(ΠΗΨΣΙΧΣ ΟΛΨΜΠΙΑ∆)
1993 MULTIPLE CHOICE SCREENING TEST 30 QUESTIONS—40 MINUTES

DO NOT OPEN THIS TEST UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO BEGIN
=

4π x 10-7 Tm/A

= 6.7 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2 = 10 m/s2 = 340 m/s

DO NOT OPEN THIS TEST UNTIL YOU ARE INSTRUCTED TO BEGIN Copyright © 1993, AAPT

1. A ball of mass m is thrown vertically upward. Air resistance is not negligible. Assume the force of air resistance has magnitude proportional to the velocity, and direction opposite to the velocity's. At the highest point, the ball's acceleration is: (A) 0 (B) less than g (C) g (D) greater than g (E) upward

2. A train is moving forward at a velocity of 2.0 m/s. At the instant the train begins to accelerate at 0.80 m/s2, a passenger drops a quarter which takes 0.50 s to fall to the floor. Relative to a spot on the floor directly under the quarter at release, it lands: (A) 1.1 m toward the rear of the train. (B) 1.0 m toward the rear of the train. (C) 0.10 m toward the rear of the train. (D) directly on the spot. (E) 0.90 m toward the front of the train. 3. The dropped quarter in the preceding question (#2) is viewed by an observer standing next to the tracks. Relative to this observer, the quarter moves before landing. (A) forward 1.1 m (B) forward 1.0 m (C) forward 0.10 m (D) straight down (E) backward 0.10 m 4. The accompanying graph of position x versus time t represents the motion of a particle. If b and c are both positive constants, which of the following expressions best describes the acceleration a of the particle? (A) a = 0 (B) a = +b (C) a = -c (D) a = b + ct (E) a = b - ct 5. In the system shown to the right, a force F pushes on block A, giving the system an acceleration a. The coefficient of static friction between the blocks is µ. The correct equation for block B not to slip is: (A) a > µg (B) a < µg (C) a > g (D) a > g/µ Page 1 of 7
F A B

x

t

(E) a < g/µ

6. A block of mass m starts at rest at height h on a frictionless inclined plane. The block slides down the plane, travels a total distance d across a rough surface h with coefficient of kinetic friction µ, and compresses a spring with force constant k a distance x before momentarily coming to rest. Then the spring extends and the block travels back across the rough surface, sliding up the plane. The correct expression for the maximum height h' that the block reaches on its return is: (A) mgh' = mgh - 2µmgd (B) mgh' = mgh + 2µmgd (C) mgh' = mgh + 2µmgd + kx2 (D) mgh' = mgh - 2µmgd- kx2 (E) mgh' = mgh - 2µmgd- kx2 - 1/2 mv2 7. Air track car A has mass m and velocity v. Air track car B has mass 2m and velocity 3v. The same constant force F is applied to each car until it stops. Car A is brought to rest in time t. The time required to stop car B is: (A) 2t (B) 3t (C) 6t (D) 9t (E) 18t

8. In the preceding question (#7), car A travels a distance d before coming to rest. The distance traveled by car B before coming to rest is: (A) 2d (B) 3d (C) 6d (D) 9d (E) 18d

9. Three air track cars are initially placed as shown in the A accompanying figure. Car A has mass m and initial velocity v to the right. Car B with mass m and car C with mass 4m are both m initially at rest. Car A collides elastically with car B, which in turn collides elastically with car C. After the collision, car C has a velocity of 0.4v to the right. The final velocities of cars A and B are: (A) Car A: 0.6v to the left (B) Car A: 1.4v to the left (C) Car A: v to the left (D) Car A: 0.4v to the left (E) Car A: 1.6v to the left Car B: at rest Car B: at rest Car B: 0.6v to the left Car B: v to the left Car B: v to the right

v

B m

C 4m

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10. Three cylinders, all of mass M, roll without slipping down an inclined plane of height H. The cylinders are described as follows: I. hollow of radius R II. solid of radius R/2 III. solid of radius R If all cylinders are released simultaneously from the same height, the cylinder (or cylinders) reaching the bottom first is (are): (A) I (B) II (C) III (D) I & II (E) II & III

11. The system shown to the right is free to rotate about a frictionless axis through its center and perpendicular to the page. All three forces are exerted tangent to their respective rims. The magnitude of the net torque acting on the system is: (A) 1.5 FR (B) 1.9 FR (C) 2.3 FR (D) 2.5 FR (E) 3.5 FR 2F

37 F

O

F R/2 R

12. Two identical disks are positioned on a vertical axis. The bottom disk is rotating at angular velocity ω0 and has rotational kinetic energy K0. The top disk is initially at rest. It is allowed to fall, and sticks to the bottom disk. What is the rotational kinetic energy of the system after the collision? (A) 1/4 K0 (B) 1/2 K0 (C) K0 (D) 2 K0 (E) 4 K0

13. If the sun were suddenly replaced by a black hole of one solar mass, what would happen to the earth's orbit immediately after the replacement? (A) The earth would spiral into the black hole. (B) The earth would spiral out away from the black hole. (C) The radius of the earth's orbit would be unchanged, but the period of the earth's motion would increase. (D) Neither the radius of the orbit nor the period would change. (E) The radius of the earth's orbit would be unchanged, but the period of the earth's motion would decrease.

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14. A hypothetical planet has density ρ, radius R, and surface gravitational acceleration g. If the radius of the planet were doubled, but the planetary density stayed the same, the acceleration due to gravity at the planet's surface would be: (A) 4g (B) 2g (C) g (D) g/2 (E) g/4

15. An ideal organ pipe resonates at frequencies of 50 Hz, 150 Hz, 250 Hz,.... The pipe is: (A) open at both ends and of length 1.7 m. (B) open at both ends and of length 3.4 m. (C) open at both ends and of length 6.8 m. (D) closed at one end, open at the other, and of length 1.7 m. (E) closed at one end, open at the other, and of length 3.4 m. 16. A porpoise, whistle-clicking at a frequency f0, swims toward an underwater vertical cliff at a velocity that is 1.0% of the velocity of sound in sea water. The reflected frequency experienced by the swimming porpoise is: (A) 0.98 f0 (B) 0.99 f0 (C) f0 (D) 1.01 f0 (E) 1.02 f0

17. Three processes compose a thermodynamic cycle shown in the accompanying pV diagram. Process 1→2 takes place at constant temperature. Process 2→3 takes place at constant volume, and process 3→1 is adiabatic. During the complete cycle, the total amount of work done is 10 J. During process 2→3, the internal energy decreases by 20 J; and during process 3→1, 20 J of work is done on the system. How much heat is added to the system during process 1→2? (A) 0 (B) 10 J (C) 20 J (D) 30 J (E) 40 J

p

1 2 3 V Q W ∆U -20J -20J +10J

1¨ 2 2¨ 3 3¨ 1 cycle

18. The root mean square velocity of oxygen gas is v at room temperature. What is the root mean square velocity of hydrogen gas at the same temperature? (A) 16 v (B) 4 v (C) v (D) v/4 (E) v/16

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19. Monochromatic light of wavelength λ is shone on a grating consisting of six equally spaced slits. The first order interference maximum occurs at an angle of 0.00100 radians. If the outer two slits are covered, the first order maximum will occur at ______ radians. (A) 0.00025 (B) 0.00067 (C) 0.00100 (D) 0.00150 (E) 0.00400

20. You are given two lenses, a converging lens with focal length +10 cm and a diverging lens with focal length -20 cm. Which of the following would produce a virtual image that is larger than the object? (A) Placing the object 5 cm from the converging lens. (B) Placing the object 15 cm from the converging lens. (C) Placing the object 25 cm from the converging lens. (D) Placing the object 15 cm from the diverging lens. (E) Placing the object 25 cm from the diverging lens. 21. Two small identical conducting spheres are separated by a distance much larger than their diameter. They are initially given charges of -2.00 x 10-6 C and +4.00 x 10-6 C, and found to exert a force on each other of magnitude 1.000 N. Without changing their position, they are connected by a conducting wire. When the wire is removed, what is the magnitude of the force between them? (A) 0 (B) 0.125 N (C) 0.250 N (D) 1.000 N (E) 1.125 N +Q X -Q 0.10m +Q

22. Charges of ±Q, with Q = 2.0 x 10-7 C, are placed at three corners of a square whose sides are 0.10 m. The magnitude of the total field at the center of the square is: (A) 5.1 x 103 V/m (B) 2.5 x 104 V/m (C) 7.5 x (D) 3.6 x 104 105 V/m V/m 0.10m

(E) 1.08 x 106 V/m 23. Three 60 W light bulbs are mistakenly wired in series and connected to a 120 V power supply. Assume the light bulbs are rated for single connection to 120 V. With the mistaken connection, the power dissipated by each bulb is: (A) 6.7 W (B) 13.3 W (C) 20 W (D) 40 W (E) 60 W

