The Sacred Vowels in Pronouns

Joannes Richter

Old coin ("Faustina Senior") depicting the vowel “E” at the entrance in the center between 6 columns of Apollo's temple at Delphi.

Introduction
Vowels have been recognized as the sacred symbols in Indo-European and other languages. In her paper “The Mystery of the Seven Vowels” (1991) Joscelyn Godwin correctly describes various religious symbols hidden in the vowels of ancient languages 1. The number of vowels may vary between three (I, A, U), five (I, A, U, E, O) or seven (I, A, U, E, AE, O, OO), or even more. The most important conclusion is the analysis of the divine name, which seems to have been designed as a set of pure vowels. Godwin quotes the most interesting series listed by Godfrey Higgins in the one-vowel name I, the two-vowel name IE / EI on the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, the three-vowel name lAO, the four-vowel name IEVE, in which U and V are equivalent and the multi-vowel name JEHOVA . The "unpronounceable Name - IHVH" was the vowel combination IAOUE. Not pronounced, but breathed. That is uttered without closing the mouth. Its Latinised form of course is IAO - YO-WEH, or Jove.

The Ego-pronouns
By a strange coincidence Joscelyn Godwin ignores the symbolism in the Ego-pronouns, which in analogy to the divine name also consist of pure vowels. Especially the Provencal Ego-pronoun iéu clearly reveals its divine image as a part of the divine name Diéu. In a strange way some languages also apply a one-vowel Ego-pronoun I originally Y (in English), a two-vowel name “je” (in French), a three-vowel pronoun iéu (in Provencal). The correlations between these Ego-pronouns and divine names is quite obvious: I and Y (Yod → God) (in English), je and Dieu (in French) and iéu and Diéu (in Provencal).

The biblical divine commands
As a remarkable fact Joscelyn Godwin does not identify the biblical divine commands with respect to the important colors red, blue, purple and (maybe) white, which are found in Exodus (25x in the description of the Covenant Tent) and 2. Chronicles (3x in the description of Solomon's Temple).

1 On the Symbolism of the Vowels A-E-I-O-U …

though damaged. now containing the maximum of 5 English vowels (i.” Translation: “Place of the Jews.e. each headed by a sequence of seven vowels. Arberesh. This observations suggests to consider the original source as a multivowel word such as Jehovah. The overview will start with a few multi-vowel divine names.: Obviously the name “Jews” does contain a high number of vowels. If we count the eta-vowel (H) as a vowel as well the name IEHOUAH indeed is a seven vowel name. Epsilon.R. The longest pronouns consist of three vowels out of the multi-vowel word. Upsilon and Omega. 3. to be followed by the three-vowel. The Tetragrammaton was pronounced three times. Of course the name eioudeon for the Jewish people also contains at least 4 vowels (eiou). The inscription is written in Greek: “topos eioudeon ton kai theosebion. Higgins also quotes scholars who suggest that the Bacchantes' cry "EVOHE!" derived from the very same word.u. 2. And although Jehovah in a strict sense merely consists of 3 vowels (e. . the two-vowel and one-vowel pronouns. Barthelemy found a parallel to these medals in an inscription in the theater of Miletus (Asia Minor). once for each confession. Most of the classical quotations to this topic indicate a divine name and a reference to the Ego of the visitors by a famous inscription: γνωθι σεαυτόν (gnōthi seautón = "know thyself").o. Eioudeon From numismatic studies Abbe Jean Jacques Barthelemy (1716-95) probably discovered the relation between the seven planets and the seven vowels of the Greek alphabet: Alpha. Iota. p. These three-vowel pronouns have been found in remote. In Hebrew tradition the Tetragrammaton (God’s holiest name. in which conservative structures managed to resist abbreviations and other deterioration of the pronouns. which indicates its sacred vowel-structure and relation to the pronouns and divine names. Eta. probably similar or identical to Jehovah. 2 See: Jewish Inscription at Miletus Theater 3 Remark by J.Swadesh-lists An increased publication of the Swadesh-lists for a great number of languages revealed other languages with one-vowel names such as Albanian. discovered by English explorers in the seventeenth century. The name of God with the seven vowels In Anacalypsis the author Godfrey Higgins (1771-1833) quotes Eusebius saying that the Jews expressed the name of God with the seven vowels. mountainous areas. Most of the short pronouns seem to have been derived from a multi-vowel word. according to Judaism) may have been pronounced by the Kohen Gadol (High Priest) only once a year at the Day of Atonement respectively Yom Kippur. Omicron. which may have been a divine name. E engraven over the gate of Apollos temple at Delphi Although there is no evidence for the use of E as a pronoun I suggest to include the vowel E engraven over the gate of Apollos temple at Delphi into this overview. o and a) the seven vowel name may also be written as IEhOUAh. by Adolf Deissmann. Marchigiano. who are also called God-fearing” ( Light from the Ancient East. had evidently had seven columns. followed by a prayer that the city of Miletus and all its inhabitants should be preserved. which may indicate a religious content. 451).a). This inscription. Ticinese and I decided to categorize the pronouns in several ways for the purpose to identify relationships between languages.

