search W. proceeding to calculated landing position.. Contingency recovery situation was established at Recovery Control Center... Helicopter Astronaut arrived over spacecraft... Astronaut appeared to be in good condition...S. longitude.S. p.S. Intrepid accompanied by SA-16 and search aircraft.. 1:56 p..m .. 63053 ' W.. descended team to deploy pararescue team and auxiliary The SC-54 collar. Positions of vessels in vicinity of landing point were requested from Coast Guard and other Naval commands (see fig. 3-2). 3:40 p. Doctor reported astronaut in good condition. Recovery commander in area H (embarked on U. 2:52 p.m.m. (Spacecraft employs fiourescein sea-marker. from U.. latitude. Search aircraft 04:54 g.m....S. aircraft reported that' astronaut appeared to be comfortable. 2:21 p. Roads.. Pierce had U.m .m...s. Pararescue team was in water. Astronaut and pararescue team were in water.... p.e.m. Puerto Rico...m... hr: mtn Elapsed time from landing. 4:20 4:52 6:16 6:52 p.m. were ignited..S..

Thomas. (See table 3-IV for chronological summary of post-landing events. in slightly less than 3 hours after landing. Two twin-turbine HSS-2 helicopters were launched from the carrier Intrepid to retrieve the astronaut. the U.--Astronaut being retrieved by helicopter.ilability for possible assistance in the recovery operations. located about 90 nautical miles _ot 24 ° mCoast G. The recovery helicopters also contained two specially trained divers equipped with a second spacecraft auxiliary flotation collar. The first helicopter carried a doctor from the special Mercury medical team assigned to the Intrepid for postfiight examination and debriefing of the astrouaut. southwest of the calculated landing position. recovery procedures set up _or such an eventuaJity were followed in the Recovery Control Center. Since the landing was outside of a planned landing area. Various United States Nava.to proceed to this point.S. The astronaut was reported as seated comfortably in his liferaft beside the floating spacecraft. to establish their ava.S. and it was directed to proceed at best speed. It was determined that the Farragut could arrive at the spacecraft first. The location of units available to assist ill recovery operations at the time of spacecraft lauding is shown in figure 3-9. Although the landing point was outside the 1)binned landing area. and a merchant ship located about 31 nautical miles north of the calculated landing position. the astronaut was retrieved by helicopter._ Pick-up location _ Calculated :* riotmz 3-3. A photograph of the spacecraft in the flotation collar is presented in figure 3-3. Intrepid.S. as shown in figure 34.) An Air Rescue Service SA-16 amphibian aircraft was also dispatched from Roosevelt Roads and instructed to proceed directly to the calculated landing position. Farragut.--Landing area details. I W Io_ 72 ° I 70 ° FzeLmE gin uer_ R'coa_VIir Puerto slands I I I 68* 66 ° 64 ° 3-2. U.'landing Ground point track I 62 ° 60 ° FZO_gE 3-4.--Spacecraft in flotation collar. 22° lS o _ _ H_spon . Search aircraft from area H quickly obtained a bearing on the spacecraft UHF/DF electronic location aids and proceeded to establish visual contact with the spacecraft about 40 minutes after hmding.S. The SC-54 aircraft arrived shortly thereafter and deployed the pararescue team with a spacecraft auxiliary fotation collar and other survival equipment to render any necessary assistance to the astronaut and to provide for the continued flotation of the spacecraft. The SA-16 then arrived at the spacecraft and prepared for landing in the event such action wouhl be required before the arrival of the helicopters. The recovery commander in area H aboard the aircraft carrier. 33 . was designated as mission coordinator.l Commands and the Coast Guard were interrogated as to the location of merchant and naval ships._ard cutter z_Telemetry oircraft 0 Search aircraft oRescue aircraft $ Merchant ship A Destroyer · Carrier Planned [ending area _ 20°. other than those assigned to l_covery forces. Information received from the Coast Guard and Navy indicated a Coast Guard cutter at Saint. a destroyer. Virgin Islands.

United States Manned Orbital Space Flight.: Results of the First Spacecraft Center. U.S. arrived with special retrieval equipment to make the pickup as shown in figure 8-5.He was returned to the U.--Spacecraft retrieval by destroyer.S. Reference 1.S.S. Farragut arrived at the spacecraft and kept it under close surveillance until tile destroyer. · [ lq_OUaE 3--5. 1962. The destroyer U.S. Pierce. ANOn. NASA Manned 34 . February 20. The spacecraft was delivered to Roosevelt Roads by the destroyer. Intrepid for medical examination and debriefing and was later flown to Grand Turk Island. John R. with a subsequent return to Cape Canaveral by airplane.S.

e.t. Chic[.Theoretical Division. 3. The airglow layer at the horizon.e. The airglow is a faint general illumination of the sk3. between 4 hours 2 minutes g. The glow is brightest about 10° or 15° above the horizon and becomes fainter toward the zenith. a large part of the light is in the 5.4. 2) of the Goddard Space Flight Center using an Aerobee sounding rocket. 2. New photographs showing the flattened solar image at sunset were made. visible from the ground on a clear. Astronaut M. (10 hr and 47 min Greenwich mean time) and 4 hours 18 minutes g. The height of the airglow layer has bern. Theoretical Division. and this is followed by an analysis of the brightness of the airglow layer. Scott Carpenter made a series of obsem. have indicated that the height of the layer extends from 90 to 118 kilometers above the earth.. A forbidden transition is very difficult to produce in the laboratory because the atoms lose the energy corresponding to the tra. The luminous band around the horizon is attributed to airglow. and WINIFRED SAWTELL CaMZaON. Introduction A discussion is presented in this paper of the observations regarding terrestrial space phcnomena made by Astronaut M. The space particles reported by Astronaut Glenn.) line. May 24. Space particles. Asst. An analysis of these and other observations of the astronauts is continuing.577-angstrom (:k) line. Glenn. The light emitted from the luminous layer is attributed to a forbidden transition. Airglow Layer Toward the end of the MA-7 flight.. SPACE SCIENCE REPORT By JOHN A. an examination of the height of the luminous band above the earth's surface is presented. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Summary The principal results in the field of space science obtained from the MA-7 mission are: 1. The principal subjects considered in the field of space science are: 1. which carried a filter that transmitted only the 5. moonless night. were shown to emanate from the spacecraft.. approximately 11 J_ wide at the half-power point and centered at the wavelength of the 35 . 1962. or transition from a metastable state.D. This effect can be minimized only if the laboratory apparatus is very large and the enclosure is at an extremely high vacuum. ations of a luminous band visible around the horizon. The wavelength of the emitted light is discussed initially. Jr. in the first manned Mercury orbital flight and described in reference 1. Wavelength The most significant observation was made with a specially developed filter supplied by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The filter transmits a narrow band of wavelengths. Scott Carpenter during the MA-7 flight and reported in paper 7.nsltion through the collision with another atom or with the walls of the container. The flattened solar image at sunset. They are probably ice crystals.577-angstrom (J. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Thus a forbidden transition is much more common in space.PH.t. known as the "airglow" layer. similar in some ways to those reported by Astronaut Glenn. The astronaut's observations of this luminous layer permit investigation and identification of three of its physical characteristics. O'KEEFE. Some of these observations are compared with those made by Astronaut John H. where maximmn intensity is at about 84 kilometers. Finally. 3. such as the sodium layer. investigated by Heppner and Meridith (ref. of the oxygen in the upper atmosphere. This rocket. Their studies were also concerned with the characteristics of other layers of si:ecifie wavelengths. 2.

During the flight the astronaut noticed that strongest5,577 _. passed radiation the night namely the filter theof light of theairglow, luminous band with but little attenuation; however, it rejected band was identified as the 5577 layer.
Brightness of the Layer

J__ /_

/_/iz],//__'] _.

Astronaut Carpenter noted that the airglow the light the moonlit earth. An Therefore, layer was of relativel y bright. indication the of this brightness was derived from a comparison of tile brightness of the layer with that of the
moonlit horizon,

Spacecraft orbit rmtmr 4-1.--Parameters


used to calculate





Astronaut Carpenter also noted that the layer was about as bright as the horizon, which was at that time illuminated by the moon at last quarter. Assuming thattheatmosphere at thehorizen acts like a perfect diffusing reflector, and noting that the illumination of the moon at last quarter is approximately 2 × 10-: lux, it is found that the surface brightness is 6× 10-3 lux per steradi_n,
Height of the Layer

layer. and longitude for each minute of ground elapsed time. By using the standard formulas of spimrical astronomy, the angular zenith distance Z, schematically shown in figure 4-1, of Phecda was calculated. The ray from Phecda was considered to be tangent at each moment to an imaginary sphere which is concentric with the earth, and which is situated at a distance h below the observer. The usual formula for the dip of the horizon is h=R(1-sinZ), where R is the radius from the center of the earth to the spacecraft. Since only 3-figure accuracy is needed in h, it is not necessary to enter into refinements in the calculation of R; a mean radius of the earth of 6,371 kilometers plus the spacecraft elevation gives more than sufficient precision. Subtracting h from the spacecraft elevation gives the elevation of the layer. By using the above-mentioned time, the lower bmmdary of the layer is found to be at. 73 kilometers. Other points are less definite; it appears that at 04:03:33 g.e.t, or 16 hours 48 minutes 49 seconds (t10 kilometers) G.m.t. Phecda had not yet entered the layer, and that at 04:04:52 g.e.t, or 16 hours 50 minutes 8 seconds (84 kilometers) G.m.t. it was approachlng the middle of tlle layer. These heights are some 10 to 15 kilometers lower than those which result from rocket nmasurements (ref. _). The discrepancy may be due in part. to geometrical effects; for instance, a very thin layer has some intensity at all zenith distances greater than that of the tangent to the layer. Hence the determiuation of the bottom of the layer is intrinsically uncertain. In a thick layer, these methods are

The astronaut provided evidence on the heigbt of the layer through five separate observat.ions: 1. By making a direct estimate which was from 8° to 10°. 2. By noting that it is approximately twice the height of the twilight layer. Astronaut Carpenter estimated the height of the twilight htyer as 5 sun diameters or 21/_o; hence, the height of 5577 layer would be 5°. 3. By observing the star Phecda as it passed the middle of the luminous band. 4. By noting the time when Phecda was halfway from the luminous band to the horizon, 5. By noting the fact that when the crossbar of the reticle is scribed on the window set diagonally, the horizontal bar just covers the distance from the band to the horizon, In method 3, the time of passage of the star below the brightest part of the luminous layer was used. Through careful timing of the spacecraft tape and conversation with the astronaut, the time has been fixed at approximately 04:05:25 ground elapsed time (g.e.t.) or 16 horns 50 minutes 41 seconds G.m.t. To find the true height at that time, a special set of eomputations was made at Goddard Space Flight Center, starting from the spacecraft latitude 36

slightly biased toward the lower portions. On the other hand, it appears to be physically possible, especially if account is taken of turbulence that the maximum of the oxygen (O) is really lower than 90 kilometers, The observation of the hminous layer through the filter was made at 04:16:50 g.e.t, Sunrise was witnessed about 1 minute later while the observation was being conducted. It follows that the airglow is visible even when the twilight band is very strong. An attempt to observe it in the day appears to be desirable. In this connection, it should be noted that Astrohaut Virgil I. Grissom reported a grayish band at the top of the blue sky layer (see ref. 4). He remembers this layer as narrow and grayish in color, representing an actual increase in intensity. He pointed out the approximate position of the layer on one of the photographs taken by Carpenter at the height of 1.7° above the horizon. Astronaut Grissom may have in fact observed the luminous layer during the daytime, Astronaut Carpenter did not note any vertical or horizontal structures in this layer. He did not attempt a continuous survey around the horizon; however, he did note the layer at several points along the horizon and believes it to be continuous all the way. It does not appear possible that this layer can actually absorb starlight. Any layer at this level capable of absorbing a noticeable fraction of the light (25 percent or more) would also significantly scatter light; it would therefore be a very prominent object on the daylight side. However, it is not definitely visible on the photo_'aphs of the day side. That the decreased visibility of stars passing through the layer was a contrast effect is entirely in agreement with Astronaut Carpenter's impression. This layer is thus assumed to be luminous. An interesting feature of this observation is the discrepancy between the eye estimates of 8° to 10° for the altitudes above the horizon, on the one hand, and the results of timed observations on the other. The latter indicates altitudes of 2° to 8°, which are clearly correct. For example, Astronaut Carpenter noted that ;;'hen one arm of his reticle ;vas at an angle of 45°, it covered the space between the horizon and the bright band. The crossarm is 1.21 tentimeters in length and is 26.2 centimeters from

the astronaut's eye. At an angle of 45% it subtends a vertical angle of about 2.6°. It thus appears that the well-known illusion which exaggerates angles near the horizon, may also be experienced in orbital flight. It was evidently present during the MA-6 mission, since Astronaut Glenn also reports 7° to 8° as the height of the luminous band. A summary of the results derived from the five methods of calculating the height of the airglow layer is presented as table 4-I. Space Particles Astronaut Carpenter also noticed and photographed white objects resembling snowflakes, or reflecting particles, at sunrise on all three orbits. (See fig. 4-'2.) However, he also saw these objects 7 minutes after the first sunrise and again 43 minutes after sunrise and 2, 11, 23, 26, 36, and 45 minutes after the second sunrise. It is thus quite clear that they are not related to sunrise, except perhaps in the sense of being most easily visible then. In the photographs some of the particles were considerably brighter than the moon, which was then very near the first quarter. At this time, the moon is about - 10; the particles may have been between -12.6 magnitude (10 times brighter than the moon) and -15 magnitude (100 times brighter than the moon). The second is considered more likely, in view of the appearance of the full moon (-12.6) as shown on photographs taken on the MA-6 mission. At - 15 magnitude, the particle brightness is consistent with centimeter-size snowflakes. The particles were verbally described by the pilot as having been between 1 millimeter and I centi-

P_ot-az4-2.--Space particle photographed by Astronaut Carpenter. 37

meter in size and having a strong visual resemblance to snowflakes, Shortly before reentry just at sunrise, Carpenter improvised the decisive experiment of hitting the walls of the spacecraft with his hand. The blows promptly resulted in the liberation of large numbers of particles. It is thus clear that at least those particles observed in the MA-7 flight emanated from the spacecraft. The possibility that the particles might be dye marker or shark repellant, both of which are green and both of which are exposed to the vacumu, was considered. Tests were conducted which demonstrated that neither material tended to escape from the package in a vacuum The possibility that they might be small particles from the fiber glass insulator was also considered; in view of the smallness of the fibers, it appears likely that they would have been blown away at once, like the confetti of the balloon experiment. The dynamic pressure of 1 dyne per square centimeter is sufficient to remove at once anything weighing less than about 10 to 100 milligrams per square centimeter, which con-esponds to a thickness of the order of 0.3 to 1 millimeter for most ordinary substances, As mentioned in reference 1, there are two plausible sources within the spacecraft for these particles: 1. Snow formed by condensation of steam from the life support system, 2. Small particles of dust, waste, bits of insulation, and other sweepings, The latter are very conspicuous in a zero g environment when there is nothing to keep them down, and it is extraordinarily difficult to free the interior of the spacecraft, of such material. Undoubtedly, the exterior parts of the spacecraft which are exposed to the environment will contain these particles, and they undoubtedly provide a source for the space particles. In particular, a corkscrew-shaped piece observed by Astronaut Carpenter could possibly have been a bit of metal shaving or perhaps a raveled piece of insulation, On the other hand, there is considerable evidence which points to snow as the source of the majority of the material. In the first place, water is exhausted from the spacecraft in far larger quantities than any other substance. In 38

the second place, the material looked like snowflakes both to Glenn and to Carpenter. In the third place, the frequency with which the particles are reported by Carpenter appears to be correlated with the temperature of the exterior of the spacecraft as recorded by thermocouples in tile shingles. The temperature was always lowest at night, falling to temperatures of -35 ° C just before sunrise, and rising to 10° C just after sunrise. The condensation probably occurred in the space between the heat shield and the large pressure bulkhead of the spacecraft, rather than outside the spacecraft, because even at the lowest recorded shingle temperature, around - 50° C, the vapor pressure over ice amounts to about 0.039 millibar. Although this pressure is very low, it greatly exceeds the ambient pressure at the lowest spacecraft altitudes. Accordingly, it is not possible that snowflakes should form under these circumstances, even though it is true that the spacecraft must be surrounded by an expanding atmosphere of water vapor. If the water vapor is assumed to expand freely, then the pressure at a distance of 1 meter from a hole 1 centimeter in diameter will be of the order of 1/10,000 of the pressure at the hole. Hence it is fairly clear that the pressure between the heat shield and bulkhead of the spacecraft will be far higher than the outside pressure, in spite of the presence of 18 one-centimeter apertures. Therefore, condensation behind the heat shield is more likely than outside. It is noteworthy that no formation of rime was noticed either on the window or on the balloon string. It is considered most likely that the luminous particles are snowflakes formed in the spacecraft between the cabin bulkhead and the heat shield by the steam exhaust from the life support system. It is suggested that they may have escaped into space through the ports, being driven outward by the expanding vapor. Note that at 2 hours 52 minutes 47 seconds g.e.t., Carpenter noticed a particle movlng faster than he. At _ hours 50 minutes g.e.t., he had planned to observe sunrise and was faclng for_vard. This particle was therefore probably seen at a point east of him. Most of the particles were seen behind him and falling back. This supports the idea that the particles prob-

The Flattened Sun New information regarding the refraction by the earth's atmosphere of celestial objects as seen from space has recently been provided by the Mercury manned orbital flights. . the curving optical ray is followed forward until it is refracted so as to be parallel to the surface of the earth. in order to construct a theoretical solar profile for comparison with the actual photographs. which denends on the true height and r. where z is the true zenith distance and z' the apparent zenith distance. X.. To make the calculation.0s.. The computation of the refraction r=z-z'. from the spacecraft to the atmosphere. Theory predicts that the sun's image near the horizon should be highly flattened. If the straight portion of the ray is prolonged. g'. That distance is denoted by p. the height of D above G is called the refraction height. This point is called the perigee of the ray. Astronauts Glenn and Carpenter obtained photographs of the setting sun that illustrate this effect rather strikingiy. for a fictitious observer stationed at perigee. horizc_l and Effective limit of T 2 °'_°'* i . 39 FmURE 4-3.013x 106 dynes/em s B=coefllcient involving the index of refraction /Land the polytropic index _. . the refraction angle r at the horizon and the refraction height s. It is probable that many of the particles lodge on the outside of the spacecraft. from the direction in which the particles streamed across the window. a ray through the atmosphere to the spacecraft is idealized. where T=the absolute temperature divided by 278. can be calculated. h P--pressure at height h divided by the ground pressure of 1. The line 0G makes an angle ®+r with OC.... Given p and the spacecraft height. The quantities determined are the apparent and true zenith distances as seen from the spacecraft denoted by Za. The len_h p is denoted by analogy with the similar dynamic problem.. and is denoted by G. Figure 4-3 illustrates the geometry employed. Carpenter recognized the phenomenon visually.0° W-. but John Glenn did not. The first section. O. is presented. The pertinent formulas are: t=O tr _ Fictitious observer's . since Carpenter is quite sure. The refraction angle 2r=R is added to form the true zenith distances. The ray from the sun is traced backward from the spacecraft. For any given height G.P at height. If B and p are known. it will intersect OG at some point A.. B. The phenomenon takes place effectively only for rays whose perigees are lower than 20 kilometers above the surface of the earth. Then the right triangle OBD for the distance p can be solved. Then. 8. that they came from near the point where he had knocked.o _. there would be a point.--Geometry employed in computation of refraction. and Z . the apparent angles at the spacecraft can be calculated as a function of ®. respectively. the apparent height of any point on the sun as seen from the spacecraft could be calculated.. is straight. of nearest approach to the center of the earth.. A general procedure for the computation of refraction.ably are pushed outward by the expanding steam from the spacecraft before they begin to stream backward. and the angle at the center of the earth from the spacecraft to B is denoted as ®.. where r is the refraction angle for the sun when an observer at G sees it 90° from the zenith. To find these quantities. was based on the rather detailed theory given in reference 5. If the ray continued in this direction toward the sun. such as the impact parameter.

/- ..... ... However... r.... ' / .. Table 4-1I summarizes the computed results.'.n. it is sosn that the entl'_ refraction cffeet took place in the relatively 8hort interval of ibout 20 seconds.371. figure 4-4(c) most nearly sinmlates the photographs in figures 4-5 and 4-6 which show the effects of the spacecraft.460 °. height...... These distances are Ztrue_-105.. PiGcaz 44. are related to ® and R by the equations Z_rr=90°+® and Zt_uo=90° + (®+R). "]]_c"' y / erence 6. Ztr. The theoretical profiles of four phases of a setting sun are illustrated in figmre 4 ..... 1060 105! 10S6 1054 10S2 10SO __z.. and s have been obtained.....s z.... ] /________ / __ /"- ...63................ _.... 0.. ... The index of refraction g is computed using ...--stages of the setting sun. Since the horizontal axis is not affected by refraction.. parallels o_ altitude may be laid off on the unrefraeted image of the sun and similarly on the apparent. More recent data on these parameters The parameter s. -._=106. eclipses._= 1+ gk& where k is a constant. .17. pressm'e.'X -'-_--. 1962.2$6 °... The flattening of the irrtage of the setting sun is best illustrated in the plot of Z_ppversus Z_... _ ___b____ _x _ .p/H... The uncertainty in photography times preeludes an exact comparison of theory and obserrations.... Here is mean radius of the earth (0.46... here called the refractive _...180° (sun's center on horizon)..000meters as determined by the MA-7 orbit).0'.u.The temperature.. _ ii.. and 0. He specifically states that he did not see the sun as a narrow. and density $ of the '°' ........n_=106.. flat object... The ratios in percent of the vertical to horizontal diameters are approximately 0. is a refraction correction commonly are available frmn reference 7. { . and 8 is tile densit y at × h 10-a divided by the density at the surface (1. Once g.... emvaz 4-5..... Z_ppfor four true zenith distances of the sun's center.. image of the sun.. .-_ .......918 ° (sun's lower limb on the horizon).. 4O ._.-"'"_--- .11. _ . Finally.}_] . where H= a _. Zt...hc (h_= ff57...... '2 ..tmosphere att altitude h were taken from ref .."_. .. Considering the spacecraft an[falar velocity of 4°/rain. He observed it as spreading out about 10° on either side and merging with the twilight hand..1. Then ® is determined from the relation cost ®-..... ----_ / }-'....p axis. 1962. Z_ppand Zt.. which ofgives its relation to applied in calculations of times of contact the index of refraction as 1+s/a=t_sin z'/sin in z.. / _ .--Flattenin g ofGlenn.172 g/cma). and Zt_u_ = 107.. then R follows immediately from the simple relation R=2r (a ray is doubly refracted at the spacecraft) and p is obtained from the equation p=(a+h+s) cos r. This procedure yields the apparent zenith distance of those points. 0. The apparent image may be rectified for easy comparison. respectively..... which is a plot of Ztrue vs. Figure 4-5 was photographed by Astronaut Glenn on February 20.. The derivation s is found on page 515 of reference 4.. He stated that the sun definitely appeared somewhat flattened during mmrise and sunset.. motion and still demonstrate the arresting effect. ...... and points around the limb extended to the curve may be located on the Z_. An image representing the sun to scale may be placed at any Z_... sun photographed Astronaut by Figure 4-6 was photographed by Astronaut Carpenter on the MA-7 flight of May _4. _---_]'/'r"_ 1..020 meters)...

the flattening effect produced by atmospheric refraction of a celestial body as seen from space has been demonstrated by direct observation. at angular i rise times of observation and perhaps measures of the horizontal and apparent vertical diam_eters by the astronaut using a sextant might be feasible..... Acknowledgments. 41 .. 2. 3.. 4. Shaffer of the Theoretical Division of Goddard Space Flight Center for programing and obtaining the orbit on the 7090 computer..6° aho_e horizon ..... Zenith distance is 103°10_.... objects look larger near the horizon. Comparison with twilight layer.... Height about 83 kilometers. it is hoped that future missions will yield phot%n'aphs with more preTABLE 4-I. Apparent horizon 1° above geometrical horizon..--Flattening of sun photographed hr Astronaut Carpenter. apparent horizon is more than 1° above geometrical horizon. i. Confirms methods 3 and 4. for assistance and advice in the interpr_tation of the airglow information.. Lawrence Dunkelman of Goddard Space Flight Center for providing the 57577 filter... 2.e. 5° above horizon . 5.. However.Frov_r 4-6.... and to Frederick B. o/ the Height o/the 5577 Layer Significance Apparently the moon illusion existseven in the absence of a gravitational field. Observation of star in the middle of the layer. University of Chicago.. At any rate... Same as above. Therefore.--Observations Method 1. to James J..--Thanks are due to Mr. 101°54_ from Zenith ... Eye estimate height. whose Zenith distance is 106°. Results 8° to 10° above horizon . the observations by astronauts of future flights will be carefully analyzed and further compared with the theory stated herein to explain refraction phenomena more fully.. Observation of angular height with reticle. Observation of star halfway from haze layer to horizon. to Professor Joseph W... Chamberlain.. Donegan of Data Operations Division of Goddard Space Flight Center for the provision of the final orbital elements.

___ _i _ 42 .

(2) to provide baseline information for the Aeromedical Flight Controllers. The MA-7 pilot was aeromedically prepared for flight in a manner similar to that of the MA-6 pilot with allowance mad8 for individual variations. Walter Reed Army Institute o/Research. Furthermore..D. Prior to the mission. electroencephMography. Fla. Such flights appear to be no more physiologicMly demanding than other nonspace-oriented test flights. including repeated and numerous observations by physicians. Scott Carpenter's flight confirmed the occurrence of a moderate diuresis.D. no pulmonary atelectasis has been found. Specifically.D. routine and special laboratory tests.. 'Astronaut Flight Surgeonfor MA-7. Water survival is an emergent situation requiring the optimum in crew training and procedure discipline. adequate fluid intake during the mission is necessary for crew performance and safety. NASA Manned Spaceera/t Center. clinical observations were obtained during several medical examinations and before most of the preflight activities listed in table 5-I. and (8) to measure any changes which might have occurred between preflight and postflight conditions.. Postfiight special labyrinthine tests have confirmed an unchanged integrity of the pilots' vestibular system. and no psychiatric abnormalities have been produced. X-rays. STANLEY C. _ M.5. AEROMEDICAL A.D. x M. Summary A review of the detailed medical examinations accomplished on two astronauts who each experienced approximately 41/_hours of weightless space flight reveals neither physical nor biochemical evidence of any detrimental effect.S. M. Pensacola. The flexibility of the procedure at the debriefing site was increased to take greater advantage of any medical symptoms which might appear. for example. WHITE. U. MINNERS. no cosmic-ray damage has occurred. PH. Washington. such absorption was normal during MA-6. Florida. 43 . WILHAM K.. Although events occurring during the MA-7 mission permitted only a qualitative verification of gastrointestinal absorption of xylose. Purpose The threefold purpose of the clinical observations was (1) to determine the fitness of the astronaut for flight. Introduction The experience gained in the MA-6 flight altered the medical planning for the MA-7 65453s o----62 _ flight in two important respects.. Naval School o! Aviation Medicine. DouaLas. This latter division consists of standard medical procedures. M.. Chie/. no abnormal vestibular nor related gastrointestinal symptoms have occurred. NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. Biochemical analyses after Astronaut M. electrocardiography. and ASHTONGRAYBIEL. CLINICAL AEROMEDICAL STUDIES OBSERVATIONS By Howard) A. EDWARD C. The medical examinations are logically divided into a clinical history roilowed by physical examination. Aerospace Medical Operations O_ice. Patrick Air Force Base.C. In spite of directed efforts to stimulate the pilot's orientation and balancing mechanisms during weightless flight. D. retinal photography. and special tests of the body's balancing mechanism. Li/e Systems Division. if heat stress continues to be a part of space flight. Air Force Missile Test Center. A comprehensive medical evaluation of the astronaut was conducted at the earliest opportunity after landing when his impressions were freshest and any acute medical alterations would have been greatest. dietary preferences and the mode of physical conditionlng. KNOBLOCK.D.