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24. Two thin spherical conducting shells are centered on the same point. The inner sphere has radius b and total charge q. The outer sphere has radius B and total charge Q. At a point a distance R from the common center, where b< R<B, and assuming the electric potential is zero an infinite distance away, the total potential due to the two spheres is: (A) kq/b + kQ/B (B) kq/b + kQ/R (C) kq/R (D) kq/R + kQ/B (E) kq/R + kQ/R 25. What is the magnitude of the total electric field for the two spheres at the point described in the preceding question (#24)? (A) kq/b2 + kQ/B2 (B) kq/b2 + kQ/R2 (C) kq/R2 (D) kq/R2+ kQ/B2 (E) kq/R2 + kQ/R2 26. A current of 0.10 A flows through the 25 ½ resistor represented in the diagram to the right. The current through the 80 ½ resistor is: (A) 0.10 A (B) 0.20 A (C) 0.30 A (D) 0.40 A (E) 0.60 A 27. The circuit shown in the accompanying figure has been connected for a very long time. The voltage across the capacitor is: (A) 1.2 V (B) 2.0 V (C) 2.4 V (D) 4.0 V (E) 6.0 V
20 Ω 60 Ω 80 Ω 25 Ω V 0.1 A 20 Ω

100 Ω 6V 200 Ω

100 Ω 4 µF

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28. The accompanying sketch represents a bubble chamber photograph. field is directed out of the plane of the sketch. All particles have the same velocity initially from left to . . . right. The one that is most likely an electron is: .A . . . . . (A) A . . . (B) B . . . . . . (C) C E . . . (D) D (E) E 29. What is the correct expression for the magnetic field at point X in the diagram to the right? HINT: The magnitude of the magnetic field at the center of a circular current loop of radius R is µ 0i/(2R). (A) (µ 0i/4)(1/a + 1/b) (B) (µ 0i/4)(1/a - 1/b) (C) (µ 0i/4)(1/a - 1/b) - µ 0i/(2πa) (D) (µ 0i/2)(1/a - 1/b) (E) (µ 0i/2)(1/a + 1/b) + µ 0i/(2πa) into the page out of the page out of the page out of the page into the page i

The magnetic . . . . . . . . .B . . . .D . . . . .C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

b a X

30. You are given a bar magnet and a looped coil of wire. Which of the following would induce an emf in the coil? I. Moving the magnet away from the coil. II. Moving the coil toward the magnet. III. Turning the coil about a vertical axis. (A) I only (B) II only (C) I & II (D) I & III (E) I, II, III

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1993 MULTIPLE CHOICE SCREENING TEST ANSWER KEY
1. C 2. C 3. B 4. E 5. D 6. A 7. C 8. E 9. A 10. E 11. A 12. B 13. D 14. B 15. D 16. E 17. D 18. B 19. C 20. A 21. B 22. D 23. A 24. D 25. C 26. C 27. D 28. A 29. B 30. E

Entia non multiplicanda sunt praeter necessitatem
=

4π x 10-7 T·m/A

= 6.7 x 10-11 N·m2/kg2 = 10 m/s2 = 340 m/s

DO NOT OPEN THIS TEST UNTIL YOU ARE INSTRUCTED TO BEGIN Copyright © 1996, AAPT

1. An object is projected straight upward from ground level with a velocity of 50 m/s. Ignoring air resistance, it will return to ground level in approximately: A. 2.5 s B. 5.0 s C. 7.5 s D. 10 s E. 15 s

2. A jogger runs with constant speed v through a forest of pine trees. A pine cone starts to fall from a height h when the jogger is directly below it. How far behind the jogger will the pine cone land? A. 2hv2 g B. hv2 2g gh 2 C. 2v2 2gh2 D. v2 v2 E. 2g

3. A ball is thrown downward with speed 15 m/s from the roof of a 30 m building. At the same instant a ball is thrown upward with speed 15 m/s from ground level. Relative to ground level, the two balls pass each other at a height of: A. 0 B. 5.0 m C. 10 m D. 15 m E. 20 m

4. A swimmer can swim with a velocity of 1.0 m/s in still water. The swimmer wishes to swim directly across a river with a current of 0.50 m/s directed from upstream to downstream. To end up directly across the river the swimmer must head at an angle of: A. B. C. D. E. tan-1(1/2) upstream. sin-1(1/2) upstream. directly across the river. sin-1(1/2) downstream tan-1(1/2) downstream

5. What is the tension T in the rope if the 10-N weight is moving upward with constant velocity? A. 3.5 N B. 5.0 N C. 7.1 N D. 10 N E. 14 N

T

45o

10 N

page 1

At what angle θ does it slide off the surface of the globe? Assume the system is frictionless. II. Two blocks. As shown to the right. (mv2)/(2d) II. Possible expressions for the magnitude of the force F are: I. The 15-kg block accelerates down the plane. C. The blocks are released from rest. (2md)/t2 III. C. An object with mass m and initial velocity v is brought to rest by a constant force F acting for a time t and through a distance d. E. θ = 90o R θ 9. D. RI = RII = 0 RI = RII and is not equal to zero or F. with masses 17 kg and 15 kg.6. III only C. The surface is horizontal and frictionless. A. I. Which of the following statements is correct? A. I and II only D. Let RI be the force that m exerts on M in case I and RII be the force that m exerts on M in case II. θ = cos-1(1/3) C. T1 and T2 are the tensions in the strings. The 17-kg block accelerates down the plane. θ = 0o B. θ = cos-1(2/3) D. Which of the following statements is true? A. B. and III page 2 1996 Physics Olympiad . two Case I Case II blocks with masses m and M F (M > m) are pushed by a force F F M M m m in both Case I and Case II. E. (mv)/t Which of these give(s) the correct expression for the magnitude of the force F? A. D. A small block of mass m starts from rest at the top of a globe of radius R. B. II only B. θ = 60o E. II and III only E. Both blocks remain at rest. are connected by a light string that passes over a frictionless pulley of negligible mass as shown to the right. The surfaces of the planes are frictionless. RI = RII = F RI < RII RI > RII 7. T 1 > T2 T 1 < T2 T2 17 kg T1 15 kg 45o 60o 8.

B. See figure to the right. I I + mR 2 ω − mvR E. what is the speed at point B? A. Car A has mass m and initial velocity v to v the right. car B is at rest.4v to the right Car C: 0. I and II only B. II only D. Car A: 0. Assuming no frictional losses and no work done by a motor. III only E. I and III only C. v A + 2gH E. A child with mass m is standing at the edge of a playground merry-goround with moment of inertia I. The final velocities of cars A and C are: A. The new angular velocity of the merry-go-round is: A. and initial angular velocity ω . A roller coaster travels with speed vA at point A. C. D. radius R. Point B is a height H above point A. The child jumps off the edge of the merry-go-round with tangential velocity v with respect to the ground. vA 2 − 2gH B.25v to the right Car C: v to the right 13. II and III only 11.6v to the left Car A: 2. Car A collides elastically with car B. A small sphere is moving at a constant speed in a vertical circle. C. Car B with mass m and car C with mass 4m are both m m 4m initially at rest. Below is a list of quantities that could be used to describe some aspect of the motion of the sphere.10. I ( ) 1996 Physics Olympiad page 3 . v A − 2gH D. After the collision.4v to the right Car C: 0. v A − 2gH C.5v to the right Car C: 0. vA 2 + 2gH 12. E.6v to the left Car A: at rest Car A: at rest Car A: at rest Car C: 0. Three air track cars are initially placed as shown in the A B C accompanying figure. I – kinetic energy II – potential energy III – momentum Which of these quantities will change as this sphere moves around the circle? A. ω B. which in turn collides elastically with car C. Iω 2 − mv 2 I v ω (I + mR 2 )ω 2 − mv2 I Iω − mvR D.

0.00 D. or III. The flag pole makes an angle θ with the horizontal. A uniform flag pole of length L and mass M is pivoted on the ground with a frictionless hinge.0 1996 Physics Olympiad page 4 . C. P B.71 C. (2/3) g cos θ (2/3) g g (3/2) g cos θ (3/2) g I II r R III P L θ 16. D. Β. Which of the accompanying PV diagrams best represents an adiabatic process (process where no heat enters or leaves the system)? A. 1. v/4 17.4 E. II only C. E. 2 v C. I and II only E. 2.50 B. A string is wrapped around the axle of the spool and can be pulled in any of the directions labeled by I. the linear acceleration of the free end of the flag pole – labeled P – would be: A. I only B. III only D. String A and String B have the same mass and length. String A is under tension T and string B is under tension 2T. II. 4 v B.14. P C. A. P D. v/2 E. v D. The speed of waves in B is _____ times the speed of waves in A. The root mean square velocity of oxygen gas (atomic mass 16) is v at room temperature. As shown in the figure to the right. a spool has outer radius R and axle radius r. P E. P V V V V V 18. 0. The spool will slide to the right without rolling on the horizontal surface if it is pulled in direction(s): A. 1. If it starts falling from the position shown in the accompanying figure. II and III only 15. The moment of inertia of the flag pole about one end is (1/3)ML2. What is the root mean square velocity of helium (atomic mass 4) at the same temperature? A.

0 m 22.33 coats a glass with index of refraction 1.19. 400 nm D.0 m 10. 300 nm C.0 m from the right mirror (RM) looks into this mirror and sees a series of images. Two mirrors. A person standing 1. a converging lens with focal length + 10 cm and a diverging lens with focal length .20 cm. B. f   v + u v  B. Placing the object 15 cm from the converging lens. D. Placing the object 5 cm from the converging lens. are parallel to each other and 3. A thin film of thickness t and index of refraction 1. D. Which of the following would produce a real image that is larger than the object? A.50. 450 nm n=1. 2. Placing the object 25 cm from the converging lens. a whistle moves with velocity u toward a stationary wall.0 m 6. labeled LM for left mirror and RM for right mirror in the accompanying figure. f v  D. E. E. LM RM 21. C.u  v + u E. Placing the object 25 cm from the diverging lens. 225 nm B. A. On a day when the velocity of sound in air is v. 600 nm 1996 Physics Olympiad page 5 . f   v + u C.00 t n=1. How far from the person is the second closest image seen in the right mirror (RM)? A.50 E.0 m 2. The whistle emits sound with frequency f.0 m 1. f   v -u  u 20.0 m 8. What frequency of reflected sound will be heard by an observer traveling along with the whistle? v -u  A. Placing the object 15 cm from the diverging lens. What is the least thickness t that will strongly reflect light with wavelength 600 nm? Hint: Light undergoes a 180o phase shift when it is reflected off a material with a higher index of refraction. C. You are given two lenses.0 m apart.33 n=1.0 m 4. B. f   v.

