AUTOMATIC GEAR SHIFTING MECHANISM FOR TWO WHEELER

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree

Of IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600 025 NOV/DEC 2012

ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600 025

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BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report “AUTOMATIC GEAR SHIFTING MECHANISM FOR TWO WHEELER”Is the bonafide work of “] ” Whocarried out the project work under my supervision.

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Submitted for the project viva-voce held at Tagore Institute of Engineering and Technology on ……………..

………………………… Internal Examiner

……………………….. External Examiner

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Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering Department. We also express our gratefulness to our parents.for her remarkable guidance which was an inspiration to us.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Weexpressour sincere thanks to our beloved philanthropic MANAGEMENTofTagore institute of Engineering and Technology trust for having provided with necessary resources to complete this project.. 3 . We have privileged to thank our beloved supervisor . We have immense pleasure to express our hearty thanks to our beloved Project Co-. for her enlightening thoughts and meticulous guidance that helped us in doing our project. We extend our extreme gratitude alwaysto our beloved visionary Principal and thank him for his motivation and moral support towards us to complete this project. for her unflinching support throughout our project . We express our deep sense of gratitude and profound thanks to Head of Mechanical Engineering Department. Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering Department. faculty members and friends for their affectionate blessings and loving cooperation at all stages of this academic venture.

simple and can be fitted to any bikes. The main objective of this project is to create a mechanism to reduce the inconvenience caused when changing gears in the bikes. In this project we are doing the gear changing mechanism using with the help of sensors & actuators. Moreover the whole set up is small and requires a very small space. This is a fabrication and implementation project. This can sure be a standard fitment if proper marketing strategy is carried out. The manual type of transmission is preferred for the perfect performance without a loss in power but a compromise for comfortless.ABSTRACT This project titled as “Automatic Gear Shifting Mechanism for Two wheelers”. This is very useful for the gear changing mechanism in automobile vehicles. This is a versatile pack. The gear shifting is achieved by a simple modification to the gear box. 4 . In this type manual system of power transmission there is easiness of gear shifting but there is a definite loss of power and mileage. The project provides solution for gear shifting for the Bikes. The passenger bikes that now ply on the road have transmission of manual type of gear changing. The main purpose of this project is used to automate the gear changing mechanism in vehicles.

As the gear selection is by a fluid. Also it occupies a major area in the cabin resulting in the space congestion. which is already preset. The project has been started as a concept and it requires a lot more work to be done to put in a bike. The power for stepper motor is from the battery. These are the problems in the Manual Transmission cars. This selection may be either of lever type or a set of buttons. More over the mileage of the car and life is also more. combining the position of both MT and AT a mechanism has to be created for better mileage and comfortable gear shifting.CHAPTER-I INTRODUCTION The paper deals with the real time project. The power for gear shifting is got from stepper motor. In the Manual Transmission cars the main problem for the drivers is the gear shifting. This project is aimed at giving driver the convenience for gear shifting& better performance. But the engineering concept behind this type of transmission paves way for higher power transmission efficiency. But there is a compromise for power transmission and mileage. microcontroller &sensors. The existing cars now pose some problems for the drivers. The need of the hour. So the problem here is mileage drop. We just have to select the drive band. PROBLEM DEFINITION: Whenever a project is carried out there is a reason behind it. The clutch operation may or may not be put in the bike depending on the user. In the Automatic Transmission type of cars. power loss and also it is costly. This is easy for the drivers as they don’t have to use clutch during gear shift. This is the objective of the project. the gear shifting is easy. so the engine performance is reduced. The bike with this project will have a stepper motor. These cars do not give much of comfort ness for the drivers in the terms of using the gear lever and the clutch. “Automatic Gear Shifting Mechanism for Two wheelers” which was done in the academic year 2012. So a car with this project provides ease of gear shift as in AT without a compromise 5 . power is required to drive it.2013. So a bike with a battery fitment can be easily adaptable to this project.