Procedures trainer. with Astronaut M.m. suited feeding Simulated flight 3. toast. not suited Simulated launch. and sweetened iced tea. Awakened at 1:15 a. 25 Asleep 2:30 aeromedical debriefing. coffee. and ready for the mission.m. amination. The following postlandiug sequence of events contributed further to his fatigue: after entering the raft. Mission rescheduling caused two starts on the lowq_idue diet before the third and final ' 3-day low-residue diet began on May 21.--Astronaut Carpenter training. for preflight preparations. awoke 9:15 a. aeromedical facility. Astronaut Carpenter was free of medical complaints. physician's examination and 5:15 p.. but I am tired. Astronaut Carpenter stated_ "My status is very good.m.. Preflight low-residue diet began for third time.m. The pilot maintained his physical condition 44 The preflight fluid intake consisted of 1. Patrick Air Force Base Hospital.." His fatigue at landing is attributable to the heat load accompanying an elevated suit temperature (see paper 1) and the associated high humidity. held to the spacecraft. poached eggs.: awoke debriefing. A summary of his significant activities from this date until his return to Cape Canaveral following the flight is presented in table 5-I.. and coffee. Scott Carpenter's arrival at Cape Canaveral. 28 Aeromedieal History For purposes of these observations. suited Began special diet.m. a.m. righted the raft.. 196'2. and the expected emotional stress associated with such a flight.050 cc of water. 5-1) and distance running. He left the raft.. he recognized that it was upside down.. suited Procedures trainer. Asleep 2:30 a. Fla. lng. A special diet which insured good nutrilion and hygiene was used for 19 days before the flight. Throughout this period. at Cape suited. The events of the aeromedical countdown are listed in table 5-I1. On the morning of the flight..TABLE 5-I. the activity required to carry out the flight plan. arrived Patrick Air Force Base 2:00 p. during physical through frequent exercise on a trampol!ne (fig. Astronaut Carpenter was awakened 65 minutes earlier than the MA-6 pilot had been and the MA-7 launch was 1'2:2 minutes earlier than the MA-6 launch. Departed Cape Canaveral 2:15 p.m. recovery 3:30 p. asleep at 8:00 p. Fla. suited Comprehensive medical examinations. Canaveral.m. 23 24 MA-7 meetings.m. skin diving for 3 hours. simulated Procedures trainer. men- 26 aeromedical 27 debrief- tally composed. and awoke engineering 9:15 a. launch 7:45 a. engineering 6:45 a.m. brief exGrand Turk Island 11:00 : _ __-: ' _ _ -----_ FIGURE 5-1. his physical and mental health remained excellent. 196'2.m. Asleep 12:45 a. p.m. tile aeromedical history of the MA-7 mission began on April 30..m. After the flight. Breakfast consisted of filet mignon. He voided three times into the urine collection device }_efore launch. began aeromedical countdown.m. juice.--Significant Activities AsD'onaut JAil times Date 1962 are eastern standard] of MA-7 Activity April t 30 M Arrived flight. and once . strained orange juice.

. and finally relaxed as one normally would after an extended mental and physical exercise. he talked logically about his space flight and remained alert. This extensive examination revealed no physical changes from the pilot's preflight condition. On the night prior to the flight. a comprehensive examination was made by the same group of specialists who had examined Astronaut Carpenter 7 days prior to space flight. and seemed very fit . No evidence of cosmic-ray damage was found during the ophthalmolo_c examination. his appearance and movement suggested stren_h and excellent neuromuscular coordination. electrocardiogram (ECG). His neck dam was still stowed. An undetermined but moderate quantity of water had ehtered the pressure suit. He was alert.s. and audiogram. psychiatry. No sedative was required. This examination included special labyrinthine studies (modified caloric test and balance test on successively more narrow rails).m. ECG. The aeromedical debriefing was colnpleted on the second morning following the flight. Physical Examinations Abbreviated physical examinations were accomplislmd by the Astronaut Flight Surgeons prior to most of the planned activities in the prelaunch period. and mental status were all norlnal. Upon AstronautCarpenter'sarrivalatGrand Turk Island (10 hours after the landing). neuromuscular coordination. Obviously. His physical and mental status was normal. 1962] Activity Time a. 9:47 a.).s. The der°medical debriefing team. lift-off. EEG. representing the specialties of internal medicine. (e.mnE 5-II.t. ophthalmology." A brief medical examination was undertaken an hour after the pilot's arrival. after several fatiguing attempts. and neuropsychiatry who carried out the earlier extensive medical checks. e. the internist member of the debriefing team noted: "He entered the dispensary with the air and the greeting of a man who had been away from his friends for a long time." The physicM examination aboard the aircraft carrier revealed that he was without injury and in good health. These examinations revealed no significant variations from previous examinations. electroencephalogram (EEG). He did show a mild reaction to the adhesive tape used at the four ECG sensor sites and the blood-pressure microphone location. Specifically. After a 8-hour period in the liferaft.s. . and clinical laboratory conducted a comprehensive medical examination 7 days before the mission. the pilot obtained approximately 3 hours of sound sleep. which included slit lamp biomicroseopy. JL4-7 Aeromedical Countdown £. The physician reported as follows: "He pulled the tight rubber collar [neck dam] from his neck and cut. desiring to tell of his adventure. Throughout the debriefing period. Astrohaut Carpenter was examined in the helicopter.m. I 1:15 l 1:46 2:05 ' Awakenedthe Breakfast Preflight pilot 2:41 3:04 3:25 3:40 4:03 4:36 4:43 7:45 r physical examination Biosensorplacement Don Mercury pressure suit checkout Pres sure suit and biosensor Entered transfer van Arrived at launch pad Ascendedgantry Insertion into spacecraft Lift-off xMA-6 times: Awakened. neurology.vents [May 24. paced about a bit. The following morning. aviation medicine. (e. Astronaut Carpenter was in excellent health and showed no significant change from previous examinations. He talked with the helicopter pilot. 2:20 a. . these events represent survival hazards.T. and. Astronaut Carpenter drank water and ate food from his survival kit during the 3-hour period awaiting helicopter pickup.). internal mediclue. A detailed review of the pilot's in-flight aeromedical observations is presented in another section of this paper.m. again climbed aboard.t. He was given the final cursory preflight examination by the same specialists in aviation medicine. The results of these examinations 45 . radiology. balance. an audiogram. chest X-rays.t. he was able to deploy it some 80 minutes after iris second entry into the raft. a hole in his [left] rubber pressure-suit sock to drain out sea water. He was a_xious to talk and to discuss his experiences in a cooperative and well-controlled manner.

. min.... 124/80 (left arm) Blood pressure mm Hg.. and May 25 and 26........ Monocytes. percent . Respiration....... 9 60 (right 14 151_ Left 9 Right 85{ Left 10/7{ arm) 120/78 97..... Weight (nude). 148 Right 105{ Left 10X 151_ Right 105{ Extremity measurements? in... percent . 8 46 11. normai mental status. Hematocrit...... Basophiles.... 126/84 97.. 19 79 I 1 0 16...... 1962. 46 ....... 6 76 to 80 116/78 (left arm) 97.......... 1962 (Grand Turk Island) Temperature Pulse rate.m.... millionsg/mm 3.. Ankle ......... 900 5... Calf .... Differential blood count: Lymphoeytes. 5: 15 p... White blood cells/mm s ...... (oral).--Prefiight Preflight and Postfiight Medical Findings Postfiight May (Patrick 17..... audiogram. 7 6_ 12}_ 13_ 8 85{ Complete examination negative........are presented in tables 5-111 to 5-V. i ] All body Extremity § and 10 inches weights below on different by oleeranon scales.. 1_.) May 24......: Forearm ............... i 15..... Treatment was withheld until after the flight.......... Wrist .... examination unchanged from May lq findings. 1962 12:15 a.... beats/min °F__ .........I 47 !12....... ECG normal.. 1962 12:00 m Hemoglobin (Cyanmethemoglobin method).. (sitting).. alert with appropriate mental status........ and chest X-ray.. chest X-ray normal....... Neutrophiles.. including ECG..... no ateleetasis........) May 25 and 26....m. ECG normal........ ... EEG. Tasnz 5-III. skin clear except for two ·clusters of inclusion cysts at left axilliary ECG site...... chest X-ray normal. May Tatum 5-IV.. percent ....... no arrythmia..... .. 6_ 69 13_ 13 8 7_ Fit for flight... 2 25 71 2 2 0 13..--Astroaaut Peripheral Blood Values Preflight Postfiight I I l Determination ! ! · --7 days --2 days May 25.. 2: 05 a. 1962 Air Force Base) May 24..... 1962 (Recovery Vessel........ Comments . percent .. On May 17......... pereen. and measurements minimums. specifically.m...... 24 (preflight) on legs.... 700 5. 1962 (Cape Canaveral...... 0 50 12. percent ... 600 .. made patella All other measurements are maximums measurements 17. 2 37 58 2 2 i grams/100 ml ......... 65{ 6Y_ 13 13¼ 75{ 7_ Moderate erythema at left chest ECG and bloodpressure cuff site..... breaths/ lb t . asymptomatic urethritis was present A mild in both preflight and postflight examinations........ 4 60 (left 12 154 Right 11 Left 105{ arm) 97.. 69{ 65{ 13_ 13_ 8}_ g Minimal erythema as at postfiight sites.. same on forearms..... 8 42 11. Ensinophiles. weights individual 6 and comparable on May 14 inches :kl below pound... Red blood cells... 6 27 65 3 4 i 14. May 26.. 0 ............. 5 .. 500 5.

_ . _ _lllIBllllll 0 _. _ .' ._ _ I ._0_0 ' 47 .

In the subsequent SS hours..... 1962...0 0............ 8 107 6. There was a slight lowering of blood calcium on the second day after the MA-7 mission. g/100 ml . with values of 4.. 2 1._mary Preflight i --2 days Postflight q-10}{ hr +45 hr i Sodium................ moreover... 5 102 6....... Tim urinary output of calcium (table 5-VII) for this period showed a total of 10..4 mEq/l corresponding approximately in time to similar samples taken on Astronaut Carpenter (table 5-VI).. mEq/l .. 2 6........ Epinephrine.. ready to "do it again.... The fact that the potassium TABLE5-VI....... mEq/l ............... Value too low to measure accurately on sample furnished for preflight examhmtion.... He returned to Cape Canaveral on May 27... 4. 4 3. 1 105 6... 4 1......... Albumin..32 mEq during the subsequent 28 hours... his blood calcium did not change signiticantly.....--Blood Determination _ excretion was also elevated in the same period of time suggests that this increased calcium output is a result of a variation in kidney activity rather than just calcium mobilization alone.. 16. Study in future space flights should help to determine if the difference in blood value for calcium is an individual variable or a truly significant difference........." Chemistries The blood and urine chemistries studied were similar to those examined in previous manned space flights (see bibliography). 6 t. 6 3... 1 0.25 mEq of calcium were excreted......3. Astronaut Carpenter's urine was consistently acidic with a pH near 5. i 0.... Uhev_istr:qSuz.. A comparison of similar data obtained from Astronaut Glenn during the MA-6 mission is also shown in table 5-VII.. Potassium. 48 ..... indicates that the loss of potassium was well compensated....... and 4..... mEq/l ....... micrograms per liter 0zg/l) . However..... 0 4....... During this period.................... g/100 ml .. Protein (total).... The MA-0 pilot eliminated 9..... 9 3. mEq/l .. micrograms per liter (t_g/1) ...... Calcium... The results of the MA-7 blood chemistry studies are summarized in table 5-VI. Astronaut Carl)enter remained in excellent health throughout the debriefing period... Norepinephrine.. Chloride.. 2 6. ! i I 141 4. Albumin-Globulin ratio .. The stability of the blood potassium values..11 mEq of calcium during the initim 18-hour period (table 5-VII) and 18.Aside from moderate tiredness based upon long hours of work and few hours of sleep.........0. 3 139 4.2. metal The of the blood chloride and alkali s level remained stable throughout the period of observation. 3 i All blood chemistry determinations were done on plasma.. 2 (2) 137 4. 3 3....... 4 4........67 milliequivalents (mEq)of calcium excreted during the 171/2-hour period which included the flight and the immediate postflight period...

.. 9 77.. 353 O. 285 0..... 3 18... 0 9.. 85 K.. However. 40 146.... 73 3.. 11 5. 5 6........92 14.. + 10 .. This fact.. 25 _-20x_ ... 8............. mEq/l 39. -{-41_{ . A summary of intake and urine 5-VIII.. 6 155. In spite and the associated sweating fluid intake used to eomAstronaut Carpenter's fluid output is presented in table of the excess of intake over output... 210 ...... 5 180.310 2. 16.47 1. 4 3 2 2 5 1.............--Urinary (Times Electrolyte Excretion are postlanding) MA-7 Pilot Time.... 0. 6 47.........215 ... 15 3. 35 25 8 4 6 +24 +27 +34 -}-41 +46 . 49 .... +35 . ..... mEq/l 9.. 05 2.. 9 11.... 2 1..05 5. combined with slight hemoeoncentration after flight. 720 221. Subtotal 154...TABLE 5-VII.. 250 . Subtotal_ _..98 5.. 52..770 Na.... 1. 6 61... 6.... 08 Cl..... 51 6.310 .. 720 ............ Subtotal ... 97 13. 17..... 8 14..... +17_ . 9 16..... 6 67. 9 10 Ca.. 3..... 27.. 30........ 140 . -{-8 .. 8 .. 4 3.....96 . 47 225... 405 .... 6 4 I 8 121 29 2. 258. 55. hour Volume..... mEq/1 201 6....... this balanee was complicated by problems of high suitinlet temperature plus the increased pensate for this.. 5... 365 .. 32 50.. .. 11........295 . 89 2... 48.03 . +18 .... 95 3 8 7 8 8 0 45... 12 18...... 0 273. O 24........2 40. 36 .... _-4_ ... 35 MA-6 Pilot In flight .......... 4.... 58.155 . 8 17.. 25 3. mEq/1 208 7........ 182 1.. 4 2....... liter 2... 95 2. 67 0... 14. 4 lg............. +26 ..0 In flight . 50..... 41..37 9......076 ...... 6 39..... 56. 17. 890 .. +37_ .... -}-30 .... Subtotal ......... 69 1....... Such a diuresis can be explained through the suppression of antidiuretiehormone (ADH)secondary to such factors as the relative water Ioading both before and during the mission and the normal supine position of the astronaut when in the earth's gravity. 3 3. 5 2 5 9 5 21.... -{-45 ... 95 126 30 6....... the pilot lost 6--+1 pounds (table 5-111)....360 cc "in-flight" urine specimen and the urinary electrolyte values.... 82 9...... 34. 16. 6 Fluid and Electrolyte Balance An attempt was made to control fluid and electrolyte balance through adequate hydration during the MA-7 mission..550 .. 42 16. 15. 05 10.. . 305 ... 2 ........ leads to the opinion that a moderate diuresis occurred.. 8 29. ..... 9 7. the low specific gravity of the 2.. 8 10... 91 1.

....... Usually this is 3° to 5° centigrade below body temperature.... Subtotal ..... 5-'2) which is considered to be a valid and finely discriminating index of semicircular canal timetion.. ...m........ 1962] Fluid intake..... 600 250 cc Time......s... _Water ....... Spacecraft ..360 ce in urine collection device.. Time..... tTea ... and in-flight allquots is estimated..... } 2..............................360 . · 30 cC of blood drawn at 5:20 p........m..........m..m. a questionnaire and two special tests were utilized to elicit or measure any effect of space flight and its attendant weightlessness upon the human vestibular apparatus...... 0 . during the 50 course of the disease.. f5:00toa 13:40 p...m.....t. e... 543 _ to [1 :: 4 5 a...... 2... to 3:40 p........... The subject's ear was irrigated for 45 seconds with water below body temperature which be times warmed cooled precise control..... 5:00 a.... The first of these tests was a modified calorie test (see fig.m............... 9:12 p..... and......515 ...s...213 to _3:40 [[7:45 P. 3.... } to '5:00 p. SpecialStudies For both the MA-6 and MA-7 missions.. Countdown .. '[Soup .a. approximately 7:46 a..m-a'm' } b 1.....m.. it exhibits moderate variation in magnitude.m.....could The of or onset and under duration of nystagmus (fine eye jerk) were noted... similar to the rails of a railroad track..--F/u/d Intake and Output _ [May 24.... Astronaut Carpenter likewise did not show a significant change between tests carried out 6 months prior to flight and the two tests conducted after the flight.......TABLE5--VIII.m.. In patients with clinical vestibular disease........... However. The standing tests were carried out first with the ..m. Breakfast . Tea ..... ]7 :35 p _ to J8:15 p.....m.. The highest water temperature which caused nystagmus was regarded as the threshold value. Ill recovery. 5:35 p. The other labyrinthine tests measured the subject's ability to balance himself on suceessively more narrow rails... 155 . a. .m... { b 1....... Orange juice.. 263 [1:45tOp I3 :40 .... Total ....... In this test. 9 1 2 p 2..... i 1.. coffee___ Transfer van ........... ........000 . Tea Coffee ............. evaluation (7 days prior to the flight)......... (c) ce I empty .... Total of 2...... division into preflight Time unknown... Bladder 200 ' 1:45 a....... After recovery ......................... IWa . Slightly higher threshold temperatures for both left and right ears were obtained at the time of the preflight..m...m.. 5:00 p.. Urine output.... flight and before Water ... to 4:0 4:33 6 a... the astronaut was required both to stand and to walk heel-totoe and to keep arms folded on the chest..m.. these high threshold values were the result of a teehnical error... 150 100 0 18 200 150 _ 500 5:50 p. to 7:30 a........ Astronaut Glenn exhibited no significant change in threshold temperatures before and after his orbital space flight.......m.. in this instance..... 4 1:15 a.....m... the threshold temperature is usually lower than normal......m..360 .m........ e....m...... tTeater ...t..

--Xylose Absorption. in time. as was done in the MA-0 mission. a total Five control subiect so -- 0 250mlwo 12-hr ter.9 percent of the test xylose dose during his 41_-hour period of weightlessness.fasting ater a s_de. does not separate the urine while weightless followed by urination just passed before and after tile flight. When the single urine specimen passed aboard ship at 5 p. the 5-gram xylose tablet was ingested at 2 hours 41 minutes 35 seconds g. %_en compared with his control exm'etion of 38. 40 minutes.FIGURE 5-2.0-gram xylose tablet prior to return to lg. applesauce Carpenter .t.2 percent in the preflight period. In both United States manned orbital space flights. :oi_2_ _ A.. The other significant variable was the marked increase in fluid intake by Astronaut Carpenter over that of Astronaut Glenn.s. this in-flight result isnormal. (Exact time of final collection not known. 51 .. is included in the test period.set up to simulate. then with the eyes closed. besired. Glenn produced only 800 cc of urine and excreted 34. Wateras _er htt _° r . it was hoped that any gastrointestinal changes would be more pronounced after a slightly longer (138 minutes) exposure to weightlessness. are affected by several than the vestibular apgeneral neuromuscular coordination and position sense.5 percent of the xylose (fgure 5-3). _J'_g_'_r_ _'' Infhghl resuH. This test represents a relatively quantitative method for evaluating the integrity of a number of neuromuscular mechanisms related to balance. Unfortun. Also. Both astronauts showed a small increase in their postflight versus preflight scores on this test..wOt. _ W Wa. the weightless absorption and excretion of xylose would then take place.360 cc of urine during the flight collection period and excreted 22. volume 2.t. tion to the influence of the results of this test dynamic systems other paratus. Both astronauts had demonstrated a normal response in the preflight period when compared to five contrel subjects.e. if it followed the curve of norreal xylose urinary excretion. Astronaut flight sample. Normal baseline scores on this test for Astronauts Carpenter and Glenn indicate somewhat higher performance than was found in a group of military flight personnel. therefore.o __2o _ o 'h . a xylose tolerance test was performed to measure intestinal absorption while the astranaut was weightless. In accordance with the flight plan. eyes open. it was not possible to determine the absorption of xylose during weightlessneas as was done ill the MA 6 mission.°_ . o _ fo r S. particularly In addi- fatigue and motivation. 360mi. These increments were small and within the expected range of physiological variation..o_. However. the xylose-toleranee test accomplished during the MA-7 mission differed significantly from tile same test which was successfillly accmnpIished during the MA-6 mission..Control study and beef § 40 _'30 3 -: ] _o al. This test requires the astronaut to ingest a 5. as precise nor as specific a test as is the modified caloric test. programed in-flight times for xylose ingestion and subsequent urination. Astronaut Carpenter produced 2. Through a later in-flight xylose ingestion time. Control studies on both the MA-6 and MA-7 were .) Additional specimen aboard carrier in- creased output to 25.ttely the urine collected during weightlessness from tha[ collection device.. during the period of maxinmm anticipated absorption and exeretion. Astronaut. however..m. in the MA-7 mission instead of at '23 minutes 11 seconds g.--Modified calorie test.e. folJow5 in -cj gramxyloseingestion PmuaE 5-3.water t'/ 4_ / _ _ ./ I i I I I I a 3 4 s e z . It is not.e. no nfoslmg. but estimated at 2 hours postI flight.7percent for total elat_d time of 6 hours.e.t.

.... they related that bladder sensation and function were normal. malic and lactic dehydrogenases........ 20 ° to 25 ° C ...... In the MA-6 flight........... Nevertheless.... Urea stable . urine specimens passed wlfile the subject is under the influence of gravity should be separated from those specimens voided while he is weightless...... Of these............ The dehydrogenases examined have included glutamic....... TASLE5-IX.......... pilot showed significant change in fransaminase or aldolase activity.... However....... a number of enzyme s have been evaluate variations of muscle or liver activity resulting from acceleration followed by _ weightlessness period or from the prolonged semi-immobilization of the astronaut..... percent .. No increases in acetyleholine activity have been demonstrated... alpha-ketoglutaric... Heat stable... MR4.. normal xylose absorption did occur during weightlessness.. Heat stable .....he 35 percent recovered after 5 hours ill than the preflight control study period..... nor MA_......--The authors greatly appreciate the assistance rendered by the followEnzyv_s Summa_7] JgA-7 MA-7 flight Normal values Preflight --2 days Postflight +10}{ hr 28 20 300 367 525 183 50 250 68 +45 hr 44 28 270 434 500 220 51 375 86 I Lactic acid. The normalcy of such absorption during the MA-7 flight cannot be verified.. The current urine collection device does not provide for such a separation.... These evaluations ....... 25 to 35_ 35 10 to 20 _ _ 7 100 to 310 _ 270 150 to 250 ............. (2) another speeimen was passed approximately 2.....of 25.. Tile latter specimen extends the elapsed time followlng the in-flight xylose ingestion to 6 hours and 10 minutes.............. If this test is to be used on future flights.........hours after landing while he awaited recovery.... These additional determinations may allow an evaluation of the tissue of origin... Since these were consistent findings in all previous flights. There is a remote possibility that the recovered xylose was absorbed and excreted after landing.....7 percent is significantl y less t.......... the lactic acid level was increased. Ineubated..7 percent of the xylose was excreted................ the accurate tinting of xylose ingestion and urination must be known... in the MA-6 flight........ both the MA-6 and MA-7 pilots reported no alinormal gastrointestinal symptoms during their missions..--P/xs'_aa Enzymes In studied previous to fight s... Leucylamino peptidase .. 30 ° C .. Neither the MR-3... and (3) nornml control studies of xylose absorption allowing for such large volumes of fluid intake and urinary output were not obtained prior to flight. percent .............. Lactic dehydrogenase .... mg . This decreased xylosc excretion is ditlicult to interpret because of the following circumstances:(1) the pilot is not certain when he urinated during thc mission. Phosphohexose isomerase .................... Incubated...... an effort was made in the MA-7 flight (table 5-IX) to study only those enzyme systems reflecting change..... 334 250 167 14 to 15 _ 50 165 49 52 ........ only lactic acid dehydrogenase has skown any appreciable change and this has been eonsistent in each flight....... isocitric.... Likewise... in general terms. Increases have also been noted in leucylamino peptidase activity and in phosphohexose isomerase....... Ideally...'ill be elaborated further to study heat stability of the enzyme systems and to determine tile Michaelis-Menton constants (KM) for the enzyme reactions.... The excretion of only 25. Act'nowledg_n_nts......... Urea stable..

bumln and of the Globulin Fractions in Serum.. NASA Manned Spacecraft Center.: An accurate Method for the Determination of Blood Urea Nitrogel* by Direct Nesslerization.. i The Diagnosis o! Acute Myocardial Infarction on thc Basis of Heat-Stable Lactic Dehydrogenase.S. Bibliography DOUGLAS... Sci.C. I-The Chemical Estimation in Serum of Al- Detcrmi_ation. 29':I 312. JESUS. 28. 1947..D.: Results of the MR-_ Preflight and Postflight Medical Examination Conducted on Astronaut Virgil I. Biol. o! 3-Methoxy-4-Hydroxymandelic Acid ("Vanilmandelic Acid") for the Diagnosis o/Pheoehromoeytoma. Acad. pp. Myers. pp. Glucose. GRAY.: A Bimple and Accurate Method for the Determination of Chloride in Biological Fluids. and I)AVIO. GARDAWILL. and SEA_ALOVE.. and Charles C. vol. vol.. 9-14. vol. St. 239-248.D. of Preflight and Postflight Proc. San Antonio . WILLIAM U. pp. Med.. KATItLEEN C. Biol. Schear. C. and Hans lVeil-Malherbe.D. 974---977. 1961. Ohio. Ohio.. Jr. C. and Results of Postfiight Results of the First United Space Flight. 1961. George Ruff.: Determination o! Serum Protein.D.. Jr. and MASEN. Stewart. Jour. kackland Air Force Hospital. M. Bruce Clark. 879-884. Fort Sam Houston. 206. H. 58. 1949. 1203-1207. M.. and SANTINL RAFAEL: Parenteral Admiuistra- uergic Amines of Human Blood. pp. HENRY. et al. Jour. J. M. PEREZ JOSE. B.: A Method for the tion O! D ( _.: Studies Proteins.. W. Chapter 18. CARMAULT B.) Xylose.. Chem. G.. 1941.. Manned Suborbital Space Flight. Brooke General Hospital. _Vright-Patterson Air Force Base. Lackland Air Force Hospital. U. 1956. Health. Jour. vol. pp. Tex. Walter Frajola. USAF School of Aerospace Medicine. vol... DOUGLAS. J. and BO_E. pp.. Photometric Adaptation o! pp.: Aeromedical Preparation Medical Examinations. J.. PAUL E..S.. Richard A. DOUGL. Grissom. Ar-roy's Sprue Team in Puerto Rico. Watts. Epinephrine and norepinephrine: W_'IL-MALHERBE. San Antorte. and CLAYSON. June 6.. G. J. Rink. Xylose: Manned Orbital NASA Manned C. Jr. vol..D. Clin. ENRIQUE. Eik-Nes. NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. O.D.IAM K. Calcium: DIEHL.. 937-[)43. M.: Method for Biol. CARXfAULT B. Studies of the U.: Results aminatious.. February 20. r. 1933. 83-92. 153. WILLIAM K. J.e Cc_nccntration in Plasma of Humans a_id Rats. L. Heat-stable lactic dehydrogenase: STRANDJORD.. 375-380. Sodium [mtassium by flame photometry: BERKMAN.. E. Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. and Nat. O. 34. I.: Tungstic Acid Precipitation of Blood Proteins.. Kristen B. A. et al. Jr. 1958. Nat. Clin. vol. 32. pp. MARTINEZ-DE Studies on the Oral ami SANTIAGO. S. WILI. Tropical Sprue. Clin. M.. JACKSON._S. Vanyl mandelic acid: SrNOER_IAN. Washington. D.. KEEGAN.. W. Carlton L. F. 31-36. Chem. 177. Biol. et al. Inst. Anal. protein. J. 1944. G.. on Results Medical Exof the First Urea nitrogen: GENTZK0W. Jour. 143.D.. S. San Antonio. _[INNERS. et al. Tex. Chem. F. Glucose: NELSON. Lab....S. 882-884. 5. Walter Reed Army D. Lab. and SCHALES.. and SOUTHERLAND. D. J. Manned Suborbital Space Flight. Rapp. 140. Chem. Beatrice Finklestein. S.D. JACKSON.. M.D. Biol. University of Pennsylvania. H. 962-966. J. USAF Hospital. 1957.. Chem. Clin. University of Utah. Ohio State University. C. and WOLFSON. M. Results of the Second U. YOUNG.C. 1954. albumin: COHN. M. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. 1961. M.: Indicator for Titration of Calcium in Presence of Magnesium With Disodium Dihydrogea Ethylene Diaminetetraacetate.. 1960.: The Adre- BUTTERWORTH. Medical Science Publication No... HOWARD A. vol 3. 751-766. pp. vol. Elizabeths Hospital. Jour.. pp. Chem. Chloride: SCHALES. Am.ing individuals: Paul W. pp. 1942. s by Means of the Biurct Reaction. PathoL. R. July 21. GOLUI_. pp. M. Total Medical Center. MEHAMAN. Tex. Jour. Aeromedical Laboratory. GORNALL. of Somogyi Jour Determination vol. M. Chem. and ELLrNGROE. pp. 264. M.. Washington. Conf. 531-544. Spacecraft Center. NASA. pp. 53 .. Jour. Med. Lancet. States 1962. W. W.. Evan W.: Adrenaline and Notepi_ephri. Tex. M. A. Rita M. vol. Ph.

with minimal artifact. Because of erratic amplifier behavior. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE ASTRONAUT By ERNZST P. erospace Medical Operations Office. CUddLESA. Preflight. ations and bioinstrumentation are contained in this pax_ of the Aeromedical Studies paper. Data were obtained from clinical examinations. was positioned in his contour couch in t_he semisupine position and secured by shoulder and lap harnesses. where the astronaut waited 19 minutes until it was time to ascend the gantry. An aberrant ECG tracing was recorded during reentry and is believed to have resulted from the increased respiratory effort associated with continued speech during maximum acceleraxion. Cecil Field. Solid foods can be successfully consumed incrumbling. Aerospace Medical OperationsOffice. NASA Manned Spacecra[t Center. M. BEadY. NASA Manned Spacecra/t Center. No disturbing body sensations were reported as a result of weightless flight.s. in relation to the spacecraft. i.s. and an artificial environment. Aerospace Medical Operations Office. Chie/. there are many specific differences. flight. precautions must betaken to prevent The biosensors provided useful ECG data. re- . NASA Manned Spacecralt Center. Naval Air Station.. Although the general objectives for each flight are similar.. Astrohaut C_rpenter felt that all body functions were nm'nmi. Florida. NASA Manned Spacecra/t Center Summary Tile MA -7 the mission providedof an appreciable extension to observation man 's physiological responses to space fight. The stresses of space flight appeared to have been well tolerated. M. The respiration rate sensor providedgoodprelaunch but minimal in-flight coverage. The data and analysis from subjective in-flight obsem. Introduction The tin'ce-pass nfission of Astronaut M. the heart-rate response to nominal exercise demonstrated a reactive cardiovascular system. the discussion in paper 1 regarding the environmental control system complements the following analysis.m. All flight responses are considered to be within acceptable physiologicM ranges. RasP. The astronaut.e. The transfer van arrived at the launch pad at 4:11 a. Since the pilot's physiological responses cannot be completely separated from his environment.. the in-flight blood pressure cannot be interpreted. in-flight. 54 weightless transition periods. M. and subjective inflight observations.e. and postflight comparisons for a particular individual can be made in some detail. exit and reentry accelerations. Specifically. G. Insertion into the spacecraft occurred at 4:44 a. wearing the Mercury full-pressure suit. At the present time.2-hour increment to the time that man_s responses to orbital flight have been observed as a part of Project Mercury. the rectM temperature thermister gave invalid values for approximately one-third of the flight.m. Li/e Systems Division. but.e. There were a number of aeromedical objectives continued from the MA-0 flight ineluding additional study of nmn's physiological ·and psychological ¥ responses to space flight.D. McCuTc_EoN. and Romz HACKWOaTH A .B.. U. Projections of the flight responses of a new astronaut must include considerations of this importaut variable. and physiological monitoring began. Jacksonville.D.t. weightlessness.t. bioinstrumentation. RITa M. Scott Carpenter has added a sex:ond 41/. One of the most important medical vttriables from flight to flight is the normal physiological differences between pilots.. His position.S. but only general comparisons with results from previous flights with other subjects are possible. FREDKELLY. Mission The astronaut's activities during the countdown have been discussed in section A of this paper.D.