Where is the total field zero? A.20 V C.067 m to the left of q1 E. E. are 0.020m V 0 25. anywhere R < b.00 µC.20 m to the left of q1 q 0. The cavity is centered a distance b (b>c) from the center of the sphere.0300 m to the left of the plate? A. far away from the shells. 3ε b 2 o ρa3 ρ  a3 − c3  C. Let the potential Vo = 0 a distance 0.00 µC and q2 = . C. + 12 V D. See the figure to the right. 0. A spherical cavity of radius c is formed in the sphere.020m V 1 0. + 20 V E.0200 m to the right of the plate. . 0. The smaller shell has radius b and net charge +Q.23. q1 = +1.40 m to the right of q1 B. immediately outside the larger (R = 2b) shell. 3ε o 26. 3ε o B. 0. If R is the distance from the common center. A sphere of radius a has uniform charge density ρ. +Q b +Q 2b 24. The accompanying figure shows two concentric spherical shells isolated from each other. the highest electric field magnitude E occurs: A. What is the magnitude of the electric field at the center of the cavity? a b c ρb A. The larger shell has radius 2b and an equal net charge +Q.1m to the right of q1 D.   3ε o b2  c3  ρ b   2 b2  D. E increases with distance. 3ε o  c3  ρ b   b2  E.13 m to the right of q1 C. D. where E is constant immediately outside the smaller (R = b) shell. + 28 V E V 3 0. As shown in the diagram to the right.200 m apart. An infinite conducting plate of thickness 0. two fixed charges.0200 m is surrounded by a uniform field E = 400 V/m directed left to right.4. . What is V3. only at R = 0.030m E V 2 0. where E is infinite.200 m 1 q 2 1996 Physics Olympiad page 6 . B. 0. the potential 0.28 V B. 0.

The battery in both circuits is a 12 volt battery. Two identical resistors with resistance R are connected in the two circuits drawn below. More total power will be delivered by the battery in circuit II than in circuit I. What is the magnetic field inside the wire. (1/2) µoJR counterclockwise D. The switch is closed in the circuit shown to the right. C. The power dissipated in each R will be greater in circuit I than in circuit II. D. R1R3/R2 E. The wire has uniform current density J and radius a. Which statement is correct? I 12 V R R II 12 V R R A. (1/2) µoJa clockwise B. R2 B. 5. and R3 – have been adjusted so that the current in the ammeter (labeled A in the accompanying circuit diagram) is zero.00V 10. R2. C. R2R3/R1 R3 R I=0 A R1 V R2 30. The potential drop across each R will be greater in circuit I than in circuit II. E. 29. More current will flow through each R in circuit I than in circuit II.0µF 28.27. R3 C. (1/2) µoJa2/R counterclockwise E. The resistors – R1. R1R2/R3 D. (1/2) µoJa2/R clockwise C. a distance R (R<a) from the wire’s center? A.0 µC 10 µC 20 µC 40 µC 60 µC 100Ω 200Ω 6. B. The equivalent resistance will be greater in circuit II than in circuit I. What is R? A. A long cylindrical conducting wire – shown in cross section to the right – carries a conventional current out of the page. B. (1/2) µoJa counterclockwise a R 1996 Physics Olympiad page 7 . D. E. What is the charge on the capacitor when it is fully charged? A.

1996 MULTIPLE CHOICE SCREENING TEST ANSWER KEY 1. D 28. A 26. 8. B 29. B 15. E 27. D 16. 9. C 22. A 23. E . A 12. B 17. 2. B 21. 4. E 30. 3. 7. A 13. E 20. D A C B B D A C E 11. C 24. 6. C 10. 5. C 18. E 14. D 19. D 25.

D. Just as the car passes a cliff. as shown in the accompanying figure. (1/3) F C. 0. D. (2/3) F E. E. Which lettered segment corresponds to a time when the object has a negative acceleration? A. C.12 J 1995 Physics Olympiad page 1 . Which of the accompanying curves best depicts the path the rock takes in the car’s reference system? A. Zero B. a rock falls straight down in the cliff’s reference system. C. B. 1 2 3 3. C. 0.16 J B. it slides across a rough surface and comes momentarily to rest 8 cm to the left of its equilibrium position. B. (1/2) F D. The resultant force on block 2 is: A. Which solid vector in the accompanying figures best represents the acceleration of a pendulum mass at an intermediate point in its swing? A. and 3 – rest on a horizontal F frictionless surface. The accompanying figure is a graph of an object’s position as a function of time. E. Upon release. F 4.1.64 J D.32 J C. At its 16 cm extension. m m m Each block has a mass m. A car is moving at a constant velocity to the right along a straight level highway.96 J 8 cm E. E. and the blocks are connected by massless strings.28 joules of potential energy. 0. 2. How much mechanical energy was dissipated by friction? A. B. A B C D E +x B C D A E t 2. 0. the spring-mass system has 1. A mass attached to a horizontal massless spring is displaced 16 cm to the right of its equilibrium position (see accompanying figure) and released from rest. 16 cm 5. Block 3 is pulled to the right by a force F. 1. Three blocks – 1. D.

30 m apart on a frictionless and level ice surface. The more massive car. which car experiences the greater change in momentum? A. Car A is only 6. More than mg but less than 2mg. embeds itself in the block. Make the turn only if it speeds up. moving at an initial speed v. The car will: A. (M + m )v m   m   v D. Both are initially at rest. slowing down with a constant acceleration of 2. Slide into the inside of the curve. 5. 5 m B. 15 m D.5 m/s D. The bullet. E.0 m behind car B. Less than mg. B. what is the tension in the cord? A. the driver of car A begins to brake. Make the turn. Car A and car B are both traveling down a straight highway at 25 m/s (about 56 mph). mv M +m 11. C.0 m/s2. What is the relative velocity of the two cars when they collide? Hint: Both cars are still moving forward when they collide. A.4 m/s B. A bullet of mass m is fired at a block of mass M initially at rest. Slow down due to the centrifugal force. C. D. also at 2. 21 m/s E.  M + m  v C. E.2 s. Car A because its velocity at the start of the collision is greater. C.   M + m  m  E. the polar bear will move: A. E. Slide off to the outside of the curve. Car B because its velocity at the start of the collision is less. D. The maximum frictional force between the tires and the slippery road is 900 N.6. B. The driver of a 1000 kg car tries to turn through a circle of radius 100 m on an unbanked curve at a speed of 10 m/s.0 m/s C.0 m/s2. 9. More than 2mg. After a time 1. The less massive car. 24 m/s 8. 9. Both cars experience the same magnitude of momentum change. Exactly 2mg. 2. 1995 Physics Olympiad page 2 . m m 7. B. When the hunter pulls the polar bear to him. If everything is at rest. D. 25 m 10. Exactly mg. Mv M +m B. A 70 kg hunter ropes a 350 kg polar bear. The speed of the block after the collision is: A. 6 m C. Two identical masses m are connected to a massless string which is hung over two frictionless pulleys as shown on the right. 24 m E. During the collision between car A and car B described in Problem # 7 above. The driver of car B brakes.

decreasing her moment of inertia to (1/4)I. a mass of ice m/5 melts.100 J 1995 Physics Olympiad page 3 . 15. The first rope is attached to the left end of the rod while the second rope is attached a distance L/4 from the right end. 4ω 2 L/4 L E. (1/2)W B. After impact. Her new angular speed is: A. (2/3)W E. 5g g 5m 5g m 16. the heat is added at constant pressure. When the temperature of the gas changes by 150 K. The tension in the second rope is: A. A heavy rod of length L and weight W is suspended horizontally by two vertical ropes as shown on the right. ω/4 B. (1/4)W C. 2ω 1 14. 8800 J D. P C. 11. D. (1/3)W D. P B. She pulls in her outstretched arms. P E. W 15. ω D. 8800 joules are needed for the same temperature change. A block of ice with mass m falls into a lake. If the heat is added at constant volume. the minimum distance the ice fell is: L 5L gL mL 5gL A. The acceleration of the string is approximately: (A) 10 m/s2 (B) 20 m/s2 (C) 30 m/s2 (D) 40 m/s2 (E) 50 m/s2 13. P D. If L represents the heat of fusion. A solid cylinder weighing 200 N has a fixed axis and a string wrapped around it. ω/2 C. The string is pulled with a force equal to the weight of the cylinder. C.12. 6300 J C.300 J E. A spinning ice skater has an initial kinetic energy (1/2)Iω2. E. If instead. B. 6300 joules of heat are required to raise the temperature of an ideal gas by 150 K. Both the block of ice and the lake have a temperature of 0oC. P V V V V V 17. the internal energy of the gas changes by: A. 2500 J B. Which of the accompanying PV diagrams best represents an isothermal (constant temperature) process? A.

