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Stress Management

Stress Management

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Published by Tony Rizk
Stress Management, Managing Stress
Stress Management, Managing Stress

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Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: Tony Rizk on Apr 05, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Understanding the concepts
• Frustration, Stress, and Burnout are the elements of human behaviour • Resulting from the blocking of goal-directed activity • Experiencing incongruence • And the end result of stress experienced but not properly coped with.

• Frustration is the result of privation, deprivation, and conflict and starts a cycle of frustration and hope. Exploration helps a frustrated individual to cope and offers remedies to manage frustration more effectively.

All of these are goal-related factors.The Dynamics of Frustration • What causes frustration? -Several factors contribute to frustration. . these are shown in the following formula: F = fL * V * O + I + P Where: F = Frustration f = is the function L = expectation to achieve the goal V= valence (attractiveness of the goal) O= opportunity to achieve the goal in the near future (low) I = investment of efforts and other inputs in the achievement of the goal P = public knowledge of the expected achievement.

THE CIRCULARITY OF FRUSTRATION Disappointment Adaptive deterioration Frustration cycle Defensive behaviour Problem solving Hope cycle Realistic analysis Isolation Distorted perception insight Exploration .

. In general every transition or change produces stress.STRESS Several terms have been used synonymously with stress : • • • • Stress Strain Conflict Pressure eustress dis-stress • Life Stress : stress is produced from several happenings in life.

.Definition of Stress • According to Fred Luthans : “An adaptive response to an external situation that results in physical.” • According to Robbins : “Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity. constraint or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important”. psychological and/or behavioral deviations for organizational participants.

• Stress is not necessarily something damaging.What is not Stress • Stress is not simply anxiety. . bad or to be avoided. • Stress is not simply nervous tension.


Potential Source Environmental Factors: •Economic uncertainty •Political uncertainty •Technological uncertainty Individual Differences •Perception •Job experience •Social support •Belief in locus of control •Self-efficacy •Hostility Consequences Physiological symptoms: •Headaches •High blood pressure •Heart disease Psychological symptoms: •Anxiety •Depression •Decrease in job satisfaction Organizational Factors: •Task demands •Role demands •Interpersonal demands •Organizational structure •Organizational leadership •Organization’s life stage Experienced stress Individual factors: •Family problems •Economic problems •Personality Behavioural symptoms: •Productivity •Absenteeism •Turnover .

As a positive influence. ”anger” and “depression”. stress can help compel us to perform an action which results in new awareness As a negative influence it can result in feeling of “rejection”. It has physical and emotional effects on us and creates positive or negative feelings.Effects of Stress Stress is the “wear and tear” our bodies experience as we adjust to our continually changing environment. .

Aggravated: if there are other outside circumstances which also put stress on the individual. 2. .Effects of stress can differ from individual to individual They can be:1. Reduced: if there is support available.

Effects of stress can be categorized as:• Mental (how the mind works) • Physical (how the body works) • Behavioral (the things we do) • Cognitive (the way we think and concentrate) .

Stress can be short-term (acute) or chronic.Stress is a combination of responses in the body. acute stress is the “fight to flight” response. Stress is additive .


Symptoms of stress .

Various Symptoms of Stress Physical Headaches Back Pain Indigestion Allergies Cold or Flu Neck Pain Stomach Upset Skin Problems Emotional Anxiety Worry Fatigue Low Energy Depression Fearfulness Insomnia Forgetfulness Behavioral Loss of Appetite Overeating Smoking Excessive Drinking Drugs Accident Prone Avoidance Ceaseless striving Loss of Enthusiasm cynicism .

Causes of stress Individual Factors: • Family problems • Economic problems • Personality Organizational Factors: • Task demands • Role demands • Interpersonal demands • Organizational structure • Organizational leadership • Organization’s life stage .

8. 2. 9. 6. Excellence Speed Effort Do the job yourself Please other people. Memories Messages from the past . 5. Future threat: a problem today.Recognition and contact Need for structure and stability.Common patterns of creating pressure 1. 4. 3. 7.

Role Demand Role Stress : Role – space Conflicts • Self-role distance • Intra-role conflict • Role stagnation • Inter-role distance Role Stress: Role.set Conflict • Role ambiguity • Role expectation • Role overload • Role erosion • Resource inadequacy • Personal inadequacy • Role isolation .


Adaption .Prevention and control 2.Management of Stress There are three options:1.Escapism 3.


• They also run the risk of becoming accident prone. or drug addicts. overweight. . chain-smokers.Dysfunctional Coping • Individuals might become alcoholic. • Individuals exhibit coronary disease-prone behavior patterns.

• Some common and important defense mechanisms are • REPRESSION.Defensive Coping • It involves mental or physical escape from the stressful situation. • REGRESSION. • DISPLACEMENT. • DIRECT AGGRESSION. • RATIONALIZATION. .

determination of a solution by considering available alternatives and choosing an action accordingly. .Direct Coping • It involves self awareness in order to avoid the harmful and far reaching consequences of stress. • The process involves introspection. identification of problem.

it reduces uncertainty by lessening role ambiguity and role conflict. • Participative Decision Making. • Improved Communication.by giving employees a voice in those decisions that directly affects their job performance.the level of one’s physical and mental potential through a personal health promotion programs. management can increase employee control and can reduce job stress. .Organizational Level Techniques • Personal Wellness.

• Job Design.. • Selection and Placement • Training and Development .Contd.it involves enriching job either by improving job content factors or by improving core job characteristics.

Pressure at work Assertive behaviour Aggressive behaviour THREAT PERCEIVED Unassertive behaviour Passive behaviour .

Assertive Behaviour • Confronting conflict is not easy for some people. • Neither responses is truly productive. • Some managers may feel inferior or be in awe of the other person’s power. • A constructive alternative is to practice assertive behaviour .

. • Giving and receiving honest feedback. • Asking for legitimate changes.Assertiveness • Process of expressing feelings.

• Direct honest and expressive • Very confident and gains self-respect and others feel valued.Assertive Individuals Aggressive Individuals • Not afraid to request that other person change an offensive behaviour. • Not uncomfortable refusing unreasonable requests from someone else. . • Humiliate others • Elicit either pity or scorn from others.

2.” . Negotiate a change 5. Express your feelings. I will……. Describe the behaviour. Indicate consequences “I understand why you……” “I want to……” “if you do(don’t). Empathize 4.Stages of assertiveness Stage 1. Example “When you do this……” “I feel……” 3.

Developing the skills .

Understanding the options and the ideas Underpinning your behaviour Identifying the kinds of words and phrases you want to use Getting your inner dialogueconversation with your-self right for you and the occasion Identifying the body language you want to use Planning and rehearsal for suitable situation Incorporating hints and technique Practice – integrating these elements and developing realistic self confidence Checking that you have worked on/are aware of any early messages that might get in the way of using the skills you’re choosing .

Some more ideas • Optimism • Laughter • Spirituality .


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