3 cycles of the BPMS demonstrated intermittent contact in the microphone cable. The second phase occurred at the time interval from 130 to 181 seconds which is from BECO to sustainer engine cutoff (SECO). which results in the astronaut's being exposed to acceleration transversely. 68 minutes prior to launch. All sensors operated normally during the countdown except the BPMS. Flight data included the range medical monitor reports.e. For both launch and reentry. but later cycles near lift-off were normal.5g. Recent data for establishing baseline responses were obtained .s. In this phase the accelerations varied smoothly from 1. The period of weightlessness began at 5 minutes and 10 seconds after launch and lasted for 4 hours and 39 minutes. 4 hours and 56 minutes after launch. A summary of bloodpressure data is presented in table 5-X. Monitoring and Data Sources manned flights. The first phase occurred in the first 129 seconds from lift-off to booster engine cutoff (BECO) and varied progressively from lg to 6. Twenty-four blood-pressure cycles were obtained in flight. the spacecraft is oriented such that the contoured couch is in a plane 90 ° from the direction of acceleration. At the present time these records cannot be interpreted. The spacecraft cabin and suit environments were maintained at nearly 100-percent oxygen throughout the flight until the air inlet and outflow valves were opened after reentry. and voice transmissions. The astronaut's total time in the spacecraft while on the launch pad was 3 hours and i minute. conducted in September 1961. They remained essentially constant until the pressure relief valve opened at an altirude of 27. the spacecraft was launched at approximately 7:45 a. ECG i (axillary) and ECG 2 (sternal).) Data from the Mercury-Atlas three-orbit Centrifuge simu-. The buildup from lg and return to lg occurred over a period of 3 minutes and 30 seconds. 55 Physiological data for the MA-7 mission were acquired by utilizing methods and sources similar to those used in previous Mercury . pilot's reports of special tests performed. The pilot-observer camera film and the postfiight debriefing were additional data sources. and the astronaut performed frequent deep-breathing and muscle-tensing exercises. and the blood-pressure measuring system (BPMS).8g at 181 seconds. biosensor data.e. The biosensor data were recorded continuously from 6 minutes before lift-off until bioplug disconnect at 3 minutes prior to landing. Opening these valves permits the introduction of ambient air. The astronaut's voice was recorded from 6 minutes before lift-off until landing. a respiration-rate thermistor. a rectal temperature thermistor. During the flight. Bioinstrumentation The biosensor system consists of two sets of electrocardiographic leads.t.s.mained stationary throughout the flight. . The accelerations of powered flight occurred in two phases.3g at 130 seconds to 7.from Astronaut Carpenter's simulated launch for the MA-6 mission and from launch-pad simulated flights in the last weeks before the MA-7 launch. provide a dynamic experience to compare with the flight data. and the flight proceeded as planned.1 psia. After a 45-minute hold. During this period. Spacecraft cabin and suit pressures were at ambient levels until launch and then declined to the nominal regulated pressure of 5. Some 34 minutes prior to lift-off. The spacecraft landed on the water at 12:41 p. The only change from MA-6 fight was the replacement of the manual BPMS with a semiautomatic system as discussed in paper 1.000 feet. The BPMS and procedures in its use are being extensively investigated in an effort to obtain accurate inflight blood pressure values.m. or through the back. The respiration rate sensor provided useful preflight information but in-flight coverage was minimal.5g.m..Figure 54 shows a blood-pressure trace from the blockhouse record at 5:52 a. Reentry acceleration began 4 hours and 44 minutes after launch and increased gradually to a value of 7. body movements and profuse perspiration caused a large number of ECG artifacts_ but the record was interpretable throughout the mission. lation.e.s.t. spacecraft preparation and final preflight checks were completed.m. (See refs.t. which occurred at 4 hours and 48 minutes ground elapsed time. 1 to 3.

mm Hg Mean pulse pressure. _ _ -: ·7_-_ -_-r- _-_f_:_:_-_ _-_:d _: . Launch-pad tests .. mm Hg Prefiightphysicalexams_ 3-orbit Mercury-Atlas centrifuge simulation. -__...--Bioins_rumentation Speed of the from tape-recorder blockhouse was records 10 nnn/sec (T-68 minutes). 18 30 45 13 106 3 119/73 130/83 127/64 116/63 125/71 115/76 14 22 31 18 24 2 15 15 18 12 14 9 98 to 128 104 to 155 101 to 149 105 to 139 98 to 155 114 to 116 58 to 84 72 to 106 44 to 84 56 to 70 44 to 106 70 to 80 46 47 63 53 54 39 physical 56 .... _¢_T¥''F- ........_"_-i_-... TABLE 5--X... mm Hg Systolic range. Preflight Postflight exams.. mm Hg Diastolic range._ : Diastole Systole lviOmmE 5--4. totals .: _ ECG 2 and blood pressure _... MA-7 countdown ... Diastolic 2_ Data Data source Number of values Mean blood pressure..... .. Sttm_J of Blood-Pressure Standard Systolic deviation.

..... 0340 I .ml1. F_eURE 5-5...sc 50 "::1111 {. \ 60 4C ................. 02:00 i .. J = lOC o _ § _ o .... 57 . I 04:40 ihhl(.......... 11{11 ...11111 1 : [... .. .9O _ g_ 70 60 50 -I05 Flighl Cemrifuge blood pressure Centrifuge _ i.20 ..... 01:00 01:20 lm 0t40 ......... _ii m 97 o E c E 25 -''?=' "'L _ E'_. nr mm 03.. 99 ......... _.. . _o __s_ E ° _ o§ _o _ o '_ _.... 2_ 210 19C _ rotc g ...t _o 05 O0 oo_.--B_otnstrumentat/on in flight........_ 0 (F I 0020 00:40 I i m _I ..1 il 02:20 02:40 03:00 Elapsed lime..... 0400 04 20 ...i ....e '_ ..:_ -ii:f-i--ili_=?_?ii_ki=.....

. MA-6. Flight Responses Test Monitoring Duration. Apr. MA-7...... certain preflight activities were monitored by the medical personnel.unches of January 17... 15. 1962. 1962.. The respirafion rate varied from 58 summary of the in-flight physiological data is presented in table 5-XlI. These are normal physiological variatiolts.. approximately one-third of the flight... Preflight In order to obtain pertinent physiological baseline data on Astronaut Carpenter.....The instability of the body temperature readout is believed to have been the result of erratic behavior of the amplifier from 59 minutes to 2Y2hours after launch...--La_oh-P¢... These values were essentially the same as those observed during the MA-7 countdown and are all within all accepted physiological range.. 30.. Total .......and May 10.............. All observed heart rates are well within accepted ranges... Simulated flight 3......6° F during flight is physiologically acceptable and is believed to have resulted in part from an increased suit inlet temperature. The heart rate during the weightless period remained relatively stable with a mean of 70 beats/minute... 4:00 3:15 4:50 May 24.... 196'2.. associated with maximum acceleration.. with a mean of 135/6'2. The minute-long counts were continued until orbital insertion. occasional premature atrial contractions (PAC).. The pilot-observer camera film.. 17.. respiration rate. which occurred at the time of maximum spacecraft oscillation. MA-7.. This erratic period is shown as a shaded area in figure 5-5... as a result of postlanding immersion in sea water.. The ECG was normal... body temperature. beats/minute was found at drogue parachute deployment...... During approximately 50 minutes in the transfer van on launch day. Respiration rate varied from 8 to 20 breaths/minute with a mean of 14... Heart and respiration rates were determined by counting for 80 seconds every 3 minutes until 10 minutes prior to lift-off... The pilot's in-flight statement that he was comfortable and could not believe the telemetered body temperature readings of 102° F was helpful in the determination of the significance of these readings..... The mean rate during reentry was 84..... Examination of the ECG wave form from all preflight data revealed sinus arrhythmia...d Event 8 ro 32 breaths/minute with a mean of 16 breaths/minute.... A mild trend of gradually increasing body temperaA .... Other physiological values were not obtained.. Simulated flight 2. and suit-inlet temperature recorded during the MA-7 countdown. MA-7.. and rare premature ventricular contractions (PVC). showed a systolic range of 101 to 149 and a diastolic range of 44 to 84. hr: min Simulated launch. 5:12 1962. During the simulated la. The values for the same physiological functions from the astronaut's MA-6 and MA-7 simulated launches are also shown and the occurrence of significant events is indicated.. The maximum heart rate observed during launch was 96 beats/minute... the heart rate varied from 48 to 78 beats/minute with a mean of 57 beats/minute.. The maximum heart rate of 104........ recorded in millimeters of mercury. 1962. Simulated launch. blood pressure. MA-7.. Table 5--XI lists these activities and their duration...... TABL_ 5-XI.. The values in question are shown as a shaded area in figure 5-5 but are not included in table 5-XII......... The blood-pressure -flues. beats/minute....... the astronaut's heart rate varied from 56 to 70 beats/minutes with a mean of 65. was of poor technical quality and limited usefulness. Jan... 1962 . May May 10.. The increase from 84 to 96 beats/minute occurred within the first 30 seconds of flight and was not............. therefore..... 1962. at which time 30-second-duration counts were made each minute. This increase in the astronaut's body temperature from 98° to 100. 3:01 20:18 Figure 5-6 depicts the heart rate. The values at all other times are considered valid. Launch countdown..

. O O O O A simulated mission blood pressure flight blood pressure simulated mission blood pressure mission IO3 MA-6 simulated MA~7 flighl MA-7 I01 99 97 simulated mission N_. _./'.-OE §--. O O = E * _' OD A -. 07:20 07:40 -I0 0 OB O0 5-6.40 -75 06:00 06:_0 06_40 a.--Bioins_rument_t/on _ o--_ _ 59 . 0 Z_ g_ . hrs.o 40 _0 0 o_ ° _ _._ 'aZ _ ¢ g E --_ 04:40 T-135 05. MA-6 MA-7 MA-7 O _ /'. .m est.5- _! Q: 25 5 150 / _E.o 70 5O I00 I '. rain in countdown 07:00 --II and launch._ _e 70 50 .00 05:_0 -87 FZG_RE 05.mln -33 --2P T-time.

there was no tumbling sensation. These variations included premature atrial contractions with aberrant QRS complexes. The respiration sensor did not provide useful information during most of the flight. and short runs of four and five nodal beats. At this time.TABLE 5-XII.5 96..5 84 i 72 to 104 in the height of the ECG · Values were obtained and are approximate ture has been observed in previous manned flights.vas surprised to find that the equipment kit had also rotated to this position and was very accessible. 2 98 98 to 100. A sample of the nodal beats obtained during reentry is shown in fi_lre 5-7.6 100. rather than that of traveling in an opposite direction from flight as was reported in the MA-6 flight. °F Range Range Number of values 128 57 4 60 15 only.t.vas always oriented with respeet to the spacecraft. He described the weightless state as % blessing--nothing more.vas entirely normal. The Mercury full-pressure suit . Respiration Rate. but at times lost orientatiou with respect to the earth. 8 98 99. 3 97. . The only illusory phenomenon occurred just after orbital attitude was attained and involved the position of the special equipment storage kit. the sensation was one of having stopped. nothing less. 21 seconds prior to maxinmm reentry acceleration. There was no tendency to overshoot or underreaeh control switches on the spacecraft instrument panel. Astrohaut Carpenter made a special effort to continue talking.--Sumn_ary of Heart Rate. 6O tile approximation with the eyes closed was the same as that on the ground. The pilot reported that there were no pressure points and that mobility was good. 2 to 100. The astronaut .vas in a seated position relatire to the earth's surface. The remainder of the record . Examination of the ECG wave form recorded during tile flight showod an entirely normal record except for the following variations: There was a single premature atrial contraction (PAC) 13 seconds after SECO. trot this was never of immediate concern to the astronaut. During the acceleration-weightlessness transition phase. 9 100. 4 98. beats/minute Data sources Number Mean of values All prcfiight data_ Countdown _ _ Flight: Launch ." He compared the weightless state to that of being submerged in water. The pilot was impressed by the silence after separation and adapted quickly to the new ehvironment.e.. and Body Temperature Data Heart rate. breaths/minute Number Mean of values 354 75 5 ' 83 ' 9 R-wave Body temperature. the p_lot had rotated from the horizontal to the vertical and . Mean Range 57 62 87 70 42 to 84 50 to 84 82 to 96 60 to 94 15 15 16 14 19 5 to 32 6 to 26 10 to 20 10 to 18 16 to 24 99. The increased respiratory effort assoeiated with continued speech during increasiug acceleratiml is believed to have produced these changes. He . Approximate respiratory rates per minute were estimated by using variation in the height of the ECG R-wave and were within normal ranges. it was difficult to distinguish up and down positions. atrial fusion beats. After the retrorockets ignited. When the horizon was not in view. a 43-second period contained a number of cardiac pattern variations. 8 to 98.vas comfortable in the weightless state. At 04:48:19 g. During the l)eriod of maximum reentry acceleration.3 to 101.. Tac- Astronaut Carpenter stated was not physically stressful. A second PAC occurred 1 minute and 15 seconds before retrofire.. Observations that the flight He was subjec- tively hot and perspiring during the second orbital pass and the first half of the third pass but was never extremely uncomfortable. These irregularities did not compromise the pilot's Suhjeetlve performance. followed by a beat showing suppression of the sinus pacemaker. Orbital_ __ I Reentry_ _ _ 408 92 7 94 15 i from the variation Respiration rate.

Astronaut Carpenter consumed solid food. chewing and swallowing of both solids and liquids were normal. Once in the mouth. A total of 1.t. Vision was normal throughout the flight. Since the crumbling was reported when he first attempted to eat. the food continued to crumble during flight. An estimated 60 percent wats consumed itl flight and the remainder after hmding. The solid food was in the fornt of bite size. The special coating having been broken. earlier scheduled exercises were omitted. inches was used. Because of the overheated condition of the pilot.I ECG ?---- J ECG I--. it is believed that the foal was inadvertently crushed during final spacecraft preparation on the launch pad.213 ec of water was consmned from the mission water supply. The pilot stated that the floating particles within the spacecraft were a potential inhalation hazard. Distances were estimated by the relative size of objects. Calibrated exercise was performed without difficulty at 03:59:99 g. water. Fmuaz _'_7. aA-inch cubes with a special coating? packed loosely in a plastic bag and stored in the equipment kit. Use of this device for a 61 . NO disturbing sensory inputs were reported during weightless flight. and colors and brightness of objects were clear and easily discernible. During flight. Somatic sensations were normal and no gastrointestinal symptoms were apparent. Taste and smell were also normal. the cierated cabin temperature caused the candy to melt. and a xylose tablet without difficulty. Finally. He reported the only difficulty was in getting the crumbled food particles to his mouth.e. There was no detectable change in hearing. A hand-held bungee cord with a 16-pound pull through a distance of _.--Onboard physiological reentry data. Violeut head maneuvets within the limited mobility of the helmet were performed several times in eve W direction without symptoms of disorientation or vertigo. 'I I ECG2_-.

Results of the Second U. NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. Grissom. DOUGLAS. Autokinesis was not produced but the tests were inconclusive.: Aeromedical Preparation and cal Examinations. JACKSON.S..: Results of the MR-4 Preftight an_ Postflight Conducted on Astronaut Virgil I. 3. 2. Proc.. WXLLIAM K.M K. nations. Health. 1961. 83-92.: Results of Preflight and Postf_ight Medical Examion Results of the First U. pp. Inst.. Manned Suborbital Space Flight. NASA. DOUGLAS. pp. DOUGLAS. HOWARD A.. JR.. Results of the First United States Manned Orbital Space NASA Manned Spacecraft Center.S.. et al... Acad. Manned SubJuly 21. References 1. 62 . JR. 9-14. CARMAULT B. %V_zJ*. 1962. 31-36. oS Post/light MediFebruary 20. MINNESS. and Nat. 1961. JACKSO_W. Nat. Attempts to produce autokinesis (illusion of vision due to involuntary eye muscle movements) were made on two occasions.. June 6.short period caused an increase of 12 beats per minute in heart rate with return to previous values within I minute. Results Flight. WILLIAM K. Sci.ULT B.. CABM. pp. et al. The heart-rate response to this nominal exercise demonstrated a reactive cardiovascular system. Medical Examination orbital Space Flight. Conf. et al.

... This plan defined the mission activities and established the sequence in which these activities were to be attempted. The pilot has demonstrated his ability to operate scientific apparatus successfully in a space environment and to obtain useful data for the anMysis of scientific problems associated with a terrestrial space environment. such as scientific experiments and observations..6.. NASA Manned Spacecra[t Center..Flight Crew Operations Division. 4.. however. Introduction and monitor systems operations and. Flight Crew Operations Division.... Preflight Performance A flight plan was formulated for the MA-7 The pilot's primary role during {he MA-7 mission. NASA Manned Spacecra/t Center. his preflight activities were similar to those accomplished by the MA-0 pilot as shown in table 6-1.. JOHN J. In general. The purpose of this paper will be to discuss the pilot's performance in accomplishing the primary mission objectives. In preparation for the flight. was to report TABLE 6-I.. however. and 7 of this report... the pilot participated in extensive preflight checkout activities and training sessions. have served to empbasize that tbe primary attention of the pilot.. Crew Operations Division. The pilot's secondary responsibility during both of these missions was to conduct scientific experiments and to make observations that would further evaluate the spacecraft systems' performance. the pilot can orient the spacecraft to a given attitude by using external reference provided sufficient time is available for determining yaw alinement. and HAROLD I. the MA-7 pilot generally did acquire more time on the trainers and in the spacecraft than did the Training Summary Mercury procedures trainers Time spent on spacecraft systems checks hr: rain Flight Time hr: min Number of simulated failures Number of simulated missions Number of simulated control maneuvers MA-6 MA-7 (Glenn) .--Pilot ALFA and flight to guide pilot in carrying operational and the experimental objectives out of the the mission.. since many of these ate discussed in papers 1. The results of the MA-7 flight provide additional evidence that man is ready for a more extended mission in a weightless environment.. NASA Manned Spacecra/t Center Summary The results of the MA-7 orbital flight further indicate that man can function effectively in a space environment for periods up to 41/2 hours. . Flight difficulties occurring during this mission. PILOT PERFORMANCE By HELMUTA. In general. 59:45 70:45 189 143 70 73 162 255 25:55 45:00 (Carpenter) 63 . light Crew Operations Division. VAN BOCKZLF . to take corrective action in order to achieve the mission objectives. should be devoted to management of spacecraft systems and detailed attention to operational functions. Wnmta_ O. AaMSTaOr_CFlight . Only a few of the pilot's secondary tasks.. JOHNSON. as in the MA-6 mission.. NASA Manned Spacecra/t Center.. are discussed here.. if necessary. As with the MA-6 flight the results of this flight provide evidence that the man can serve as a backup to the automatic spacecraft systems.... KUEHr_EL.

The gyros were caged during much of the flight. the MA-7 pilot participated in several launch abort and network simulations during which the mission rules and the flight plan were rehearsed and discussed. Control Tasks Several control tasks and in-flight maneuvers were programed for the MA-7 flight to obtain information on orientation problems in space and the ability of the pilot to perform attitude control tasks. With these limitations in mind. he spent approximately 80 hours in the MA-6 spacecraft during its checkout period at the launch site. in the Langley ties. It should be pointed out that this table summarizes only the pilots' specific preparation for their particular flight and does not include general training accomplished since their selection as astronauts. . drifting flight. The pitch horizon scanner circuit appeared to have malfunctioned. This period of familiarization provided him with an opportunity to increase his knowledge of the spacecraft systems and gave him a good background for his own MA-7 mission preparation activi- : Fm_z 6-2. It should be pointed out. The training activities. The spacecraft attitudes exceeded the viewing limits of the horizon scanners on a number of occasions. it should be recognized that limitations in the Mercury procedures trainer precluded practice of certain activities. Turnaround Maneuver MA-6 pilot. _. maneuvering. It should be noted that Astronaut Carpenter had an opportunity to hecome familiar with the spacecraft and launch-vehicle operations during his period as backup pilot for the MA-6 flight.xlures established prior to the mission. (See fig. in addition to the experience indicated in table 6-1.--Astronaut Carpenter procedures trainer. 6-9. that the pilot's performance could not be quantitatively analyzed because: 1.. These control tasks included tm'naround. included a large number of attitude control maneuvers and simulated system failures. and retrofire. the attitude control tasks are discussed in the following paragraphs. 4. The pilot was also thoroughly rehearsed on egress and recovery procedures.l_xo_Rr _'_-l. 3.) In addition to the above-mentioned training activities. 6-1) and Cape Canaveral procedures trainer and the air-lubricated free-attitude (ALFA) trainer. These trainers have been described in references 1 and 2. which were conducted in the Langley (see fig.--Astronaut Carpenter practicing egress procedures. 64 The primary purpose in scheduling a manual turnaround after spacecraft separation was to conserve reaction control system fuel. The pilot deviated somewhat from planned proc_. such as controlling attitude by using external references. Although the training as described above was extensive. Thus. tracking.

the pilot was required to perform a correction in pitch which was considerably larger than plalmed... provided evidence that spacecraft orientation about the pitch and roll axes could be aecomplished manually on the dark side of the earth without moonlight by using the airglow layer as a horizon reference.... as shown in figure 6-3...oo 7s >. FIGUaE mLn 6-3.. The pitch attitude indication initially varied from tlmt of the trainer because of thc malfunction in the pitch horizon scanner circuit descril)ed in paper 1. _ ... The pilot readily sighted the sustainer stage through ... He continued to observe and photograph the sustainer for 81/2 minutes at which time the sustainer stage was calculated to be at a range of 3 miles behind and below the spacecraft.. the MA-7 flight. Although no precision 6. Use of External Reference for Maneuvering This flight has further shown that manual control of spacecraft attitudes through the use of external references can be adequately accomplished under daylight and moonlit night conditions.5 o ] -__ -_. it should be noted that an insertion "go" condition had been received from ground control during the before turnaround..... Furthermore.'as a_hieved shortly after separation from the launch vehicle........ Therefore..... particularly as external lighting diminishes...200 175 150 . The shaded area of figure 6-3 displays the pilot's performance during turnaround training sessions_ and the uncorrected gyro attitudes indicated during the actual flight maneuver ate represented by the solid curves. ._ 0 -50 Orbit "_o" I . Sumcient data were not obtained to permit. ? i s the spacecraft window after completion of spacecraft turnaround at a calculated distance of approximately 300 yards. and as figure 6-3 shows.... The pilot used only 1.. The purpose of tracking the sustainer stage was to investigate the ability of the pilot to observe an object in space and to determine his capability to perform pursuit tracking of an object in a slightly different trajectory. However. The flight maneuver was performed in yaw approximately as planned. -2 -10 __J k... the pilot stated that he believed precision tracking would not be a difficult task while using the low thrusters for control... During this period_ the pilot noted a very slow tumbling motion of the sustainer and also observed small crystalline particles emanating from the sustainer nozzle. Desired retroattitude tion in approximately the same time exhibited _ _ __lnflight__ Trainer runs ' during training exercises... . Manual control of the spacecraft yaw attitude using external references has proven to be more difficult and time consuming than pitch and roll alinement. he accomplished this correc- .so z5 o .zs ______ -25 2 0 lo _.. However.. Although indicated roll attitude deviated to a greater extent during the in-flight turnaround maneuver than in training sessions. Then the pilot allowed the spacecraft attitude to diverge for a as planned at retroattitude.. _.6 pounds of control fuel for the MA-7 turnaround_ whereas past flight experience has shown that the automatic control system employs over 4 pounds of control fuel for this maneuver._. the pilot successfully brought roll attitude to zero by the end of the maneuver.. and the correct spacecraft orientation . e Time.. f'X Sustainer Stage Tracking a_ -m -20 -30 -4o lo .--Turnaround maneuver. a quantitative analysis of the pilot's tracking capability... and considerable period of time stabilizing it was not essential for the pilot to hold orbit attitude. .

the spacecraft overshot the intended landing point by approximately 250 miles. I)riftingFlight During the final portion of the MA-7 flight.5 degree/second or less were generally typical of this period when the spacecraft was allowed to drift eompletely free of all control 4nputs. the pilot reported that the only satisfactory yaw reference was a known star complex near the orbital plane. 1 hour and 6 minutes of which was continuous during the third orbital pass. However. The pilot then engaged his automatic control system and almost immediately reported a discrepancy between the instruments and the external window references. Because of the horizon scanner malfunction the pilot cross referenced between the gyro indications and the external references for attitude information during the firing of the retroroekets. In an effort to explain the major cause of the overshoot error. the spacecraft attMned excessive pitch-down attitude. Retrofire occurred 3 to 4 seconds late which accounted for approximately 15 to 20 miles of the total overshoot error. the maifunction of the pitch horizon scanner circuit dictated that the pilot manually control the spacecraft attitudes during this event. indicating that attitude rates were near zero. However. the pilot inadvertently used double authority control. then. The pilot also reported that drifting flight was not disturbing and that he was not concerned when external references were temporarily unavailable.maneuvers were accomplished on the flight which could be quantitatively analyzed. in addition to conserving fuel.. It would appear. It was during this period that gyro outputs indicated a significant excursion in yaw attitude. Figure 64 presents the gyro output attitude indications as well as the desired attitudes to be held during retrofire. therefore. affords a period when the pilot can be relatively free to aceomplish many useful activities and experiments without devoting attention to spacecraft orientation. and rechecked his manual control systems in preparation for this event. At 30 seconds before retrofire. In the absence of moonlight. While the pilot was making this oheck.5 degree/second during this partieular period. At approximately 11 minutes prior to retrofire. As a result of switel_dng to the FBW mode without cutting off the MP mode. a terrestrial reference at night was useful in controlling yaw attitudes only when sufficiently illuminated by moonlight. The pilot commented that on one occasion during drifting flight. This event followed by photographing of these particles delayed his completing the stowage of the onboard equipment as well as the accomplishment of the preretrosequence eheeklist. Except for the late ignition of the retrorockets. In the 5 minutes prior to retrosequenee (T-30 see). the pilot observed a possible source of the luminous particles previously reported by Astronaut Glenn during the MA-6 mission. 66 The pilot backed up the automatic retrofire system by pushing the manual retrofire button when the event did not occur at the commanded time. the pilot reported that he believed the maneuver had proceeded without serious misMinement of the spacecraft attitude. he observed the moon for a significantly long period in or near the center of the window. the pilot did confirm that ground terrain drift provided the best daylight reference in yaw. the pilot quickly switched from ASCS to FBW modes and repositioned the spacecraft_to retrofie attitude using his earth-through-window referenee. Because of the horizon scanner malfunction. a review of the events just prior to and during the retrofire is presented. he attempted to analyze the automatic control system problem. At approximately 6 minutes prior to retrofire the pilot enabled the manual proportional (MP) control system as a backup to the autom_tic stabilization and control system (ASCS). that drifting flight. as specified for an automatic retrofire maneuver. the pilot again checked his ASCS orientation mode upon ground request. however. Rates of 0. Retrofire Maneuver It was intended to have the automatic control system maintain spacecraft attitude during the firing of the retroroeket. the gyro indications do . Data showed that spacecraft attitude rates were less than 0. The spacecraft drifted for a total of 1 hour and 17 minutes during the mission. the spacecraft was allowed to drift free to eonserve fuel and to evaluate the behavior of the astronaut and vehicle during drifting flight.