) have been identified. Belgium Proto-Celtic Romani . Dev thu Dia . they are mostly refugees from Afghanistan. me) mi ман (“Man”) mi mi. In western Europe similar pronouns (such as mé. in Romanized Kurdish mɪn and in Romanized Sanskrit aham. Sanskrit Tajik is a general designation for a wide range of Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin. Hindi/Urdu. fi. Duvvel . fi ti ti Table 1: Predecessor Pronouns 4 Info from Wikipedia Tajik 5 Die bündnerromanischen Idiome im Vergleich Tu-pronoun We-pronoun God te ty sina. Tajikistan. God Dio Duw . (maĩ) me my I. sa sinä tú Doue Jummal. mi. and southern Uzbekistan. me mina. Persian. Adam Cadmon. Europe Scottish Gaelic Tajik Venetian Welsh Ego-pronoun म. In Romanized Hindi/Urdu the Egopronoun is maĩ. Jumal Jumahlto jumala Dia. A subset will be introduced in the following table: Language Hindi/Urdu Breton Cornish English Estonian Finnish Irish Kurdish Ladin (Nones) 5 Luwian.Predecessor Pronouns Tajik4. Devlesa. Man (I. etc. fi *moi Me (I). An overview of these pronouns has been documented in The Hieroglyphs in the Ego-Pronoun . mee. Kurdish. ma minä mé mɪn mi (a)mu mee mé ‫ ( ﻣَﻦ‬man ) mi. Turkey Manx Old Irish Persian Picard. with traditional homelands in present-day Afghanistan. Mandi (I. which may belong to a predecessor generation of pronouns. me). dhia tī oo tú Tiwat (God of the sun) Jee ti *tū Diu Devel. which may correlate to the creation legend of (androgynous) “man”. Smaller numbers also live in Iran and Pakistan. According to the Swadesh list the Ego-pronoun is ман (“Man”).