the term transmission refers to the whole drive train. where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. which is inappropriate for starting. gearbox. stopping. Often. with the ability to switch between them as speed varies. Five-speed + reverse gearbox from the 1600 Volkswagen Golf (2009). TRANSMISSION Gearbox" redirects here. whereas a transmission is a type of gearbox that can be “shifted” to dynamically change the speed-torque ratio such as in a vehicle. or automatically.[1] Often transmission refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to providespeed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. and anywhere else where rotational speed and torque needs to be adapted. Transmissions are also used on pedal bicycles. This switching may be done manually (by the operator).in mileage as in MT. Such engines need to operate at a relatively high rotational speed. The most common use is in motor vehicles. In American English. which provides controlled application of the power. a transmission will have multiple gear ratios (or simply “gears”). however. The transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed. the distinction is made that a gearbox is any device which converts speed and torque. Directional (forward and reverse) control may also be provided. and final drive shafts. 6 . fixed machines.[2][3] In British English. prop shaft (for rear-wheel drive). A machine consists of a power source and a power transmission system. For the video game developer. differential. see Gearbox Software. and slower travel. Merriam-Webster defines transmission as an assembly of parts including the speed-changing gears and the propeller shaft by which the power is transmitted from an engine to a live axle. including clutch. increasing torque in the process. the cost of the project is less as it requires a minor alteration in the gear box.

the highest gears may be "overdrive" types that increase the output speed. While a differential may also provide gear reduction. drive the wheels. or synchronized / synchromesh systems. This means that the output shaft of a gearbox will rotate at a slower rate than the input shaft. and hoisting. Hybrid configurations also exist. which simply change the speed and torque (and sometimes direction) of motor output. where typically diagonal cut helical (or 7 . The output of the transmission is transmitted via driveshaft to one or more differentials. and steam engines.g. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque. causing an increase in torque. However. In this case. and must be synchronized by the operator matching engine revs to road speed. in support of pumping. EXPLANATION Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills. and this reduction in speed will produce a mechanical advantage. diesel-electric transmission and hydraulic drive system).  and the now common constant-mesh gearboxes which can include non-synchronised. to avoid noisy and damaging "gear clash".Single-ratio transmissions also exist. Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several different gear ratios. milling. which in turn. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation (for example. the transmission will generally be connected to the crankshaft of the engine. where straight-cut spur gear sets are spinning freely. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the physical direction in which power is transmitted. a motor crankshaft). its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds (essential to avoid wheel slippage on turns) as it changes the direction of rotation. Manual Manual transmission come in two basic types:  a simple but rugged sliding-mesh or unsynchronized / non-synchronous system. most of the gear ratios (often simply called "gears") are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. In motor vehicles. Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft (e. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. horsepowered devices.

and a dog clutch is used for changing gears. the Philippines. On synchromesh boxes.g. lighter. They are cheaper. e. on a car with a manual gear change. Norway. and partly or fully synchronised helical in almost all modern manual-shift passenger cars and light trucks. engines typically having more low-end torque.[citation much more common than automatic needed] the Netherlands. Estonia. Manual transmissions are the most common type outside North America and Australia. usually give better performance.). It is customary for new drivers to learn. Belgium. older heavy-duty trucks.cost. virtually all those used for instruction as well) have a manual transmission. Switzerland.and off-road transport manual and semiautomatic transmission. the extreme wear which would be placed on a frequently used 1st gear synchroniser.[8]Western Australia and Queensland. the UK. In Malaysia and Denmark all cars used for testing (and because of that. Israel. although it may be found in many forms. non-synchronised straight-cut in racetrack or super-heavy-duty applications.. Africa. reverse gear is usually unsynchronised. epicyclic and multi-clutch systems) before the development of constant-mesh manuals and hydraulic-epicyclic automatics. For example.g. France.g. Finland. a test with a manual car is required. Zealand. typically "shorter" overall gearing. meaning it also could only be used for moving away from a stop unless the 8 . as the drive is only expected to engage it when the vehicle is at a standstill.Poland. non-synchro helical in the majority of heavy trucks and motorcycles and in certain classic cars (e. Spain. Italy. Lithuania and the Czech Republic. The latter is the modern standard for on.sometimes either straight-cut. Germany. South transmissions America and Europe. friction cones or "synchro-rings" are used in addition to the dog clutch to closely match the rotational speeds of the two sides of the (declutched) transmission before making a full mechanical engagement.. and can still be found in use in some agricultural equipment. Austria. Manual transmissions can include both synchronized and unsynchronized gearing. Bulgaria. and be tested.[7] Sweden. The former type was standard in many vintage cars (alongside e. New Manual transmissions are in Asia. or double-helical) gear sets are constantly "meshed" together. the Fiat 500). Many older (up to 1970s) cars also lacked syncro on first gear (for various reasons .[6][7] Ireland. and fuel efficiency (although automatic transmissions with torque converter lockup and advanced electronic controls can provide similar results). In Japan. a test pass using an automatic car does not entitle the driver to use a manual car on the public road. the Australian states of Victoria..

though precise control of which gear is in use may or may not be possible. An example would be a power take-off(PTO) gear. a fluid flywheel. Some manual transmissions have an extremely low ratio for first gear. Dependent on country of operation. It is possible for the driver to control the number of gears in use or select reverse. torque. depending on pressure exerted by fluid within the transmission assembly. or construction-site work. but this function is now more often provided for by a low-range transfer gearbox attached to a normal fully synchronised transmission. However. have often been less fuel-efficient than their manual counterparts (due to "slippage" in the torque converter). agricultural. farming. sometimes had reliability problems (which sometimes caused more expenses in repair). and 9 . and second gear is used from a standing start. Some of these may use combinations of types for multi-purpose functions. Non-synchronous There are commercial applications engineered with designs taking into account that the gear shifting will be done by an experienced operator. The non-synchronous transmission type requires an understanding of gear range. and Clutch-brake sections of the main article. and multi-functional clutch and shifter functions. This feature is common on pickup trucks tailored to trailer-towing. also had transmissions with "granny first"s either as standard or an option. They are a manual transmission. engine power. which is referred to as a "creeper gear" or "granny gear". but are known as non-synchronized transmissions. regional. in the past. many local. military. Such gears are usually not synchronized. This class may include commercial. Automatic Most modern North American and Australian and some European and Japanese cars have an automatic transmission that will select an appropriate gear ratio without any operator intervention. the truck is usually driven without using the creeper gear at all. Some off-road vehicles. or engineering vehicles. automatic transmissions of this type have had a number of problems. They primarily use hydraulics to select gears. Automatic transmissions are easy to use. or torque converter is placed in between the engine and transmission. most particularly the Willys Jeep and its descendents. they were complex and expensive. Rather than using a clutch to engage the transmission. and national laws govern the operation of these types of vehicles (see Commercial Driver's License).driver became adept at double-declutching and had a particular need to regularly downshift into the lowest gear. During normal on-road use. Also see Double-clutching.

a common modification is to increase the stall speed of the transmission. Many of these transmissions allow the driver to fully delegate gear shifting choice to the control system.[citation needed] Attempts to improve the fuel efficiency of automatic transmissions include the use of torque converters which lock up beyond a certain speed. the automatic transmission allows the car to be stopped with the engine at a high rpm (the "stall speed") to allow for a very quick launch when the brakes are released. the slippage inherent in automatic transmissions can be advantageous. or in the higher gear ratios. This is due mainly to electronic advances rather than mechanical ones although improvements in CVT technology and the use of automatic clutches have also helped. have synchromesh operated helical constant mesh gear sets. in drag racing.their shift time was slower than a manual making them uncompetitive for racing. which then effectively acts as if it was a regular automatic transmission.automatic declutching when moving the gearstick. Current computerized transmissions possess very complex programming to both maximize fuel efficiency and eliminate any intrusiveness. This is sometimes called a "clutchless manual." or "automated manual" transmission. pre-selector controls. in fact. The 2012 model of the Honda Jazz sold in the UK actually claims marginally better fuel consumption for the CVT version than the manual version. For certain applications. electro-mechanical (and even electrostatic) and servo/solenoid controlled clutches .including centrifugal clutches. and when used in passenger cars.and control schemes . centrifugal clutches with drum-sequential shift 10 . torque converters.take manual control of gear selection. where the turbocharger needs to be kept spinning at high rpm by a large flow of exhaust in order to keep the boost pressure up and eliminate the turbo lag that occurs when the engine is idling and the throttle is suddenly opened. This is even more advantageous for turbocharged engines. in older transmissions both technologies could sometimes become intrusive. eliminating power loss. and overdrive gears which automatically actuate above certain speeds. but the driver can still . Early semi-automatic systems used a variety of mechanical and hydraulic systems . when conditions are such that they repeatedly cut in and out as speed and such load factors as grade or wind vary slightly. They are generally designed using manual transmission "internals". for instance. With the advancement of modern automatic transmissions this has changed. Semi-automatic A hybrid form of transmission where the an integrated control system handles manipulation of the clutch automatically.and may be required to .