Thus the deviation in pitch attitude shown in this figure did not contribute to the overshoot error in landing.... The fact that the fuel usage rate was greater than expected was an area of major concern during this flight. thereby providing evian ability to can orient theasvehicle so to as malfuncto effect deuc e that he serve a backup tioning automatic systems of the spacecraft.... Not corrected.udes [ .mia:sec gyros free. The extensive review of this maneuver further serves to illustrate the desirability of assigning priority to flight requirements so that sulticient time will be available to perform the more critical operational activities.. Radar tracking data have shown that the spacecraft had an average yaw error of 27° during retrofire. The balloon was tethered to the spacecraft by means of a 100-foot braided nylon line.In review s the pilot...ae. · .. It should be noted.. However.... . Some deviations are also shown in spacecraft roll attitude during retrofire.. 0_s.oo..... 04:33.. Thus..d_¢o.I -as 4o -_5 . however.. 04:_3_40 04:33:Z0 FiovRz 0-4.i. by manually controlling the spacecraft during retrofire. a systems modification has been incorporated on future spacecraft to preclude recurrence of high thruster usage for manual maneuvering in orbit. the pilot also assumed a donfinant role in accomplishing a number of in-flight experiments.10 ..... and frequent el_gagement of the automatic system orientation control mode which generally uses high thrusters to reorient the spacecraft to orbit attitude.......... As pointed out in paper 1.. not necessarily represent the true spacecraft attitudes particularly.t the pilot should observe balloon motions and the various color patterns on the balloon to determine which appeared best suited for visual detection in space... One of these experiments consisted of deploying a multicolored inflatable balloon from the spacecraft while in orbit.... Scientific Experiments In addition to controlling the spacecraft and monitoring systems operations during the flight...i. 6-4).. Fuel Management 30 20 0 .. they do illustrate the trends in attitude as a function of elapsed time during retrofire. 04:33:50 Time.--Indicated spacecraft attitudes during retrofire................ the error in landing position resulted primarily from a misalinement in spacecraft yaw attitude (indicated in fig........ This primarily resulted from the extensive use of high thruster control for orbit maneuvering....ea gy...d 0.. these are the indicated attitudes displayed to the pilot. as well as simplified attitude maneuvering requirements and reduced control mode switching should also help reduce excessive fuel consumption for future Mercury flights..... It was intended tha. / -_o 3o __ 2o _o o .. a successful reentry. demonstrated _-_ -_5 _-20 Retrofire period .. Drag measurements were al_o to be taken at periodic intervals throughout the flight. that the error in yaw was essentially corrected by the end of the retrofire event.. .... however. however....hr. Further training emphasizing a more strict adherence to optimal operation of the control system. roll errors of this magnitude have a negligible effect on landing point dispersion...... [ _. inadvertent actuation of two control systems simultaneously. 67 _ _.... Radar tracking data have indicated that the mean spacecraft pitch attitude during the retrrofire period was essentially correct.

compromised by failure of the balloon to inflate fully. r)ONALO K. of the First U. the definition in the red is variable due partly to the distorting effect of the clouds. rxo_z 6-5.The balloon was deployed as programed.. 1961. 53-80... Manned NASA... ROBERT B.--R_resentative photograph of horizon definition.. VOAS. Health. '20 have yielded good data and 6 are questionable. The pilot was readily able to observe the balloon and attachment line as well as the balsa inserts used to hold the package prior to deployment. however. and NaL Aead.vas probably a result of large attitude maneuvers of the spacecraft and unsteady aerodynamic loading because of the irregular balloon shape. The random motion of the balloon noted by the pilot . Proc. The densitometer analysis has indicated that the earth's limb definition in the blue is very regular and this can be seen from the sample photograph. and Preflight Nat. at the present results are still incomplete. 2.: Manual _ontrol o_ the Mercury Spacecraft. Conf. however.S... 68 . Figure 6-5 is an example of one of the photographs taken during this experiment. SLAYTON.. Preparation. References l.. of course. on Results 1962. is hoped that a complete analysis of these results will yield information on the height of the earth's limb. Another experiment was conducted which was intended to define the earth's limb by photographing the daylight horizon with a blue and red split filter over the fihn plane. Inst.: Suborbital Pilot Spa(_ Traiui_*g Flight.. Of the _0 fi'ames analyzed. The pilot was able to maintain visual balloon contact throughout the orbital daylight phases and on several occasions at night. Sci. Effective evaluation of the colors and meaningful measurements of the balloon drag were.. The pilot noted that both the orange and aluminum segments were visible and photographs confirmed this report. pp. q'he pilot was also able to discern the ii-regular shape assumed by the balloon when it failed to inflate properly. June March 6. The pilot was able to maneuver the spacecraft into the correct attitude during the proper phase of the daylight pass and to expose a number of frames of film for mierodensitometer evaluation by ·. scientists of MIT. It. Astronautics.

was no longer a light blue. as the backup pilot. It was rotating slowly. and experiences. landing. I believe I could have gone at twice as long. heading straight for the horizon. Lift-off was unmistakable. I didnot hear the clatter that John Glenn had reported. then I began to feel the vibration. When the ignition signal was given. The noise and vibration increased so little durlng maximum dynamic pressure that it would not be noticed unless you were looking for it. I had expected to feel the launch vehicle shake.7. including a scientific analysis of some of my flight observations. The countdown went perfectly until the 45-minute weather hold. I shall attempt to give a narrative account of my impressions during the flight. the vernier engines light off. I will repota my observations. most of which was spent at Cape Canaveral. and secured new information on both phenomena. theleast launch vehicle was much more dorman t than I had expected it to be. As in the MA-6 mission. Out the window. In the discussion which follows. Two very definite noise cues could be heard: one was the decrease in noise level that accompanied the drop in acceleration. Prior to and during powered flight. the other was associated with staging. but it. The length of the prelaunch period was not _[problem.'as consumed in preparing me for the orbital flight. Astronaut Carpenter also observed the space particles and the bright horizon band. Three seconds later. The couch was comfortable. sensatious. staging occurred. everything became quiet. but I did not. the astronaut quickly adapted to weightless flight and remarked that it was more comfortablt and provided greater mobility than under normal gravity. I do not recall hearing the lox venting. with smoke still trailing 69 An account of the major events and personal observations of the MA-7 flight is _eviewed by the pilot. some machinery start. previously reported by Astronaut Jotm H. In this presentation. Once I felt the engines gimbaling. The booster engine cutoff (BECO) was very gentle. Glenn. and it was gone in a second. There was a little bit of shaking... and I had no pressure points. I felt a bigger jolt than at staging. Jr. SCOTT CARPENTER. My activities during this period were very simihtr to those which I. Nothing happened until main engine ignition. and egress. Introduction The previous papers in this report have considered the engineering and operational aspects of the MA-7 mission. PILOT'S FLIGHT Astronaut. including retrosequence. . are covered in detail. The final phases of the flight. except for a minor . The experience gained as the backup pilot to John Glenn was valuable practice for my own preparation period prior to the MA-7 flight. It was not black. At T-10 minutes it was picked up again and procceded perfectly once more until lift-off. or to hear the lox valve make some noise. Summary N/IS/I Manned Spacecraft Center problem with the tiedown of the visor seal bottle hose to the helmet. There was no mistaking staging. the tower could be seen way off in the distance. Throughout this period. Durlng the pretaunch period I had no problems. Launch Phase Insertion into the spacecraft was aecomplished without incident. reentry. the sky changed in brightness rather suddenly. REPORT By M. described in a paper on Astronaut Preparation for the MA-6 report. About a minute and a half after lift-off. launch-vellicle noise and vibration were less than expected. At tower jettison. A period of more than 2 months. At staging there was a change in the light outside the window and I saw a wisp of smoke.

but aside from vision. They seemed to extend for two or three times the length of the lannch vehicle. Drifting flight was effortless and created no problems. a great freedom. Unusual Flight Attitudes Flight Phase F]igh! Observations I began the turnaround and wondered why I felt nothing. I could reach anything I needed. I would get the impression that it was oriented vertically. Later. Orbital General and the view through the window and periscope. tumbling slowly. I always knew where the controls and other objects within the cabin were relative to myself.90°. Movement in the pressure suit was easier and the couch was more comfortable. After looking out the window for some time. because it had such a wide field of view. and I adapted to it quickly. and then. Two separate bangs could be heard: first. At SECO. During portions of the second and third orbits. Yaw reference was a problem. I found it crumbled in its plastic bag. the angular accelerations of the spacecra_ were not perceptible. The periscope was particularly useful in this respect. This impression was because of my training in the procedures trainer and lasted only temporarily. in a gradually broadening fan pattern. I knew at all times that I had only to wait and the earth would again appear in the window. it did not seem important to me. I had no sense of movement.out of the three nozzles. I noticed a low-frequency oscillation in yaw. I allowed the spacecraft to drift. I watched the expended launch vehicle through the Window as it fell behind me. It was bright and easily visible. hut once a bite sized piece of food was in my mouth. At times during the flight. I could determine whether I was looking straight down or off at an angle. it was exactly what I had expected from my brief experience with it in training. Orientation My only cues to motion were the instruments 70 During the flight I had an opportunity to investigate a number of unusual flight attitudes. Just prior to BECO. and only the blackness of space could be seen through the window. The instruments provided the only reference. the spacecraft angular rates were greater than 6° per second. the dropoff in acceleration was not disturbing. One of these was forward inverted flight. The horizon provided a good roll and pitch reference as long as it was visible in the window. very easily without reference to the horizon. when I tried to e_Ltthe solid food provided for the flight. some crumbs would come floating out. 5]_en I was pitched down close to . I had no idea where the earth was in relation to the spacecraft. I noticed that when I turned my head to the right to look at the special equipment storage kit. there was no problem. The best cues to the end of powered flight were weightlessness and absolute silence. the clamp ring explosive bolts. the horizon or the airglow layer is visible at all times. or 90° from where I felt it should be. Alining the gyros consumed fuel or time. the window would have been adequate. Every time I opened the bag. Following the turnaround. I did have one unusual experience. however. I could see what looked like little ice crystals emanating from the sustainer engine nozzle. I followed the needles around and soon there was the horizon. It was just like eating here on earth. On the dark side of the earth. At this time. The turnaround proceeded just as in the trainer except that I was somewhat distracted initially by the new sensation of weightlessness. After the initial sensation of weightlessness. It was very pleasant. This picked up again _fter BECO and increased very gradually until sustainer engine cutoff (SECO). The ideriscope provided another good . At times when the gyros were caged and nothing was visible out the window. I was never disoriented. However. the louder noise of the posigrade rockets. Even without it. the ground directly below me. The best yaw reference was obtained by pitching down -50 ° to -70 ° and looking through the window. I think I could pick out the nadir point. that is. even before moonrise.

low thrusters only. both the solenoids and the thruster.. At balloon deployment. I did not see any more stars than I could have seen from the earth. I was not fully dark adapted. Yaw attitude is difficult to determine at night. The fly-by-wire high thrusters and the rate command and auxiliary damping systems were not needed for the tasks that I had to perform in orbit prior to preparing for retrofire. but all of western Africa was clear. it looked to me like it was a wrinkled sphere about 8 to 10 inches thick. although I did not actually try it for this purpose.--Examples of interesting cloudformations photographedby Astronaut Carpenter. I am convinced that a lot more stars can be seen from the ground than 71 . There was no movemerit. Corvus. I could have picked it out. I did not hear the control linkages. I saw the confetti as it was jettisoned.) The view looked to me exactly like the photographs from other Mcrcury flights. Through the window. but after retrofire I could see the area around E1 Centro. I noticed a good amount of cloudiness. Celestial Observations Because of the small source of light around the time correlation clock. Other parts of Africa were green. during the flight and later in the recovery airplane. Mexico. I believe for a tracking task. nor was the cabin completely dark. I saw one of the balsa blocks and mistook it for the balloon. When using the manual proportional mode. However. manual proportionM control might be more desirable. Over the United States on the second orbit. and it was easy to tell that these areas were jungle. The best reference is a known star. was covered with clouds along its entire length. was the best system. (See fig. the balloon came into view. I had a beautiful view of Lake Chad. it was not heavily clouded. the operation of the solenoids of both the high and low thrusters of the fly-by-wire system could be heard. The balloon motion following deployment was completely random. The South Atlantic was 90 percent covered with clouds. Finally. Terrestrial Obse_ations There was no difference between the appearance and color of land. I did not see Florida or the Cape Canaveral area. In orbit. The eastern half was clear. water areas. Farther west in the Pacific. Balloon Observations _4 . just a little "V" of white steam in front of the window. quite clearly._ _0:_ '_ FIGVRE 7-1. the horizon could not be seen through the window. and the periscope is of little help in determining yawon the night side. The zeropitch mark on the periscope was also a valuable reference for alining the gyros since at zero pitch. fly-by-wire.yaw reference at nearly any attitude. the exhaust from the pitch-down thrusters could be seen. There were clouds over the Indian Ocean. Calif. I saw a dirt road and had the impression that had there been a truck on it. I could hear and feel the rate command system. It had small protrusions coming out each side. but the western half of Baja Callfornia. therefore. but it disappeared rapidly. It was visible even at night. or clouds from orbit and the view from a high-flying aircraft. After having seen the star. Control System Operation For normal maneuvering in orbit. but again I heard the thrusters. 7-1.

A description and analysis of my obserrations are discussed in the Space Science report (paper 4). One that I saw was a half inch long. Whea_ the retroattitude of -34 ° was properly indicated by the window and the periscope. The sunrises and sunsets were the most beautiful and spectacular events of the flight. behind and had to stow things haphazardly. and the attitude indicators. By this time_ I had gone through the part of the preretro checklist which called for the manual fuel handle to be out as a backup for the automatic control system. the particles traveled across the front of the window from the right to the left. 7-2. After observing the particles. the window. I was busy trying to get alined in orbit attitude. and each time a cloud of particles came past the window. However. It was shaped like a curlicue and looked like a lathe turning. and I also observed it through a special "airglow" filter. I tried to hold this attitude on the instruments throughout retrofire. Since I was yawed to the right. I discovered the source of the space particles. I have commented many times that on the trainer yon cannot alivide your attention between one attitude reference system and another and still do a good job in retrofire. I could see through the spacecraft window. just at dawn during the third orbit.) On the dark side of the earth. The sharply defined bands of color at the horizon were brilliant.and on other portions of the spacecraft walls. My reference was divided between the periscope. I measured the width of this band in a number of ways. but. At dawn on the third orbit as I reached for the densiometer. tile sunrises and sunsets in orbit were all the same. but I cross-checked attitude in the window and the periscope. (See fig. [ do remember seeil_g stars at the western horizon when the sun was just up in the east but. I et)served the particles reported by John Glenn. I had a problem in pitch attitude. and color. U_fiike those on earth. At the time. I inadvertently hit the spacecraft hatch and a cloud of particles flew by the window. they did not move away from the vehicle as rapidly as the confetti that was deployed upon balloon release. I continued to knock on the hatch 72 I think that one reason that I got behind at retrofire was because. but time slipped away. I got. Although retrosequence came on time. The particles varied in size.snowflakes. the pitch attitude indicator read -10 °. and lost all confidence in the automatic control system. Some were gray and others were white. After . They appeared to be like . The particles traveled at different speeds. I could no[ see stars on the daylight side if the earth was itl the feld of view of the window. readily see and identify tile major constellations and use them for heading information. A nmnber of times durilLg the flight.--Sunset as viewedby Astronaut Carpenter in orbital flight. Then I had to evaluate the problem in the automatic control system. The Hawaii Cap Corn was trying very hard to get me to do the preretrograde checklist. the terminator had not yet reached the western horizon. I saw the same bright band of light just above the horizml which Aohn Glenn repol4ed. I did not shut off the manual system. the initiation of retrofire was slightly late. I could. As a result. brightness. I felt that I had time to get that taken care of and still prepare properly for retretire. But that was the way I controlled attitude during retrofire on this flight. The largest were 4 to 5 times the size of the smaller ones. Retrograde and Reentry Retrosequenee Phase FmURE 7-2. attitude control during retrofire was accomplished on both the fly-by-wire and the manuM control modes. nevertheless. Just prior to retrofire. When I selected the fly-by-wire mode. I felt that my control of spacecraft attitude during retrofire was good. I believe that they reflected sunlight and were not truly luminous.

Landing At around 70. About I second after that I felt the first. I had expected a big "boot" from the retrorockets. Very shortly after 0.-ell. I used it sparingly. Tile gradual increase of aerodynamic forces during the reentry appeared to be sufficient to aline the spacecraft properly. I could feel the change in deceleration as the spacecraft went to one side in yaw or pitch. although the rate needles were still on scale. Retrofire gave me a sensation. a good trim angle. The window did not. I did not see a fiery glow prior to peak acceleration.05g. But the deceleration was just.05g I think I still had a reading of about 15 percent on the automatic fuel gage. Later. These oscillations seemed about the same as those experienced in some of the trainer runs. I noticed my appalling fuel state and realized that I had controlled retrofire on both the manual and fly-by-wire systems. I listened at first. retrorocket fire. My best indication of the oscillation amplitude was to watch the sun cross the window and try to determine the angle through which the spacecraft was oscillating. I switched the drogue parachute fuse switch on at 73 . long rectangular strap going off in the distance. did not get through. the fact that the rates were oscillating evenly strengthened my conviction that the spacecraft was at. By the time the retrofire was over.. Reentry Retropack jettison and the retraction of the periscope occurred on time. he also mentioned an auxiliary damping reentry which I think I would have chosen in any case. The green glo. I stayed on fly-by-wire until 0. I used the window for attitude reference during teentry because of the difficulty I had experienced with the attitude displays prior to retrofire. Tile period of peak acceleration was much longer than I had expected. The spacecraft was alined within 3° or 4° in pitch and yaw at the start of the reent W period. trying to keep the horizon in the window so that I would have a correct attitude reference. So I just talked the rest of the way down. He told me that blackout was expected momentarily. but the rates began to oscillate pretty badly.. If the California Cap Corn had not mentioned the retroattitude bypass switch. oscillations in rate were nearly imperceptible. I heard the Cape Cap Com up to the blackout. I was looking for the orange glow and noticed instead a light green glow that seemed to be coming from the cylindrical section of the spacecraft. I feel that it would have reentered properly without any attitude control.05g and to control the reentry. not of being pushed back toward Hawaii as John Glenn had reported. I tried both the manual and the r_te-command control modes and got no response. but of being slowed down in three increments. but it was a good suggestion to have. The ignition of the rockets was just audible. However.receiving a countdown to retrofire from the California Cap Com. It made me feel that the trim angle was not right and that some of the surface of the recovery compartment might be overheating.' . At this time.000 feet. I began hear the hissing the spacecraft that toJohn Glenn had outside described. At 0. I watched both tile rate indicator and the window during this period. because I was beginning to see the reentry glow.05 g.vas brighter than the orange glow around the window. I noticed that I had to breath a little more forcefully in order to say normal sentences. From this I decided that the spacecraft was in a good reentry attitude. I waited 2 seconds and then punched the manual retrofire button. but the fuel tank was empty. it had not stopped. I do not remember looking at the fuel gage. since tile auxiliary damplng was doing very . The fuel gage was reading about 6 percent. for his command transmission. and I selected the auxiliary damping control mode. I also saw _. light up to the extent that John Glenn reported. I noticed one unexpected thing during the heat pulse. but it. I felt that there had been just enough deceleration to bring the spacecraft to a stop. a very gentle nudge. but of course. I would have forgotten it s and retrofire would have been delayed considerably longer. I could see a few flaming pieces falling off the spacecraft. I began to pick up oscillations on the pitch and yaw rate needles. This left me with 15 percent on the automatic system to last out the 10 minutes to 0. At peak acceleration. I may have run out of automatic fuel.

and I thought I had a recontact tn'oblem of some kind. Ibroke . I did not even know that he had been parachuted into the water.100 feet and had to swim quite a way to reach me. It came out. I thilnk one of the reasons was that it was so hot. The first one I saw was a PgV. I manually activated the main parachute deployment switch without waiting for automatic deploymerit. and although it was humid. oscillations were increasing. another swimmer joined us. Since it was hazy. I disconnected tile hose after I had the canister nearly out. I had some difficulty in aiming the mirror. I heard a voice calling from behind me. I was somewhat dismayed to see water splashed on the face of the tape recorder box immediately after impact. the list angle did not appreciably cha_nge. and was reefed for a little while.000-foot checklists and got everything pretty well taken care of. Then I reMized that the raft was upside down ! I climbed back onto the spacecraft. climbed in. He told me he had parachuted from 1. I left the spacecraft. It was visible against a cloudy sky. I drank a lot of water from my survival kit while I was in the raft. so I took out the signaling mirror from my survival kit. I felt much hotter in orbit than after landing. After landing I read 105° on the cabin temperature gage. and rate of descent was fight on 30 feet per sex_ond.vas quite eaJm except for periodic swells. was more noticeable by the noise than by the g-load. and the small pressure bulkhead stuck slightly. Egress is a tough job. Later. turned the raft over. I could see no damage whatsoever.000 feet.500 feet.. selected the automatic position on the landing bag switch. My fears that there mighL be a leak in the spacecraft _ppeared to be confirmed by the fact that the spacecraft did not immediately right itself. I forgot to seal the suit and deploy the neck dam. 9. I 74 easily pushed out the canister.000 feet a_d waited for the main parachute to deploy.000 feet. The parachute disreefed aald it was beautiful. spacecraft. I turned around and there was someone swimming up to me..vas stretched taut and then as it tmdulated after the peak load. However. There must have been a stream of dye in the water 10 miles long.000 feet. However. I got the proper items disconnected and waited for the spacecraft to right itself. The time on the ocean was very pleasant. because I had heard earlier the Cape Cap Corn tra. It. I knew that I was way beyond my intended landing point. but I just sat there minding my own business. still holding onto the spacecraft. I_ter. Egress The spacecraft listed lkalfway between pitch down and yaw left. Suddenly. At about 25. and I had tile raft and the camera with me. I deployed the drogue parachute manually when the oscillations became severe. pulled the raft out after me. I knew the planes had spotted me because they kept circling the area. but as far as temperature was concerned I was comfortable. The space is tight. Another aid to the planes in locating me was the dye marker which was automatically ejected by the spacecraft. I still felt fine._smitting blind that there would be about an hour for recovery. I climbed out through the small pressure bulkhead with the raft attached tome. but it was not choppy. I switched the main parachute fuse switch on at 15. I could see the drogue parachute pulsing and vibrating more than I ]lad expected.vent about egressing from the spacecraft. At al)out 40. and inflated it. He inflated his raft. I operated the snorkel manually. and got back in. At about. The landing was much less severe than I had expected. and the bag went out iramediately. Recovery The sea .about 45. and attached his raft to mine. I decided to get. I climbed aboard and assessed the situation. and he was quite friendly. I heard some planes. The first thing I saw in the water was some seaweed. I placed the camera up on top of the recovery dompartment so that I could get it in case tile spacecraft sank. I could see the parachute working as the material . After the drogue parachute was deployed. I went through the postreentry and 10. Then a black fish appeared. Soon there were a lot of airplanes around. out at that time and . which is done by centering the small bright spot produced by tile sun in the center of the mirror. I was convinced that the main parachute was good.

From time to time. Attached :to the raft was another package.out the food and asked them if they wanted any.--Astronaut Carpenter coming aboara the carrier Intrepi_ from the recovery helicopter. broke one of the C02 bottles used to inflate the collar. containing the Stullken collar. I was able to detect and overcome the one si_fificant systems malfunction that might have affected the flight: the malfunction of the pitch horizon scanner circuit. and inflated it. I was not excessively tired and I was looking forward to describing my experiences to those at the debriefing site. I poked a hole in the toe of my left sock and stuck my leg out the window to let the water drain out of the suit. a flotation device much like a life preserver which can be wrapped around the spacecraft to keep it floating. The good performance of most of the spacecraft systems gave me con- r_GrRE7-3. o. When the HSS-2 helicopter appeared. The divers started out to get the collar and it took them some time to bring it back.) Although I had already had a long day. one would drop a smoke bomb marker. I understand that many were concerned while waiting without word from me during reentry and after landing. One of the divers helped me put on the sling.4_aao--02 6 75 . while the spectacular novelty of the view from space dmllenged me to make the most of my opportunity. a procedurc we shall have to nmke use of on the longer duration Mercury flights. and lured me into an unwise expenditure of fuel early in the flight. and I anxiously await another space mission. It was a lift of some 50 to 60 feet. frmn my position. I motioned to the helicopter pilot to take up the slack in the line. (See fig. I began to rise. I believe the MA-7 flight can be considcred another successful step on the road to the development of a useful and reliable manned spacecraft system. They finally got back. As a result_ it became necessary to go to extended drifting flight. 7-3. but they had finished lunch recently. The spacecraft was stable during the critical portimm of reentry and the parachute worked perfectly. wrapped the collar around the spacecraft. For me. and I picked up my camera which I had previously plac_edin the recovery compartment. because I am sure that there was a moment when nobody san' anything of me but a hand holding a camera clear of the watei'. however. I went down! The helicopter must have settled slightly. and I was able to denmnstrate that there was no problem assoelated with prolonged drifting flight. Instead. When the helicopter landed aboard the carrier. However. A moment later. and they did not take any. Condudlng Remarks Overall. it made a beautiful approach. It also hit with a terrific force which. as we learned later. A 20-man liferaft was dropped. Igotinto the helicopter with no difficulty and took off my gloves and boots. there was no major cause for concern. this flight was a wonderful experience. More aircraft kept circling over us. fidence in the vehicle itself. I was in good shape. but the chute failed to open and it hit the water with a tremendous impact. and I let go of the spacecraft expecting to be lifted up.