Light shining through two very narrow slits produces an interference maximum at point P when the entire apparatus is in air (see accompanying figure). 20. it will resonate with a fundamental frequency of: A. Placing the object 15 cm from the converging lens. E. P x d θ 22. Placing the object 25 cm from the converging lens. For the interference maximum represented. D. 150 Hz C. C. Placing the object 5 cm from the converging lens. amplitude and velocity but different wavelength. amplitude and frequency but different velocity. B. increases because the frequency increases. is unchanged decreases because the frequency decreases. D. Which of the following would produce a virtual image that is larger than the object? A. vt E. increases because the wavelength increases. They are traveling in the same direction but are 90o out of phase. A firecracker exploding on the surface of a lake is heard as two sounds – a time interval t apart – by the paddler of a nearby canoe. 1995 Physics Olympiad page 4 . amplitude and wavelength but different velocity. The distance from the exploding firecracker to the canoe is: A. 75 Hz B. B. 300 Hz D. frequency. uvt u +v B. Placing the object 25 cm from the diverging lens. uvt u −v 19. An organ pipe which is open at both ends resonates with fundamental frequency 300 Hz. decreases because the wavelength decreases. light through the bottom slit travels one wavelength further than light through the top slit before reaching point P. C. a converging lens with focal length + 10 cm and a diverging lens with focal length . Placing the object 15 cm from the diverging lens. t ( u + v) uv C. C. the resultant wave will have the same: A. frequency and velocity but different wavelength. You are given two lenses. If the entire apparatus is immersed in water. t ( u − v) uv D. and amplitude. Compared to the individual waves. E. Sound travels with a speed u in water and a speed v in air. the angle θ to the interference maximum: A. 1200 Hz 21. If one end of the pipe is closed. B. E.18. 600 Hz E.20 cm. wavelength and velocity but different amplitude. D. Two interfering waves have the same wavelength.

D. Sphere 3 is initially uncharged and has an insulated handle. immediately outside the larger shell. They had been connected by a conducting wire but the wire has been removed. V. D. If R is the distance from the common center. Both are positively charged and isolated from their surroundings. There are three conducting spheres of 2 1 identical diameter. The accompanying figure shows two concentric spherical shells isolated from each other. σ1/(2εo) to the left. Sphere A is at the higher potential. Sphere B has the larger charge. where σ is the charge per unit area and εo is the vacuum + permittivity. (3/8)F E. (1/16)F C. shown to the right.σ1. C. The total field at the point labeled X is: + A. III. Assuming the potential an infinite distance away is zero. E. V increases with distance.23. where V is constant in the region b < R < B. Two conducting spheres. II. Spheres 1 and 2 are separated by a distance 3 that is large compared to their diameter. Assume that the potential is zero at an infinite distance from the shells. then to sphere 2. + B. E. 0 +σ 1 D. VI. The figure to the right depicts three infinite plates of charge perpendicular to the plane of the page with charge per unit area + + σ1. A of radius a and B of radius b. Both spheres have the same charge. C. which A of the following statements about the spheres are true: I. anywhere R ≤ b. II and VI a B b IV. σ1/(2εo) to the right. They have equal charges and repel each other with an electrostatic force F. + 2σ1. If the distance between spheres 1 and 2 has not changed. A. It is touched first to sphere 1. Sphere A has the larger charge. III and V 26. the highest electric potential V occurs: A. are shown in the accompanying figure. Both spheres have the same potential. 0 B. Sphere B is at the higher potential. +Q b +q B 1995 Physics Olympiad page 5 . only at R = 0. I and VI C. The smaller shell has radius b and net charge + q. B. 4σ1/(2εo) to the left. and . far away from the shells. The larger shell has radius B and net charge + Q. III and IV E. the force between these two spheres is: A. 4σ1/(2εo) to the right.σ1 24. I and IV B. where V is infinite. and then removed. X + + + + + + + + - + 2σ1 . V is zero everywhere within it. (1/4)F D. (1/2)F 25. The magnitude of the field due to an infinite plate of charge is σ/(2εo).

Which of the following combinations are equal to V0? A. V1 + V4 29. which voltmeter(s) would read zero volts? A.27. None would read zero. If L3 were to burn out. D. C. D. opening the circuit. There are six voltmeters connected to the circuit as shown. E. L1 V0 V1 L3 V2 L2 V5 L4 V4 V3 28. C. the current I equals: A. V4. V/5R V/4R 2V/5R 2V/4R 2V/R V I V R R R R Use the circuit below to answer questions 28 and 29. V1 + V3 B. L3. Assume that the voltmeters do not effect the circuit. and L4 are identical light bulbs. L1. C. L2. at a point in region 1 only at a point in region 2 only at points in both regions 1 and 2 at points in both regions 1 and 4 at points in both regions 2 and 4 2 I 3 1 I 4 1995 Physics Olympiad page 6 . The magnetic field can be zero: A. V3 + V4 E. as shown in the accompanying figure. B. E. The wires are very close but do not touch. In the circuit represented to the right. only V3 only V4 only V3. V1 + V5 D. B. V2 + V3 + V4 C. Identical currents flow in two perpendicular wires. and V5 they would all read zero 30. D. E. B.

B 21. C 23. B 18. E 19. 2. 4. D 25. C D B D D B A E A 11.1995 MULTIPLE CHOICE SCREENING TEST ANSWER KEY 1. 9. B 13. C 20. D 26. B 17. E 14. C 29. A 22. E 12. A 28. D 15. B 27. 7. E 10. 3. 5. C 24. E . 6. 8. A 16. C 30.

4 E. 4y B. 2t. it will be in the air _____ seconds and reach a maximum height _____. 91 km/h E. A.5y D. A ball is thrown from ground level with an initial velocity of vo in the upward direction. m Car 1 collides with car 2 and sticks to it. Its axis of rotation makes an angle of 15o with the vertical. 2y D. Cars 2 and 3 are initially at rest. 2. 6. remain the same. It reaches a maximum height y and returns to ground level at time t seconds after it was thrown. 84 km/h B. t = 12 s E. t.5 y E. On Mars.25 t. 2. 4t. The 1-2 combination collides elastically with car 3. 0. t = 7.4 t. 6. A. never B.4 ge). Which of the following is most nearly the final speed of the 1-2 combination? A. remain the same. 0. 1. The ball in the preceding question (#3) is taken to Mars where the acceleration due to gravity is approximately 4 m/s2 (0. 89 km/h C. Car 1 is moving to the right with speed v. 90 km/h D. y C. A sports car is stopped at a light.1. all have the same mass m. 1 B. 4y E. 2y 4. It is thrown from ground level with the same initial velocity as it originally had on Earth. What is the average speed of the motorist for the entire trip? A. increase. 0.0 v 1 4R 2 R Page 1 of 6 . t = 5. shown in the accompanying v 1 figure. A cube with mass M starts at rest at point 1 at a height 4R. 2. not precess C. precess in the counterclockwise direction when seen from above. 2t. 2. At t = 0 the light changes and the sports car accelerates at a constant 2. not precess D.25 y C. E. At t = (10/3) s a station wagon traveling at a constant 15 m/s in the same direction passes the stop light. vo in the upward direction. 0. t = 21 s 3. 0. 3 D. 95 km/h 2.25 y 5. Assume friction can be neglected. A motorist travels 320 km at 80 km/h and then 320 km at 100 km/h. 2 C.80 v 7. When does the station wagon catch up to the sports car? A. B. A.25 t. remain the same. 6. precess in the clockwise direction when seen from above. Three air track cars. precess in the counterclockwise direction when seen from above. A. A top is spinning in the direction shown in the accompanying figure. 0. The cube slides down the frictionless track and around the loop. 6. 2t.67 v D. The magnitude of the top’s angular momentum will _____ while its direction will _____.4 t. The force that the track exerts on the cube at point 2 is most nearly _____ times the cube’s weight Mg. If its initial velocity is doubled. 5 3 m 2 m E.5 t. where R is the radius of the circular part of the track.0 m/s2. it will be in the air _____ seconds and reach a maximum height _____.17 v B.0 s C.50 v C. increase.5 s D.5 y B. 6.

02 W B.04 W C. I = 1 3 ML + mL 12. ω = A. A combined system is formed by centering the sphere L at one end of the rod and placing an axis at the other (see accompanying figure). 0. I = 1 3 ML + 5 mR + mL 1 ML2 + mL2 D. µ ( F cosθ – mg sinθ ) E. I = 12 2 2 E.5 times the radius of Earth. A rigid rod of mass M and length L has moment of 1 ML2 about its center of mass. 0. Both the merry-go-round and child are initially at rest. A. A sphere of mass m inertia 12 2 2 5 mR axis M m and radius R has moment of inertia about its center of mass. W 9. I = 12 5 mR 2 2 1 ML2 + 2 B. A child of mass M stands on the edge of a merry-go-round of radius R and moment of inertia I. ω = 2 R I − MR I + MR 2 I 11. I = 12 5 mR + mL 2 2 2 2 C. represented by the arrow in the figure to the right. v = D.2 W D. The child walks around the circumference with speed v with respect to the ground. The astronaut’s weight is _____ on the planet. µ ( mg cosθ + F sinθ ) D. 0. 0 B. v = B. What is the magnitude of the angular velocity of the merry-go-round with respect to the ground? v MRv MRv MRv C. ω = D. v = C. A horizontal force F.1 times the mass of Earth and radius 0. An astronaut with weight W on Earth lands on a planet with mass 0. What is the minimum velocity the rocket must be given to completely escape from the planet’s gravitational field? 2GM 2GM GM GM A. What is the moment of inertia of the combined system about the axis shown? 2 1 ML2 + 2 A. The coefficient of friction between the plane and the block is µ. A rocket is launched from the surface of a planet with mass M and radius R. ω = E.4 W E.8. µ mg/( cosθ ) C. is used to push a block of weight mg up an inclined plane making an angle of θ with the horizontal. The magnitude of the frictional force acting on the block is: A. 0. µ F cosθ θ 10. v = E. v = GM 2 2 R R R R Page 2 of 6 . µ mg cosθ B.