as well as the systems used as standard in all ICE-powered Smart-MCC vehicles. so that a "gearchange" actually only consists of one clutch engaging as the other disengages. and may be found both in automobiles (particularly track and rally racing cars).and some were little more than regular lock-up torque converter automatics with manual gear selection. MOTOR CYCLE TRANSMISSION A motorcycle transmission is a transmission created specifically for motorcycle applications. 11 . and even some superlight sports cars.[9] These can be designed with a manual or automatic clutch system. with servo-controlled clutching and shifting under command of the central engine computer. only engaging manualsequential mode for sporty driving or when otherwise strictly necessary. Most modern implementations. the Honda Super Cub) and quadbikes (often with a separately engaged reversing gear). offroad buggies.g. the latter two normally using a scooter-style centrifugal clutch. however. each with its own clutch. including synchronised dog clutch systems that preselect which of its set of ratios is most likely to be needed at the next shift. Specific types of this transmission include: Direct-Shift Gearbox. even including a few cases of CVTs with "fake" fixed gear ratios). Each clutch's attached shaft carries half of the total input gear complement (with a shared output shaft). mowers and other utility vehicles. Specific types of this transmission include: Easytronic. much like those of a typical fully manual motorcycle. and for drivers who prefer manual shift but are no longer able to operate a clutch. Tiptronic and Geartronic. and on geared stepthrough scooters such as the Honda Super Cub or Suzuki Address. motorcycles (typically light "step-thru" type city utility bikes.requiring the driver to lift the throttle for a successful shift. microcars. and users are encouraged to leave the shift lever in fully automatic "Drive" most of the time. e. There are also sequential transmissions which use the rotation of a drum to switch gears. etc. A dual-clutch transmission uses two sets of internals which are alternately used. . They may also be found in use on other light vehicles such as motor tricycles and quadbikes. tend to be standard or slightly modified manual transmissions (and very occasionally modified automatics. making for a supposedly "seamless" shift with no break in (or jarring reuptake of) power transmission. under command of a computerised control system. These are intended to be a combined replacement option both for more expensive and less efficient "normal" automatic systems.

in a partially load-dependent system). when at full throttle. engine rpm is now dependent on the road speed and the current gear ratio (under either user control in a semi-auto. After this. so the gearbox input shaft is also rotating quickly and so allowing the engine to accelerate further by way of clutch slip the outward pressure of the weighted friction plates is sufficient that the clutch will enter full lock-up. At idle. causing friction build up between the plates until they rotate as a single unit. it will stay fully engaged until the RPMs fall below that critical point again. once the engine is turning fast enough to lock the clutch. as well as more relaxed starts and low-speed manoeuvres at lower throttle settings and rpms. and the engine is locked to and providing all of its available power to the transmission. one geared on the inside to the engine and the next geared on the outside to the transmission input shaft. Above a certain engine speed . Automatic and semi-automatics typically use a centrifugal clutch which operates in a different fashion. Also. even if the throttle is fully 12 . the plates are squeezed together by a spring. driving the transmission directly. Whether wet (rotating in engine oil) or dry. there is no clutch slip. A lever on the handlebar exploits mechanical advantage through a cable or hydraulic arrangement to release the clutch spring. until they start to make contact with the inside of the outer housing (connected to the gearbox shaft) and transmit an increasing amount of engine power.once the bike is properly in motion. counterweights attached to movable inner friction surfaces (connected to the engine shaft) within the clutch assembly are thrown gradually further outwards. This allows relatively fast full-throttle takeoffs (with the clutch adjusted so the engine will be turning near its maximum-torque rpm) without the engine slowing or bogging down. the same as a conventional plate-clutch with a fully released lever or pedal. allowing both it and the bike to freewheel (unlike torque converter automatics. the engine is disconnected from the gearbox input shaft. As the throttle is opened and engine speed rises. or reliant on road speed (and sometimes load/throttle position) in a CVT setup). the gear ratio will be chosen so the engine can reach and maintain its maximum-power speed as soon as possible (or at least. but in a semi-auto the rider is responsible for this choice. and they can ride around all day in top gear (or first) if they so prefer. there is no "idle creep" with a properly adjusted centrifugal clutch).CLUTCH The clutch in a manual-shift motorcycle transmission is typically an arrangement of plates stacked in alternating fashion. In a typical CVT. allowing the engine to freewheel with respect to the transmission. The effective "bite point" is found automatically by equilibrium where the power being transmitted through the (still-slipping) clutch is equal to what the engine can provide.

The gear can be engaged in manual mode wherein one can move it up and down to change the gears or one could operate the paddle shifters. the gearbox output shaft is typically connected to the sprocket which drives the final drive chain. such as being able to freewheel rapidly downhill from a standstill. can also be found on certain automatic transmissions (manumatics such as Tiptronic) and continuous variable transmissions (CVTs) (such as Lineartronic). and lockup triggering at a lower speed with full versus minimal throttle. also called separate construction. For motorcycles with chain drive. Below the lock-up point. In many modern designs. partially or fully releasing the throttle can lead to the RPM falling off rapidly. with some gears built into the sliding parts. with engine braking only being triggered by turning the throttle briefly (and not then cancellable without braking to quite a slow. Since the gears are always rotating and can only be accessed sequentially. is a motorcycle engine architecture where the engine and gearbox are separate casings. just behind the steering wheel to perform the same operation. a chain will drive the clutch. thanks to the feedback loop of lower engine speed meaning less friction pressure. which happens at the discretion of the computer in the car whereas in the semi-automatic transmission one can up-shift or down-shift without pressing the clutch. the driver were redlining the engine. gear-dependent pace). both shafts may contain a mixture of fixed and free-spinning gears. The ability to shift gears manually. Most manual motorcycle gearboxes have "constant mesh" gears which are always mated but may rotate freely on a shaft until locked by a toothed sliding collar or "dog clutch". 13 . From a sprocket on one side of the crankshaft. In unit construction the engine and gearbox share a single housing. which can often be found behind a large circular cover on one side of the gearbox. CONSRUCTION Pre-unit construction. the engine sits in front of the gearbox. often via paddle shifters. Many modern automated transmissions can also operate in the same manner as a conventional type of automatic transmission by allowing the transmission's computer to automatically change gear if.released. Comparison to other automated transmissions The automatic transmission is fully automatic and one does not need to change gears at all. To save space. The clutch is connected to the gearbox input shaft. for example. synchromesh is not generally needed. This toggle-like mode of operation can lead to certain characteristic centrifugalclutch-automatic behaviour.

[5][6][7] The most common type of semi-automatic transmission in recent years has been the dual clutch type.[2] In a given market. uses a torque converter instead of clutch to manage the link between the transmission and the engine.Despite superficial similarity to other automated transmissions. for instance BMW's 7-speed Double Clutch Transmission is a $3900 CAD upgrade to the standard 6-speed manual. while the 6-speed Steptronic Automatic was only a $1600 CAD option.[4] Other automated transmissions have their roots in a conventional manual. the gear lever appears similar to manual shifts. like a standard automatic transmission. except that the gear stick only moves forward and backward to shift into higher and lower gears. since single-clutch types such as the SMG III have been criticized for their general lack of smoothness in everyday driving (although being responsive at the track) OPERATION In standard mass-production automobiles.[3] Many sport luxury manufacturers such as BMW offer the manumatic for their mainstream lineup (such as the BMW 328i and BMW 535i) and the semi-automatic for their high-performance models (the BMW M3 and BMW M5). however the latter's torque converter has been replaced with a wet. the SMG II drivelogic (found in the BMW M3 (E46) is a Getrag 6-speed manual transmission. the system is adapted to fit onto the steering 14 . InFormula One. when the SMG III was dropped. automated transmissions differ significantly in internal operation and driver's "feel" from manumatics and CVTs. while a manumatic is often preferred for street use because its fluid coupling makes it easier for the transmission to consistently perform smooth shifts. but with an electrohydraulically actuated clutch pedal. multiplate launch clutch. A manumatic. for instance the BMW 645Ci/650i (E63/64) (standard 6-speed manual) had an optional 6-speed automatic "Steptronic" or 7-speed Getrag SMG III single-clutch semi-automatic transmission until after the 2008 model year. A semi-automatic transmission offers a more direct connection between the engine and wheels than a manumatic and is preferred in high performance driving applications. similar to an Formula One style transmission. very few models have two choices of automated transmission. Typically semi-automatic transmissions are more expensive than manumatics and CVTs. while a CVT uses a belt instead of a fixed number of gears. The Bugatti Veyron uses this approach for its seven-speed transmission.[2] The automated transmission may be derived from a conventional automatic. for instance Mercedes-Benz's AMG Speedshift MCT automated transmission is based on the 7GTronic manumatic.[1] and CVTs are generally found in gasoline-electric hybrid engine applications. instead of the traditional H-pattern.

such as engine rotation. and the collar disengaged until the engine drops to the correct speed for the next gear. the Electronic Stability Control.wheel in the form of two paddles. reversing and neutralizing the transmission. depressing the right paddle shifts into a higher gear. and takes advantage of the precision of electronic signals to allow a complete clutch operation without the intervention of the driver. The even-faster shifting techniques like powershifting require a heavier gearbox or clutch or even a dual clutch transmission. Hall effect sensors sense the direction of requested shift. This needs sensors to measure not only the speed. The clutch is controlled by electronic computers and hydraulics. the driver must engage both paddles at once. In some cases. For the teeth of the collar to slide into the teeth of the rings. based on input from these two sensors as well as other factors. the clutch actuator may be completely electric. both the speed and position must match. after this has been accomplished. Numerous road cars have inherited the same mechanism. The power of the system lies in the fact that electronic equipment can react much faster and more precisely than a human. which is kept in close synchronization with the gear-shifting action the driver has started. which uses an automated clutch unlike conventional manual transmissions where the driver operates the clutch. which uses brake fluid from the braking system to impel a hydraulic cylinder to move the main clutch actuator. 15 . the engine power can be cut. The clutch is really only needed to start the car. the driver selects the desired gear with the transmission shift lever. and this input. together with a sensor in the gear box which senses the current speed and gear selected. and the throttle may need to be opened softer or harder. the hydro-mechanical unit contains a servomotor coupled to a gear arrangement for a linearactuator. In other cases. The central processing unit powers a hydro-mechanical unit to either engage or disengage the clutch. For the needs of parking. For a quicker upshift. the car will prompt for one of the three options. To change gears. feeds into a central processing unit. ELECTROHYDURALIC MANUAL TRANSMMISION Electrohydraulic manual transmission is a type of semi-automatic transmission system. air conditioner and dashboardinstruments. but the positions of the teeth. and the system automatically operates the clutch and throttle to match revs and engage the clutch again. while depressing the left paddle shifts into a lower one. This unit then determines the optimal timing and torque required for a smooth clutch engagement.

Mechanical components HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT: Hydraulic motion is selected for gear shifting owing to its large load acceptance and ease of adaptability in the car. Also the gear shift should be quick. 1. Despite superficial similarity. Depending on the implementation. Cylinder length L =? Cylinder length L= Stroke Length+ Piston thickness+ Clearance 16 P=10 bar . DESIGN OF PROJECT: The project is done as a table top on the FIAT car’s gear box. some computer-controlled electrohydraulic manual transmissions will automatically shift gears at the right points (like an automatic transmission). Cylinder diameter D=? P=F/A 5 2 (10*10 )*(/4)*D = 30*9. Electronic circuit 3. the latter of which is an automatic transmission (automatics use a torque converter instead of clutch to manage the link between the engine and the transmission) with ability to signal shifts manually. The project design comprises of designing the following parts. many such transmissions operate in sequential mode where the driver can only upshift or downshift by one gear at a time. while others require the driver to manually select the gear even when the engine is at the redline.81 D=0.L=? 1. clutchless manual transmission differ significantly in internal operation and driver's 'feel' from manumatics. CYLINDER DESIGN: Load required to move the selector rod or to change the gear F=30 Kg Pressure built in the compressor unit To find: Cylinder dimensions D. The basic components design is explained in detail.Also. Hydraulic circuit 2.0194 m = 20 mm 2.

Do =75 mm Di =50 mm W= 25 mm N=1440 rpm 1. This involves the calculation of the flow rate necessary to drive the actuator to move the load through a specified distance within the given time. valving. determines the pump size 4. together with the flow rate calculation. Power required = Pressure*Flow rate= (10*105)*0. 7. horse power loss. Also involved here is the total amount of power to be delivered by the pump. Select the system pressure. Consider factors such as noise levels.050*1440 = 0. scheduled maintenance service to provide a desired life of the total system.0883 = 88. including piping. 6. 8. Select the actuator that is appropriate based on loads encountered. pump wear.3 kw 17 Cylinder length= 47mm . Determine the flow rate requirements. Flow rate Q= (/4)*(Do2-Di2)*W*N = (/4)*(0.0883 m3/S = 0. Select the pump based on application 5. These involves in with the actuator size and magnitude of the resistive force produced by the external load on the system.L= 30+10+7 = 47 mm L=47mm Cylinder diameter= 20mm SELECTION OF PUMP: Selection of pump is based on following characteristics: 1. 2. motors and other miscellaneous components. Determine the pump speed and select the prime mover. 3. need for a heat exchanger due to heat generated. Calculate the overall cost of the system. Select the reservoir and associated plumping.0502)*0. The above characteristics are satisfied by the GEAR OIL PUMP and the following data are obtained from measurement. This.47 Ltrs/min 2.0752-0.00147 m3/min = 1. hydraulic cylinders.