Pitch is 37 [degree]. fuel and oxygen are steady. Understand.APPENDIX MA-7 AIR-GROUND VOICE COMMUNICATIONS P--Pilot S--Surgeon or Medical Monitor range station Stony--Blockhouse Communicator at thc Tile following is a transcript of the MA-7 flight communications taken from the spaeecraft onboard tape recording. 2. There is BECO on time. 1.e. Mark. Roger. as well as some in-flight comments made while in a record-only mode. Tile communicator is identified. I feel the lift-off. Cabin pressure is on schedule. 24 amps.e.2 [psia]. cabin pressure is leveling off at 6. The sky is getting quite black at 01 30---elapsed. My pitch looks good. Roger. Little bit of shaking. 5 00 00 00 00 01 01 02 02 44 59 08. 3.t. 32 seconds. a series of three dots is used to designate times when communiques could not be deciphered. 77 . Roger.t. (FIRST PASS) 5 5 5 5 46 47 50. Understand BECO. Gus. 5 00 01 13 00 01 22. pretty smooth. all pressures are in pounds per square inch. You lookRoger. all the power is good. Aurora seven. cabin pressure 15. Stand by. Roger. You look real good. oxygen. 4. mark. The first column shows the ground elapsed time (g.APE CANAVERAL 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 04 06 07. minutes. Roger. The clock has started. Scott Carpenter. 21 24. 9. Okay. I feel the pitch program starting over. Within the text. [Cape Canaveral] Loud and clear. Roger. Roger. the backup clock has started. 1. One dash indicates a time pause during a communique.) from liftoff in hours. Pitch is 56 [degrees]. Roger. one cps sway in yaw. 29 Stony P CC P CC P P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC All temperatures are given as °F. The station in prime contact with the astronaut is designated at the initiation of communications. 16. 5 00 01 10. Clear blue sky. Roger. fuel. and I minute. a transcription of the communication received and transmitted. This is. 5 59. stand by for--the time hack. 3. i minute. 22 amps and the power is still good. Roger. A little rough through max q. retrosequence times are expressed in g. 25 amps and the power is good. 11 12. fuel and oxygen steady. by the pilot. and-Ah.1 [psia]. Fuel and oxygen is steady. 5 00 01 26. Aurora Seven. minutes. as follows: CC--Capsule (spacecraft) Comnmnicator at the range station CT--Communications Technician at the range station F--Flight Director at Bermuda range station ('.5 5. it's smoothing down a little bit now. and seconds when the communique was initiated. and seconds).5 14. therefore.000 [feet]. and coolant quantities are expressed in remaining percent of total nominal capacities. 2. Roger. absolute (psia). and dropping. 0. (hours. You're looking good from here. You're looking good. Roger.

I have the booster in the center of _he window now. Understand. my status is good. Aux Damp is good. Cabin is holding 5. standby for later times. white gas. I have a small island just below me. Roger. Understand. Roger. and you're right on. Still reading you. 25 amps.5 19 30 CC P CC P CC P CC P P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P P CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC P CC P CC P O0 04 42 OO 04 46 O0 05 09 00 0O 0O 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 06 00 O0 00 00 00 00 O0 00 0O 00 00 05 05 05 05 05 05 06 06 06 06 06 06 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 08 08 08 08 08 25. out of the sustainer engine. Roger.5 29. 04 32 39. Okay. you are good. much louder. The tower is way out.8 [psia]. Is that correct? That is. 17 17 Roger..5 38. 78 . turnaround has stopped. Cabin is holding 5. . Roger. 0. Roger.5 P CC P CC P P CC P CC P P CC P CC P CANAVERAL (FIRST PASS)--Continued 00 03 47. I'm pitching down. You look good down here. Roger. Roger. It's very quiet. The posigrades fired. Roger. NegaLive 04 3. Roger.5 52 07.5 51 38 50. End of mission. Roger. and the booster off to the right slightly. . That's all I have right now. Aurora Seven. A steady stream of gas. standby for retrosequence times. Roger. At 3 minutes.8. Power is good. Gus.5 27 32 36 38. Reading you loud and clear. 25 amps power is good. Understand. Pitch minus 3_ [degrees].5 49 54. Cabin holding 5. with a 7-orbit capability.5 Roger. Fuel and oxygen steady. Roger. tumbling very slowly.. ASCS seems to be holding very well. cabin holding. my pitch attitude is high. power is good. Going over the BECO check now. Send your message. Roger. coming down now. Aurora Seven.5 50 53. Roger. cabin is holding 5. Fly-by-wire is good in all axes. Reading you on Bermuda antennas now. Fuel and oxygen steady.8 [psia]. Roger. .5 15 17 26. Understand. you're good. At 30. Fuel and oxygen are steady. BECO check is complete Roger. 04 32 39. Auro:ra Seven. Pitch minus. Roger. Fuel and oxygen are still steady. 4 plus 30 my clock.5 09. Roger. You're through 0. Roger. Aurora Seven. Roger. we confirm staging.8 [psia]. 01 28 26. Aurora Seven. I have the moon in the center of the window. Roger. Roger. You sound real good.5 31. Roger. 04 32 39.3. and . retrosequence time for end of orbit--28 26. I felt staging. there is SECO. Roger. 25 amps. The control system on fly-by-wire is very good. We have a Go. Aurora Seven is Go. You're good. Sweet words.5 59.8. V over VR of 0. Aurora Seven. 3_{ g's.CAPE 00 02 00 02 00 02 00 02 00 02 00 02 00 02 00 02 00 02 0O 02 O0 03 OO03 O0 03 00 03 00 03 16 19 20 22 24 32 41.8 [psia]. . Aurora Seven.5 00 04 01 00 O0 0O OO 04 04 04 04 12 15.5 14 19 29 33. 04 32 39. Going to ASCS now. Periscope is out. It's gone. Standing by. Sequence time for end of orbit. Broken a little bit. Power still looks good. g peaked at 6.5 57. The light is green.8.5 04.5 55 00 04 09 12 17. Four minutes.5 41. Understand. Roger. Do you confirm? Staging? Do you confirm staging? Aurora Seven. Roger. Okay.5 01. Understand complete. . minus 2_{ [degrees]. my status is good. I am weightless and starting the fly-by-wire turnaround. Area I B is 17 17.

5 16 07 16 19 Aurora Seven. retrodelay is normal.5 00 08 27 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 08 08 08 08 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 41 43 51. igee 86 [nautical miles]. Large piece ofGoing back to gyros free. One picture of the booster. close tracking should be done on--on fly-by-wire low only.5 03 07 16 18. The high thrusters work well. Loud and clear. and I'm going to fly-by-wire to track the booster. The.5 24 29. Gyros are staying within limits pretty welt. . The booster is in front of a large cloud pattern. . Allthe power is good. CANARY (FIRST PASS) 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 47 51 56. This is Canary Cap Com. The booster is approximately 2 miles away now. Wfil you veri(v that your retrodelay switch is in the normal position? Retrodelay is normal. Going to transmit and record now. . Hello. I have the booster directly below me.5 02 18. Gyros are going to free at 12 33.5 P Roger. Aurora Seven. There is the moon. ASCS looks good.CAPE 00 08 21 00 08 22. I have lost sight of the booster at this time.5 54. Over. How me? Aurora Seven.5 01. How me? Aurora Seven. I will--this is not a good tracking problem. Roger. Roger.5 CC P P CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC P CC P P CANAVERAL (FIRST PASS)--Continued 00 10 34 P O0 11 40 00 12 22 P P 00 13 29. Over. To follow the booster is a tough job with the highs. 6. . Roger. All instruments are. Our speeds are too close to being the same. Cap Com. I say again.5 15 56. Il. Roger. traveling right down the center of the booster. How me? Aurora Seven. Getting ahead of me in pitch. Gus. Retromanual is off. How me? Read you loud and clear also.5 53. Copied perigee 86 [nautical miles]. everything is proceeding normally. Over. Please send blood pressure.3[g's]. Roger. many whirls and vortices of cloud patterns. Aurora seven status is Go in all respects. 79 . Retromanual fuse switch is off. I am picking up retroattitude and automatic control very shortly. Going over the insertion checklist now. loud and clear.5 P 00 14 37. All batteries okay.5 38 CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC CC P P 15 53. I have. Pictures at this time--2. all fly-by-wire thrusters appear to be good in all axes. Cape Cap Com. Understand. I have it right in the center--I feel that-overshot there. west of your station.5 25 29 32 34. Say again fuel. Oxygen 89-100 [percent]. If you read. Ca_)e Cap Com. Canary Cap Com. 2. 5. Cap Com. 4. I'll pick up a retroattitude at this time for Canary radar. Loud and clear. 3. Over. 12 pictures of the booster.5 16-01. D-c volts is main. maybe 17 or 18. Roger. Outside of a minor difference in attitude indications. 10. my control mode is fly-by-wire. Fuel 103-100 [percent]. Aurora Seven. let's see. gyros normal. where's the booster? There's some beautiful cloud patterns down there. Roger. 3. We have radar track. Roger.5 16 04. right down the center of the window. Over. Wfil you please proceed with the short report. Please remain in orbit attitude. Blood pressure start now. Fuel 103-100 [percent]. Have copied. north sweeping south. and the SECO checklist is complete. 5. Go ahead. maneuver off. I. Reading you loud and clear. Over. Winding the camera at this time. Elapsed time is 13 56. please. . I seem to be much closer to the earth than I expected to be. There are some rather large pieces floating around. Aurora Seven. plus. I will put it in the center of the right window. Gus. just setting. I think my attitude is not in agreement with the instruments. Mark. The a-c power is good. Control mode is now automatic. How do you read? Over. Over. Roger. Going to--beginning to unstow the equipment. It's probably because of that gyro free period. She peaked at 6. all together. I have copied. Cape Cap Com. or to gyros normal. Roger. Did not get apogee. Over. retro delay to normal? Retro delay normal. Then going to the horizon. 4. fuel and oxygen readings. I have some pictures of the booster. I seem to be. The flight plan is now out. Roger. Roger. .

How me? back. Roger. orbit one: 1 plus 21 plus 4 plus 19 plus 00. gyro Aurora Seven. that 27. have Kano send these to me in this order: Sunset. I--am Seven. sunset. 04 32 16 56.5 28 14. Manual is satisfactory in all axes. Over.ures. copy? Roger. What mode are you on now? Roger. All d-c power is good. the MIT film is now in. blood pressure. Aurora Seven. Canary.plus 41 plus 20. Did you altitude [nautical Perigee [nautical 00 19 43. your How UHF low? Over. is 143 04 32 39. 8O . Roger. Be maneuver sure you're off. I'm going to have loss of signal before I get these. I have Are you prepared to copy? Stand by one. That is negative. Sunrise two: 2 plus 50 plus 00. Seven.5 18 41.5 28 21. cedure very shortly. Sunrise. Aurora We are reading Going to L'HF Kano. uncaging I have the procedure been gyro unable uncaging now? at this pro- in the flight I finally plan at this mmnent. Over. sunrise. Have Muchea. orbit Apogee Over. Seven. Kano Cap Corn. Canary. Film is now in tight.5 00 20 58 CC P P CC P Roger. Roger. 89-100 [percent]. Thank you. 22 amps. have it. Corn reads by Do you want 15. Kano Kano Cap Aurora you loud Seven UHF and clear.5 18 15 18 39. This is Kano on UHF/HF. to check low. Going back to UHF high. . Scott. Make 00 19 22 00 19 30 00 19 33 16 plus 86 52. do you read? 00 25 20. Com. Do you read? Over.5 17 CC P P CC P CC P CC P Hello. Kano Cap procedures for uncaging. normal. new end of orbit. Too much film was out of the canister. Aurora Roger. End of mission. Wait one.5 00 26 22 00 26 28 00 26 00 26 32 37. break. Loud and clear.5 00 24 47 00 25 00 25 10. Roger. check. Send your message. Kano Cap Com. Furl is 99-98 ]percent]. Did you copy? -. End of orbit time Did you copy? Over. stand Cap Com. Aux Damp is okay also. Over. Roger. end of mission and 1 Bravo Roger. Have Okay. Over. Sunrise.CANARY 00 17 14 00 17 21. Did you copy? Over. or. ASCS is operating okay. Roger. the MIT pictures on this pass. Kano please. I believe. The capsule status is good. Okay. Roger. Understand. Roger. Negative. i Bravo 16 plus 56. KANO Your (FIRST first attempt was unreadable on the ground. How do you read? Over. Hotel Seven. Oxygen. Roger.5 00 19 48 00 20 16. Roger: Roger. button for 4 seconds and go through 00 24 Roger. Roger. I'm going negative. Roger.5 CC P P CC P CC P P time to install the MIT film. My status is good.5 00 00 00 00 00 00 17 53 18 08. orbit three: 00 20 36 00 20 40. on fly-by-wire before going through the to be unable to complete I can fix the problem. for you. a blood-pressure reading. Over. Hello. miles]. correction. all axes. I'll get them from Kann. Kano. Here are sunrise and sunset times. Understand. Over. I'll go through 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 27 01 27 34 28 00 28 12. Cabin is holding good. correction 16 52. TS plus 5 is verified.5 28 27 28 54. Blood-pressure start. 00. that was the The small back going on now.5 19 05 CC P P CC P P CC P CC P CC P CC P (FIRST ASCS PASS)--Continued and fly-by-wire . Auror_ Seven. I'll have to wait awhile for those. I want to get some pic. Reading you the same. I have copied.5 24 08 24 09 16 CC P CC P CC P Aurora Roger. My mode is auto. nob'. Roger.5 Roger. problem. Aurora Over. 01 28 17. Send your message. break. a little Are you behind going to be doing your caging. is satisfactory. Aurora Seven reads you loud and clear.5 00 20 50 00 20 52. It's on the air. auto Canary. I Bravo 1 Bravo. miies]. operating normal? Fly-by-wire times and Can you confirm orientation. Cap Hold Com your reads you loud and clear. . the Welcome then Blood-pressure short report. 00 24 41. sunrise. All a-c power is good. low now. Roger. PASS) 00 00 00 00 00 23 49 23 56 24 02.5 143 and 86 [nautical miles]. 01 28 17. Everything is green and you should be reading blood pressure. End of orbit Correction.

Set at F8 and is number at this two.O. pictures. I have Venus. (FIRST Seven. It looks like five times the width of the--the diameter of the sun. Hello.5 34 47 02. INDIAN OCEAN Seven. Muchea contact. and I can't believe I'm where I am. Aurora Seven reading you weak but readable... Going to the gyro uneaging procedure cage.S. It's now nearly dark. time. going to ASCS at this time. instead of record. Indian Aurora Seven. F5. that that is not correct. Loud and clear.5 30. How do you read? cabin water valve and the suit valve to 6 [degrees]. It's facing a clark earth. How's things going? 81 . about 20 seconds ago. That took me some time to aline my attitudes properly. Bright and unblinking. Say again.. Indian Cap Com. its' dark. Deke? very good. Gyros going to Pitching down. A picture to the south into Number lhree. Going back to ASCS than at this time. I cannot-I can see some other stars down below Venus. The big . It is a reflection are going to red at this time. Aurora Seven. The big back is going on the camera at this time. Let me see. I didn't begin to get time to dark-adapt. and I'm going to aline manually to retroattitude. How me. Bright.5 How do you read? Over. Visor is coming open for a better look at that. in very good. dad. Okay.5 08 22 38 P P P P 00 49 15 P MUCHEA 00 49 00 00 28. Venus at above thc 00 00 00 00 47 48 48 48 46.5 44 31 44 45. Indian At 00 34 28.5 02. 00 35 00 35 39 00 38 04 00 39 28 00 00 40 42 12. in the window. It's just coming into view. directly down my flight path capsule elapse 00 30 17.. That's too bad. I'm Cap Corn. look at that sun. Oh. I'ln going yo have to increase..6 That was those last four. How Go ahead. were F3. Cap Corn. a wide. At 00 29 43. Cabin lights tiful. I'm not sure I am recording on VOX record. we'll start with Fl6. Oh. coming south. beautiful red like in John's It is a reflection. It's quite dark. Com. Fly-by-wire. There was a period there when nothing was recorded because I was in VOX power off.5 CC P CC Aurora Hello. I've used too much fuel. Rog. I'm at-now at 00 47 34 elapsed. Seven. 15 degrees north at Stowing the camera at this time. 49 34 49 39 Cap Corn. dear. Aurora 00 31 49 00 32 10 00 32 19 00 33 59 00 00 00 34 17 34 26. Aurora Seven. What in the world happened to the periscope? Oh. read? Over. Okay. the first time I was able 00 30 29. I'm increasing the vent temperature now reads Mark African coastal passage. Three more pictures with MIT film: 2. Fll.5 P P 00 31 02. 00 31 36 CT P CT P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P Aurora Seven. I'm getting out the equipment to measure Venus occlusion. directly into the sun at an elapsed time of 00 39 42. Indian Cap Corn. that's what happened. Going to fly-by-wire. Muchea Coming This is Muehea Com. red light in the cockpit (FIRST Cap from PASS) How do you read? the time correlation. Do you read? Maneuver [switch] is going off at this time.S. a beau- 00 45 00 00 00 00 46 01 46 l0 46 37 47 05 I see at this point. bright blue horizon band as the sun gets lower and lower--thc horizon band still glows. Station calling Aurora Seven. Roger.5 P (FIRST PASS)--Continued to get horizon pictures with MIT film. SHIP Aurora the sun. My fuel reads 75-100 [percent] at this time. Aurora Seven. Corn Tech on HF and UHF. I think my gyros are properly alined. going through . Hello. The window--is Venus occlude. Try some at 250. This is I. Oh. At 00 43 02.5 15. now. Venus did not occlude. Aurora Seven. Aurora Seven.O. Indian Corn Tech. now approaching the horizon.5 15 using the airglow filter at this time. There is too much horizon. It's getting darker. Aurora Seven. How do you How me? do you read? Steam Hello. Photo lights are off. sometime. 65 and 75 [degrees]. Up north. Let's see. I will go to transmit.KANO 00 29 43. Well. It's about 30 degrees up.5 25 00 43 00 43 00 43 00 00 00 44 12. okay. 3.. No.5 125th. PASS) This is I. Hello.8. Com Tech on HF and UHF. Sound Loud and clear. Indian Indian Ship Cap Cap Com. Sunset Fl6 to F. yawing left. Maneuver at this point is on. man.

loud and clear Very good. Deke. Over.MUCHEA 00 49 45. Z cal off. if you're ready. R cai coming on. Roger. I'll take one more stab at increasing temperature by increasing flow rate. for the first flare 00 00 00 55 55 08 12 P CC P Go ahead.5 P Roger. The cloud coverage here is 3.5 54 33 54 36.5 20 25.5 12 16. with G. The control mode is normal. This is the story on the We suit suggest temp. Tell Jerry and Gus and Lewis and--everybody else there.t. is good.5 53 18. Is your cloud cover such that I can expect [to] see light--or flares at Woomera? Over. backup G. Understand. Read you loud and clear. Deke.5 31 00 53 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 54 01. Roger. End for. I would think that--I'll try increasing Well. Over. Roger. now. will not have to change We will turn volume.5 at this time. Auror_ Seven. Your suit temperature Say again. 4. And--go ahead and sendit. End of mission is 04 32 28. are right in synch. My G. We indicate your clock is 1 second slow and this is compensated Thank you. of orbit is 01 I'll give you some retrotimes while 28 18. Roger. that I have you do not exercise two during the marks blood since increased 10-degree lift-off. read? Muchea Cap Com. Muchea Cap Com. End Understand. This me? is Woomera.t.--my very good. that's at 00 54 44 elapsed. That's Roger. Aurora Seven. 1 command emergency How do you 00 52 00 52 00 52 00 52 00 52 Roger. Loud and clear.5 51 59 52 04. good.m. I'll--you'll be interested to know that I have no moon. Would you send us one more blood pressure? Roger. G. Understand. that I worked with "hello. And now about--well. off UHF Okay. I'll give you the settings. 3. Do you read? Cap Com. Woomera is clear. Cap Com.t. Starting now.5 CC P CC P CC P 53 03. Seven. break.5 CC P CC P is 72-100 [percent]. Muchea Cap Corn on UHF.5 54 55. and 1. Okay. I'll try that. Mark. How do you read? Roger. 5. blood Roger. 3.5 13 17 23. Aurora Roger. I'll turn them lower. Very good. Reading you loud and clear.5 CC CC P CC P CC P P CC CC Roger. Seven from Muchea. Hello. 4. Everything is normal in the flight plan. and we think 00 52 00 00 00 00 52. is down which a bit at this point. tell him to saddle Butch up. The horizon is clearly visible from my present position. (FIRST PAST)--Continued My status is very good.m. 2. I believe the horizon on the dark side with no moon is very good for pitch and roll.5 28 affirmative. maybe 2 minutes of tracking.5 54 12 54 18 54 28. Just trying to get the word on the flare. Roger. Roger. 00 50 59 00 51 15. pressure since your temp is up. Over. standing by. Over.5 53 28. if you see him. voice." John Whittler.5 53 21. stratus.5 54 31. Deke. Roger. This They in flow lately. minus 80 [degrees] in pitch. Oxygen 88-100 of---the fact that I am a lad behind Roger. Sounds very good. My steam atures read 69 and 80 [degrees]. If this doesn't work. 00 50 00 50 00 50 00 50 11.000 [nautical miles] overcast you'll probably see them through the clouds. It would be plus 80 [degrees] yaw. That's 32 28 for end of orbit. the attitudes 55 28. Understand. Your suit temperature is down. We're going to send you a Z cai at this time.m. Over. minus 80 [degrees] pitch. Switching back to UHF. Suggest that you back the fuel control back to your first black mark. 5. Plus 80 [degrees] yaw. Deke.t. Mark. 82 . Woomera Cap Com. Break. The capsule status is very Automatic gyros normal and maneuver off.m. voice. 00 51 26 00 51 31 00 51 34 00 00 00 00 00 51 41 51 49 51 51. The stars are adequate for yaw in. Roger Understand. I'll give you the HF transmitters for this so that you Roger. Blood pressure is starting now. Going all the way off and back up a little bit lower than where I was. time hack at this time--we're coming up on 13 36 57. Roger. with the exception Things axe going very well. correction. emergency voice check. Blood pressure starting. 2. End of orbit 01 28 18 and 04 you're sending vent temperor decreasing off and start pressure. Roger. Fuel [percent].5 CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC P CC P CC P Rog. 15 degrees above launch mark. How This Roger. that's a result of an increase rather than decreasing. 55 00 is Woomera will not is Muchea be contacting you for another 3 minutes. Understand. of nxission.

Reading you loud and clear. Roger. Roger. I'm. thank you. this is Woomera. All four flares away.5 00 56 29 00 00 00 00 56 56 56 57 37 47. Searching for your flares. I'll try to identify them. The Cape now advises to keep the suit setting where it was since it's coming down. Read you loud and clear. I am at--plus 80 [degrees] yaw. Coming up on the flare test--in approximately 25 seconds. This is Woomera Cap Com. I'm sorry. Steam exhaust is 70 [degrees]. Over. Standing by.5 31 33. Roger. Your 150 inverter.5' 43 49. Aurora Seven.5 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 57 57 57 57 57 58 58 58 58 58 58 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 24 35 41 47 57 00 05. My control mode is fly-by-wire. It looks good to me. No joy on your flares. Woomera. We'll give you a time hack when we come up to flare test. Wait till I pick a washer out of the air.5 CC P (FIRST PASS)--Continued 00 56 04. Roger. oxygen 88 and 100 [percent]. We're going to have the flare in approximately 2 minutes. Understand. Seven. Going to fly-by-wire. Over. Stand by. Fly-by-wire. Surgeon reports all systems look good down here. Good air-to-ground. and the maneuver switch is off. Woomera. I do not have your flares visible. my control mode is pure fly-by-wire now. Do you copy? Over. 167 [degrees]. Do you confirm--do you have your--back down to the black scribe mark? 00 57 13 00 57 16.5 37. What are my inverter temperatures and thruster line temperatures. Suit temperature is now 70 [degrees]. That--that signifies that all control systems are operating satisfactorily. Rate Command is also working in all axes. Roger. Wilco. Roger. Roger. gyros are free. thank you. Okay. Fuel reads 75-85 [percent]. WOOMERA (FIRST PASS) Aurora Seven.5 52 00 CC P CC P' CC P CC P CC 1_ CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC CC P P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC P Roger. Would you care to contact Woomera a_ this time? Roger. Manual on. Woomera. How do you read? Over.5 26 52 55 02 11 15 27. I have some lights on the ground underneath me. Loud and clear. Thank you. I have increased it just slightly. Roger. Have copied.MUCHEA 00 55 37 00 55 44. Flare test coming up.5 09. Mark 00 [plus] 58 plus 30.5 12 17. And Systems reports everything okay on his panel. And everything is very good. How me? Roger. minus 80 [degrees] pitch now. this is Woomera Cap Com. My readings now are 7 [peia] and 7 [psia] on suit and cabin. Say again. also. And for your information.5 00 56 18. Do you read? Over. Stand by. Stand by. The cabin exhaust is 80 [degrees]. Roger. You're intermittent. Roger. We are losing you on air-ground. Roger.5 54 00 02 12 42 46 49 52. Roger. At this time I have extensive cloud coverag_wait. Is that affirmative? Manual is--no. I have verified that Aux Damp is operating satisfactorily.5 01 01 23 01 01 29 01 01 43 CC P CC 83 . Roger. Go ahead. Backing off. Copied. Roger.5 00 56 14.5 21. Roger. All four of them go at approximately 00 [plus] 58 plus 30. Roger. Aurora Seven. Roger. Roger. Deke? Are they okay? Rog. You are loud and clear. Evidently the cloud coverage is too tight. We are losing you. I--for your information. Over. Backing off. this is Woomera. We have your temperatures. Aurora Seven. Allsystems okaY. Ratc rate Command in all axes. Thank you. Roger. It doesn't cost so much. Aurora Seven. Could you give us a short report at this time? Roger.5 00 56 11. Roger. Over. We'll give you a read4 out on your temperatures. We're going to have the flares. Seven. 152 [degrees]. What is your suit temperature? Over. Reading you loud and clear. You're up to minus 50 [degrees] on roll. Over. Suit temperature is 70 [degrees]. Roger. Aurora Seven. Roger. Roger. Your 250 inverter. also. We do have an eight by eight coverage. Did you try Aux Damp when you're in fly-by-wire to see if you are holding attitudes? Negative. Roger. I do not have your flares. I'd like readout on my inverter temperatures--and mark on your flare. Understand. We still have approximately 60 seconds left.