. IU. The most important vowel seems to have been the male symbol I.the letter Yod (→ God) Table 2: Successive abbreviation of the divine name A second generation of pronouns may have been generated from these complete or abbreviated divine names. YV. I am not going anywhere. Example: Me. YHUH IHV. IU. Abbreviating multi-vowel Words By applying the Matres Lectionis we may interpret IHVH as a vowel combination IU. which are found in Jehovah. A second priority is held by the female symbol U.In modern English a similar predecessor Ego-pronoun may be identified. The fourth.the letter Yod (→ God) represent a monolithic symbol for a monotheistic religion. This example seems to be an obsolete pronoun as well. Y or J. which ended in a single letter Yod (and may have been mutated to the divine name God). YU (→ Jupiter) J. YHVH. The yod and waw in particular are more often vowels than they are consonants. YV. the matres lectionis refer to the use of certain consonants to indicate a vowel. A and O. I . The correlation between divine names and pronouns probably has been based on the creation legend in which a Creator God did create an androgynous man as his image. fifth and sixth places are occupied by E. IHU.. The image has been symbolized by applying similar words for God and the corresponding Ego-pronouns. Language Hebrew Hebrew Hebrew. IHUH. From these abbreviations a priority rank may be derived for the vowels. English Hebrew. ‫ ו‬waw (or vav) and ‫ י‬yod (or yud). However in other languages the H may be considered as a vowel (Eta) as well. I . English Divine Name IEHOUAH IEhOUAh Jehovah IHVH. Y. English Hebrew Roman Hebrew. which ultimately did lead to the one-vowel Egopronouns. which allows us to generally assume these words to be predecessor pronouns. which has been found in the divine name JU-piter. YHU IV. In the Cabala the Jewish religion practiced the abbreviation of the divine name. YU) may have been designed as bipolar symbols. ‫ ה‬he. Similar abbreviations probably have been applied for the pronouns. YHV. . whereas singular vowels J. The letters that do this in Hebrew are ‫ א‬aleph. Y. Especially two-letter combinations (IV. The third place has been assigned to the letter Eta (H). In the spelling of Hebrew and some other Semitic languages.

Corresponding cores will be highlighted yellow. ul. the Provencal Ego-pronoun iéu has been included in the divine name Diéu12. Green colors highlight the predecessor pronouns. io iòu më m’ iòu ieu . al ei(l) së lu ei F eilo la eilo N o. in which conservative structures managed to resist abbreviations and other deterioration of the pronouns. Some of the abbreviations from three vowels (ieu. jo iéu jau. for the one target of the action (eg: avou mi = with me).lu . la . t’ tü 3°p M u(l). m’ iòu 2°p tü.Pl. the first one given is for the one doing the action (eg: dji magne = I eat).Three vowel Pronouns Three-vowel pronouns have been found in remote. jou) to two vowels (jo) will be illustrated in this list: Language IEU-/IAU-/IOU-based Latin / Greek Sursilvaans Sutsilvaans Aromanian6 Villar-St-Pancrace7 Lengadocian Provencal-Occitan Romansch The Jauer8 Dialect Walloon . 10 Details: The Hieroglyphs in the Ego-Pronoun 11 Translated as “My God” 12 See for details and specification of the Swadesh-lists: Hieroglyphs in Indo-European Languages 13Patois of Villar-St-Pancrace : Personal pronouns: Cas sujet Cas régime atone tonique direct indirect Sg. mi 9 deo dèu Tu Tu Ti vos tue ( familiar) tui ( familiar) Table 3: Three vowel Pronouns Most of these three-vowel pronouns have been designed to match a core in the corresponding divine name. t’ të. Simultaneously they are using a Creator God's name Diòu14. alpine areas. 1°p a (l’) iòu më. Belgium Sardu Logudorese10 Sardu Campidanese Ejo (Ego) jeu jou iou . The inhabitants of the small village Villar-St-Pancrace in the West Alpes between Grenoble and Torino near Briançon are using a strange Ego-pronoun iòu më. the second. respectively m’ iòu 13. 1°p nû* nû* 2°p òû* vû* vû* 3°p M î(z) së lû* iè F eilâ (eilaz) lâ* eilâ 14 See the dialect's lexicon : Lexique de mots en patois . Zessu11 Deu (Dieus ?) Dieu Dieu (Diou-piter) Ego-pronoun Tu-pronoun We-pronoun God 6 See for details T-V-Distinction in the PIE-Concept 7 Details: The Hieroglyphs in the Ego-Pronoun 8 Quelle: Das Jauer 9 For pronouns. eau dji. Diòu Dieu Diéu Dieu Diu Deus (?). e.g.

