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4/4/2013 F1
Fluent Software Training
TRN98006
Heat Transfer and Thermal Boundary
Conditions
Headlamp modeled with
Discrete Ordinates
Radiation Model
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TRN98006
Outline
Introduction
Thermal Boundary Conditions
Fluid Properties
Conjugate Heat Transfer
Natural Convection
Radiation
Periodic Heat Transfer
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TRN98006
Introduction
Heat transfer in Fluent solvers allows inclusion of heat transfer within
fluid and solid regions in your model.
Handles problems ranging from thermal mixing within a fluid to
conduction in composite solids.
Energy transport equation is solved, subject to a wide range of thermal
boundary conditions.
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Options
Inclusion of species diffusion term
Energy equation includes effect of enthalpy transport due to species
diffusion, which contributes to energy balance.
This term is included in the energy equation by default.
You can turn off the Diffusion Energy Source option in the Species
Model panel.
Term always included in the coupled solver.
Energy equation in conducting solids
In conducting solid regions, simple conduction equation solved
Includes heat flux due to conduction and volumetric heat sources within
solid.
Convective term also included for moving solids.
Energy sources due to chemical reaction are included for reacting flow
cases.
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TRN98006
User Inputs for Heat Transfer (1)
1. Activate calculation of heat transfer.
Select the Enable Energy option in the Energy
panel.
Define Models Energy...
Enabling reacting flow or radiation will toggle
Enable Energy on without visiting this panel.
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User Inputs for Heat Transfer (2)
2. To include viscous heating terms in energy equation, turn on Viscous
Heating in Viscous Model panel.
Describes thermal energy created by viscous shear in the flow.
Often negligible; not included in default form of energy equation.
Enable when shear stress in fluid is large (e.g., in lubrication problems)
and/or in highvelocity, compressible flows.
3. Define thermal boundary conditions.
Define Boundary Conditions...
4. Define material properties for heat transfer.
Define Materials...
Heat capacity and thermal conductivity must be defined.
You can specify many properties as functions of temperature.
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Solution Process for Heat Transfer
Many simple heat transfer problems can be successfully solved using
default solution parameters.
However, you may accelerate convergence and/or improve the stability
of the solution process by changing the options below:
Underrelaxation of energy equation.
Solve Controls Solution...
Disabling species diffusion term.
Define Models Species...
Compute isothermal flow first, then add calculation of energy equation.
Solve Controls Solution...
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TRN98006
Theoretical Basis of Wall Heat Transfer
For laminar flows, fluid side heat transfer is approximated as:
n = local coordinate normal to wall
For turbulent flows, law of the wall is extended to treat wall heat flux.
The wallfunction approach implicitly accounts for viscous sublayer.
The nearwall treatment is extended to account for viscous dissipation
which occurs in the boundary layer of highspeed flows.
'' = ~ q k
T
n
k
T
n
wall
c
c
A
A
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Thermal Boundary Conditions at Flow Inlets
and Exits
At flow inlets, must supply
fluid temperature.
At flow exits, fluid
temperature extrapolated
from upstream value.
At pressure outlets, where
flow reversal may occur,
“backflow” temperature is
required.
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Thermal Conditions for Fluids and Solids
Can specify an energy source
using Source Terms option.
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Thermal Boundary Conditions at Walls
Use any of following thermal
conditions at walls:
Specified heat flux
Specified temperature
Convective heat transfer
External radiation
Combined external radiation
and external convective heat
transfer
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Fluid properties such as heat capacity, conductivity, and viscosity can
be defined as:
Constant
Temperaturedependent
Compositiondependent
Computed by kinetic theory
Computed by userdefined functions
Density can be computed by ideal gas law.
Alternately, density can be treated as:
Constant (with optional Boussinesq modeling)
Temperaturedependent
Compositiondependent
Fluid Properties
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TRN98006
Conjugate Heat Transfer
Ability to compute conduction of heat through solids, coupled with
convective heat transfer in fluid.
In 2D Cartesian coordinates:
Solid properties may vary with location, e.g.,
Density, µ
w
Specific heat, c
w
Conductivity, k
w
Solid conductivity, k
w
, may also be function of temperature.
is a uniformly distributed volumetric heat source.
May be function of time and space (using profiles or userdefined functions).
( ) q
y
T
k
y x
T
k
x
T c
t
w w w w
+


.

\

+

.

\

=
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
µ
c
c
q
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Conjugate Heat Transfer in FuelRod
Assembly
Fluid flow equations not
solved within solid regions.
Energy equation solved
simultaneously in full domain.
Convective terms dropped in
stationary solid regions.
Temperature contours
Grid
Velocity vectors
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Natural Convection  Introduction
Natural convection occurs
when heat is added to fluid
and fluid density varies with
temperature.
Flow is induced by force of
gravity acting on density
variation.
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Natural Convection  Boussinesq Model
Makes simplifying assumption that density is uniform.
Except for body force term in momentum equation, which is replaced by:
Valid when density variations are small.
When to use Boussinesq model:
Essential to calculate timedependent natural convection inside closed
domains.
Can also be used for steadystate problems.
Provided changes in temperature are small
You can get faster convergence for many naturalconvection flows than
by using fluid density as function of temperature.
Cannot be used with species calculations or reacting flows.
( ) ( ) µ µ µ  ÷ = ÷ ÷
0 0 0
g T T g
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User Inputs for Natural Convection (1)
1. Set gravitational acceleration.
Define Operating Conditions...
2. Fluid density
(a) If using Boussinesq model:
Select boussinesq as the Density method and assign a
constant value.
Set the Thermal Expansion Coefficient.
Define Materials…
Set the Operating Temperature in the Operating
Conditions panel.
Define Operating Conditions...
(b) Otherwise, define fluid density as function of
temperature.
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User Inputs for Natural Convection (2)
3. Optionally, specify Operating Density.
Does not apply for Boussinesq model.
4. Set boundary conditions.
Define Boundary Conditions...
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Radiation
Radiation intensity along any
direction entering medium
is reduced by:
Local absorption
Outscattering (scattering away
from the direction)
Radiation intensity along any
direction entering medium is
augmented by:
Local emission
Inscattering (scattering into the direction)
Four radiation models are provided in FLUENT:
Discrete Ordinates Model (DOM)
Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM)
P1 Radiation Model
Rosseland Model (limited applicability)
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Discrete Ordinates Model
The radiative transfer equation is solved for a discrete number of finite
solid angles:
Advantages:
Conservative method leads to heat balance for coarse discretization.
Accuracy can be increased by using a finer discretization.
Accounts for scattering, semitransparent media, specular surfaces.
Bandedgray option for wavelengthdependent transmission.
Limitations:
Solving a problem with a large number of ordinates is CPUintensive.
( )
i
i
i
scattering emmision absorption
x
I
+ + =
c
c
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Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM)
Main assumption: radiation leaving surface element in a specific range of
solid angles can be approximated by a single ray.
Uses raytracing technique to integrate radiant intensity along each ray:
Advantages:
Relatively simple model.
Can increase accuracy by increasing number of rays.
Applies to wide range of optical thicknesses.
Limitations:
Assumes all surfaces are diffuse.
Effect of scattering not included.
Solving a problem with a large number of rays is CPUintensive.
t
o
o o
4
T
I
ds
dI
+ ÷ =
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P1 Model
Main assumption: radiation intensity can be decomposed into series of
spherical harmonics.
Only first term in this (rapidly converging) series used in P1 model.
Effects of particles, droplets, and soot can be included.
Advantages:
Radiative transfer equation easy to solve with little CPU demand.
Includes effect of scattering.
Works reasonably well for combustion applications where optical
thickness is large.
Easily applied to complicated geometries with curvilinear coordinates.
Limitations:
Assumes all surfaces are diffuse.
May result in loss of accuracy, depending on complexity of geometry, if
optical thickness is small.
Tends to overpredict radiative fluxes from localized heat sources or sinks.
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Choosing a Radiation Model
For certain problems, one radiation model may be more
appropriate in general.
Define Models Radiation...
Computational effort: P1 gives reasonable accuracy with
less effort.
Accuracy: DTRM and DOM more accurate.
Optical thickness: DTRM/DOM for optically thin media
(optical thickness << 1); P1 better for optically thick media.
Scattering: P1 and DOM account for scattering.
Particulate effects: P1 and DOM account for radiation exchange between gas
and particulates.
Localized heat sources: DTRM/DOM with sufficiently large number of rays/
ordinates is more appropriate.
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TRN98006
Periodic Heat Transfer (1)
Also known as streamwiseperiodic or fullydeveloped flow.
Used when flow and heat transfer patterns are repeated, e.g.,
Compact heat exchangers
Flow across tube banks
Geometry and boundary conditions repeat in streamwise direction.
Outflow at one periodic boundary
is inflow at the other
inflow
outflow
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TRN98006
Periodic Heat Transfer (2)
Temperature (and pressure) vary in streamwise direction.
Scaled temperature (and periodic pressure) is same at periodic
boundaries.
For fixed wall temperature problems, scaled temperature defined as:
T
b
= suitably defined bulk temperature
Can also model flows with specified wall heat flux.
u =
÷
÷
T T
T T
wall
b wall
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TRN98006
Periodic Heat Transfer (3)
Periodic heat transfer is subject to the following constraints:
Either constant temperature or fixed flux bounds.
Conducting regions cannot straddle periodic plane.
Properties cannot be functions of temperature.
Radiative heat transfer cannot be modeled.
Viscous heating only available with heat flux wall boundaries.
Flow must be specified by pressure jump in coupled solvers.
Contours of Scaled Temperature
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TRN98006
Summary
Heat transfer modeling is available in all Fluent solvers.
After activating heat transfer, you must provide:
Thermal conditions at walls and flow boundaries
Fluid properties for energy equation
Available heat transfer modeling options include:
Species diffusion heat source
Combustion heat source
Conjugate heat transfer
Natural convection
Radiation
Periodic heat transfer
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