x = B. µ = ω2 gR E. the support must be moving to the: A. A hollow vertical cylinder of radius R is rotated with angular velocity ω about an axis through its center. A weight W is added to the end of the rod. left with constant acceleration a = g tanθ. x = 2gM θ L 17.13. left with constant velocity v = Lg tanθ. x = D. T = sin θ B. In order for the pendulum string to make a constant angle θ with the vertical. x = C. C. x = k k k k 16. What is the tension T in the wire? W A. A Carnot cycle takes in 1000 J of heat at a high temperature of 400 K. E. What is the minimum coefficient of static friction necessary to keep the mass M suspended on the inside of the cylinder as it rotates? side view A. µ = M top view g ω 2R 15. right with constant velocity v = Lg tanθ. A simple pendulum of length L and mass m is attached to a moving support. 250 J C. right with constant acceleration a = g sinθ. 0 B. What is the maximum extension of the spring? 2 Mg sin θ Mg sin θ 2 Mg Mg A. A uniform rod of length L and weight WR is suspended as shown in the accompanying figure. T = sin θ W + WR E. µ = ω 2R g D. T = sin θ W+ 1 WR 2 T θ W 14. B. T = W + 1 2 WR D. D. µ = gR ω2 B. 1000 J Page 3 of 6 . A block of mass M is attached to a relaxed spring with force constant k. right with constant acceleration a = g tanθ. and released. 500 J D. How much heat is expelled at the cooler temperature of 300 K? A. The support wire is at an angle θ to the rod. T = W + W R C. placed on a frictionless inclined plane as shown in the accompanying figure. 750 J E. θ E. µ = ω 2g R C.

The gas has molar heat capacity CP at constant pressure. the distance between adjacent crests λ’ directly behind the source is: λv v + vs λv v − vs  v C. B. 1/4 λ B.18. If the source moves to the right with velocity vs(see accompanying figure). Placing the object 5 cm from the converging lens. B. 1 λ D. λ  1 + s  v λ' vs v  E. You are given two lenses. nk(Vf – Vi) E. Which of the following would produce a real image that is smaller than the object? A. 2 λ E. 4 λ air t soap air 1 2 21. 0 B. An ideal gas is expanded at constant pressure from initial volume Vi and temperature Ti to final volume Vf and temperature Tf . C. CPn(Τf – Ti) D. 1/2 λ C. λ  1 +  vs   v  D. A film thickness _____ will produce maximum brightness of the reflected light. B. E. Placing the object 15 cm from the diverging lens. 22. Placing the object 15 cm from the converging lens. D. each emit a wave of wavelength λ. in phase and a distance d apart. nRTi ln(Vf/Vi) C. the absolute (Kelvin) temperature. λ  1 − s  v P x A. Placing the object 25 cm from the diverging lens. nR(Τf – Ti) 19. E. C. the amount of the gas. A. the pressure of the gas. (x/L2)d D. See accompanying figure. a converging lens with focal length +10 cm and a diverging lens with focal length –20 cm. 20. The average translational kinetic energy of any ideal gas depends only on: A. whether the gas is monatomic or diatomic. It is illuminated at near normal incidence by monochromatic light which has wavelength λ in the film. Two sources. d sinθ B. λ/2 E. D. The amount of work done by n moles of the gas during the process can be expressed: A. Placing the object 25 cm from the converging lens. 23. A soap film of thickness t is surrounded by air (see accompanying figure). the mass of the gas. Which of the choices for the path difference ∆L = L1 – L2 will always produce constructive interference at point P? A. A source at rest emits waves with wavelength λ in a medium with velocity v. x/L1 C. 2 λ Page 4 of 6 L2 θ L1 d .

A resistor R dissipates power P when connected directly to a voltage source V.00 m to the left of the +4.0 µC 25. 0. 0. R1R3/R2 E.00 µC charge. R1R2/R3 D. +0.00 m –9.00 µC charge? A. shown in the figure to the right. R 2 2 2 A R4 P P 1 R1 2 R2 Q –q R2 P V R P/2 V R R' Page 5 of 6 . Assume the potential goes to zero as R goes to infinity. The total electric field due to the two charges is zero at a point: A.00 µC charge.00 µC are placed 1.80 m to the left of the +4.00 µC charge from its original position to a new position 2. +0. – 0.243 J E. +0. In order for there to be no current through the ammeter. k 2 .081 J C.486 J 26.31 m to the right of the +4. The magnitude of the electric field at point P2 a distance R2 from the center is _____. k R1 R 22 27. C. R2R3/R1 R1 R3 V 28. 24. +4. 0.00 m from the +4.0 R12 Q− q D. the shaded part of the accompanying figure. R D. B.00 m to the right of the –9. The magnitude of the electric field at point P1 a distance R1 from the center is _____.00 µC charge. k R 22 Q Q− q E. R ( 2 − 1) E. 3. A. E. R3 C. 0. A point charge Q is placed at the center of a spherical conducting shell. is a variable resistor.Questions 24 and 25 are based on the following description: Two point charges of +4.00 m apart. What resistance R′ must be connected in series with R to decrease the power dissipated in R to P/2? R R A. as shown in the accompanying figure. A total charge of –q is placed on the shell. R4 must be equal to: A. C.00 µC charge. D. 0 R1 Q− q C. k . as shown in the accompanying figures. 0 Q B. 2.00 µC and –9. k 2 . R2 B. –0. B.324 J B. How much work is done moving the –9. R4. 0.162 J D.0 µC 1.00 µC charge.40 m to the right of the +4.

8. What is the magnitude and direction of the induced emf? A. o 2π  a b  µ o II'  c c 2(b − a ) + + to the left c  2π  a b µ II' 2(b − a ) D. The infinitely long straight wire carries a conventional current I as shown in the accompanying figure. A spatially uniform magnetic field of 0.0 x 10–4 V clockwise X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Page 6 of 6 . The net force on the rectangular loop is: µ II' c  1 1  A. o to the right 2π c E.010 m2.0 x 10–6 V counterclockwise C. 3. The rectangular loop carries a conventional current I′ in the counterclockwise direction.4 x 10–5 V counterclockwise D.0 x 10–4 T/s. The magnitude of the magnetic field decreases at a constant rate of 3.29. I I' c a b 30. 0 C. 2.080 T is directed into the plane of the page and perpendicular to it. o − to the right 2π  a b  µ II' c  1 1  + to the left B. as shown in the accompanying figure.0 x 10–6 V clockwise B.0 x 10–4 V counterclockwise E. A wire loop in the plane of the page has constant area 0. 3. 8.

4. B 27. E 24. D 23. 3. 8. A 16. 7. A 10. C 22. A 30.1994 MULTIPLE CHOICE SCREENING TEST ANSWER KEY 1. E 15. B 13. D 29. 5. C 12. 9. B . A 21. E 25. D 18. B B D C E A C D C 11. 2. 6. E 19. B 17. D 14. A 20. E 28. C 26.

The plane makes an angle of θ with the horizontal and F is perpendicular to the plane. C. the plane begins to accelerate horizontally at 0. 6. 286 m in front of the spot. D. D. E. B. ball on the Earth. As seen by the pilot of the plane (in question #2) and measured relative to a spot directly under the plane when the flare lands. C. 1. B. a car moves in a straight a in line with an acceleration given by the accompanying graph.75 m/s2. The coefficient of friction between the plane and the block is µ.1.0 m in front of the spot.5 m/s 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 t in s 2. 12 m in front of the plane. Assume air resistance is negligible. ball on the hand. Earth on your hand. B. directly on the spot. necessary to keep the block at rest? A. directly under the plane.0 s to reach the ground. 1997 Physics Olympiad page 1 . Relative to a spot directly under the flare at release.0 m/s 2 D.µ cosθ ) F θ 5. µ mg mg cosθ mg sinθ (mg/µ) sinθ (mg/µ) ( sinθ . D. What is the minimum force. The Newton’s third law companion force to the force of gravity on the ball is the force exerted by the A. Earth on the ball. At the instant the flare is released. A force F is used to hold a block of mass m on an incline as shown in the diagram.0 m behind the plane. You hold a rubber ball in your hand. A flare is dropped from a plane flying over level ground at a velocity of 70 m/s in the horizontal direction. 12.5 m/s E. 274 m in front of the plane 4. F. m/s2 6 What is the speed of the car at t = 3 s? 5 A. 6. 3. 274 m in front of the spot. 2. C. the flare lands A. Starting from rest at time t = 0. E. E. D. C.0 m/s 4 B. hand on the ball. 10. the flare lands A. B. E.0 m/s 3 C. 6. The flare takes 4. 280 m in front of the spot. 286 m behind the plane.