The language derives from Latin. Comparing the Lengadocian Ego-pronoun ieu. which in fact is “My God”. Some Slavic pronouns seem to be related to the jau. which may have been derived from the Latin / Greek pronoun Ejo (Ego) . and has been influenced by Catalan and Spanish due to the dominion of the Aragon and later the Spanish Empire over the island. De (formal) du du ти (ti) ti ти / ti ty ti ty ty mi Boh Bůh ние (nie) mi ми / mi Бог Bog Bog Bog Gud Egopronoun Tu-pronoun We-pronoun God Table 4: Two-vowel je-/ja(s)-Pronouns. jo to the Greek/Roman "Ego"-pronoun we should consider a transposition from Ejo (Ego) -> ieu . eau-pronouns and will be added in a separate table. or Logudorese. The name refers to the area of Logudoro (literally "golden place") in which it is spoken. Sardu logudorese. is a standardised dialect of Sardinian. jo. which have been preserved in remote and/or inaccessible alpine regions. often considered the most conservative of all Romance languages. Other Slavic languages use a two-vowel sound “ja”which has been compressed in a singular letter я (ja): Language JE/JA-based Danish Norwegian (bokmål) Swedish Macedonian Slovene Serbian (Cyrillic / Latin) Polish Croatian Slovak Czech я (ja)-based pronouns Ukrainian Russian я (ja) я (ya) ти ты Bog Бог jeg jeg jag јас (jas) jaz ја / ja ja ja ja já du. mainly a northern subregion of the island of Sardinia. As a remarkable result the Ego-pronoun dèu in the Campidanese dialect is identical to the divine name Deu! In the Logudorese dialect the Egopronoun deo suggests a similar divine name of Deus in addition to Zessu.Of course më from Villar-St-Pancrace as well as mi in Walloon (Belgium) dialect may refer to the predecessor pronouns.

Language Portuguese Romanian Galician Sicilian Interlingua Gascon (Occitan) Ego-pronoun eu eu eu iu io jo tu to tu tú.g. Déu Dió Deus Déu Tu nous Dieu Table 5: Two vowel Pronouns In order to demonstrate the graphical correspondence of the two-vowel pronouns and the divine name in Arabian scripture the relevant words will be listed in a separate table: Language Arabian Ego-pronoun ‫أنا‬ Tu-pronoun ‫أنت‬ We-pronoun ‫ا‬ God Table 6: The pronouns and the divine name in Arabian scripture . the Portuguese Ego-pronoun eu which has been included in the divine name Deus.Two vowel Pronouns In analogy to the two-vowel pronouns most of these two-vowel pronouns have been designed to match a core in the corresponding divine name. Comparing the "Vallatese" Ego-pronoun eje to the Greek/Roman "Ego"-pronoun we should consider a original transposition from Ejo (Ego) -> eje and in Napulitano-version: je. Dumnezeu Deus Diu (Iu-piter) God Neapolitan io "Vallatese" . e. The two-vowel pronouns are concentrating amongst the borders of the Mediterranean Sea. usted tu Tu nuje nuje nosotros Dió tu tu.Irpinian eje Napulitano je Spanish Aragonese Catalan Italian Vulgar Latin Sardinian French Ladin (Gherdëina) yo yo jo ió eo eo je ie Dios Deus. tí Tu tu nuàutri noi Tu-pronoun We-pronoun Deus Zeu. These mechanisms suggest that the progressive abbreviations may have occurred in the pronouns and in the divine names simulataneously.