Size of the copper tube =6 mm(for transmitting hydraulic fluid to valves) HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: / 8 9 7 5 11 10 / 6 2 3 4 1 1 Hydraulic circuit diagram of the project 18 .SELECTION OF RESERVIOR: 1.5 to 3 Times of Pump flow = 3*1.47 = 4. Reservoir Capacity= 2.41 Ltrs =4 Ltrs 2.

there will be six buttons 1. Each actuates the gear corresponding when pressed. Inlet Solenoid Valve 6. 3. The supply voltage is from battery which is 12V. 4. i. Reservoir. Limit Switch 9. Gear Box 10. 2. N for gear shifting. Pump. Releasing gear-neutral position 19 . Maintaining gear position LS2 C 12 V VVV V Sole1 iii. For this purpose we have used two solenoid valves (inlet and outlet) for each gear to be shifted. Spring ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT: The electronic circuit is used for governing the hydraulic operation. R. 3. Engine 5. The diagram below shows the electronic circuit for various operation of the gear shifter. 2. Engaging first gear B1 C 12 V VVV V Sole1 ii. Gear selector rod 11. Clutch 4. Cylinder piston assembly 8.1. Outlet Solenoid Valve 7.

BN 12 V VVV V Sole2 iv. Presence of spring on the gear selector rod helps in the quick action that is required during the gear shift. DESIGN OF SPRINGS: Y = 8PD3n/Gd4 20 We have formula for deflection . The spring is used to counter balance the force exerted by the piston. Gear changing Sole1 12 V VVV V C Sole2 MECHANICAL COMPONENTS: The main mechanical component for the project is the spring. Moreover it is useful in the return motion of the gear selector rod during gear disengagement.

If the next higher gear has to be selected. Due to the pump rotation the hydraulic fluid is pumped from reservoir to the inlet solenoid valve. Through this valve the fluid pushes the piston in the cylinder. n=YGd4/8PD3 = 1.81*3. In order to avoid slippage of gear a limit switch is used to sense the position of selector rod and cut off the supply.5 Cm P=load acting on the spring=30 Kg D=Diameter of spring=3. three operations take place. Pump rotation When the car is switched on the engine rotates. 1.5 Cm d= Diameter of spring coil=0. Now electromagnetic clutch engages the pump.Where. The gear shifting along with the clutch operation works with the pressing of buttons. 21 .4 Cm G=modulus of elasticity of spring material=2*105 N/mm2 N=no of coils in the spring=? No of coils in the spring. On pressing the button corresponding to the gear. To bring the car to neutral position we press the N button. Y=deflection of spring=1.5*2*105*0. on pressing the button clutch engages. the same operation takes place on pressing the next button.44*100/(8*30*9. Clutch engagement 3.53) = 8 coils WORKING PRINCIPLE: The main driving force for the gear shifting is by the hydraulic fluid. Now the outlet solenoid valve energizes so the fluid in the cylinder rushes back to the sump with the aid of spring tension. This motion causes the gear shifter rod to engage the gear which is fitted to the piston. Engine rotation 2.

In the future there are plans to incorporate the clutch action in the set up by using the electronic clutch.  An automatic transmission connected to an output rotation shaft of said engine so as to transmit the rotational output of said engine to drive wheels of said automobile through any selected one of a plurality of gear ratios. said automobile comprising an internal combustion engine. This set up works good for two gears. This consists of various parts which are listed below. 1) FIAT Gearbox 2) TOYOTA Power steering compressor 3) Motor for driving the compressor 4) Electro magnetic clutch 5) Tank or reservoir for storing the hydraulic fluid 6) Valves for controlling the flow of hydraulic fluid 7) Limit switch to cut off the supply 8) Hydraulic cylinder and piston assembly 9) Copper tubes for transportation of fluid 10)Fluid Hoses 11)Base structure for holding the gearbox and motor arrangement The current model is a simple one which is actuated by a stick switch governing the gear selection.  A load device selectively connectable to said output rotation shaft of said engine via selectively-connecting means for generating a gear change control signal for selecting one of said gear ratios of said 22 . WORKING PRINCIPLE  A method of controlling a gear change of an automobile.CURRENT STATUS: Presently we have done this project as a table top working model.

in such a manner that said selectively-connecting means connects said load device to said output rotation shaft of said engine. fig. 1.  The two electro-magnetic coils are fixed to the gear shaft of the two ends. 1 1 2 Material Mild Steel Lead Acid Coil Frame Stand Battery Electro magnetic coil 23 . The proximity sensor is used to detect the wheel speed and this signal is given to the microcontroller unit.1 MICRO-CONTROLLER BASED AUTOMATIC ELECTRO-MAGNETIC GEAR SHIFTING SYSTEM LIST OF MATERIALS Sl. iii.  Battery is giving the microcontroller unit. ii. One is used to shift the gear in upward direction. These two coil is operated depends upon the speed of the vehicle this is automatically done with the help of microcontroller unit c programming language. Another one is used to shift the gear in downward direction. The 1st gear is done by manually press the button and the succeeding gears all are down automatically by the microcontroller unit. i. PARTS Qty. No.automatic transmission in accordance with one of operational conditions of said automobile and said engine said method comprising the steps of controlling said selectively-connecting means when said gear change signal-generating means generates the control signal for shifting up the gear in said automatic transmission.

ix.2 ELECTRO MAGNETIC COIL The key to understanding the role of permanent magnet’s gear shifting lies in the general issue of biasing.S Plastic M.iv. the current in the coil controls the flux density.S Electronics ELECTRO MAGNETIC COIL fig. fig. vi viii.3 Proximity_Sensors 24 . v. x Xi Bearing with Bearing Cap Engine Chain with Sprocket Connecting Tube Bolt and Nut Wheel Arrangement Microcontroller Unit 1 1 1 1 meter 1 1 M.1.1.S 75 Cc M. but omit the lower electromagnet. By omitting the finite permeability of the iron. Consider the simplest magnetic as shown in the figure.

000 Write/Erase Cycles – 1K Byte Internal SRAM – Programming Lock for Software Security • JTAG (IEEE std. Low-power AVR® 8-bit Microcontroller • Advanced RISC Architecture – 131 Powerful Instructions – Most Single-clock Cycle Execution – 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers – Fully Static Operation – Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz – On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier • Nonvolatile Program and Data Memories – 16K Bytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash Endurance: 10.1 Compliant) Interface – Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard – Extensive On-chip Debug Support – Programming of Flash. 10-bit ADC 8 Single-ended Channels 7 Differential Channels in TQFP Package Only 25 . 1149. EEPROM. Fuses. and Lock Bits through the JTAG Interface • Peripheral Features – Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescalers and Compare Modes – One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler. Features • High-performance.MICROCONTROLLER UNIT In our project Atmega 16 Is the microcontroller unit. and Capture Mode – Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator – Four PWM Channels – 8-channel. Compare Mode.000 Write/Erase Cycles – Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program True Read-While-Write Operation – 512 Bytes EEPROM Endurance: 100.

10x.16 MHz for ATmega16 SPECIFICATION OF FOUR STROKE PETROL ENGINE: Type Cooling System Bore/Stroke Piston Displacement Compression Ratio : : : : : Four strokes Air Cooled 50 x 50 mm 98.5V for ATmega16 • Speed Grades – 0 .6: 1 26 . or 200x – Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface – Programmable Serial USART – Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface – Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator – On-chip Analog Comparator • Special Microcontroller Features – Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection – Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator – External and Internal Interrupt Sources – Six Sleep Modes: Idle.5. Power-down. and 44-pad MLF • Operating Voltages – 2. ADC Noise Reduction. Standby and Extended Standby • I/O and Packages – 32 Programmable I/O Lines – 40-pin PDIP.7 .2 Differential Channels with Programmable Gain at 1x. Power-save.5V for ATmega16L – 4.2 cc 6.8 MHz for ATmega16L – 0 . 44-lead TQFP.5.5 .

27 .500RPM fig.98 kg-m at 5.  Low cost automation Project  Repairing is easy.1. APPLICATIONS  It is very much useful for Car Owners & Auto-garages.  Easy to Handle.4 FOUR STROKES PETROL ENGINE ADVANTAGES  It requires simple maintenance cares  The safety system for automobile.  Checking and cleaning are easy.  Replacement of parts is easy.  Thus it can be useful for the two wheeler application.Maximum Torque : 0. because of the main parts are screwed.

The AUTOMATIC ELECTRO-MAGNETIC GEAR SHIFTING SYSTEM is working with satisfactory conditions. planning. We are able to understand the difficulties in maintaining the tolerances and also quality. We feel that the project work is a good solution to bridge the gates between institution and industries. let us add a few more lines about our impression project work. We are proud that we have completed the work with the limited time successfully. In conclusion remarks of our project work. 28 . to use our limited knowledge. By using more techniques. The application of electro-magnetic coil produces smooth operation. they can be modified and developed according to the applications. purchasing. assembling and machining while doing this project work. We gained a lot of practical knowledge regarding. Thus we have developed a “AUTOMATIC ELECTROMAGNETIC GEAR SHIFTING SYSTEM” which helps to know how to achieve low cost automation. We have done to our ability and skill making maximum use of available facilities.CONCLUSION This project work has provided us an excellent opportunity and experience.

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