Car 1 collides with car 2 and sticks to it. The radius of the moon is 1. v 2 E.5 x 103 s C. A point object of mass 2m is attached to one end of a rigid rod of negligible mass and length L. The orbital velocity of satellite I is v.1 x 106 s D. 0.7 x 106 m. v E. C. v 2 C. v D. Which of the following is most nearly the final speed of car 3? A.1 x 1012 s 1997 Physics Olympiad page 2 . 0. B. The gravitational acceleration on the surface of the moon is 1. Three air track cars. 0. 7. 2v m v axis L L vt 2m 3 2 3 9. the difference between the string’s tension at the bottom of the circle and at the top of the circle is A.67 v 1 m 2 m 3 m D.6 m/s2.0 x 106 s E. The ball swings in a vertical circle of radius R with the other end of the string held fixed. 2v 2 2 10. all have the same mass m. v D.80 v E. 2 mg C. 5. Cars 2 and 3 are initially at rest. v 3 B. The 1-2 combination collides elastically with car 3. about the same planet. shown in the accompanying figure.0 x 103 s B. Two artificial satellites I and II have circular orbits of radii R and 2R. A second point object with mass m and initial speed v collides and sticks to the 2m object. Car 1 is moving to the right with speed v. 1. mg B.50 v C.6. Neglecting air resistance. 4 mg D. What is the tangential speed vt of the object immediately after the collision? A. What is the orbital velocity of satellite II? v v A. 1. 8 mg 7. 6. 1. The rod is initially at rest but free to rotate about a fixed axis perpendicular to the rod and passing through its other end (see diagram to the right).0 v 8. 6 mg v E. 0.17 v B. respectively. The period of a satellite placed in a low circular orbit about the moon is most nearly A. A ball of mass m is fastened to a string.

0. P/2 C. Which of the following statements is always true? A. a cube of side R. Three objects. L ³ 1. The floor is rough and the coefficient of static friction between the floor and ladder is µ. II C. θ = µ L B. ω/2 C. all of mass M.60 c relative to an observer. the power it radiates is most nearly A. I & II E.00 m D. tan θ = 1 2µ D. as shown in the accompanying diagram. When the ladder is positioned at angle θ.80 m C. a hollow cylinder of radius R Assume the cylinders roll down the plane without slipping and the cube slides down the plane without friction. ω/4 B. Which object(s) reach(es) the bottom of the plane first? A. III D. tan θ = 2µ C. L = 0. it is just about to slip. A glowing ember (hot piece of charcoal) radiates power P in watts at an absolute temperature T. What is the new angular velocity of the system? A.00 m E. The observer measures the length of the meter stick to be L. P/4 D. When the temperature of the ember has decreased to T/2. L = 1. II & III R m R/2 E. L = 0. are released simultaneously from the top of an inclined plane of height H. P B. P/16 1997 Physics Olympiad page 3 . 4ω m 13.80 m ² L ² 1.00m 15. 2ω 14. A meter stick moves with a velocity of 0. A uniform ladder of length L rests against a smooth frictionless wall. I B. What is θ? A. The masses are simultaneously pulled to a distance of R/2 from the axis by a force directed along the rod. The objects are described as follows I. A massless rod of length 2R can rotate about a vertical axis through its center as shown in the diagram. a solid cylinder of radius R III. ω m m D. The system rotates at an angular velocity ω when the two masses m are a distance R from the axis. P/8 E.60 m B. cos θ = µ L θ 12.11. II. sin θ = 1 µ E.

-20 J C. The +x direction is to the right. 0 D.20 J/K C.80 m/s to the right 1. -1.9 K/J 18. Placing the object 25 cm from the diverging lens. Three processes compose a thermodynamic cycle shown in the accompanying pV diagram of an ideal gas. B. Which of the following would produce a virtual image that is larger than the object? A. d sinθ x/L1 (x/L2)d λ/2 2λ L2 20.20 cm. 0. B. What is the change in internal energy of the system during process 3→1? A. E. Process 1→2 takes place at constant temperature (300 K).t) = 0.25 m/s to the right P x d θ L1 19. Two sources. +5.25 m/s to the left 0.030 ⋅ sin(5π x + 4π t) where x and y are in meters and t is in seconds. Placing the object 15 cm from the diverging lens. -6.12 π m/s to the right 0. C. What is the change in entropy of the system described in Question # 16 during the process 3→1? A. Placing the object 5 cm from the converging lens. C. B. in phase and a distance d apart. Which of the choices for the path difference ∆L = L1 – L2 will always produce destructive interference at point P? A. -40 J B. D. You are given two lenses. +0. Placing the object 25 cm from the converging lens. each emit a wave of wavelength λ. During this process 40 J of heat leaves the system. What is the velocity of the wave? A. During this process 60 J of heat enters the system. Process 2→3 takes place at constant volume. a converging lens with focal length + 10 cm and a diverging lens with focal length . T3 is 275 K. +20 J p 1 2 3 V E. page 4 1997 Physics Olympiad . A wave is described by the equation: y(x. +40 J 17. D. E. D. E. Placing the object 15 cm from the converging lens. C.6 J/K E.16. Process 3→1 is adiabatic.0 K/J B. See accompanying figure.80 m/s to the left 1. 0 D.

6. y +3q 2a x -2q +3q -q 1997 Physics Olympiad page 5 . What is the total electric field at the center of the square? A. 80 cm to the left of the lens. E. the image appears 40 cm to the right of the lens.21. 20 cm to the right of the lens. E. kq/a2 at an angle 45o above the +x axis. 10 cm to the right of the lens. D. the distance along the positive x axis? A E y a z x E B E C E D E E x x x x x 23. The ring is centered at the origin. Which of the following graphs best represents the value of the electric field E as a function of x. B. You then arrange the two plano-convex lenses back to back to form a double convex lens. B. 9 kq/a2 at an angle 45o above the +x axis. When you place an object 20 cm to the left of a single plano-convex lens. 3 kq/a2 at an angle 45o below the +x axis. Planoconvex Double Convex Q 22. 3 kq/a2 at an angle 45o above the -x axis. Positive charge Q is uniformly distributed over a ring of radius a that lies in the y-z plane as shown in the diagram.7 cm to the right of the lens. 80 cm to the right of the lens. Four point charges are placed at the corners of a square with diagonal 2a as shown in the diagram. kq/a2 at an angle 45o below the -x axis. one of which is shown to the right. what is the approximate location of the image? A. If the object is 20 cm to the left of this new lens. You are given two identical plano-convex lenses. D. C. C.

Two wires. I only B. Turning the coil about a vertical axis. One wire contains a semi-circular loop of radius a centered on point X. Moving the magnet toward the coil. II. I. I & III E. Moving the coil away from the magnet. Both wires extend in a straight line for a very long distance on both the right and the left. µqf 2πR 29. III 1997 Physics Olympiad page 7 .µ 0i/(2πa) out of the page out of the page into the page into the page into the page i X a a i 30. III.28. What is the magnitude of the magnetic field? A. A. You are given a bar magnet and a looped coil of wire. II. What is the correct expression for the magnetic field at point X? HINT: The magnitude of the magnetic field at the center of a circular current loop of radius R is µ 0i/(2R). The particle moves in a circle of radius R with frequency f. mc qR E. 2πfm q C. µ 0i/(4a) + µ 0i/(2πa) µ 0i/(2a) . are shown in the diagram to the right. C. A particle with positive charge q and mass m travels along a path perpendicular to a magnetic field.µ 0i/(2πa) + µ 0i/(2πa) µ 0i/(4a) + µ 0i/(2πa) µ 0i/(4a) + µ 0i/(2πa) + µ 0i/(2πa) µ 0i/(2a) . m 2πfq D. B. each carrying a current i. II only C. D. I & II D. A. Which of the following would induce an emf in the coil? I. mf q B. E.

C 18. E 10. C 12. 3. 9. A 13. C 25. 2. E 14. C 15.1997 MULTIPLE CHOICE SCREENING TEST ANSWER KEY 1. A 21. A 27. B 24. 4. E 26. B 22. B . 7. D 23. A 19. 5. E 17. D 28. D 20. B 29. 6. 8. E 16. C 30. D D B E A D C A B 11.

59 1999 Physics Olympiad 2 .63 [E] 1. 12.75 m/s2 [E] 0. A truck driver travels three-fourths the distance of his run at one velocity (v) and then completes his run at one half his original velocity (½v). & 35 min. 38. 4. 35. At right is a graph of the distance vs. A ball which is thrown upward near the surface of the earth with a velocity of 50 m/s will come to rest about 5 seconds later. If a frictional force provides 200 newtons of resistance. & 41 min. what is the acceleration of the crate? [A] 1. 29. The magnitude of the gravitational field near the surface of Planet X is what fraction of the gravitational field near the surface of the earth? [A] 0. at which of the following times would the automobile have been accelerating positively? [A] [B] [C] [D] [E] 0. Hercules pushes with a force of 500 newtons and Ajax pushes with a force of 300 newtons.3 m/s2 [B] 1.75v [D] 0.53 [D] 0. 5.70v [E] 0. What was the trucker’s average speed for the trip? [A] 0.39 [C] 0.1. & 57 min. 12. According the graph.87 m/s2 [D] 0.0 m/s2 [C] 0. time for car moving along a road.65v 2.5 m/s2 3. 5.85v [B] 0. 5. after 5 seconds it would still be moving upwards at nearly 31 m/s. which of the following is closest to the minimum acceleration of the cart needed to cause the cylinder to tip over? [A] 2 m/s2 [B] 4 m/s2 [C] 5 m/s2 [D] 6 m/s2 [E] The cylinder would slide at all of these accelerations. A uniform 2 kg cylinder rests on a laboratory cart as shown. The coefficient of static friction between the cylinder and the cart is 0. & 60 min.16 [B] 0.5. 29. If the ball were thrown up with the same velocity on Planet X. Hercules and Ajax horizontally push in the same direction on a 1200 kg crate.80v [C] 0. at all times from 0 to 60 min. If the cylinder is 4 cm in diameter and 10 cm in height. 20.

Which of the following graphs would best represent its velocity as a function of time? [A] [B] [C] [D] [E] 9. increase to 5/3 the original value.6. what is the mass of a second object which accelerates at 5a when acted upon by a net force of 2F? [A] (2/5)m [B] 2m [C] (5/2)m [D] 5m [E] 10m 8. What is the average power in watts required to accelerate the sports car from 20 m/s to 40 m/s in 3 seconds? [A] 10. 7.000 [B] 20. A driver in a 1500 kg sports car wishes to pass a slow moving truck on a two lane road.000 J 1999 Physics Olympiad 3 . Two light plastic shopping bags of negligible mass are placed 2 meters apart. If 10 oranges were moved from one bag to the other. Each bag contains 15 oranges.2 meters? [A] 10 J [B] 20 J [C] 50 J [D] 4000 J [E] 100. not change.000 [C] 100. If a net force F applied to an object of mass m will produce an acceleration of a. decrease to 5/9 the original value. A large beach ball is dropped from the ceiling of a school gymnasium to the floor about 10 meters below. what is the total energy of this system when set into simple harmonic motion by an original displacement of 0.000 10.000 [D] 300. the gravitational force between the two bags would [A] [B] [C] [D] [E] increase to 3/2 the original value.000 [E] 400. decrease to 2/5 the original value. If the mass rests on a frictionlless horizontal surface. A 40 kg mass is attached to a horizontal spring with a constant of 500 N/m.

An object with a mass of 2 kilograms is accelerated from rest. At t = 4 seconds the object’s velocity would have been closest to which of the following: [A] [B] [C] [D] [E] 2. [A] b m1 g m1 + m2 + m3 g [D] [B] gµ m1 − m2 − m3 m1 + m2 + m3 b b g g b g m1 + m2 µ m1 + m2 + m3 b g g [E] [C] g m1 − m2 µ − m3 m1 + m2 + m3 b b g g gµ m1 + m2 + m3 m1 − m2 − m3 b b g g 13. A thin ring of mass m and radius r rolls across the floor with a velocity v. One skater has a mass M much greater than the mass m of the second skater.0 m/s 11. Which of the following would be the best estimate of the ring’s total kinetic energy as it rolls across the floor? 1 1 1 mv 2 1 r2 [B] mv 2 [C] mv 2 [D] mv 2 + [E] mv 2 + m 2 [A] mv 2 2 4 2 r 2 t 1999 Physics Olympiad 4 . After some time the two skaters are a distance d apart. The graph at right shows the magnitude of the net force in newtons as a function of time in seconds.11.2 m/s 3.8 m/s 7. Given the three masses as shown in the diagram.5 m/s 14. what would be the upward acceleration of the small mass (m3)? The mass and friction of the cords and pulleys are small enough to produce a negligible effect on the system. How far has the lighter skater moved from her original position? [A] d [B] d FG M IJ H mK [C] d FG m IJ H MK [D] d FG m IJ H M + mK [E] d FG M IJ H m+ MK 12. if the coefficient of kinetic friction between the large mass (m2) and the table is µ.5 m/s 5. Two skaters on a frictionless pond push apart from one another.

Two wave sources. what is its efficiency? [A] 0. [E] There will not be an organized interference pattern because the sources are not producing the same frequency.4 N 16. the fewer the number of nodal and antinodal lines. A mole of ideal gas at STP is heated in an insulated constant volume container until the average velocity of its molecules doubled. 1999 Physics Olympiad 5 . produce waves of different wavelengths as shown in the diagram.4 N [B] 10. [B] The interference pattern will be a stable pattern but not symetrical left to right. An ideal heat engine takes in heat energy at a high temperature and exhausts energy at a lower temperature.6 N [D] 50 N [E] 65. If 100 g of ice at 0o C is mixed with 100 g of boiling water at 100o C.25 [B] 0.5 [B] 1 [C] 2 [D] 4 [E] 8 17.33 18 .67 [D] 0.0 kg mass is attached to one end of a rope 2 m long. [C] The pattern of nodal and antinodal lines will sweep from left to right. which of the following graphs would best represent the temperature vs time of the two components of the mixture? [A] [B] [C] [D] [E] 19.15. A 4.9 [E] 1. Lines shown in the diagram represent wave crests. If the amount of energy exhausted at the low temperature is 3 times the amount of work done by the heat engine. Its pressure would therefore increase by what factor? [A] 0. [D] If G and H were moved farther apart. G and H. Which of the following would be true of the resulting interference pattern? [A] The perpendicular bisector of GH would be an antinodal line.8 N [C] 21. If the mass is swung in a vertical circle from the free end of the rope.33 [C] 0. what is the tension in the rope when the mass is at its highest point if it is moving with a speed of 5 m/s? [A] 5.

25 amperes 2. [D] It will move through an angle of 60o with respect to the original emerging beam. what is the frequency of the wave in hertz? [A] 3 Hz [B] 7. Which of the following wave properties cannot be demonstrated by all kinds of waves? [A] Polarization [B] Diffraction [C] Superposition [D] Refraction [E] Frequency 22. A source when at rest in a medium produces waves with a velocity v and a wavelength of λ. [C] It will move through an angle of 45o with respect to the original emerging beam. If the source is set in motion to the left with a velocity vs. 24.3 sin (3πx + 24πt). A beam of light strikes one mirror of a pair of right angle mirrors at an angle of incidence of 45o as shown in the diagram. [B] It will move through an angle of 30o with respect to the original emerging beam. What would be the total current being supplied by the battery in the circuit shown? [A] [B] [C] [D] [E] 3. [E] It will emerge parallel to the original emerging beam. Given a wave produced by a simple harmonic oscillator whose displacement in meters is given by the equation: y = .20.0 amperes 1. what will happen to the angle of the beam that emerges from the right angle mirror assembly? [A] It will move through an angle of 15o with respect to the original emerging beam.0 amperes 2.2 Hz [C] 8 Hz [D] 12 Hz [E] 24 Hz 21. what would be the length of the wavelengths produced directly in front of the source? [A] λ 1 − FG H vs v IJ K [B] λ 1 + FG H vs v IJ K [C] λ 1 + FG H v vs IJ K [D] λ −v v − vs [E] λv v + vs 23. If the right angle mirror assembly is rotated such that the angle of incidence is now 60o.5 amperes 1.0 amperes 6 1999 Physics Olympiad .

sphere B is removed by means of its insulating stand. A strong positively charged object is brought near sphere A and a strong negative charge is brought near sphere C. the opposite sign but ¼ the magnitude as originally on sphere A. and C are mounted on insulating stands. Bulb A is wired in parallel with bulb B and this combination is wired in series with bulb C. There would be no change in the brightness of either bulb B or bulb C. Consider a simple circuit containing a battery and three light bulbs. as shown in the diagram. sphere B is first touched to sphere A and then to sphere C. the opposite sign but ½ the magnitude as originally on sphere A. The resulting charge on B would be: [A] [B] [C] [D] [E] the same sign but ½ the magnitude as originally on sphere A. both would get brighter. bulb B would get dimmer and bulb C would get brighter. While the charged objects remain near spheres A and C. neutrally charged. After the charged objects are removed. Three metal spheres A. Assume the plane of the coil is perpendicular to the magnetic field.25. B. Which of the following graphs would best represent the electric current induced in the coil if it started somewhat above the magnetic field and ended equally as far below the magnetic field ? [A] [B] [C] [D] [E] 27. What would happen to the brightness of the other two bulbs if bulb A were to burn out? [A] [B] [C] [D] [E] only bulb B would get brighter. 26. the same sign but ½ the magnitude as originally on sphere C. bulb B would get brighter and bulb C would get dimmer. 1999 Physics Olympiad 7 . The spheres are touching one another. A coil of wire is moved vertically at a constant velocity through a horizontal magnetic field.

C 19. E 30. E 13. E 24. D 7. A 8. B 4. C 28. A 23. D 10. E 12. D 17. A 15.1999 AAPT PHYSICS OLYMPIAD MULTIPLE CHOICE SCREENING TEST ANSWER KEY 1. C 5. B 14. B 2. C 29. C 26. D 9. B 1999 Physics Olympiad 9 . A 22. C 20. A 11. E 3. D 21. B 16. E 27. B 6. D 25. A 18.

(1/3) H C.8 m/s E. A whiffle ball is tossed straight up. I. C D. 13. The ball’s speed is zero at the highest point. A B. s D. s C. Its maximum height is H. and falls back down. The swimmer is 6.3 m/s D. After a time she stopped for a while and then continued on with a velocity greater than she originally had. (2/3) H E. The ball takes a longer time to travel up to the highest point than to fall back down. It lands 2. & III A. Which of the following statements are true? I. A child left her home and started walking at a constant velocity.0 m in front of the swimmer. I & III only E. 9. How fast is the current flowing? Neglect air resistance. E x A B C E D t 2. II.4 m/s 4. reaches a highest point. The graph to the right is a plot of position versus time. 6.8 m. A child tosses a ball directly upward. A. 2. I & II only D. The ball’s acceleration is zero at the highest point. II only 1998 Physics Olympiad page 2 .0 m upstream from a point directly under the helicopter when the life preserver is released. In a rescue attempt.7 m/s B. (3/4) H 5. (1/4) H B. a hovering helicopter drops a life preserver to a swimmer being swept downstream by a river current of constant velocity v. I only B.8 m/s C. III. All of a sudden she turned around and walked very quickly back home. (1/2) H D. C. s E. Its total time in the air is T.1. Air resistance is not negligible. II. A. What is its height after it has been in the air a time T/4? Neglect air resistance. s t t t t t 3. 2. For which labeled region is the velocity positive and the acceleration negative? A. The helicopter is at a height of 9. B C. D E. s B. Which of the following graphs best represents the distance versus time graph for her walk? A.