which referred to a pronoun Y or I which in the language of Adam may have been known as the name of God. These statements reveal a remarkable medieval correlation between the divine name and the Egopronoun. Book VIchapter1817. This of course is a pure nonsensical statement as Adam never experienced birth and any pains related to the birth. which had been documented by Julius Caesar in De Bello Gallico. In Neapolitan (Western Southern Romance) some variants of doubled vowels “j” have been reported. Created as a full matured adult he may rather have uttered the Ego-pronoun “I” which for an image of God may have been equivalent to God's name. but before the confusion of tongues (Paradiso.134)18.barese 16 I Y15 i Ih j'j Abruzzese adriatico . 15 As defined in Wycliffe's Bible (1382 to 1395) 16 In Omegawiki this Swadesh list for Neapolitan (Western Southern Romance) is a draft 17 in het jaar 53 BC 18 E . Dis Gott Thui.of the Word Ei Engraven Over the Gate of Apollos Temple at Delphi . Of course it may as well have been the first sound emitted by Adam.j'j pescarese Molisano ìj Dante Alighieri (1303-1321) Dante Alighieri in his De vulgari eloquentia suggests that the name El was the first sound emitted by Adam: While the first utterance of humans after birth is a cry of pain. English and Marchigiano the Ego-pronoun has developed to a one-vowel pronoun “i”. Tuisco We-pronoun God Marchigiano. and only named El in later Hebrew. This Ego-pronoun may easily be identified as equivalent to the Portuguese Ego-pronoun eu as a core embedded in the divine name Deus. Tu-pronoun nu we wir God. 26. Dante assumed that Adam could only have made an exclamation of joy. It may be compared to the Wycliffe Bible.One vowel Pronouns The pronouns based on I In Bavarian. Dante contradicts his previous statement by saying that God was called I in the language of Adam. In the Divina commedia. Language Ego-pronoun Tu Thou (singular) You (plural) Du Thu teu tu tu Table 7: The pronouns based on I Basically the English pronoun end the Bavarian pronoun “i” may also be corresponding to the divine name Dis Pater. however. a I Central Italian dialect English Bavarian (Bairisch) Old-German Appulo . which at the same time was addressing his Creator.

From: The Albanian Gods 23 From: unë . u especially Calabria ) Table 8: The pronouns based on U 19 Source : Divina commedia . 124 'The tongue I spoke was utterly extinct 125 before the followers of Nimrod turned their minds 126 to their unattainable ambition. 138 which goes and then another comes. nature leaves to you. The pronouns based on U Albanian uses an Ego-pronoun unë. 134 I was the name on earth of the Sovereign Good. ma così o così. especially Calabria ). per lo piacere uman che rinovella seguendo il cielo. 133 'Before I descended to anguish of Hell. 132 allowing you to choose at your own pleasure.can last forever.Wiktionary 21 Zot refers to Soter (translated: Saviour) – source: Is Zeus An Albanian God 22 Albanian name for the Christian God.Paradiso. che sen va e altra vene. be. Language Albanian Old Albanian Ego-pronoun unë u 23 ti na. 135 whose joyous rays envelop and surround me. A similar construct has been used in ti and the (dialectal) tinë 20.Paradiso. I s'appellava in terra il sommo bene onde vien la letizia che mi fascia.Wiktionary . which also uses a one-vowel Ego-pronoun “u”. if in this way or in that. ché l'uso d'i mortali è come fronda in ramo. Canto XXVI19 This is Dante's text. and that is as it should 137 for mortal custom is like a leaf upon a branch. Another proof for the one-vowel pronoun “u” may be found in Arberesh – language (Italy. 130 'It is the work of nature man should speak 131 but. 136 'Later El became His name. natura lascia poi fare a voi secondo che v'abbella. 127 'For nothing ever produced by reason -128 since human tastes reflect the motion 129 of the moving stars -.In this case the Ego-pronoun I must have been considered as one of the prime words in the language of Adam. Canto XXVI 20 From: unë . ju ne We-pronoun God Zot21 and Bukuri e qiellit 22 Arberesh (Italy. Pria ch'i' scendessi a l'infernale ambascia. Divina commedia . but according to Vladimir Orel Old Albanian unë basically consists of a one-vowel pronoun “u” followed by the particle -në. in which he applies “I” and “El” in Italian text: La lingua ch'io parlai fu tutta spenta innanzi che a l'ovra inconsummabile fosse la gente di Nembròt attenta: ché nullo effetto mai razïonabile. e El si chiamò poi: e ciò convene. sempre fu durabile. ne Zot Tu-pronoun ti. Opera naturale è ch'uom favella.

