SUBMITTED BY: Gurpreet uppal
EEE 3rd year

I have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and organizations. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. I am highly indebted to Mr. Vikas kumar (H.O.D.EEE) and all faculty member for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project & also for their support in completing the project.

Gurpreet uppal EEE 3rd year

Contents  Introduction  Properties  Types of insulator  Damaging of insulator  Voltage distribution on string  Methods of improving voltage distribution  Materials of insulator .

Electrical insulation is a material or object which contains no free electrons to permit the flow of electricity. no charge or current flows. as the name suggests. When a voltage is placed across an insulator. are used to electrically insulate pylons from live electrical cables. An object intended to support or separate electrical conductors without passing .Introduction The insulator for overhead lines provides insulation to the power conductor from the ground. The insulators are connected to the cross arm of the supporting structure and the power conductor passes through the clamp of the Overhead line insulators.

whatever be the operating voltage. it has lower . and clay 50%. Glass being transparent. Toughened glass is also sometimes used for insulators because it has higher dielectric strength ( 35kV for onetenth inch thickness ) which makes it possible to make use of single piece construction. sound and free from defects.current through itself is called aninsulator. it is very easy to detect any flaw like trapping of air etc.The term electrical insulation has the same meaning as the termdie lec tric These insulators are mainly made of either glazed porcelain or toughened glass. feldspar 30%. The materials used for porcelain are silica 20%. The porcelain should be ivory white.

The major drawback of glass is that moisture condenses very easily on its surface and hence its use is limited to about 33kV .co-efficient of thermal expansion and. as a result the strains due to temperature changes are minimized.


.PROPERTIES OF INSULATOR  Overhead line insulators are designed to have both electrical insulation and mechanical strength. Highly insulative material is used and a recurring design theme are the “watershed” fins that discourage conductive water paths during rain and provides the required electrical leakage insulation distance  It should possesss high mechanical strength to bear the conductor load under worst loading condition.  It needs to have a high resistance to temperature changes to reduce damages to power flasheover.

 The insulator material should not be porous and should be impervious to gases in atmosphere and should be free from impurity and cracks which may lower the permittivity. The leakage of earth current should be minimum to keep the corona loss and radio interference within limits. .

Types of insulators There are three types of insulators used for overhead lines Pin type Suspension type Strain type .

plastic. The pin insulator is designed to secure the conductor to itself. By contrast to a strain insulator. polymer. The earliest pin insulators predate the strain insulator and were deployed before about 1830. glass. The most common way . the pin insulator is directly connected to the supporting pole. or wood that is formed into a shape that will isolate a wire from a physical support (or "pin") on a utility pole or other structure. provide a means to hold the insulator to the pin.Pin type insulators A pin insulator consists of a nonconducting material such as porcelain. Pin insulators continue in production with manufacturers worldwide. and provide a means to secure the conductor to the insulator.

Pin insulators are almost always deployed in the open air. Size . The "pin" is typically a wooden or metal dowel of about 3 cm diameter with screw threads. pin insulators feature extra skirts or wide shells to increase the surface distance between the conductor and the pin. gravity can be used to hold the conductor in place. so isolation when wet is a major do this is to use a wire to tie the conductor to the insulator. Finally. To combat this problem. Another method is to design the insulator with self-typing features such as complex slots and grooves formed into the insulator. A typical pin insulator is more than 10 cm in diameter and weighs one kg or more. for heavy conductors. The pin insulator has threads so that it can be screwed onto the pin.

.depends on the voltage to be isolated and the weight of span of wire to be supported.

is suspended from the crossarm and has the line conductor fastened to the lower end. as its name implies. Each insulator is a large disc shape piece of porcelain grooved on .Suspension type insulator The suspension insulator. It is designed for ease of linking units together. Such composite units are known as string insulators. Linking of these insulators gives you the versatility of ordering one insulator to be used with varying voltages Theses insulators consists of one or more insulator units flexibly Connected together and adopted to be hung for the cross arm of the sporting structure and to carry a power conductor at its lowest extremity.

The cap at the top is increased so that it can take the pin of another unit and in this way a string of any required number of insulators can be built.75n in size.the undersurface to increase the surface leakage path between the metal cap at the top and the metal pin at the bottom of the insulator. Increasing the diameter further increases the flash over or spark over voltage but it lower the above ratio which is undesirable. the clearances required . The diameter is taken as 10n as it gives optimum spark over to puncture voltage ratio. The cap and the pin are squired by means of cement. Suspension insulators being free to swing. The standard unit is 10n X 5.

Each insulator is designed for11kV and hence for any operating voltage a string of insulators can be used In case of failure of one of the units in string.between the power conductor and the suspension structure are more as compared to pin type insulators. in addition to being economical as compared to pin type for voltage more than 33kV. Since the power conductor and string swing together in case of wind . only that particular unit needs replacement rather than the whole string. This means the length of the cross arm for suspension insulators is more as compared with the pin type. The suspension insulators. have the following further advantages.

The operating of the existing transmission can be increased by adding suitable number of discs in the string instead of replacing all the insulators as is necessary in case of pin type insulators .pressure. . the mechanical stress at the point of attachment are reduced as compared with the pin type of insulator where because of the rigid nature of the attachment fatigue and ultimate brittleness of the wire result.


Strain insulators are used when a pull must be carried as well as insulation provided. at comers. Description of strain insulator: A typical strain insulator is a piece of glass or porcelain that is shaped to accommodate two cables or a cable shoe and the supporting hardware on the support . In such places the insulator must not only be a good insulator electricallybut it also must have sufficient mechanical strength to counterbalance the forces due to tension of the line conductors. at extra long spans. at river crossings. at sharp curves.Such places occur whenever a line is dead-ended. or in mountainous country.Strain type insulators The strain insulator looks exactly like the suspension insulator but is designed to hold much heavier physical loads.

for light loads such as radio antennas. the strain insulator is usually in tension. The shape of the insulator maximizes the distance between the cables while also maximizing the load-bearing transfer capacity of the insulator. Use of strain insulator: Strain insulators are typically used outdoors in overhead wiring. or eyelet on a steel pole/tower). In practice. since a wetted path from one cable to the other can create a lowresistance electrical path. As a practical matter. pollution. Strain insulators intended for horizontal mounting therefore incorporate flanges to . the shape of the insulator becomes critically important.structure (hook eye. In this environment they are exposed to rain and in urban settings.

shed water. and strain insulators intended for vertical mounting are often bell-shaped .

Damaging of insulator The electrical breakdown of an insulator due to excessive voltage can occur in one of two ways:   Puncture voltage is the voltage across the insulator (when installed in its normal manner) which causes a breakdown and conduction through the interior of the insulator. The heat resulting from the puncture arc usually damages the insulator irreparably. causing a 'flashover' arc along the outside of the insulator. Flashover voltage is the voltage which causes the air around or along the surface of the insulator to break down and conduct. They are .

The flashover voltage can be more than 50% lower when the insulator is wet. causing leakage currents and flashovers. so they will flashover before they puncture. pollution. High voltage insulators for outdoor use are shaped to maximize the length of the leakage path along the surface from one end to the other. To accomplish this surface is molded into a series of corrugations or concentric disk shapes. called the creepage length. Dirt.usually designed to withstand this without damage. These usually . Most high voltage insulators are designed with a lower flashover voltage than puncture voltage. to minimize these leakage currents. salt. to avoid damage. and particularly water on the surface of a high voltage insulator can create a conductive path across it.

.include one or more sheds. but must be increased in high pollution or airborne seasalt areas. Minimum creepage distances are 20–25 mm/kV. downward facing cup-shaped surfaces that act as umbrellas to ensure that the part of the surface leakage path under the 'cup' stays dry in wet weather.

flashover voltage of string n* flashover voltage of one unit or voltage across the whole string n*(v/g across the unit adacent to line conducto) Where. n is the number of insulator units in the string When n=4 .STRING EFFICIENCY “String Efficiency” is a measure of utilization of material in the string and is defined as.


METHOD OF IMPROVING STRING EFFICIENCY  Use of long cross arm: String efficiency can be improved by reduction in stray capacitance to the ground.  Guard Rings .  Capacitance Grading The voltage distribution can be equalize by assembling a string with units of different capacitance of appropriate voltage. This would equalize the voltage distribution. The line end units has got the greatest capacitance while top unit the smallest.

This increase the stray capacitance to the line and decrease the stray capacitance to earth. .This is the most efficient method of equalize the voltage distribution by fitting rings or shield to the bottom insutator or to the clamp and connected to the line.

Insulator Materials: Overhead line insulators are mostly made of the following materials 1. Glass. Composite synthetics. 2. which is widely used for all the abovementioned overhead line insulator types. which may be a combination of fibreglass. which may be used for disc and pin types. It’s thermal stability is consistent up to 538 degrees C 3. These are sometimes used for the longrod and post type insulators and have been in service for more than 25 years. plastic and resin. Porcelain. When modern composite synthetics are used. often the insulative core consists of glass fibers in a resin- .

The housing that encloses a composite synthetic also forms the water-sheds and may be hydrophobic (water repellent). there have been concerns about material lifespan and lack of UV resistance . which helps reduce leakage current. A rule of thumb operating temperature range spec for housing is -50 to 50 degrees Celsius. 5. Plasticised wood.based matrix to achieve maximum tensile strength 4. also referred to as Polymer Concrete has been used for post type insulators. Some housings are designed to remain hydrophobic when polluted. Polymer Concrete has demonstrated thermal stability in excess of 300 degrees C. Since both these designs utilise organic material. giving composite synthetics a distinct advantage over porcelain types.

the ball-socket and clevistongue interlocks) are normally galvanised cast iron and forged or mild steel.e. each insulator is marked with its specified Electromechanical Failing Load and the name or trademark of the manufacturer in conformance with IEC 60383 . Coupling fittings for overhead line insulators (i. For ease of load specification identification. Clevis and pins may be specified with a coating of hot-dipped galvanised zinc to protect the base metal against severe corrosion 7.6.

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