© Fluent Inc.

4/4/2013 F1
Fluent Software Training
TRN-98-006
Heat Transfer and Thermal Boundary
Conditions
Headlamp modeled with
Discrete Ordinates
Radiation Model
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Fluent Software Training
TRN-98-006
Outline
 Introduction
 Thermal Boundary Conditions
 Fluid Properties
 Conjugate Heat Transfer
 Natural Convection
 Radiation
 Periodic Heat Transfer
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Introduction
 Heat transfer in Fluent solvers allows inclusion of heat transfer within
fluid and solid regions in your model.
 Handles problems ranging from thermal mixing within a fluid to
conduction in composite solids.
 Energy transport equation is solved, subject to a wide range of thermal
boundary conditions.
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Options
 Inclusion of species diffusion term
 Energy equation includes effect of enthalpy transport due to species
diffusion, which contributes to energy balance.
 This term is included in the energy equation by default.
 You can turn off the Diffusion Energy Source option in the Species
Model panel.
 Term always included in the coupled solver.
 Energy equation in conducting solids
 In conducting solid regions, simple conduction equation solved
 Includes heat flux due to conduction and volumetric heat sources within
solid.
 Convective term also included for moving solids.
 Energy sources due to chemical reaction are included for reacting flow
cases.
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User Inputs for Heat Transfer (1)
1. Activate calculation of heat transfer.
 Select the Enable Energy option in the Energy
panel.
Define  Models  Energy...
 Enabling reacting flow or radiation will toggle
Enable Energy on without visiting this panel.

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User Inputs for Heat Transfer (2)
2. To include viscous heating terms in energy equation, turn on Viscous
Heating in Viscous Model panel.
 Describes thermal energy created by viscous shear in the flow.
 Often negligible; not included in default form of energy equation.
 Enable when shear stress in fluid is large (e.g., in lubrication problems)
and/or in high-velocity, compressible flows.
3. Define thermal boundary conditions.
Define  Boundary Conditions...
4. Define material properties for heat transfer.
Define  Materials...
 Heat capacity and thermal conductivity must be defined.
 You can specify many properties as functions of temperature.
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Solution Process for Heat Transfer
 Many simple heat transfer problems can be successfully solved using
default solution parameters.
 However, you may accelerate convergence and/or improve the stability
of the solution process by changing the options below:
 Underrelaxation of energy equation.
Solve  Controls  Solution...
 Disabling species diffusion term.
Define  Models  Species...
 Compute isothermal flow first, then add calculation of energy equation.
Solve  Controls  Solution...
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Theoretical Basis of Wall Heat Transfer
 For laminar flows, fluid side heat transfer is approximated as:


n = local coordinate normal to wall
 For turbulent flows, law of the wall is extended to treat wall heat flux.
 The wall-function approach implicitly accounts for viscous sublayer.
 The near-wall treatment is extended to account for viscous dissipation
which occurs in the boundary layer of high-speed flows.
'' = ~ q k
T
n
k
T
n
wall
c
c
A
A
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Thermal Boundary Conditions at Flow Inlets
and Exits
 At flow inlets, must supply
fluid temperature.
 At flow exits, fluid
temperature extrapolated
from upstream value.
 At pressure outlets, where
flow reversal may occur,
“backflow” temperature is
required.
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Thermal Conditions for Fluids and Solids
 Can specify an energy source
using Source Terms option.
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Thermal Boundary Conditions at Walls
 Use any of following thermal
conditions at walls:
 Specified heat flux
 Specified temperature
 Convective heat transfer
 External radiation
 Combined external radiation
and external convective heat
transfer
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 Fluid properties such as heat capacity, conductivity, and viscosity can
be defined as:
 Constant
 Temperature-dependent
 Composition-dependent
 Computed by kinetic theory
 Computed by user-defined functions
 Density can be computed by ideal gas law.
 Alternately, density can be treated as:
 Constant (with optional Boussinesq modeling)
 Temperature-dependent
 Composition-dependent


Fluid Properties
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Conjugate Heat Transfer
 Ability to compute conduction of heat through solids, coupled with
convective heat transfer in fluid.
 In 2D Cartesian coordinates:



 Solid properties may vary with location, e.g.,
 Density, µ
w

 Specific heat, c
w

 Conductivity, k
w

 Solid conductivity, k
w
, may also be function of temperature.
 is a uniformly distributed volumetric heat source.
 May be function of time and space (using profiles or user-defined functions).
( ) q
y
T
k
y x
T
k
x
T c
t
w w w w
 +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
µ
c
c

q
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Conjugate Heat Transfer in Fuel-Rod
Assembly
 Fluid flow equations not
solved within solid regions.
 Energy equation solved
simultaneously in full domain.
 Convective terms dropped in
stationary solid regions.
Temperature contours
Grid
Velocity vectors
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Natural Convection - Introduction
 Natural convection occurs
when heat is added to fluid
and fluid density varies with
temperature.
 Flow is induced by force of
gravity acting on density
variation.
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Natural Convection - Boussinesq Model
 Makes simplifying assumption that density is uniform.
 Except for body force term in momentum equation, which is replaced by:

 Valid when density variations are small.
 When to use Boussinesq model:
 Essential to calculate time-dependent natural convection inside closed
domains.
 Can also be used for steady-state problems.
 Provided changes in temperature are small
 You can get faster convergence for many natural-convection flows than
by using fluid density as function of temperature.
 Cannot be used with species calculations or reacting flows.
( ) ( ) µ µ µ | ÷ = ÷ ÷
0 0 0
g T T g
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User Inputs for Natural Convection (1)
1. Set gravitational acceleration.
Define  Operating Conditions...
2. Fluid density
(a) If using Boussinesq model:
 Select boussinesq as the Density method and assign a
constant value.
 Set the Thermal Expansion Coefficient.
Define  Materials…
 Set the Operating Temperature in the Operating
Conditions panel.
Define  Operating Conditions...
(b) Otherwise, define fluid density as function of
temperature.
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User Inputs for Natural Convection (2)
3. Optionally, specify Operating Density.
 Does not apply for Boussinesq model.
4. Set boundary conditions.
Define  Boundary Conditions...

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Radiation
 Radiation intensity along any
direction entering medium
is reduced by:
 Local absorption
 Out-scattering (scattering away
from the direction)
 Radiation intensity along any
direction entering medium is
augmented by:
 Local emission
 In-scattering (scattering into the direction)
 Four radiation models are provided in FLUENT:
 Discrete Ordinates Model (DOM)
 Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM)
 P-1 Radiation Model
 Rosseland Model (limited applicability)
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Discrete Ordinates Model
 The radiative transfer equation is solved for a discrete number of finite
solid angles:


 Advantages:
 Conservative method leads to heat balance for coarse discretization.
 Accuracy can be increased by using a finer discretization.
 Accounts for scattering, semi-transparent media, specular surfaces.
 Banded-gray option for wavelength-dependent transmission.
 Limitations:
 Solving a problem with a large number of ordinates is CPU-intensive.
( )
i
i
i
scattering emmision absorption
x
I
+ + =
c
c
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Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM)
 Main assumption: radiation leaving surface element in a specific range of
solid angles can be approximated by a single ray.
 Uses ray-tracing technique to integrate radiant intensity along each ray:


 Advantages:
 Relatively simple model.
 Can increase accuracy by increasing number of rays.
 Applies to wide range of optical thicknesses.
 Limitations:
 Assumes all surfaces are diffuse.
 Effect of scattering not included.
 Solving a problem with a large number of rays is CPU-intensive.
t
o
o o
4
T
I
ds
dI
+ ÷ =
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P-1 Model
 Main assumption: radiation intensity can be decomposed into series of
spherical harmonics.
 Only first term in this (rapidly converging) series used in P-1 model.
 Effects of particles, droplets, and soot can be included.
 Advantages:
 Radiative transfer equation easy to solve with little CPU demand.
 Includes effect of scattering.
 Works reasonably well for combustion applications where optical
thickness is large.
 Easily applied to complicated geometries with curvilinear coordinates.
 Limitations:
 Assumes all surfaces are diffuse.
 May result in loss of accuracy, depending on complexity of geometry, if
optical thickness is small.
 Tends to overpredict radiative fluxes from localized heat sources or sinks.
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Choosing a Radiation Model
 For certain problems, one radiation model may be more
appropriate in general.
Define  Models  Radiation...
 Computational effort: P-1 gives reasonable accuracy with
less effort.
 Accuracy: DTRM and DOM more accurate.
 Optical thickness: DTRM/DOM for optically thin media
(optical thickness << 1); P-1 better for optically thick media.
 Scattering: P-1 and DOM account for scattering.
 Particulate effects: P-1 and DOM account for radiation exchange between gas
and particulates.
 Localized heat sources: DTRM/DOM with sufficiently large number of rays/
ordinates is more appropriate.
© Fluent Inc. 4/4/2013 F24
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Periodic Heat Transfer (1)
 Also known as streamwise-periodic or fully-developed flow.
 Used when flow and heat transfer patterns are repeated, e.g.,
 Compact heat exchangers
 Flow across tube banks
 Geometry and boundary conditions repeat in streamwise direction.
Outflow at one periodic boundary
is inflow at the other
inflow
outflow
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Periodic Heat Transfer (2)
 Temperature (and pressure) vary in streamwise direction.
 Scaled temperature (and periodic pressure) is same at periodic
boundaries.
 For fixed wall temperature problems, scaled temperature defined as:



T
b
= suitably defined bulk temperature
 Can also model flows with specified wall heat flux.
u =
÷
÷
T T
T T
wall
b wall
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Periodic Heat Transfer (3)
 Periodic heat transfer is subject to the following constraints:
 Either constant temperature or fixed flux bounds.
 Conducting regions cannot straddle periodic plane.
 Properties cannot be functions of temperature.
 Radiative heat transfer cannot be modeled.
 Viscous heating only available with heat flux wall boundaries.
 Flow must be specified by pressure jump in coupled solvers.

Contours of Scaled Temperature
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Summary
 Heat transfer modeling is available in all Fluent solvers.
 After activating heat transfer, you must provide:
 Thermal conditions at walls and flow boundaries
 Fluid properties for energy equation
 Available heat transfer modeling options include:
 Species diffusion heat source
 Combustion heat source
 Conjugate heat transfer
 Natural convection
 Radiation
 Periodic heat transfer