and Εγγύα πάρα δ'ατη (engýa pára d'atē = "make a pledge and mischief is nigh"25).D. brass or wood: • • • • γνωθι σεαυτόν (gnōthi seautón = "know thyself") and μηδέν άγαν (mēdén ágan = "nothing in excess"). Dievs Diewas. 25 "Pledge. as one must have a being. once one asserts that they have achieved perfect self-knowledge and proportionality. filled with all diversities. as every one of us is made of ten thousand differences in affections. But that which is must be one. being a confused heap. Plutarch is explained the E-concept as monotheism like this: Thus ought those who worship to salute and invocate this Eternal Being. as some of the ancients have done.g. as well as a large letter E. For the Divinity is not many. Essentially. Thou art one. but is the key to the whole. with Faustina Senior24).the wife of Antoninus Pius. Old coins (e.Lombard JA-based Ukrainian Russian я (ja) я (ya) ти ты Table 9: The pronouns based on A Some pronouns do not refer to the core but to the externsion of the divine name: Language Extension AS-based Lithuanian (Samogit) Prussian Latvian (Lettish) aš as es Table 10: Extension-related AS-pronouns Deewes. Dieves Deews. named the ei of the Sages. then one has reduced the meaning of life to dogma. and then you'll meet misfortune" as explained by Geoffrey Owen Miller. Plutarch's description is not the only evidence of the E-inscription. depict the “E” at the entrance in the center between 6 columns of Apollo's temple at Delphi. Dievas Egopronoun Tu-pronoun We-pronoun God Bog Бог a ta Ego-pronoun Tu-pronoun We-pronoun God The pronouns based on E Plutarch documented the word Ei or the vowel E engraven over the gate of Apollos temple at Delphi. Supposedly carved into the temple were three phrases and a singular vowel of gold. with this expression Εἶ ἕν. or else indeed. . 141 . 24 died A.The pronouns based on A In Slavic language a two-vowel sound “ja”may be compressed in a singular letter я (ja): Language A-based Ticinese . This third statement is the most complicated.

2 Eioudeon...................................................................9 The pronouns based on U....................................or H-concepts have been identified..........................................7 One vowel Pronouns........................5 Two vowel Pronouns...............................................................................................................................................of the Word Ei Engraven Over the Gate of Apollos Temple at Delphi .....................10 The pronouns based on E........................................................................................8 Divina commedia ...........................................................................................................2 Predecessor Pronouns.........Εἶ ἕν.............. Canto XXVI........................................................................................a common English translation of the response God used in the Hebrew Bible when Moses asked for His name (Exodus 3:14)...........................................................................................................................................................8 The pronouns based on I.....Paradiso.............................................................3 Abbreviating multi-vowel Words.............................................................................. Contents Introduction.. Sanskrit....................................................................2 The name of God with the seven vowels...3 Tajik.........................................................................9 The pronouns based on A........................................ Kurdish.....................................................................................................................................................................................................11 26 Source: I Am that I Am 27 E ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 E engraven over the gate of Apollos temple at Delphi................1 Swadesh-lists.............................................................10 The pronouns based on O or H....................1 The biblical divine commands..................8 Dante Alighieri (1303-1321) .................................................................................................................1 The Ego-pronouns...............................................................4 Three vowel Pronouns......................................... Persian.................................................................. For this reason E may be considered as an abbreviated pronoun (from: the Greek pronoun Ego?) and/or multi-vowel divine name (IEHOUAH)....................................................................................................................................... Thou art one may be compared to I Am that I Am 26 ............................................... Language Greek (Delphi) Ego-pronoun E Tu-pronoun We-pronoun God Ei27 The pronouns based on O or H Up to now no O........................................................... Hindi/Urdu.......................

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful