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Reference

Calculation

Output

Ac Acc As As min av b c d Fc Ft fcu fs fy G H Hx Hy h KEL L lx ly lz M Mx My Mz q r SLS T t ULS V v vc x x' y' z z'

Area of concrete Area of concrete in compression Area of tension reinforcement Minimum area of tension reinforcement Length of that part of member traversed by shear failure plane With (breath) or effective width of section Cover to outer diameter Effective depth of section Basic force used in defining compressive forces Basic force used in defining tie forces Characteristic strength of concrete Estimated design service stress in the tension reinforcement Characteristic strength of reinforcement Shear modulus Maximum horizontal force Horizontal force in x direction Horizontal force in y direction Overall depth Knife edge load Critical perimeter Dimension of element on x direction Dimension of element on y direction Dimension of element on z direction Design ultimate resistance moment Moment on x axis Moment on y axis Moment on z axis Surcharge load Internal radius of bend Serviceability limit state Traction force Thickness of the element Ultimate limit state Shear force due to design ultimate loads or design ultimate value of a concentrated load Design shear stress Design shear stress in concrete Neutral axis depth Distance from Y axis to the centroid of an element Distance from X axis to the centroid of an element Lever arm Distance from X - Y plane to point where the considered resultant force acting Coefficient, variously defined, as appropriate Strain in tension reinforcement Nominal range of movement Soil friction angle, or diameter Active earth pressure Unit weight of soil Partial load factor Partial load factor

s
a fL f3

D E C

DESIGN UNIT EPC DIVISION

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D E C CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB) Reference Calculation

Job Code

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D E C

DESIGN UNIT

Doc. No. Designed

Date

D E EPC DIVISION C CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB) Reference Calculation

Checked Job Code

Date Page Output

Doc. No.

D DESIGN UNIT E EPC DIVISION C CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB) Reference Calculation

Designed Checked Job Code

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D DESIGN UNIT E EPC DIVISION C CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB) Reference Calculation

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D E C

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Reference

Calculation Design of Box Culvert


Ground Level

Output

hs

B
H

hw l

hw

hs

Figure 01 Dimentional Properties h l Soil Cover , H Safe Bearing Pressure = = = = = = = = = = = = 1.2 m 1.5 m 7.2 m 150 kN/m2 0.2 m ( hw , h = span/(10 ~15))

Section Thickness Main R/F Cover to R/F Grade of Concrete


Properties of Soil

12 mm 45 mm 25 N/mm2 24 kN/m3
20 25 kN/m3
o

c
s

w
' 1 - Permanent Loads 1.1 Dead Loads

9.81 kN/m3

The nominal dead doad consist of the weight of the materials and the part of the structure Structural Engineering Design in preactice (Roger westbrook) (page-94) Depth of cover (H) 3 x width = = 3 x width < = 7.2 = 3 x Unit Weight of Concrete shall be taken as 24 kN/m3 Becouse of the arching of soil, check whether the depth above culvert is > 3 x width of culvert ( in which case limit depth to 3 x width )

m 1.6
So

4.8 m 7.2 m

Depth limited to Surcharge on Roof


Surcharge Presure (qr) qr

4.8 m

= =

4.8 x 96

20 kN/m2

Soil Engineering (Spangler & Handy)

Casses of conduit installation consider as Ditch Conduit Ditch Conduit A ditch conduit is defined as one which is instaled in a relatively narrow
ditch dug in passive or undisturbed soil and wich is then covered with earth backfill.

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Reference
Maximum load on ditch condition Depth of cover

Calculation

Output

7.2

Surcharge on Roof
Surcharge Presure (qr) (qr) = Cd..Bd2 Cd ' = ,

1-e-2K'(H/Bd)
2.K.'

= tan '

1-sin
1+sin

'

coedicient of friction between fill material and side of ditch


Active Lateral earth pressure coeficient

K
Bd

Horizontal width of ditch at top of conduit


Unit weight (wet density) of filling material Height of fill above top of conduite Load coeficient for ditch condition = =

H
Cd So, K

1-sin
1+sin 0.406 0.466 0.76 1.403

Bd =

3.60 m, Consider 1m length of Roof slab

'

= tan ' =

2.K.'.(H/Bd) = Cd (qr) (qr) Structural


Engineering

= Cd..Bd2 =

101.0 kN/m2

1.2 Horizontal Earth Pressure If the backfill properties are known, If wall friction is to be ignored K0 Ka = 1-sin ' = ( 1-sin ' ) / ( 1+sin ' ) ( = 0 ) = = 0.58 0.41

Design in preactice (Roger westbrook) (page-94)

q max

= .Ka.h = 20 x 0.41 x = 73.9 kN/m2 = 20 x 0.41 x = 15.42 kN/m2 = qmax - qep = 58.44 kN/m2

9.1

qep

1.9

q q

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Reference
AASHTO 3.7.1 2 - Vertical Live Loads

Calculation

Output

For Fill Depths H 8 feet (2400 mm) and Culvert Clear Span Length, The effect of live load is neglected in design when the depth of fill is more than

8 feet
3 - Hydrostatic Pressure (Internal)

q ip

= C.h = 9.81 x 1.7 = 16.68 kN/m2

4 - Analysis Reinforced Concrete Designers Manual (ref-5.1) Constant K = h l


hs {h }3
w

= = = = = =

1.21 K+1 K+3 2K+3 2K+7 3K+8 = = = = = 2.21 4.21 5.43 9.43 11.64

k1 k3 k5 k7 k8

4.1 Load Case -01 Testing Condition 4.1.1 Hydrostatic Pressure-(Internal) Reinforced Concrete Designers Manual (ref-5.1)
D q = qip Pressures B.M.D C qip A B

MA =

2 MB = qip.h .K.k7 60.k1.k3 = 0.99 kN.m/m

MC =

MD = Ma. K8 k7 = 1.22 kN.m/m

4.1.2 Flexure due to weight of wall Wall weight ( G ) = hw..h = Reinforced Concrete Designers Manual (ref-5.1)
q1 Pressures G G A B

8.2 kN/m

q1 = 2.G l.hw

10.20 kN/m2

MA =

2 MB = q1.l .K 12.k1.k3 = 0.22 kN.m/m

D B.M.D

MC =

MD = Ma. K5 K = -0.97

kN.m/m

4.1.3 Flexure due to weight of Roof q = hs.c = 4.8

kN/m2

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Reference
A B

Calculation

Output

MA =
D q = q1 Pressures B.M.D C

MB =

MC =

MD

2 = q.l 12.k1 = -0.35

kN.m/m f
1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4

Addition of moment for Load case 01 Position


A and B

Hydrostatic 0.99 1.22 0.99 1.22 * -2.06

f 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4

ulsMb 1.38 1.70 1.38 1.70 -2.88

Walls 0.22 -0.97 0.22 ** 1.53 -0.38


Table - 01

Roof -0.35 -0.35

Walls + Roof -0.14 -1.32 1.04 2.35 -0.73

ulsMb
-0.19 -1.85 1.45 3.29 -1.02

Total uls
1.19 -0.15 2.83 5.00 -3.90

C and D Roof midSpan Base midSpan Walls middle

**
0.82

**
0.82 -0.35

Fixed end mement of the wall for Hydrostatic load MA = = W.L 15 1.61 kN.m/m = = = MC = W.L 10 2.41 kN.m/m W.L 23.3 -1.0 kN.m/m

Maximum (-ve) moment (Where x is 0.45L from C)

* Calculation of moment at mid span of walls done by aproximatly by adding moment transferred to mid span from FEM to the Maximum negative meoment occurred at 0.45L after moment distribution ** Moment at mid span of the wall is calculated by considering full bending Calculation of midspan moment due to wall load Niutral axis depth from A = 0.26 m

4.2 Load Case -02 Culvert empty and trench filled

Lateral soil pressurees giving rise to flexture in the structure "q"is the rectanguler pressure and "qep" is the triangular pressure
4.2.1 Trianguler Pressure,qep Reinforced Concrete Designers Manual (ref-5.1)
qep Pressures qep D B.M.D C A B

MA =

2 MB = qep.h .K.k7 60.k1.k3 = -0.91 kN.m/m

MC =

MD = MA. K8 k7 = -1.13 kN.m/m

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Reference
4.2.2 Surcharge on walls,q Reinforced Concrete Designers Manual (ref-5.1)

Calculation
A B

Output

MB = MC = MD 2 = q.h .K 12.k1 = -7.72 kN.m/m 4.2.3 Surcharge on Roof ,qr MA = MB = MC = MD 2 = q.l 12.k1 = -7.45 kN.m/m Addition of moment for Load Case 2
Posotion

MA =

D Pressures
A

C B.M.D
B

D Pressures B.M.D

qep
-0.91 -1.13 -0.91 -1.13

Walls & Surcharg - Total Roof(LC-1) e (Roof) (Survice)

f 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4

Total U.L.S.

A and B

-7.72 -7.72 -7.72 -7.72

-0.14 -1.32 1.04 2.35 -0.73

-7.45 -7.45 17.29 17.29 -7.45

-16.22 -17.62 9.70 10.80 6.65

-22.70 -24.66 13.58 15.12 9.31

C and D Roof midSpan Base midSpan Walls middle

*
1.43

**
13.39

Fixed end mement of the wall due to qep MA = = W.L 15 1.49 kN.m/m = = = 4.2 Load Case -03 4.2.1 This is load case 02 + Hydrostatic load from Load case 01 MC = W.L 10 2.23 kN.m/m W.L 23.3 -1.0 kN.m/m

Maximum (-ve) moment (Where x is 0.45L from C)

Posotion

L.C.02 (Service)

Hydrost. (Service)

Total (Service)

L.C.02 (U.L.S.)

Hydrost. (U.L.S.)

Total

(U.L.S.)

A and B

-16.22 -17.62 9.70 10.80 6.65

0.99 1.22 0.99 1.22 -2.06

-15.23 -16.40 10.69 12.02 4.59

-22.70 -24.66 13.58 15.12 9.31

1.38 1.70 1.38 1.70 -2.88

-21.32 -22.96 14.96 16.83 6.43

C and D Roof midSpan Base midSpan Walls middle

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Reference

Calculation
5 - Check on ground safe bearing pressure 5.1 Load Case -01 Hydrostatic Pressure Weight of walls Weight of Roof + Floor Total Pressure Total Pressure 5.2 Load Case -02 Weight of walls Weight of Roof + Floor Surcharge on Roof Total Pressure Total Pressure 5.3 Load Case -03 Weight of walls Weight of Roof + Floor Surcharge on Roof Hydrostatic Pressure Total Pressure Total Pressure 6 - U.L.S. of Flexture Maximum Moments kN.m/m Member Roof Walls Base i - Slabs Maximum Moment = 24.15 kN.m/m Hogging -22.70 -24.66 -24.66 (L.C-01) (L.C-02) (L.C-02) Sagging 14.96 9.31 16.83 (L.C-03) (L.C-02) (L.C-03) < 150 kN/m2 = = = = = 10.20 9.60 96.00 16.68 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 < 150 kN/m2 = = = = 10.20 9.60 96.00 kN/m2 kN/m2 < 150 kN/m2 = = = = 16.68 10.20 9.60 36.48 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2

Output

kN/m2 hence ok

kN/m2 115.80 kN/m2 hence ok

kN/m2 122.28 kN/m2 hence ok

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Reference
6-

Calculation Design Calculation for Box Culvert

Output

6.1 U.L.S. of Flexture Analysis was carried out for several load cases of various loading arrangements to find out the maximum effect on the Box culvert Diameter of main reinforcement Diameter of secondary reinforcement

Section Thickness Maximum Bending Moment

mm mm = 200 mm
12 12 =

24.15

kN.m/m

Assume severe environment condition, for driving rain = 45 mm Cover Effective depth, d k =
200 45 -

6 2

= 149

mm

= 149

mm 2 = M / (bd fcu) = (24.15x106 /(1000x1492x25) = 0.044 < 0.156

Hence no compression r/f is required M z = (0.87fy)Asz = (1 - 1.1fyAs/ fcubd) d z z equation 1 equation 5

from these two equations

= d (0.5+(0.25-k/0.9)1/2 1/2 = d [0.5+(0.25-0.044/0.9) = 141.41


< 0.950 d

Take Z as 0.95d Z = 0.95 d = 0.95 x 149 6.1.1 Design of main reinforcement As = M / 0.87fyz

= 142

mm

= 24.15 x106 / 0.87x460x142 = 426 mm2/m Use T 12 @

As req 426 452

= mm2/m mm2/m

250

( As

mm /m

As pro =
452

Minimum area of main rainforcement for slabs 100As / bad = 100x452/(1000x149) Hence o.k

= 0.30

## 0.13

Main r/f T 12 @ 250

6.2 Design for Shear Reinforcement

Check shear in U.L.S. on roof and floor slabs Take Load case 02 Shear across support = ( 115.80 - Wt of Base x f ) = 109.08 kN/m2 Therefore shear in the support = = 109.08 x 1.2 /2 65.45 kN/m Doc. No. Designed Checked Job Code

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Reference
Design shear force, V design Effective depth, d

Calculation
= = 65.45 kN/m

Output

149 mm Tension steel across shear plane = Y12 -250 c/c

100 As/bd = =
BS 8110 Part 01 table 3.1 Design shear stress v Effective depth

100 x 452 1000x149 0.30

vc

= 149 mm 1/3. 1/4 = 0.79x{(100As/bd) (400/d) /1.25 = 0.54


= V/bd = (65.45x103)/(1000x149) = 0.44 N/mm2

<

vc

Hence o.k

6.3 Check in U.L.S. on the ability of the wall to trasmit the axial loads Bs 8110 3.9.3.6.2 3.4.4.1 Treat as a column with bending at right angle to wall

Check h/hw

= =

1.7 / 0.2 8.5 < 12 hence column is short

BS 8110 indicates that the effect of the axial load may be ignored if this force does not exceed 0.1.fcu.(c.s.a.)

hence

0.1.fcu.(C.S.A)

=
= = =

0.1 x
600 +

30 x
kN/m

200
1.7 x 1.4 1.7 x 24x1.4 ) 600 kN/m

Ultimate Load /m/Wall

1/2( 96.0 x 0.2 x 120 kN/m < hence o.k.

The above calculation assumes that the wall is cosidered as reignfoced and not mass concrete vertical R/F provided so Area Percentage of Concrete area = Y = = = This is > Minimum of 0.4% 12 @ 200 2 Layers 1131.0 mm2 1131.0 x 1000 x 0.76 % > 100 149 0.4 % hence o.k.

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Reference

Calculation

Output

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