Corn and Aurora Teeh. Canton Corn Teeh. Seven. crossed the _qndow not too long ago. Roll is.5 05 03 05 14. Roger. Aurora Do you read? Loud and clear. the line of sight is nearly--nearly verticah I am in VOX cha_s. Seven. I think I'd like to try--try them at this setting a little while longer. 01 02 01 02 11 18 CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P 01 02 21. Roger. yaw. Aurora Over. Roger. Have a few crumbs of food floating around in the capsule. Roger. The cabin temperature is a bit high at 104 [degrees]. Seven. 01 09 Ol 09 01 09 How read do you Aurora Over. Aurora Hello. flight before too At night yawed-Over. . Do you read? Aurora Seven. rate. The food--hello. The fuel reads 74-85 [percent]. needle. Aurora Seven. How do you read? This food has crumbled badly.5 01 02 26. Canton Seven. rate needle is very sensitive to this.5 Attitudes are of no concern to me whatsoever. Gyros are caged. clear. that's all.5 34. I have then both set on seven at this time and--an increase in setting resulted in a decrease--in suit temperature. Canton Corn Teeh. Did you wish to check your attitude readings with our telemetry? Over. Seven How on HF. I can do that at this time. I'm going above the scale to appr3ximately 8 on cabin and suit. maneuver is off.5 21 39. My status is good. readable. Over. i hour and 7 min{ltea elapsed. My--my gyros are caged at this time.WOOMERA 01 01 51 P (FIRST PASS)--Continued That is negative.5 10 57 11 04 11 10 Aurora Seven. Stand by one. Aurora read? Hello.5 at this time. Go ahead. Aurora Seven.5 P make this show up in the roll. 07 40. Aurora is Canton Loud 01 07 01 0l 01 01 08 08 08 08 Tech. How me? Do you read? Com Tech. You're starting to drift at this time you're supposed to have your midnight snack. All gyros are zero. Aurora Roger. Canton Corn Tech. Corn Tech. it's very definitely a cloud pattern 84 . At 01 06 106---at I minute. control mode is fly-by-wire.5 01 02 53. Loud and clear. Roger. The time 01 01 01 01 01 01 03 55 P P P P P P is 01 04 00 elapsed. Canton How me? read? Weak Corn but Teeh.5 12 05 12 17 CC P CC P This is Canton. and cabin is g0 [degrees]. Canton Corn Teeh. to drifting flight 01 02 41. Loud and clear. I am beginning equally low. The suit--steam vent temperature is 70 [degrees]. I've been reading you for some time.5 The finish on the star chart I've got to turn white lights At 01 05 00. and pitch needle. I I feel that my attitude is-I'm searching the star long? Are you prepared to go into drifting Roger. to pick up what I believe is a--yeah. I have about a 2-degree-per-second yaw have Corvus directly above me I'm yawing over the top. gyros caged. the capsule status is good. Canton Seven. First meal at 01 08 52.5 23.5 40 or fade slightly. How me? 01 01 01 01 11 49 11 56. Over. and forth The and moon I can 01 06 58. Canton Corn Tech.5 33 41 50. now what ean--I am at this moment I know rocking my I'm arms drifting back freely. Let's see. I can make the pitch rate needle move up to I degree per second. . Yaw is also. impossible to read 04 19 04 44. Canton Coln Seven. Let's see. I've tried to contact you on HF with no success. Canton Com Teeh. is so shiny that--it's on. Understand. Aurora Seven. I believe I'll get to that shortly. How do you Hello. because of reflection. hello.5 45 Seven. Oxygen is 87-100 [percent]. Canton Corn Tech. Aurora Seven. CANTON (FIRST Canton This PASS) Com Tech. Do you Ol 01 07 16 P CT P P P P P P CT P CT P CT P CC P Hello.5 46. By moving my torso. Hello. Loud and clear. HF? Over. is that affirmative? I am going Roger. Aurora Seven. read? Seven on do you 01 10 07 01 10 13 01 01 01 01 10 33. but I believe they're coming down. Can you begin with the short report? Roger. 05 51. record only now.5 01 02 01 02 01 02 31. Roger. This is Canton Com Tech.5 0! 02 46. . this is Canton Corn Tech. am going to open the visor at this time. Standing by. This is Canton Corn Tech.

No. I have had one piece of the infiight food. Good luck. I am in VOX record now. Hawaii Corn Tech. . I'll watch closely at Roger. and will be closed for the pass over Guaymas.5 01. I have Cassiopeia directly in the window and am yawing around for the sunrise-photographs. from down here. I was able to pick up--at this. . nothing more. Thc sky is quite light in the east.5 11 43 08. Hello. 01 01 01 01 01 19 51 20 15 P P P P P 20 32. How do you read me? Over. How me? Hello. There's one outside. do you have the exact sunrise time for the first orbit? Over. Aurora Seven. Have been several times completely disoriented. . Hello. Loud and clear. pitch. Can you confirm then that the faceplate ii closed. Aurora Seven. . My--I am at 01 19 02. at The weightless condition is a blessing. How do you read tIF? Over. and see if we can pick up Hawaii. good your observations.CANTON 01 12 31. Yes. Aurora Seven. also. Guaymas. Scott.5 P P P P P less. Hawaii Corn Tech. It's crumbling badly and I hate to get it all over.5 15 40 15 54 16 17. . . . see you Okay. ttawaii Corn Tech.--Stand by. Hawaii Corn Tech. (FIRST PASS) 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 15 30. i plus 21 00. random motions--some even appeared to be going ahead. Suit is--still high. There. Aurora Seven reading you loud and clear. Sunrise time for first orbit. Hello. which is hard to believe.5 01 01 01 13 21 13 38 13 44 CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P (FIRST PASS)--Continued Roger. Aurora Seven. UHF. HAWAII and see if I can pick it up. My visor was open. I have the fireflies. but sweating some. All readings appear to be normal Roger. But the steam vent temperature is--still about--70 [degrees].5 CT P P P P P CT P CT P Aurora Seven. I am now photographing large cloud I'm drifting slowly to retroattitude at time. Roger.5 01 12 42 01 12 55 01 12 57 01 13 03 01 13 10 01 13 13. I can't imagine I'm that hot. . . They are not glowing with their own light at this It could be frost from a thruster. . I have a sunrise time of 1 plus 21 plus 00. Roger. Hawaii calling. The cabin-water gage is reading--plus 9. Roger. my body temperature doesn't feel . · Astronaut Carpenter stated that the disorientation was with respect and this occurred only when no visual reference was available. ha ha. Hawaii Com Tech. this time. above the I was John 01 01 01 01 01 01 14 14 15 15 15 15 48 53.5 14 11 14 16. there was one. hello. My temperature. Aurora Seven. I think I see more. t to the spacecraft. he remained 85 .5 30. Excess cabin-water light came on at that time. Almost like a light snowflake particle caught in an eddy. I am--let's see. Weak but readable. on a southerly direction. nothing banks over the Pacific this time. a 102 [degrees] on body temperature. Going to transmit to--record only. Going now to record only while 1 switch back to UHF.5 02. feel bad at all. Thank you. Over.5 16 17 18 18 18 18 32. How do you read? All right. and at 01 01 01 14 04. Roger. Thanks. Canton. unable I cannot to see confirm that the flight plan is completely a separate haze layer--the samc height sunrise down with next was the . I'll have to go back ali thc way down and off. Hawaii Com Tech. on HF. George. Loud and clear. to the earth. How do you read? Over. here. At sunset horizon that Over. . How me? Aurora Seven. I don't believe that's correct. four swallows of water.5 05. time around. Roger. I'm quite comfortable. it is now closed. I have the particles. See foot_mto 4. my suit temperature is down now. Hawaii Com Tech. queries. I will go to transmit directly.5 22 03 22 18 01 23 00 P 01 01 01 01 01 23 24 24 25 26 32 01. you can continue on Roger. I heard Hawaii calling. Did you--could you comment on whether you are comfortable or not--would you . Hawaii. You wish to start your comment now on the haze layer--there the same time confirm that the flight plan is on schedule.5 00 05 30 51. That is correct. oriented with respec. George. Go ahead.5 10 CC CC P CC P CC reported. Aurora Seven on HF. However. the . Say again. I was facing away from the sun at sunrise and I did not see the particles--just--just yawing about--180 degrees. I'll leave the faceplate closed. and I have had about four swallows of water at that time. My suit--yes.5 CC CC P on schedule. The capsule looks Over.

I)3 00 31 for Golf. friends. I'm sure I would be sweating more than this ff my temperature were 102 [degrees]. probably erroneous. Standing by for the .t.5 19. do you--I'd like to pass your 2 Alpha time on to you. oxygen is 88-100 [percent]. I am tracking now a very small particle. My body comfort is good. muehas gracias.5 04 06. Roger. Roger. Aurora Seven. 33. Roger. Roger.5 12. to all the troops at Guaymas? Hola. Desde el espacio exterior. could be a light snowflake. 102. My status good.. That takes into account clock error.5 this way.5 15. Roger. 30 30 30 33.5 13 16 22 24. You still reading us. now reading 68 [degrees]. gyros are caged. your country is covered with clouds and is very beautiful. I can't believe it.m.5 35. I'll go to automatic mode directly. Understand 68 [degrees]. And. 86 . Roger.5 01 31 55 01 32 02 01 32 10 01 32 58. Give us a blood pressure. amigo.T. Loud and clear. 01 36 13 for 2 -Mpha. perhaps. . Over. Gus.55 01 31 46 01 31 52.maneuver is off. Aurora Seven. Can do.5 31 35 36 41 43 CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC CC P P Hello. of 14 21 30. one isolated particle. Roger. How me? Roger. felicitaciones a Mexico y espeeialmente a mi amigos de Guaymas.5 CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P P CC CC P 01 30 56 01 01 01 01 0l 01 01 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 08.5 27 28. Good. Guaymas Com Teeh. Roger. I 2Translation: Hello. Roger. Scotty? Roger. No. There's a G.5 37. 2 Roger. Roger. Z cai coming on now.5 01 27 33. That's I)2 36 137 Roger. okay. How does it look? Half covered with clouds. I was hoping you'd say that.GUAYMAS 01 27 22 01 27 29. I believe that's a bad gage reading. and--and the other half is dry. Loud and clear. It looks like we have a go for the second orbit as everything appears all right for you. the capsule status is good.5 P CC P (FIRST PASS) 01 28 16 01 28 19 01 28 40 01 28 48. su pats esta cubierto con numbes--and es--also--se muy bello. mark. Guaymas. Here you go. Say again. on that of 15 45 48. I'll have to get in a better mean Coop. 03 00 31. You start to conserve your fuel a bit and maybe. From outer space. send them. Roger. Roger. about--there is another. Your suit-inlet temperature. Roger. Buena suerte desde Auror Stere. For Golf. Roger. very small. Aqui el tiempo esta muy bueno. Thc cabin steam vent has gone to plus 10.4 [degrees]. loud and clear. My control mode is now fly-by-wire. I'm in-. Roll now. Good luck from Aurora Seven. Roger. my mark on the radar test over White Sands. . attitude for you first. amigos. use a little more of your manual fuel. Gordo. We're reading--we're having a--a bad body temperature reading on you.. greetings to Mexico and especially to my friends of Guaymas. with a (]. Ha ha.5 39 50 54. 01 36 13. this is Guaymas Cap Com. How me? Over. Scotty. 2 Alpha time is 01 36 13. Command roll now. Roger. Mark.M. The fuel is 69-69 [percent]. Roger. coastal passage. Gordo. It'll mean nothing your 01 29 46 01 30 05 01 01 01 01 01 01 30 30 30. How is your temperature comfort? Over. My suit temperature shows 60 [degrees] and I feel quite comfortable. Here the weather is very good. so it looks pretty good. near 61 [degrees]. . coastal passage coming over the--Baja. Roger. and suit temperature steam vent is coming down slowly.5 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 28 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 59. Will you pass on--this message for me. are you ready for Z and R cai? Roger.5 25 28.5 01 32 59.

I'm going back to HF/UHF. I heard IOS calling.5 44 50 52 03 CC P CC F CC P CC P CC P CC P P I'm going guest. Understand. The balloon is out and off. 34 07 34 12. If that doesn't work I'll drop--down--to closed and start over again. down close. I don't see that any attempt was made to inflate the thing. Aurora Seven. Fuel is 62 and 68 [percent]. cut back your cabin water.5 O1 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 35 04. And 2 Charlie time is nominal. Could you give us a cabin steam and suit temperature. have you deployed the balloon? That is negative. Okay. inflate? 01 39 02.5 35 07 35 13. Everything looks a little bit.5 01 39 09 01 39 17 87 .5 01 33 26. Blood pressure coming now. the excess cabin-water light is on. This is 20 degrees below launch value. It's just drifting off. Roger.GUAYMAS 01 33 02 01 33 10.5 35 20 35 35 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 24 30 34 41 47.5 CC P CC P Hearing you also. except for your fuel usage. Okay. Aurora Seven. Roger. One at an elapsed time of 01 37. 01 49 30. 01 37. In 2 minutes. A little ahead on fuel consumption. unless I get the attitudes-- We're reading your attitudes The gyros are caged.5 37 07 37 10 37 35 37 37 37 38. 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 Ol 01 01 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 41 44 48 52. I have only the rectangular shape tumbling at this point about 200 yards back. . Cabin water going back. to give you an R cal. And after the IOS voice has dropped. all right at zero now. you better watch 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 36 46 36 49 36 58 37 00. Be my Aurora Roger. There is very little acceleration Aurora Seven. I see it way out. And are you going to give me a mark for that? Roger. Gordo. 01 49 30. Roger. here is a line. the balloon is out. Roger. please? Roger. Balloon deploy. That's negative. maneuver is off. Aurora Seven.5 34 15. CAPE CANAVERAL (SECOND PASS) voice. Echo win be almost directly overhead. my control mode is fly-by-wire. That is Roger. but I couldn't raise him. Loud and clear. Cape. Do you good down 01 37 01 37 01 37 01 38 01 38 01 39 38 01 P CC P P CC Roger. The balloon is out. Send 2 Bravo. Okay. barely visible. and now wait. the gyros are still caged. my status is good. Seven. use a normal balloon release. Roger. read? here. Gus.5 34 37.5 CC P CC P CC P CC F CC P P Aurora Seven. Are you ready for your 2 Bravo time? Roger. That was the cover.5 01 33 21. I'll try and get auto mode here directly. and drifting steadily away. Suit steam is 69 [degrees] and cabin is plus 11. fuel quantity light is on. I'll try to increase suit-water flow one more time. (FIRST PASS)--Continued Have you done your roll for the radar yet? I'm afraid I'm not going to make it. I'll start now at two. but it--I think now it is way out. Stand by. Roger. Roger. Loud and clear. that I'm going to give you a Z cal. this is Cape Cap Corn on emergency Roger. Roger. Roger. Roger. Roger. I don't see the line.5 55 58 00. Stand by one. Roger. Cap Com. did the balloon here. will use Zanzibar in that area. I. Can you give us a blood pressure? Roger. Roger. Roger. How me? Loud and clear. That dropped down very suddenly when the excess cabin-water light came on. Okay. now. I think I'm going to--increase . .5 51 00 05 08 11 CC P CC P CC CC P P CC P CC P C P Roger.

and it's quite loose. or maybe 1 cycle in a minute and a half. . .m at this Roger. Read minute. just east of Bermuda.5 54 56 18 23. This is an oscillation in the balloon? Yes. please? Roger. How do you read? Cap Com. all the way for the off and back side. You're coming into UHF range.5 01 47 18 P P P P It's now about 50 degrees off of the flight path. Phase shifter. suit steam vent temperature still reading 70 [degrees].5 40 40 41 01 41 17 41 25 4l 28. Pictures of whirls taken. up dark I think to . or the suit-water valve to one. I have a picture of the balloon. Switch Seven. now the balloon At 01 45 30.5 01 41 45 01 41 49 01 41 01 41 01 41 01 42 Ol 42 51. Cabin exhaust temperature is climbing back up to 19.5 01 44 32 01 45 27. That is Roger. Hello. How me? Aurora Seven. Over. I have backed it off to zero and reset it at one.5 16 P CC P CC P Hello. I've got a washer BERMUD3_ Repeat your to put away. lighting arrangement CANARY 01 01 01 01 01 47 48 48 48 10. . Ib.CAPE 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 39 19 P P CC P P CC P P P CC P CC CANAVERAL (SECOND not PASS)--Continued tight.5 40 11 The balloon is partially inflated. ould say we have about a one-cycle-per-minute oscillation. this is Bermuda Flight. warning It's not lights in preparation a satisfactory line is tight. gyros normal. 40 38. Loud and clear. Aurora Seven. Roger. Canary Seven. cabin exhaust temperature.5 01 01 01 01 43 07 43 10 43 30 43 34 59 and clear. Bermuda. Roger. this is Canary Cap Com. How many cycles per minute? One cycle per minute. I'm taping also excess nob' the cabin fuel water quantity I'll tape. 88 . Wait one. Bermuda Flight. 48 21 48 27 01 49 01 49 01 49 01 49 01 49 09 11. I did quite a bit of drifting flight on the dark side over Woomera and Canton. I've lost it at this moment. the capsule status is good. Roger. There is an oscillation beginning. Thank you. How me? Over.. Cap Com. Roger. Have you been doing any drifting flight? Over. It's I'll give you a better reading shortly. 01 43 Also. it also seems to the line will be taut.5 18 23 34 CC P CC P CC Roger.5 01 42 28 01 43 01 01 43 02. Did you observe any haze layers? Over. Fly-by-wire. PASS) How do you read? Over. I have some pictures of the line just waving out in back. do you read? Reading you loud What control mode? Ol 42 26.5 41 33 The line is still not taut. wobulator switch off. The nh)on is just above the horizon at this time. you loud How me? Will yc_u run a blood pressure. Aurora Seven. the balloon not only oscillates oscillate in and out toward the capsule. Over. 39 50 39 54. (SECOND last message. my control mode is automatic. Proceed with the short report. Aurora Seven. Mark! Phase shifter is off. Over. Over. Bermuda Hob' Flight. Canary. My status is good. other times 01 44 20. Loud and clear. my cabin steam vent temperature now is picking up and reading about 19. Aurora Roger. Fuel 51-68 [percent]. now. I have turned the cabin. Phase shifter is on. Aurora Seven. maneuver off. Seven. oxygen 85-100 [percent].5 F P F P F P P CC (Cape) P CC (Cape) F P F P P F P Aurora Roger. in cones sometimes in pitch and yaw. Roger. Bermuda Flight. Canary (SECOND PASS) Cap Com. Cap Com. I have lost sight of the ballo. and clear.5 39 56. Aurora Hello. 01 41 40. It's both in pitch and yaw... reading you loud and clear. Blood pressure starting now. Over..

5 41. Roger. I feel fine. I'll keep a sharp lookout next time and try to see them after sunset. Aurora Systems indicates all telemetry readings look good. It gets out of view frequently. as you feel okay right now. you are fading rapidly. I fed fine. We seem to have lost the body temperaWe are reading 102 [degrees] right now.5 CC Roger. Over. Canary. cabin pressure is holding good. Aurora Seven. Kano. okay now.5 51 05. Reading you loud and clear. How me? Aurora Seven. Since turning down the suit water valve.5 46.5 50 52 50 56. Hello. And the balloon is sometimes visible and sometimes not visible. Hello Kano. fuel reads 51 [percent] and--and [percent] and 100 [percent]. Aurora Seven. Kano Cap Com. good. MCC [Mercury Control Center] is worried about your auto fuel and manual fuel consumption. I did observe haze layers but not the ones that were separated from the horizon that we expected. the suit steam vent temperature has climbed slightly--am increasing from one to two at this time. Roger. Aurora Seven. This should bring it down. Roger. That's good to hear. Roger.5 plan. KANO (SECOND PASS) times it is no_. Do you read fuel. The balloon is oscillating through an arc of about 100 degrees.CANARY 01 49 40. Tell them I am concerned also.5 P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P Cap Coin? Over.5 P P P 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 54 54 54 54 54 54 55 15 17 32. Loud and clear. I'm reading 101 [degrees]. I expended orient after the night side. Aurora Seven. which separates the actual horizon from the deep black of space. I can keet_-stop this excessive fuel consumption. How do and forth. Roger. ttow do you read? Over. on my forehead. copied your message. Aurora seen.5 51 01. Over. ttow do you read? Over. I should have taken time to orient and then work with other items.5 CC 01 58 42 P 89 .5 56. but as long 01 58 27. this is Kano. iridescent blue layer. Canary Roger.5 50 CC P P you feel? Over. you know. Over. I will try and conserve Aurora Seven. Roger. The only thing of--to report regarding the flight plan than expected. 01 01 01 56 44 56 49 57 01 07. and the suit temperature indicates 74 [degrees]. Seven. like I'm that hot. Loud and clear. Surgeon here has requested a blood-pressure transmission. this is Kano. Cabin temperature is 101 [degrees]. Roger.5 50 41.5 P (SECOND PASS)--Continued 01 50 15. Kano. Are you perspiring any? Slightly. and there doesn't and that's all. We are receiving same at Canaries and it looks good.5 51 20 24 41. do you have anything to report on your balloon 01 51 01 51 01 51 01 51 01 test? Over. Kano. I cannot read you. Aurora Seven. Aurora Seven. Blood pressure is coming your way now.5 Roger. I haven't any idea where it is now. The cabin steam vent temperature has built back up to 40 [degrees]. My control mode now is ASCS. Last time around I--someone told me it was 102 [degrees]. Seven. Understand copied message regarding fuel and consumption. Will you give us a blood-pressure check Blood pressure is on the air. somewhat. They recommend that you try to conserve your fuel. What is your status? Over. On the light side there is nothing more than the bright. How me? Aurora Seven. above and below. That is Roger.5 50 48.5 CC P CC P Roger. Canary 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 50 28. Roger. At this moment. I don't feel. oxygen is 84 All d-c and a-c power is is that fuel levels are lower my extra fuel in trying to requirements of the flight 55 08.5 37 52 59 04 CC P CC P CC P CC P This is Kano. 52 02. How do you read? Over. Mark a coastal passage at this tbnc it seems to--what I'm trying to tell you is that it oscillates 180 degrees. I think this is due to conflicting 69 [percent]. Roger. Sometimes the line is tight and other When I look over to the right side_ I have the sensation that-Hello. 01 01 01 52 40 53 52 54 05. how are you feeling? Your body temperature 01 57 01 0t 01 57 57 57 38. I think that by remaining in automatic. How me? Aurora Seven. Aurora Seven. My status is good. it's nearly vertical. It also oscillates in and out. and tha_ John reported. is up back Over. You are fading. this is Aurora Seven. everything looks ture readings from previous stations. to--and it seems to wander with abandon again--.

. Do you have the latest--contingency 02 05 02 40 CC P CC P CC P CC P P 05 49 51 55 13 02 05 02 05 02 06 02 06 25. inforn:ation. Auroral Seven.5 43. I think that the fact that I'm low on fuel dictates that I stay on auto as long as the fuel consumption on automatic is not excessive. At this time. so far. but readable. the food bag is not a problem.5 CC P CC P 90 . Over. It extends up farther from the horizon. and I am over a solid cloud cover at this time Roger. Roger. Over.5 04 17 P CT P CT P Roger: Zanzibar.5 Very good. this How PASS) do you read Com Aurora Seven? on HF/UHF. Roger.5 38 41. Turning it off at this time and going to three. Aurora Seven. this is Zanzibar report for us? Roger.5 59 59 00 06 CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P Can you see anything (SECOND of the PASS)--Continued Gulf of Guinea? Roger. Over. Over.. That's a hard one to pronounce. Roger. night Just adaptation? for your own Over. Aurora Seven. Roger. the food inside it is. area times? Roger: I have Zanzibar them.5 59 57. at this time Capsule elapsed 02 0700. oh-oh. Over. Auroral Seven. Roger. . please_ . Over. How me. Things are very quiet. Actually. you very much.5 02 03 00 02 03 43 Say again. Are we still in contact? Roger. Would you care to send a greeting to the people of Nigeria? Roger. See you next time. transmitting 04 26 04 31 04 38.. Roger. Over. Kano.. now. I think that I can cut down the fuel consumption considerably on the second and third orbits. setting at this time is 4 at the prelaunch mark. We'll be waiting. I expended it on--by manual and fly-by-wire thruster operation on the dark side. Negative. blue horizon band.5 01 59 05 01 59 09 01 01 01 01 01 02 59 21 59 24.5 02 06 02 44. Zanzibar? Cap Com. please send my greetings and best wishes of me and my countrymen to all Africans. It seems to be the same thickness underneath the sun as the sun's diameter. gyros are iformal. It's open the bag for fear the crumbs will get ali through the capsule. oxygen is 82 [percent] and 100 [percent]. my control mode is automatic. Would you repeat in a few words why you thought the fuel usage was great? Over. Do crumbled. According to flight plan. Roger. you copy? Roger. Aurora Seven. Cap Com'. I don't see any reason for not leaving it on through the dark side. I think everything is going quite well. North and south it becomes less distinct and lighter. Roger. anything that we can do for you . 02 00 32 CC CC P CC P CC P P P 02 00 43.5 59 54.5 I now have the wide. the 250 inverter is on 180 degrees Have you started Roger Auror_ right Seven.. 02 02 02 02 07 07 07 07 29. your Over.5 02 06 39. Read _ou weak..5 clear. understand. I'm sure it will be appreciated. Control fuel is 51 [percent] and 69 [percent]. been unable to get my suit steam vent temperature down much below 70 [degrees]. It may be too high. ZANZIBAR (SECOND clear. Over. Over. you're supposed to go to FBW about now. It looks to be. Say again. My status is good. Loud Aurora Over. or the water control valve. to be about the diameter underneath the sun. Roger. Roger.KANO 01 58 46 01 58 49. and and Seven. and I just saw a particle going by at about 2 or 3 feet per second. That's about all except I have. Aurora Do you have a short Seven . and just appcoaching sunrise.. I just--jnst passed the coastline. Loud is Zanzibar Tech. which is where the cabin is set.. Are you going to start your balloon test? The balloon is out. gone Thank Aurora Seven.. and he says you're on auto mode and I wondered if you plan to go through with this. maneuver is off. Steam vent. Out. Understand. Congratulations on your trip so far and I'm glad everything has 06 50. this doggone food bag is a problem. That is negative. I_ano.5 02 00 46 02 01 08 Kano. the capsule status is good. I dare not 02 02 02 02 02 04 03. 02 01 18 02 01 21 02 02 43. Aurora Seven. Thank you very much.

At 02 17 49. to conserve fuel. Is there anything else? That is negative. this is Indian Ocean Ship. or at zero.5 02 10 58 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 11 04. that'll cool--it seems cooler with the visor open. automatic mode difficulty. evaluating capsule stability at this time. confirm you've checked fly-by-wire and all thrusters okay. Let those rest awhile.5 02 10 31 02 10 35 02 10 40 02 10 42. Aurora Seven. I will zero out all rates. Suit temperature seems to be rising too. Over. Roger.5 02 09 25.5 lost telemetry contact. All right. Roger. this is Indian Cap Coin. Except this problem with steam vent temperature.5 14. and I'll see what we can do about suit temperature. How me? Roger.5 CC P CC P CC S CC P CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC CC P CC P P P P P P P 10 23. all thrusters are okay. Okay. Roger.5 02 09 27 is not correct ASCS standby. It 02 02 10 11. Say again. . fly-by-wire All thrusters Roger. Still reading you okay. are okay. Roger. Aurora. 02 10 29. I monitored mission to Zanzibar and understand . Roger. Blood pressure is coming through fine. Roger. At capsule elapsed 02 17 32. report to Cape you have checked fly-by-wire and all thrusters are okay. Fly-by-_Sre is checked. Did you take xylose? That is negative. I'll zero that out. Attitudes at this time are minus 30.5 may be an orientation problem. at 02 19 13. negative. . I would get too warm. We have read me? Ow_r.5 35 45 51.. Over. 17 06 17 24 17 45 02 02 02 02 18 14 P P P P 18 49 19 02 19 08.5 02 10 44. fairly high and you are supposed to. Indian Cap Com.5 CC P CC OCEAN SHIP (SECOND PASS) Aurora Seven. . and I am getting warm now. .5 34 45 04. Roger.5 07 P CC P CC P CC P P CC P CC P is 03 00 29. We have had transmitter trouble on your just got a message frmn the Cape . I'll turn it up and see what happens. . The capsule is most stable. I read you loud and Ocean? I believe we may have some a minute. How do you Roger. Aurora Seven. minus 48. I have gotten badly behind in the flight plan now. Don't know what to a4th the cabin. if possible. Roger. you have any comments Let me for the cheek 02 08 02 09 is Roger.5 11. 03 00 29. . see if that will help out the ASCS problem.5 19 23. Well. I will do so now.5 56 28 32 35. . I have the nominals. to be indicating The gyros are properly. I seem able to put it at zero rates. I'm going--I'll open the visor a minute. Roger. I really don't feel I need the exercise. Have a slight pitch up rate at this time. Indian Ocean Cap Com. I will do that now. Fly-by-wirc have a slight yaw left rate--I'll zero out now. now. . Your blood pressure is coming through fine. . gyros do not seem either.5 02 07 54. . Aurora Seven. I've put blood pressure up on the air already. However. We part of your trans- 02 02 02 02 02 02 08 08 08 08 08 08 12. Roger. I do not read your transmission. . Aurora Seven from Indian Cap Com.5 11 13 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 15 15 15 16 26 28. my rates are zero and attitudes are zero plus. . Indian Cap Corn. give a blood pressure over Indian Ocean Ship.INDIAN 02 07 48 02 07 50. Your blood pressure on your .5 11 07. Aurora Seven. . are okay. and Golf Do Golf? previous run. Loud and clear. 2 Delta and 2 Echo are still nominal· 03 00 29. but on 2 Echo Area clear. We'll be getting to Muchea shortly. I don't need to exercise. have retrosequence times for 2 Delta. the situation· That is Do you That is Roger. minus 3. Loud and clear. . I have_I am in record only. Roger.5 6545a3 o--62 _ 91 . Out. That's as close to zero as I can make it. I'm going _o let it go out until 02 25 00 to see if this is going to bring it down some. And that the 02 09 11 02 09 17. I'll orient visually and . That Roger. Roger· Aurora Seven. Blood pressure is on the air now.. Cabin is rising. · .5 35 39 46.

INDIAN 02 19 57.5 P





02 20 34.5 02 22 16.5 02 23 07


Both busses are okay. All--let's sec number two battery is down to 22. One, is 24; three, is 2.I; standby one and two, are 24; isolated, is 27; main, is 23; main IBU, is 27. Two-two is now up. Main battery number two is up. I am over the dark side now. The moonrise has not occurred and although I still see the lighted area from the setting sun behind us. Now, [ do have the haze layer at this time. It seems to be brighter than--it's good to open the cabin, open the visor. The reticle now extinets at about 5.6. MUCHEA (SECOND PASS)

02 23 21 02 23 26 02 23 28


02 23 56.5 02 23 58.5


02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02

24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26

40.5 44.5 50 52 10 13.5 18.5 20 26 29.5 33.5 53.5 58.5 01 05.5 11.5 18 20 23 24 26


02 26 42 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 50 55.5 59 02.5 15.5 17.5 18.5 20 33 34.5

Hello, Muchea Cap Com. Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. How me? Read you loud and clear also. What's your status? Roger. My status is good; control mode is fly-by-wire; gyros normal; maneuver off. Fuel is 45-6-70 [percent], that's 45-70 [percent], and oxygen is 84-100 [percent]. I have only one minor problem, and that is my inability to get the suit steam vent temperature down, Deke. Roger What's it running now? Well, I'm reading 70 [degrees]. I'm really a little at a loss as to how to get it down, my suit---water valve is set now past the marks. This doesn't seem to being it down, and neither does putting it . . . negative. That's wrong. The cabin was past the marks. The suit temperature is at prelauneh value of about four. I'm going to go to a setting of plus 6 at this time and see if that will bring it down below 70 [degrees]. Over. Okay. Fine. We're indicating 84 [degrees] suit which is a bit high. Roger My gage shows 7, 76 [degrees] on the suit. Rog. Okay. Let me give you a couple of retrotimes here. You have a 2 Dog nominal; Gold is 03 . . . 29; Hotel 04 32 26. Roger Understand 26. We're including your clock is still one second slow. Roger. G.m.t. hack of 15 10 42---mark. s(02 25 25 c.e.t.) Roger I'm right on and so is the backup. Roger Would you send us a blood pressure, please? Starting. Roger. Starting now. What mode of communications are you using at this time? I am on UHF high, Deke. Fine. Roger. Would you try using your mike button once instead of your VOX. See how this comes in. Roger Soon as I get through the blood pressure. I can do it now. This is using the push to talk. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. How now? I s;_e no difference. They're identical. Roger: is the modulation pretty good? Very good. Roger Capsule stability, Deke, is very, very, good. I've noticed that I can put in a 1-degree-persecond rate on the needle just by moving heads and arms,--my head and arms. Over. Very good, excellent. For your information, there will be no flares at Woomera on this pass, since the cloud cover won't allow you to see them anyway. Roger. I was unsuccessful last pass. Okay, I'm going to send you a Z cai at this time. Roger Mark! Z cai is coming off. Roger. On with R cal. Roger. Blood pressure stop. Blood pressure stop. Okay, we*re going to oscillate R cai a couple of times here in attempt to reset our temperature problem.

8 Editor's 92


MUCHEA 02 27 41.5 02 27 47 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 25 28 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 53.5 57 00.5 04.5 07 10.5 17.5 23 32 40 41.5 47 48.5 54.5 59 01.5 04 09 12 23.5 31 33.5 35.5 38.5 40 41.5 47.5 50.5 57.5 05.5 09.5 24 27 30 41.5 44.5 23.5 26 28 30 33.5 P CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC P CC CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC CC P CC P CC P CC CC P



Roger. Okay, Rcal off. We suggest you go to manual at this point and preserve your auto fuel. Low at this point. Roger. Going to manual now. Roger. At this time I'm reading 45-70 [percent] on fuel. Rog. Understand 45-70 [percent]. Cabin.temperature is 107 [degrees]. Cabin 107 [degrees]. I don't believe you've ever received any sunrise, sunset times. Roger. Give me the whole lot of them, I)eke, or the ones that are coming. Give me rise, set, and rise. Roger. Will do. Your next sunrise will be 02 50 00. Roger. Copy. Sunset 03 41 20. Roger. Sunrise 04. 19 00. Roger. Copy. Well, it sounds like you're doing real well up there, Dad. Roger. It's a little warm. I suspect so. Been riding your horse the last couple of days. Good. For your information, Cape informs that ff we don't stay on manual for quite a spell here we'll probably have to end this orbit. I'll be sure and stay on manual. Roger. You've got a lot of drift left here yet too. Say again. You've got drift capability left yet, too. Roger. Did you see any lights over the Australian . . .? I did. That is, Roger. I did see some lights. I couldn't identify them, however. Roger. Understand. Would you give us another readout on your suit steam temp? Has this changed any? It may have gone down just a tad. It's about zero now; I mean about 70 [degrees] now. It was a little bit higher. The visor is closed and I'm beginning to feel a little cooler. Very good. We indicated 2-degree drop at suit inlet, so it sounds like you're making out a bit. Roger. My control mode now, Deke, is manual; gyros free; and the maneuver is off. Roger. I understand. Manual; gyro free; and maneuver off. Roger Aurora Seven, this is Muchea Cap Com. Are you reading? Still reading, ._Iuchea. Very good. We are just kind of leaving you alone. How is your balloon doing, incidentally? I haven't found it since it got dark. It's--it's--it rambles quite a bit, Deke. It's not inflated fully, and it doesn't stretch out on the line tight like I expected. It bounces in and out and oscillates up and down and sideways. Have no good tensiometer readings yet. WOOMERA (SECOND PASS) Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, this is Woomera Cap Com. How do you read? Over. Hello, Woomera. Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. How me? Roger. You are loud and clear, also. We copied your transmission over Muehea. Understand you still have the balloon on. Is that an affirmative? That is affirmative. I have the balloon on. However, I haven't seen it for some time. It wanders quite a bit and I do not have it in sight at this moment. I believe that--it might bo visible against the earth background at this time. Roger. Do you see the moon at all?

02 02 02 02

32 32 32 32

08 12 17 20.5


02 32 26

02 32 49



WOOMERA 02 32 02 33 02 33 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 52 08.5 15 16.5 22.5 31.5 37 41 49.5 58.5 02.5 P CC CC P CC P CC P P CC P


PASS)--Continued I have left and umnoonlit because of my side. Over. fuel

I am faced the wrong way and limited in maneuverability state. I can see the terminator between moonlit side, Roger. Understand. You are manual control. Is that right?

02 34 26.5 02 02 34 34 34 39 44.5 46.5 50 53


That is correct. My control mode is manual; gyros free; maneuver off. Over. Roger. Could you give us . . . could you give us cabin temperature? Roger. Cabin temperature is 102 [degrees] at this time. Roger. What is the suit temperature? Okay, stand by. Suit temperature is 74 [degrees]; suit steam exhaust is 71 [degree]. Roger. Understand. Are you feeling a little more comfortable at this time? I don't know. I'm still warm and still perspiring, but not really uncomfortable. I would like to_I would like to nail this suit temperature problem down. It--for all practical purposes, it's uncontrollable as far as I can sec. Roger. Understand. You might have to wait a few more minutes before this takes effect. You are on No. 6. Is that right? That is right. Suit temperature is No. 6. Roger. Systems reports that your suit that's any encouragement to you. Roger. Thank you. It is. Roger. Have you taken any food thus far? . temperature has dropped 2 degrees over station, if

02 34 02 34 02 34 02 34

02 35 02 35 02 02 02 02

20 22.5


Yes, I have. However, the food has crumbled badly; and I hate to open the package any more for fear of getting crumbs all over the capsule. I can verify that eating bite-size food as we packaged for this flight is no problem at all. Even the crumbly foods are eaten with no, with no problem. Roger. How about water? I had ;aken four swallows at ap. proximately this time last orbit. temperature pegged a little bit, I'll open the visor and have some Roger. You are still coming in very loud and clear. Roger. . . . out at this time. For the record now-One of the labels for a fuse switch has slipped out, and sideways, fuse switch together with it. This happened to emergency-main switches. As soon as I get the more water. Over. suit

35 37 35 43 35 45 37 11 32. 5

02 37

and has tied the adjoining and reserve-deploy fuse

02 38 06.5 02 38 30 02 39 35 02 40 57.5 02 41 31


I caged the gyros. They are too critical. I witl try and navigate on the dark side without the gyros. The fuse switch should be glued in better so that turning off one fuse does not turn off the adj o [ning one. I guess I'd better try to get that xylose pill out. I hate to do this. Oh yes. There is the xylose pill. It didn't melt. All t_e rest of the stuff in here did me[t. Okay. Xylose pill being consumed at 02 41 35. mess. Can't stand this cabin temperature. CANTON (SECOND PASS) clear. How me? you begin your short The rest of the food is pretty much of a

02 02

43 39.5 43 44.5 51


Hello, Canton This is Canton please? Roger, Fuel

Corn Tech. Cap Com.

Aurora Seven reads you loud and Read you loud and clear. Could


0'2 43

George. My control is 45 and 64 [percent],

mode is manual. The gyros are caged, a little ahead of schedule. Oxygen reads

maneuver is off. 82-100 [percent].

02 02 02

44 30 44 44 44 47


Steam vent temperature in the suit is dropping slightly. It's a little below 70 [degrees]. Cabin is 4.6 [psia]. Suit temperature has dropped to about 71 [degrees] now. All the power is good, and here is a blood pressure. Over. Okay, standing by for blood pressure. We are receiving the blood-pressure check. Over. Roger. Do you plan on eating as called for by .... Over.

02 44 50


We are checking on your request there. No change in reading since launch.5 02 47 41 02 47 47. Now. Did you ? O3 partial pressure is fluctuating--4.5 29. We have no further queries. Oh. Roger. what is the trend of my cabin pressure on the ground? Over. Roger.5 02 46 40 02 46 52 02 47 02 02 47 09.5 40 48 50. Roger. My cabin pressure indicator is reading 4. It's unusable in its present state so I think the xylose pill will constitude my last zero g meal. Roger. thank you. Is this convenient? Negative. the first one. Did you drink over Canton. Is that correct? Negative on that.5 02 45 42. Over. we lost the EKG. Everything continues to look very good here on the ground. very gradual descending trend. For your information. Give me the short report first. Roger.1 [psia] approximately. Scott. Stand by one.8 [psia].5 CC P CC P CC P CC P Aurora Seven. shortly. Roger. Possibly you could press on those sensors. Surgeon feels that this is advisable. Aurora Seven. It's no problem to eat this bite-size food--ia a weightless state. Roger. Surgeon informs me that the EKG is now returning. and the--hanging around 4. Could you hit that button again? We lost your EKG. please. 45 and 62 [percent]. is 4. Roger. I have a beautiful sunrise through the window'.5 CC P CC CC P CC 02 46 36. Can you give me a short report. All of the rest of the food that I have aboard has either crumbled or melted.1 [psia] in very. Hawaii Corn Tech.9 [psia]. Aurora Seven. How do you read me? Over. Aurora Seven. Stand by.5 17. I've got a reading here on the ground for cabin pressure. gyros caged. As I said before. It's gone from 5. Okay. We find now that thc the O3 partial pressure is fluctuating slightly. Also. Fuel is 45-62 [percent]. That is correct. please. you want blood pressure or EKG? No.5 35 39 P CC CC CC P CC P CC P 02 48 47. Roger. Hawaii. Negative. If you have any comments we'll be listening down here. the best color contrast with the Yes. I would say the day-glow orange is the best. the second sunrise should be expected in approximately 3 to 4 minutes.5 02 48 52.8 [psia] at this time.5 02 49 00 I did have the visor open a short time ago for the xylose pill. that you have confirmed that your faceplate is closed for the decision on the third orbit. George.2 [psia]--Over. I take it.5 02 47 36. before the food crumbled. 654533 0--62 S 95 . I will do.5 12. Roger. which was no problem. Roger. I've got the sunrise to worry about. I also drank some water at that time. Roger.5 02 47 16. Roger. Surgeon is after me here for you to try another blood pressure. My control mode is manual.5 P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC 02 48 10 02 48 14 02 02 02 02 48 48 48 48 26. HAWAII (SECOND PASS) 02 02 02 02 49 49 49 49 07.5 44. Roger. I have no comment on this. I won't be able to hold still for it now.2 [psia]. Roger. just that the trend appears to be good here on the ground.8 [psia] at launch to approximately 5. However. Roger. Roger. I'll record it so you can see it. Roger. for example. My faceplate is closed. cabin pressure is staying at 5. Loud and clear. I want to get some pictures of the sunrise. Your other question. did you drink any water over Canton? That is negative. this does take the trend that has been set up considerably. Do you have any specific comments on your balloon experiments.CANTON 02 44 57 P (SECOND PASS)--Continued 02 45 32. everything looks very good here. thank you.5 31 36 40. My status is good and the capsule status is good. was quite easy. This is for your information. How me? Aurora Seven.5 02 45 51 02 46 08 02 46 15 02 46 17.5 02 47 50. maneuver off. Over.5 22 CC P CC P 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 50 37. from what you said then. t}ffs is Cap Com. Okay. copied. The suit pressure comes in at 4.

Aurora Seven. Short report. I have the balloon--now--pretty steadily below me. . Gyros normal now. Can you read me? Over.HAWAII 02 50 45. . Use as little auto. . Roger.5 CC P CC CC P CC P CC CC P P (SECOND PASS)--Continued 02 52 34 02 52 47 02 53 11.5 02 55 15 Do you have an auto-fuel warning hght? That is right. Loud and clear.5 02 58 45 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 51. Still reading 70 [degrees]. Oxygen 81-100 [percent].5 09. not oscillating. Aurora Seven. I have some more of the white particles in view below the capsule. Let me get within scanner limits first. This is Cap Com. Roger. They definitley look like snowflakes this time. California. seems to me as long as suit inlet is going down that you could continue to increase flow until you feel comfortable.. Hello_ Cal Com Teeh. General Kraft is still somewhat concerned about auto fuel. Go. Scott. however. gyros normal. Seven. LOS. Aurora Seven. loud and clear. And go to gyros normal. Roger. I haven't seen the great numbers of these particles. Roger. Wait one. Roger. except I'm unable to get a reasonable suit steam exhaust temperature. Your particles look like definite snowflakes. Suit exhaust is 70 [degrees]. and I believe I reported it a long time ago. Scotty.5 02 02 02 02 02 51 51 51 51 52 31. Undemtand. Roger... California Com Tech. Understand. . Stand by for Cap Com. How me? We're reading you loud and clear. California.5 02 50 48 02 50 59 02 51 24. Roger. RogeI. California Corn Tech. Roger.5 55 58 00 12 15 CC P CC P CC P CC Aurora Seven. but I've seen a few of them.5 12.5 06.5 CT P CT P CT P CC P CC P 02 59 42 02 02 02 03 03 03 59 59 59 00 00 00 52. How me? You're loud and clear. . also. they look exactly like snowflakes to me. Loud and clear. There is one drifting off. Do you hear? Over. Have you tried returning . Cabin exhaust is 49 [degrees]. TM indicates your--zero pitch. we've had LOS. Roger. Blood pressure--start--now. Fuel is 45-50 [percent]. maneuver off.5 34. How do you read? Hello Al. I have reported it. whether or not your window view agrees with your gyros. Their motion is random. Aurora Seven. this is California. this is California Corn Tech. Negative. Say again.5 CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC CC 02 55 07. And I think maybe you might increase flow to your inverter heat exchanger to try to bring the temperature down. The capsule status is good. It is covered with tape at the moment.5 02 53 15 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 53 53 53 53 53 54 54 54 54 54 29 33 39 40 46. steam exhaust? Roger. Balloon is out. Scott? Roger. There were some more of those_little particles. 96 . However-Can we get a blood pressure from you.5 26 32 33. Aurora Seven. Hello. How me? Aurora Seven. I am GO for orbit three. Roger. Would like for you to return to gyros normal and see wh_t kind of indication we have. Understand you're GO for orbit three. Aurora Seven. Over. California Corn Tech. thank you. Cap Com. They are not critical yet.5 18. Cape Flight advises me that we--that they expected the cabin to do such. I must adjust my attitude to within scanner limits first. temperature exhaust . Control mode is manual. Roger. They appear to be traveling exactly my speed. Aurora Seven.5 43 39 46 20. Roger. Aurora Seven. CALIFORNIA (SECOND PASS) 02 58 16 02 58 22. And my status is good. this is California Corn Tech.5 56 59. It's going faster than I am as a matter of fact. Do you hear me? Over. I am---Roger.5 16. use no auto fuel unless you have to prior to retrosequence time.

Roger. 03 05 11 03 05 13 03 05 15 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 07 23 31 33 35. Roger. No don't_they do not glow of their own accord. Roger. Am I in a position to do a 360 [degree] roll for them at this time? Your 00 yaw. Seven. Seven. Can you turn your wobulator on now and leave it on? Roger.5 03 02 12 03 03 03 03 02 02 02 03 20 27 42 27 03 03 38 03 03 48 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 59 01 06 12 16 22 45 47 50 53 Roger. I have gone from 4 to 5 on the inverter at this time. would you give us a blood pressure. Roger.CALIFORNIA 03 00 38 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 49.5 29 35 P CC P CC P CC CC P CC P C P CC P CC CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC P CC CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P P (SECOND PASS)--Continued 03 01 52.5 19 20. Roger. Seven. On and off in approximately 20-second intervals. Roger. in between swallows. you do have a yaw input in. Tasted pretty good. they--they're way out. Hello. I took about 20 swaUows of water. this is California sending Z cai on my mark. there's your blood pressure. Roger. All right now. wobulator going off--Now. Roger.5 24 29 38 46. They all look like snowflakes to me. Seven. And I think I'll increase just a tad on the snit. we're reading you loud and clear. Do you--have you . we have no further inquiries. I can see some that are a 100 feet out. Seven. Roger. Mark. Mark another tensiometer reading. and then I can start a slow yaw to the left to pick it off the stop. We use White Sands whenever you give us the word.5 11 25 26. One. Roger. Guaymas Cap Com. What was that on your yaw? I have the yaw needle on the 250 stop. I'm still perspiring.5 03 01 55. Roger. Okay. Roger. Sounds like a good idea.5 06 09.5 52.5 50. Roger. it's the yaw gyro on the stop at this time. Z cai off. . We're sure of that. I will not cage until after I get rid of the balloon.5 04 12 15. perspire or have you stopped perspiring at the moment? No. Loud and clear. Give you a period of quiet while I send Z and R cal. Do you want it off? Roger.5 43 45. i. Do you still read? Roger. please.5 55. We have those. Roger. It has been on. Guaymas. I know. Al. Understand. See you next time. we're getting Alpha times and--Hotel. I think I'll open up the visor and take a drink of water. Is your wobulator on now? Yes. We'd like to conduct a wobulator test here. and I haven't touched it.5 51 57 03 97 . I have one. the wobulator is on. Roger. Go ahead. Could we do this 360 [degree] roll on this pass at White Sands? Gordo. We're relaying this. You're sounding good here. I'm beginning to get all of those various particles. Roger. Copied. GUAYMAS (SECOND PASS) Aurora Seven. 2. How about 3 Alpha? Roger. Roger. Roger. . this is California. Stand by for Rcai3. Roger. It's as tight as I've seen the string. Roger. Now say again your last question? Do you have 3 Alpha of 03 11 007 03 1100. You have Hotel. Rcal off. That is correct. Okay. and Mark now a tensiometer reading.

The-the line leading to the balloon sometimes is tight. gyros normal. the capsule at sunrise to drift for a Roger. The gyros Roger. and it as often as 03 09 28.5 40. suit is 7. I agree My control mode little while.5 CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC P CC P CC P 03 09 38. . Roger: and how do you feel. Roger. Aurora Seven.5 13 55 maneuver enough to get the balloon out in trail so I can photograph its de- have those little particles visible in the periscope at this time. Over. sometimes is loosc loose enough. and I will allow the darkness. 11 38.5 Would you give us your--your temperature Roger. Fuel is 45-45 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 08 12 08 15 08 18 08 23 08 28. That's about all I can tell you. and--and--tell him no joy. so that there are loops in it. and beginning to be a little more comfortable. Over. than a round brilliant. Go ahead. the day-glow orange is the most the silver.5 24 36.5 11 49 And if I am with you. now? I feel pretty good. Retrosequence times 3 B and 3 C nominal. It's as tight control valve settings. Over. Aurora Seven. I think I better start again. it has a random drift.5 29. cabin is about 10. incidently. Still warm. The balh)on is not inflated well either. break. Suit temperature is 68 [degrees].5 39. the Give me your report. Cap Com. At sunrise. Okay. I am looking down cloud layers. Did you--your normal balloon release time will be 3 plus 34. you try gyros to look are caged. I have done that. four separate 12 46. back.5 07 32 CC P P CC P Aurora Roger Roger Roger: Roger Seven.5 35 36.5 is now manual.5 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 iI 11 11 11 11 11. Suit steam vent temperature is 6!) [degrees]. you go to normal on your gyros with the maneuver are normal and the maneuver switch is off. almost vertically. manual. Cap Com. and John suggests particles. . sounds like you'll be all right. 03 11 52 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 12 04 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 14 16 18.5 20 35 37.5 03 07 15 03 07 24.5. 98 . And we recommend Roger.5 03 09 55 03 09 59. Roger. standing by. Scott? 3 plus 34_ Roger.5 12 57. the wobulator is back on now. and I believe when the sun is on it. Roger. Roger. It's possible to distinguish. now and coming down pretty well.5 03 09 40 03 09 43. Roger_ can you describe the balloon and its actions a little to us? Yes.5 08 31 08 35 CC P CC CC P CC P [percent]. Cape. CANAVERAL (THIRD PASS) Cape Cap Coln. maneuver switch is off. Okay.5 03 09 50. I believe. for area 3 B and 3 C are nominal. Roger. Guaymas. That's Roger. . Understand.5 38.5 03 03 07 26.5 32 33. Roger. oxygen is 70 [percent]. flight? to save fuel for retrosequence. Have you done any drifting That is Roger. Surgeon suggests that you drink as much water as you can. drifting flight yet? Say again. Cape Cap Com back on HF. Toward the darkness. R cal. I. correction_ oxygen is 80 and 100 [percent]. are you in drifting flight? That is Roger. Cape. Its_-its behaviour is strictly random as far as I can tell. Mark a tensiometer reading.5 13 07 13 35. as I've--as it gets. towards to see those Roger. try to look toward the darkness. Loud and clear and break_ Go ahead. Control mode. Roger. Gus. Balloon--I'll parture. There is no oscillation that I can predict whatsoever. Aurora Seven. or. please? 10 on the cabin and 5 on the inverters. Drink you can. Roger. Stand by for Z cal. It's an oblong shape out there.5 46 53. rather figure.CAPE 03 07 12. switch off.

Go ahead.5 03 17 27.5 48. This is Canary Cap Corn on HF.5 03 16 19 03 16 36 03 16 41 03 16 53. Extinct at 5. third orbit. Say again. Roger. I'll try. the standpipe appears to be full and the fluid outside the standpipe is about halfway up. Aurora Seven. It will not jettison. Cap Com. Am going to increase it just a tad more. Fuel is 45-42 [percent]. Roger. Reading you loud and clear. They're streaming aft. Go ahead. but in an arc of maybe a 120 or 130 degrees.CAPE 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 05 22. I noticed none--and I tend to aline the horizontal with my head--it--a horizontal line under zero g is a line parallel to the line drawn between your eyes. Understand that you can't get rid of the balloon.5 CC P CC P P P CC CC P P P CC P P 03 22 34 03 23 36. I have balloon jettison on and off. and I can't get rid of it. this is Canary Cap Corn on HF. Give us your blood pressure and fuel reading. Do you read? Over. Go ahead.5 04 48.5 40. Hello. Understand the periscope. Roger. I have these particles drifting aft again. Okay. HE.5 03 03 03 03 03 03 24 24 25 25 25 25 33 53 01 08 12. Do you receive? Over. Aurora Seven. I have the particles visible still. Roger. Canary Cap Com. Aurora Seven. How me? Over. Do you read? Over.5 19 21. Kano Cap Corn. on angle of about 60 degrees. Hello. Aurora Seven. this is Canary Cap Com. Reading you loud and clear. these little snowflakes are clearly visible. This must be crossing [Intertropical Convergence Zone] (ITCZ). Okay. How me? 99 . I'd say about 60 ° meniscus. I don't get--now wait a minute. Reading you loud and clear. the fluid is all gathered around the standpipe. Don't let--we'd like for you not to let either get down below 40 percent. We had no transmissions from you. How me? Aurora Seven. and the setting I have on the suit is 7. hello.5 18.5 03 26 40 P 03 03 03 03 28 28 28 28 13 20. Canary Cap Com. 10 particles. Transmitting HF.5. Cap Com. My suit valve. Reading you loud and clear.5 24 26. Here are two in closer. this is Canary Cap Com. That's right. This is Canary Islands. but they do not parallel the line _o the balloon exactly. Canary Cap Corn. Over. Aurora seven. hello. maybe I'm beginning to. I am unable to see any stars in the black sky at this time. Reading you loud and clear. Aurora Seven. CANARY (THIRD PASS) 03 20 31 03 21 00 03 03 03 03 21 21 22 22 32.5 40 53 P P P P Aurora Seven. Aurora Seven. I am going--I am in the record only position now. However. Aurora Seven. I have the Voasmeter out at this time. I think the best answer to the autokinesis--is that there is none. this is Canary Cap Corn on HF.5 33 41 43. They no doubt appear to glow to me.5 03 17 32 CC P Roger. way far away. They drift aft within an arc of maybe 120 to 130 degrees. Cap Com. Do you read? Over. The cabin temperature has dropped considerable now. the elapsed time is 3 27 39. I don't get autokinesis. I should remark that at 3 26 33. Repeat as much of your last message as you can. signing out. some appear to be way. There are twc_-that look like they might be a 100 yards away. I haven't operated the thruster not for some time. Aurora Seven. Now a densiometer reading on these that are in close. There is a rather large meniscus. Cap Com. The standpipe is full of the fluid. water valve temperature now is--about 8. How do you read? Over. We're still fairly happy with your fuel state now. These pictures of the--small groups of closely knit clouds are south of Canary.in the sky. Cap Com. Aurora Seven. at any time. Blood pressure on the air. Roger. I have. They appeared to be little pieces of frost. Rog. Hello. Can you give us a comment on the zero g experiment? Roger.5 23 26 32 58 CC CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CANAVERAL (THIRD PASS)--Continued 03 16 16. Canary. However. The fluid is halfway up the outside of the standpipe--a rather large meniscus. Roger. Cap Com. I have never seen weather quite like this. HF. At this moment. Hello. Aurora Seven.

My status is good. Over. gyro caged. However." 100 .5 03 40 12. and cabin temperature is 101 [degrees]. for the record.Kano Cap Com. Roger. Aurora Roger Indian Com Tech. I've just finished taking some MIT pictures. Blood pressure take start a blood-pressure at this time. now. going to record only. on HF and UHF. Visor is coming closed Keno. I am allowing the capsule to drift. I knew at all times that I had only to wait and the earth woul_l again appear in the window. Let's see. a blood-pressure check for the onboard record. this is . would you blood-pressure check for the onboard records. That is Roger. way you feel when you come out of 03 03 03 03 03 30 48 31 00 31 10 31 39 32 55 CC P P CC P Keno on HF. Over. oxygen 79-100 [percent]. and I did not hear the last part of your transmission. It will be the only 03 03 03 03 03 34 49 35 35. it did not seem important to me. but that's sorta the split. I am on manual control. but the part I monitored was loud and clear. Okay. but I am I've noticed that every time I turn over to the right upside down. the suit temperature has reduced considerably.5 39 24 39 31. I still feel that. Your blood pressure is starting--and understand you are on the manual. I did not read all of your transmission. Coastal passage over Africa. I have fuel 45-43. How me. suit temperature is 62 [degrees]. The balloon is still attached--should be no problem. q_he fuel reads 45-42 [percent]. I don't know which way I'm pointed. and and that earth is up above me. I copy your control mode manual. KANO (THIRD PASS) on my back. I am in drifting flight on manual control. I had no idea where the e_rth was in relation to the spacecraft. Over. and don't particularly care. The cassette--is in the camera. feel that I am on my--on my back. loud and clear.5 CC 03 41 03 41 03 41 03 41 03 41 10 12 ]3 18 19 P CC P CC P to jettison the bal- In paper 7. still would tike to get just a little rate--just a little one. crank two by--at infinity. Confirm.5 30 03 P P P P (THIRD PASS)--Continued everything seems vertical. Now. The filter is in. suit temperature has gone down nicely. Understand also you are drifting for awhile. Aurora Seven. Let's see. see any relationship between thruster action and the fireflies.CANARY 03 03 03 03 29 24 29 34 29 43. and all the power is good. at capsule elapsed [time] chance we have. Loud and clear. and cabin temperature 101 [degrees]. I could easily feel like I am coming in I could very easily come in from another planet. Suit temperature 62 [degrees]. Also another departure from the plan is the fact that I have been unable loon.5 34 23 P P P Ha_e taken the big back off of the camera and trying to get some more MIT film at this time. 4 Roger. How do you read? Loud and clear. How me? Seven. Mark MIT pictures to 3 35 36. INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (THIRD PASS) 03 38 38. the capsule status is good. I'm taking the--I've taken the big back off. At this time I am hearing Kano calling for a blood-pressure check. Roger. The blood pressure is starting at t]qis time. If you read me. Roger. The zero g senta sensations are wonderful. Roger. at this do a time. Gyros are caged. and that is all I have to report at this time. S. This is the first time I've ever worn this suit and had it comfortable. My status is good.5 35 43 36 36 38 33 P P P P P 03 03 03 03 03 38 54 39 13. Go ahead. 03 03 03 33 43 34 07. I can't. this is Indian Cap Com. check Aurora Seven. Aurora Seven. steam vent temperatures now read 69 [degrees] on cabin and suit. Indian Cap Com? Over. Aurora Seven.5 P CT P CC P Hello. How do-Roger. we wanta go back that way. I might as well use up all the film. or out of an Immelmann. this is IOS Com Tech.5 CC P 40 31. 03 03 40 16.5 39 18. the surgeon requests that you now. Aurora Seven. I am. It is now 62 [degrees]. If you read me. Astronaut Carpenter is quoted as foUows: "Times when the gyros were caged and nothing was visible out the window. Reading you. Roger. Over. Steam vent temperatures both read 65 [degrees] now. fuel 45-42 [percent]. oxygen 79-100 [percent]. I will give it to him now. I'm taking many MIT pictures.

I'm using the photometer now--to try and get--a reading. Roger.5 50 CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC P CC P CC P P P 03 49 40 03 50 38 03 51 13. ..5 03 56 19. this is Indian Cap Com. the next is yellow. 04 12 32. Roger. Aurora Seven. Understand. Okay. and 195 [degrees] for the 250. Thank you very much. does Mercury Control Center know you did not-Yes. thank you. nothing anywhere. It's quite dark. Nothing in my stomach. lishing The result of this test is the same under lg and he describes relationships. I believe this is almost the first time it's come across. up and down. At 3 hours and 48 minutes and 51 'seconds elapsed. I drank an awful lot of water and I'm still thirsty. Will you repeat. do you read? Over. 04 12 32. please? Over. you just adapt to this environment. I copied all that.5 18.5 CC CC P CC OCEAN SHIP (THIRD PASS)--Continued 03 43 05 03 43 08. Aurora. no difficulty in re-estab- 101 . It's a great. Go ahead. This bright horizon band extends at least 90 ° north and south of the position of the sunset. All your other primaries check out okay on telemetry. The earth is black after t!:_ sun has set. Aurora Seven. like--like you were born in it. All our retrosequence times are nominal.5 03 53 40. we have is 04 32 26. Roger. I tried to release it over their station and was unable to do so. There is now--I will try to poke zero.5 P P P P P Roger. The earth is black. Check you see about all colors between the horizon and the night sky. The eye patch is in place. You were loud and clear. Kano. roll. Indian Cap Com. now and your capsule clock is still within I second. Roger. lighted by moonlight at this time. You seem to see more layers than Friendship Seven. I have them all. let's see. Aurora Seven. It's pretty cool this time. I would say. I think there-there is a leak in the urinal.5 03 44 19 03 44 45 03 44 52 03 45 02 03 45 25. The sunsets are most spectacular. your last transcription was unreadable.5 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 45 46 46 46 46 46 46 48 48 38 15. the next is green. with eyes closed. Indian Cap Coin. Stand by. Understand. I did not hear your whole sentence. Roger. Echo 04 22 27. It's almost like a very brilliant rainbow. Roger. About the balloon.5 03 44 14. still drifting aimlessly. Understand no problem expected. although intermittently. Your inverter temperatures are 183 [degrees] for the 150. I missed it. this time. Well. Roger. but balloon is still attached. At 3 53. You might remind them that the balloon is still on. That's very good. Aurora Seven. I'm shaking my head violently from all sides. I guarantee I'm breathing. Understand. the next is blue.. It extends at some Indian Cap Com. Your--your--inner ears and your mental appraisal of horizontal.5 21 28 35 48 16. Am going to turn it down just a tad-so it will be just about where the suit is. Negative.5 P P P 03 53 25. time zero button. line touch. great freedom. Do you want me to call them out to you? Over. Oh. boy! It feels good to get that leg stretched out. None of the colors are particularly visible. I was a little disoriented _ as to exactly where things are. and the next is sort of a--sort of a purple. Going to record--record only at this time. and the last . I'm taking a good swig of water. from that.5 03 55 30 03 56 09. yaw. 03 56 24. Area 3 Delta. that it jumped down to freezing.5 03 43 20 P CC P 03 43 54 03 44 05. I'm in drifting flight. Aurora Seven. . 3 Echo 04 22 27. Our medical monitor says that we are reading your respiration. That one and the right one too. These layers extend from at least 90 degrees either side of the sun at sunset. Aurora Seven. Roger. I will read retrosequence times in the blind. I saw a com--no. the first band close to the earth is red. pitch. not sure exactly what you want to accomplish by this but there is no problem of orienting. it's the balloon that I see. It makes it very hard to read. Stretching my legs a tad. I'm sure. Okay. I think-Excess cabin water light is on at this time. You are fading badIy. Don't let me forget about the shiny finish on the star chart. As a matter of fact.INDIAN 03 41 33 03 42 04 03 42 13 03 42 19.

Outside of that. I think. Reset cabin water at about 6 and in this capsule it seems optimum settings are right between 6 and 7. but it is located at a distance about twice as far away as the top of the--the band at sunset. all systems are good. That was 60 cycles in 30 seconds on the exerciser. I hope so. then.t. Deke. Could you give us a c. That's probably close enough for government work. The flight plan calls for you to have a drink of water over here. Okay.5 14 17 04 03 12. C.5 04 00 57 04 01 02 04 01 06 04 04 04 04 04 01 01 01 01 01 18 24 27 39 45. the haze layer is very bright. gyros are caged. but I'm sure you'll lose it sho_ly after that. You're probably loaded for bear. Understand. Roger. Well. 102 . Okay.5 03 58 20 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 04 04 04 04 04 04 58 58 58 58 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 00 00 00 00 00 00 26.5 04 03 29 CC P CC Roger.5 19.e. about l0 minutes ago.t. I've tried that a number of times. Deke. we indicate you on. I would say 8 to 10 degrees above the real horizon. please. [ figure. I'll give you retro time for end of mission and would like to have you set the clock to this at this time.. It's thinner. Good. Very good. so if you see some lights up in that area. on my mark will be 4 hours I minute. the needle dropped down to 20. too.5 11. the oxygen is reading 76 and 100 [percent]. I have a good set of stars to watch going through at this time. Roger. For you. starting blood pressure.5 29 35. Roger. that's fine. Yeah. Roger.e. The visor has been open for some time. it's twice as thick. for your information. I just.5 20. I have had three long drinks of water. all things.5 28. Did you by any chance try T/M keying over the Cape on your last pass? I think I may have to mark time for tensiometer reading on the balloon.5 Hello. 04 32 34. It's possible if you go to deploy position and back to release. Understand. to the second. the maneuver switch is off.5 24. Aurora Seven. I'll try and get some photometer readings. I'll give you the calibrated exercise at this time. The visor is coming closed now.5 03 58 04. Loud and clear.5 31 35 35. Roger. My fuel reads 45 and 42 [percent]. you can-Roger. my control mode is manual. And blood pressure is starting now. Would you please exercise prior to your second blood pressure. And I would say that the haze layer is about twice as high above the horizon as the the bright blue band at sunset is.e. MARK. It's twice as--sunset. she'll probably come into your face on retrofire. A star. Okay. I am reading 04 32 34. now. I just can't get rid of it.5 40.5 49 00. Roger. Roger. on retrotime. steam vent temperatures are 68 [degrees] on the suit and I just got excess cabin water light.5 43 CC P CC CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P P CC CC P CC CC P CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC P CC P 04 00 51.MUCHEA 03 57 00 03 57 06. Roger. Okay.5 38. Stand by. Roger. How me? Coming in loud and clear. hack.5 04 03 14.5 03 58 16. now. It is not twice as thick. Deke. I'll let you know.t. I do. blood pressure start.5 15. 35 seconds. Still one second off. Roger. cloud--is five-tenths and it's only one-eighth to the north over Port Moresby. Understand you still have the balloon with you. I overshot.5 07. stars are occluded as we pass through this haze layer.5 03 57 08 P CC P (THIRD PASS) 03 58 01. stand by. Understand visor coming closed. I've been taking some readings on stars through the haze layer with the photometer.5 46. We indicate 35. The last one was. Roger. Muchea Cap Com. Deke. It's goinginto the clock now--whoop. Still you indicate 1 second slow on g. ? Roger. 32 34 Understand. Roger. Roger. Okay. we'd like to know about it. Exercise start. 4 01 35.5 25 31. 60 cycles in 30 seconds. Do you feel like you need one- 04 01 51 04 04 04 04 02 02 02 02 00 01.

Aurora Seven.5 03. fuel is 45 and 42 [percent]. reading on Pheeda in--in the Big Dipper prior to entry in the. You say visor is open? That's negative. the. I have had plenty of water to drink. Woomera Cap Com. The horizon band width is exactly equal to the X. Phecda will not--I can't even get a reading on it through the photometer. The suit temperature is 60 [degrees[.5 31. In the middle of the haze layer. Standing by. Phecda now extincts at 1. It's impossible to get dark-adapted in here. Let me see. I'll have to. very little. cabin is holding an indicated 4. Cabin steam vent is 10. Aurora Seven. Now. The visor is coming open now.5 P P P 04 04 04 04 04 11 11 11 12 12 07. let me see. Very bright.5 04 18 00. This is a layer.5 04 15 04 04 17 23. my helmet. but the suit environment temperature is 60 [degrees]. I am in drifting flight.5.5 CC P CC P 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 05 06 06 06 06 06 06 55. I have put the moon--in the center of the window and it just drifts very. fuel reads 46 and 40 [percent].5 15. Cabin temperature is 101 [degrees]. This haze layer is very bright through the airglow filter. Roger.5 32. I would like to have a little bit more pad on the temperature.5 04 09 52. Spica--stand by.5 P CC P It's very Rog.5 29. Woomera. Roger. and yaw left 20 [degrees]. All right for the record. Woomera. It's keeping a constant bearing at all times. Roger. How do you read? Over. roll right 130 [degrees].5 . The suit temperature is coming down substantially. for the narrow. I believe. the cabin temperature continues at 102 [degrees]. I did not open it. thisis Aurora Seven. this is Woomera. All right. I'll get an accurate band width. with the airglow filter. this time from the moonlit side. my status is very good. or below and mark about 5 seconds ago. I have 22 minutes and 20 seconds left for retrofire. all d-e power continues to be good. both a-c busses are good. CC P CC CC P CC P 04 08 00. Stand by. Standing by. to_ 103 . The reticle extincts at 5.5 35. into the haze It occludes--it is extinct at roughly 2.5. I think that I will try to get some of this equipment stowed at this time.5 now. Did you copy my last? Over.5 04 18 21 P P P Aurora Seven. let's see. Visor is open and the visor is coming closed nowat this time. Visor coming open. At this time cabin steam vent going to record only. There is the moon. Roger. Hello. (THIRD PASS)--Continued and as bright as the horizon of the earth itself. loud and clear. I can't explain it.5 P P P P P P P P 04 13 51 04 14 46. I'm quite comfortable. Woomera.5 08. but along my face it's warm. Do you read? Over. TM mark time in the middle of the haze layer. Roger. Woomera.8. The suit is cool.5 51 28 49. my--my status is very good. It's very interesting to remark that my attitude--and the--is roughly pitchup plus 30 [degrees]. There is the horizon band again. Woomera. The time now is 4 17 44. suit steam vent is 62.7 in the mid. WOOMERA (THIRD PASS) 04 04 04 04 05 05 05 05 02 05.5 04 09 27. Steam vent temperature is not down much. Phecda is now below the horizon. Okay. oxygen is 75-100 [percent]. but I can't seem to get it. Looks no different--here than it does on the ground. And there is Scorpio. Cabin temperature. Visor open. And blood pressure is coming your way at this time. with that light the way it is. I won't open it until I get through with these readings.5 27. Visor coming open now. The balloon at this time is moving right along with me. it's very difficult to do this because of the lights from that time correlation clock.5 01.. this Woomera Cap Com. in mid position between the haze layer and the earth. a little bit less. cabin water flow is all the way off and reducing back to about 7.MUCHEA 04 03 33 04 03 41 04 03 59. Standby.. Interesting. now it emerged from the brightest part of the haze layer. It is now clearly visible. because the band width--there is the sun . That's very handy. There seems to be a stagnant place in the. 20 Amps. I'll give you a full report very shortly..

Roger. They--some appear to glow. Let me get the stowage and then you can help me with the pre-retrograde. Roger. 12 feet per second. They are capsule emanating. here. Hawaii Cap Com. Is you_ maneuver switch off? The maneuver switch is off. Roger. yaw and pitch handles in. They are very bright. do you copy? Over. let's try and get some of this retrosequence list checked off before you get to California. but I read you. Let me yaw around the other way. Everything is fine. Taking some pictures at F 2. one of the balloon.5 36 47 11. loud and clear. Roger. this is Hawaii Com Teeh. How do you read? Over.5 P (THIRD PASS)--Continued 04 20 25 P 04 21 39.5 35 39. I can rap the hatch and stir off hundreds of them. I have a rate of descent. That's where they come from. to Aux Damp. Are you on UHF-Hi? Roger. Ahhhhh! Beautiful lighted fireflies that time. But it's only. Aurora Seven. Jim. They are.5 44. Will do. auto retrojettison switch off. roll. UHF-Hi. Going into orbit attitude at this time. I have a problem in. They're brilliant. Do you read me? Over. James? Gee.5 47. Do you read me or do you not. How do you read me? Roger.5 P Sunrise.5 49 54 56.5 29.5 06 12. Scott. I think ASCS is not operating properly. Roger. say again. Jim. Roger. can we get on with the checklist? We have approximately 3 minutes left of contact. Go ahead.5 26. How me? Aurora Seven. do you wish me to read out any of the checklist to you? Roger. The pictures now. too. I have a rate of descent of about 12 feet per second. how do you read? Hello. Aurora Seven. Hawaii. I think they would really shine through 9 on the photometer. Go ahead with the checklist. I have part of the stowage checklist taken care of at this time. I'm coming to retroattitude now and my control mode is automatic and my attitudes-standby. Roger. I've got to evaluate this retro--this ASCS problem. Wait a minute. Standing by. trying to orient. of about 10. Roger. Roger. I'm alining my attitudes. they all right.5 CC P 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 46. Let's see. Some appear to glow but I don't believe they really do. okay. I havc if anybody reads. huge streams come out. Copy. Okay. I read you momentarily on UHF. Roger. Rap the side of the capsule. Squib switch armed. HAWAII (THIRD PASS) 04 22 07 04 22 10 04 22 19 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 21 26 31.5 53. Roger. and now--attitudes do nut agree. light is on. Seven. I'm going now to fly-by-wire. Hawaii. Go through it. How me? Hawafi Com Tech. Make sure your emergency drogue deploy and emergency main fuses are off. Hawaii Cap Com. Orientate the spacecraft and go to thc ASCS. before we go any further. manual handle out. I am back on fly-by-wire. What light was on? Yes. Emergency retrosequence is armed and retro manual is armed. it's just thc light of the sun. Copied.5 59 13 16 24 11 14 15 18 20 23.5 17 24 55 CT P P CT P CC P CC P CC P P CC P CC CC P CC P CC P P CC CC P CC CC P P Aurora Seven. Standing by. I'll try to get a picture of it. I have the fireflies.5 CC P CC P CC P P CC 104 . 04 26 00 04 26 33. Let me_. Going into orbit attitude at this time. I have an ASCS problem here. Are you ready to start your pre-retrosequence checklist? Roger.8 and bulb. Roger. Aurora Seven. you are weak. Roger. It was luminous that time. Hawaii Com Tech. Say again. Aurora Seven. Aurora Seven.5 04 27 04 04 27 13. Jim. Roger. You are readable. go through the checklist for me. I judge from this that the whole side of the capsule must have frost on it. They are little tiny white pieces of frost. Roger. I'll rap. Five minutes to retrograde. The sun is too bright now. reading you loud and clear Hawaii. One moment. gyros normal. Okay.WOOMERA 04 19 22.

Loud and clear. I'm not sure just what the status of the ASCS is at this time. Fire 1. I'll have to do it with manual. Understand RSCS did not work. Al. the retro manual fuse switch is on. if it's not working.5 50 53 CT P CT CC P 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 33 33 06 21 23. I am apparently out of manual fuel. 6Tumbling here refers to low rates of all axes. retract scope auto.5 Aurora Seven. How me? I'm reading you loud and clear also. fire 2. Yes. your warning lights are bright. Retrosequence is green. Seven. Do you copy? Roger. Okay. It's complete. Okay.5 55 56. I think we're in good shape. All three have fired. 6 Roger. Roger.5 10 15 19 23.5 P CC 04 29 59 04 30 00. Roger. Transmitting in the blind. I have to go to fly-by-wire to stop this tumbling. the retrojettison fuse switch is off. I guess we'd better use-I'll use manual. ---on reentry. Ground elapsed time is on my mark. That was a nice gentle bump. Check your faceplate and make sure that it is closed. however. The--I think they were good. 2. yaw. 4. About 10 seconds on my mark. 0.5 28 36 40 47 51 54. Al. the spacecraft to proper att/rude by the pi/or before it had made _ revolution.HAWAII 04 28 42. Retroattitude was red. 1. Ah. 3. Scotty. Recommend you try Aux Damp first. Copied all. We should have retrojettison in about I0 seconds. ASCS is bad. Al. Retroattitude auto. 6. Aurora Seven. Roger. 3. on time. and pitch are in. California Com Tech. About 30 seconds to go. I'll have to do that. all batteries checked.5 05. Transmitting in the blind to Aurora Seven. I don't have agreement with ASCS in the window. Roger. Using fly-by-wire to stop tumbling. Gyros are off. Roger. 4. Attitudes hold. Make sure all your tone switches are on. How much fuel do you have left both tanks? I have 20 and 5 [percent]. Roger. maneuver switch off. Okay. UHF-Hi power. Are you in retroattitude? Yes. this is Cap Com. it can. this is California Corn Tech. The balloon is gone [out of sight]. California Com Tech. unless ASCS holds you in reentry attitude. Do you hear? Over.5 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 51. I had to punch off manually. was returned 105 . I can't tell you what was wrong about them because the gyros were not quite right. Aurora Seven. I have alittle bit of smoke in the capsule. I think they held well. Roger. 1. then go to fly-by-wire.5 CC P Roll. beacon continuous. CALIFORNIA (THIRD PASS) 04 31 36 04 04 04 04 31 31 31 31 42 45. Roger. Hello.5 04 35 27. We concur.5 O0 14. We have LOS. right then at 34 10.5 04 28 46.5 58. But retrojettison--3 fuse switches are on. If your gyros are off. transmit on UHF. Roger.5 CC CC P CC P CC CC P CC P CC P CC P 04 33 30 04 33 31. Roger. Check ASCS quickly to see if orientation mode will hold. you'll have to use attitude bypass. I think I'm going to have to go to fly-by-wire and use the window and the scope. periscope lever up. 4 hours 29 minutes and 30 seconds. 2. Did you copy? Roger. But you'll have to use attitude bypass and manual override. Should have retrojettison now. Stand by for Cap Com. Aurora Seven. 5. VOX power on transmit and record.5 31 39 45 53 CC P P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC P P CC CC P 04 35 13. I am out of manual fuel.5 P CC (THIRD PASS)--Continued 04 29 10 04 29 15. and fire 3. I'm on fly-by-wire and manual.5 26 27.5 04 35 24.

3-foot waves.000 feet. Going to be tight on fuel.05 g should be when? Oh. You have a few minutes to start of blackout. Over. Roger. How are you doing on reentry attitude? Over. The scope did come in.5 52. I'll get back to reentry attitude. Yes. please. It's going to be real tight on fuel. You've got overcast cloud. Check. I don't know yet. You'll have to manually retract the scope..5 10 28 04 37 39. We're in good shape for stowage. It should be 04 44 elapsed time Take your time on fly-by-wire to get into reentry attitude. . I didn't.5 18. I've got the horizon in view now. Will you check your glove compartment and make sure iVs latc?_ed and your . Roger. Aurora Seven. rivers. you say? Aurora Seven. and the cloud bases are at 1. Roger. Roger. checklist.5 24. Over. recommend you get close to reentry attitude. you have about 7 minutes before . Roger. I think. No. pasture land below. have you completed your reentry .5 28.5 32. but it is empty and ineffective. Give me your fuel. roads.5 04 36 05 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 36 36 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 14.5 54 10 12 18. Take a while. Roger. using as little fuel as possible and stand by on fly-by-wire until rates develop.5 106 . Roger.5 20. I just lost part of the balloon.5 20 27 33 49 50 52. Two r_dnutes. but I can't get anything out of it.. Roger You have plenty of time.5 40 42. . Cape Cap Com. Will give you some more as soon as we get an IP. It is now. Aurora Seven.5 22 CC P CC P CC P CC P CC . Aurora Seven. Roger.5 I was just looking over your reentry checklist. Cap Com. Hello Cape Cap Com. Yes. .. Roger Seven. this is California. We're losing you now. . Roger. of time. Trying to keep rates very low. Aurora Seven.5 04 37 50 04 38 03 04 38 08. Do you have your face. I can make out very. lakes.. Roger. Loud and clear.P CC P CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC P CC P CC CC P CC P CC CC P Aurora Seven. Cap Com.05 g so take . 10 miles visibility. I see individual fields. Cape Cap Com. 8 knots of wind. Roger. Hello. Cap Com. Roger. Looks like you're in pretty good shape. I'm indicating 7 [percent] manual. CAPE CANAVERAL (THIRD PASS) 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 40 40 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 42 42 42 42 42 50. I didn't get that. Okay. Loud and clear. Seven. Rog. it's tight. 04 35 46 04 35 50. Okay. Aurora Seven.. The string from the balloon. Very good. . 04 42 28. Al. Do you still read? Roger.5 08 10 12. Roger. you have plenty of time. Roger. faceplate closed? Negative. very small--farm land. We show you still have some manual fuel left.5 16 18. Go ahead.5 45 CC P CC P CC P CC P CC CC P P P CC P P CC P CC P (THIRD PASS)--Continued Roger. Will do. You have plenty Roger. Cap Com. Thank you.5 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 39 45 47 05 10. Stowing a few things first.5 16 18 21.5 46 54 02. .5 29. Roger. Go ahead.. Starting into blackout anytime now. Cape Cap Com.5 12. Roger. Fuel is 15 [percent] auto. Gus. Just wanted to hear from you. Stand by for Cape. Over.CALIFORNIA 04 04 04 04 35 35 35 35 31 34. The weather in the recovery area is good.5 37.

Snorkle override now. Say again. Okay. Cape. Reentry is going pretty well. Gus? Gus. 107 0.5 43. give me a try.000 ft. Aurora Seven reading the Cape.5 04 55 06 04 55 27 04 55 36 P CC P P CC P CC P I don't have a roll rate in yet. Emergency drogue fuse switch is on. We're off peak g. how do you read? Aurora Seven. Understand. Understand 1 hour.000] ft. I'll put some in when I begin to get the g buildup.. Almost looked like it came off the tower. here come some rates. We will jump the air rescue people to you. We're at 1_ g's now.CAPE 04 43 52 04 44 07. Emergency main fuse switch at 15 [1. Aurora Seven..$. Should be 13. Main deploy fuse switch is on now.. Not much glow: just a little. Looks from the sun like it might be about 45 degrees. There's some green flashes out there. Roger. Cape Cap Com. and it looks good to me. think we'll have to let the reentry damping check go this time. Aurora Seven. visor open. I only was reading 0.5 04 50 29. Still losing a few streaming. It's holding and it was just in time.5 54.5 P P P P P P P P P CANAVERAL (THIRD PASS)--Continued 04 47 02. Aurora Seven. I assume we're in blackout now. 100 [1.5 13 16 P P CC P CC P 04 54 14 04 54 27 04 54 29 04 54 41. I hope not.]. 21 [1. Loud and clear. I don't think I'm oscillating too much. . The drogue has fallen away. Roger.000 [feet]. No. that's shock waves. do you read yet? Altimeter is off the peg. I hope we have enough fuel. rate of descent is coming down. Getting some pretty good oscillations now and we're out of fuel. The orange glow has disappeared now. Aux Damp seems to be doing welh My fuel.].5 17. Okay. holds out. Getting a few streamers of smoke out behind.] indicated [altitude]. Landing bag goes to auto now. Your landing point is 200 miles long. Over. I am not in contact with any recovery forces.000 [feet] now. cabin pressure is--cabin pressure is holding okay. any Mercury recovery force. seem to be rolling right around that glow--the sky behind. standing by for the main chute at 10 [1. Still indicating 14 [percent] auto fuel. Cabin temperature is only 110 [degrees] at this point.5 07. Over. Cape Cap Com.0O0 ft. Loud and clear.000 ft. Roger.5 04 51 33. And I'm standing by for altimeter off the peg.5 04 44 28. Smoke pouring out behind. 95. Bright orange glow. it's coming like it's really going over..5 04 04 04 04 04 04 44 45 45 45 45 46 52. Be advised your landing point is long. any Mercury recovery forces. Does anybody read Aurora Seven? Over. We're reading 3 g's.].5 04 54 56.5 P 04 49 58 04 50 20. GOVERNMENTPRINTING OFFICE: 19_12 0'_654533 . Anrora Seven. Roger. Picking up just a little acceleration now. Drogue out manually at 25 [1. Hello. Hello. The reentry seems to be going okay. Roger. Oscillations are pretty good.5 30.000 ft.8 g's.000 ft]. Over.5 P ? P 04 50 51 P 04 51 12. I hope. Reading 0. I'm reading. cabin altimeter agree on altitude. Cape Cap Con. The rates there that Aux Damp appears to be handling. I'm reading you. Going to Aux Damp. Aurora Seven'. Does anyone read Aurora Seven? Over.5 g.back to 5 g's. You're very weak.5 P 04 47 36. · . Roger. How me. I see a perfect chute. Do you have any information on the recovery time? Over. Okay. Still peaked at 6. How do you read Aurora Seven? Over. The main chute is out. Status is good. Auto fuel still reads 14 (percent) at 6. Emergency flow rate on. I think ASCS has given up the ghost at this point. Aurora Seven. Aux Damp seems to-be keeping oscillations pretty good. We will jump air rescue people to you in about 1 hour. Oww. I get the orange glow at this time. Does anybody read. Aurora Seven. There was a large flaming piece coming off. There is 1 g. 7 Oh. There goes something tearing away. Think I'd better take a try on the drogue. Cape Cap Com. Reading now 4 g's. ' Tower here refers to cylindrical section of the spacecraft.5 g's on the accelerometer. I'm on the main chute at 5.5 P P 04 04 04 04 04 04 52 52 53 53 53 53 39. I see the main is out.5 06 13.5 g's. reading okay. I've got the orange glow. Mark 10. and reefed.5 04. I'm setting in a roll rate at this time. Cabin pressure. Aurora Seven. Getting ready for the drogue at 45 [1. Gus. Helmet hose is off. Rates are holding to within 1_ degrees per second indicating about 10 degrees per second roll rate.5 04 47 47 P P 04 49 18.