An object placed on an equal arm balance requires 12 kg to balance it. 1. When placed on a spring scale. S/4 X 10. The car now begins to travel upward with an upward acceleration of 2. 12kg. car Z has come to rest. the kinetic energy of the system has reached a minimum. The coefficient of static friction between all surfaces in contact is µ. 20 N E.90 s C. The spool rolls without slipping. then: A. E. C. 720 N D. (3/2) µW C. both cars have the same kinetic energy. What is the largest force F that can be exerted before the lower block starts to slip? A. Z R 1998 Physics Olympiad page 3 . the scale reads 120 N.6. The end.20 s 7. and the object) is now transported to the moon where the gravitational force is one-sixth that on Earth. A pendulum is attached to the ceiling of an elevator car. S C. D. Air track car Z of mass 1. both cars have the same momentum. Two identical blocks of weight W are placed one on top of the other as shown to the right. 12 kg.80 s B. Car R has a spring attached to it and is initially at rest. 2 µW D. 2 kg. S/2 D. See the accompanying diagram. (5/2) µW W W E. When the car is parked. is pulled a distance S in the horizontal direction. 2S B. 120 N 9. the pendulum exhibits a period of 1.0 kg. S/3 E. See the diagram to the right. The new readings of the balance and the spring scale (respectively) are: A. set of masses. labeled X.10 s E. The lower block is pulled to the right with a force F. A large spool of rope lies on the ground.00 s. The distance the spool’s center of mass moves is A.5 kg approaches and collides with air track car R of mass 2. 12 kg. B. 2 kg. During this part of the motion. what will be the approximate period of the pendulum? A. The upper block is tied to the wall. car R is still at rest.00 s D. 1. 0. 20 N B.3 m/s2. µW B. 120 N C. scale. When the separation between the cars has reached a minimum. 0. 1. 3 µW F 8. Everything (balance.

Ten seconds after they push off from each other. The mass of S was greater than the mass of R.0 m D..4 1 2 3 4 t(s) E. & III Questions 13 and 14 refer to the motion of two blocks along a frictionless level track. How far has the woman moved in that time? A. a 200 lb man and a 120 lb woman.8 0. I only D. cos θ = r/R B. (1/2) ML2 B. (9/10) vo C. B. It collides with and sticks to an initially stationary block (#2) of mass m2 = 9 m1. (8/9) vo D. II. The velocities of R and S were equal at the mid-time of the collision. (1/10) vo 14. 13. The diagram to the right shows the velocity-time graph for two masses R and S that collided elastically.. 1 % B. vo B. 6. Two ice skaters. III. (5/4) ML2 D. What fraction of the initial kinetic energy of the system is converted to other forms (heat. 90 % E. II & III only E. 50 % D. are initially hugging on a frictionless level ice surface. . Which of the following conditions must be satisfied for the spool to slide uniformly without rolling? A. Block #1 (mass m1) is initially moving with speed vo. 3. What is the speed of the two blocks after the collision? A. 99 % M L/2 M L/2 M 15.2 0. 4.0 m 1. 5.0 m v(m/s) R S 12.11. The array rotates about the center of the rod. Its rotational inertia is A. they are 8. (1/9) vo E. T = W T r R θ r R D.0 m B. R and S moved in the same direction after the collision. sin θ = r/R C. ML2 C. Three identical objects of mass M are fastened to a massless rod of length L as shown. 3 ML2 16 A length of rope is wrapped around a spool of weight W with inner radius r and outer radius R as shown in the accompanying diagram. T = W sin θ E. The rope is pulled with a tension T at an angle θ. (3/2) ML2 E. sound. I.5 m C. 8. I & II only A.0 m apart.) as a result of the collision? A. 10 % C. Which of the following statements is true? I. II only C. II. T = W cos θ 1998 Physics Olympiad page 4 .

T2). 5 vo S 19.17. p C. I and II only D.5 cm S S’ 1998 Physics Olympiad page 5 . II. (1/ 5 ) vo C. The wavelength of the waves is approximately A. On all the pV diagrams shown below the lighter curve represents an isothermal process. L L 18. 0. The longest wavelength photon in the visible Balmer series for the hydrogen atom is A. II only The rate of heat transfer is proportional to 1/(T1 . (1/5) vo B. Which of the following statements about the amount of heat transferred through the rod per unit time are true? I. 2.8 cm C. See the accompanying diagram. Which dark curve best represents an adiabatic process. 5 vo E. The rate of heat transfer is proportional to L. vo D.0 cm E. 6. (2/3) L C. 6560 nm X 22. The path difference SX – S’X is 4. 1. 65. p B. What is the maximum distance S the top brick can overlap the table with the system still balanced? A. If the average speed of the He4 atoms is vo. Two identical bricks of length L are piled one on top of the other on a table.66 nm B. I and III only E. A gas contains a mixture of He4 and Ne20 atoms. The rate of heat transfer is proportional to A. 656 nm E. 1. Waves are produced by two point sources S and S’ vibrating in phase. III. (7/8) L E. p E. II and III only 20.5 cm. See the diagram to the right. p D. (1/2) L B. p V V V V V 21. A. a process for which the temperature remains constant. X is a point on the second nodal line. One end of a metal rod of length L and cross-sectional area A is held at a constant temperature T1. what is the average speed of the Ne20 atoms? A.5 cm B. a process for which no heat enters or leaves the system? A. 3. 4.6 nm D.3 cm D. III only C.56 nm C. (3/4) L D. B. The other end is held at a constant T2.

E B. A.33 coats a glass with index of refraction 1. 160 nm B. D. A charge is uniformly distributed through a volume of radius a. E a r a r a r a r a r 26. B. Which of the graphs below best represents the magnitude of the electric field as a function of distance from the center of the sphere? A. E. 12 cm in front of the mirror and virtual. A. I & III only 1998 Physics Olympiad page 6 .33 n=1. E C. 25. A thin film of thickness t and index of refraction 1. 24 cm in front of the mirror and virtual. 6 cm behind the mirror and virtual. Which of the following statements is true? I. E E. The potential energy of the proton and the electron is the same. B. 24 cm behind the mirror and virtual. See diagram to the right. C. The image is right side up and is two times bigger than the object. 640 nm n=1. I & II only E. Which of the following thicknesses t will not reflect light with wavelength 640 nm in air? Hint: Light undergoes a 180o phase shift when it is reflected off a material with a higher index of refraction.50 24. I only ++ ++++ +++ + – – – – – – – –– – The force on the proton is greater than the force on the electron. II. E D. 480 nm E.50 as shown to the right. The potential energy of the proton is greater than that of the electron. Both are closer to the positive plate than the negative plate.00 t n=1. 360 nm D. 6 cm in front of the mirror and real. III. 240 nm C. II only C. An object is placed 12 cm in front of a spherical mirror. A free electron and a free proton are placed between two oppositely charged parallel plates.23. III only D. The image is: A.

R D. The magnetic force on the wire points A. and speed 2v enters the same magnetic field. 36 V D. R A V E. it will be deflected into a path with a radius of curvature A. A vertical wire carries a current upward through a magnetic field directed to the north. 21 V 6.27.0Ω 2. A. (1/2) R E.0Ω 3.0 A. If an ion with charge q. An ion with a charge q. 2 R C. and speed v enters a magnetic field B and is deflected into a path with a radius of curvature R. In the electrical circuit shown to the right. (1/4) R 29.0Ω 6. R V A D. The emf of the battery is about A. mass 2m. R A V A C. Which of the following wiring diagrams could be used to experimentally determine R using Ohm’s Law? Assume an ideal voltmeter and an ideal ammeter. west E. R A V 30.0 Ω resistor is 3. the current through the 2. east D. north C. 4 R B. 51 V B. south B. R V B. mass m. downward 1998 Physics Olympiad page 7 .0Ω 28. 24 V E. 42 V C.

4. D 15. D 22. D 10. E B D E A B E A C 11. B 27. C 12. 9. E 14. B 19. D 23. B 30. A 20. 6. 2. D 26.1998 MULTIPLE CHOICE SCREENING TEST ANSWER KEY 1. A 16. B 28. 8. 7. A 17. E 1998 Physics Olympiad page 8 . C 18. A 29. 5. E 25. C 13. 3. C 24. C 21.

Ever the consummate student. you are at Woodbine doing some ||| betting studying. 4. What is the current where X and Y are separated by one wire? 1 Rayleigh. He was terribly disappointed with their loss. in a linear chain with one end which? hydrophilic and the other hydrophobic. as a matter of fact.. and it spreads out on the surface. 364 1890. is a physics teacher in Italy and he is reminded of an experiment done by Lord Rayleigh. b Suppose the wire mesh was made of equilateral triangles joined in the obvious way. you accidentally spill some into a glass of water. you brought your \$500 camera with a telephoto lens. Your Uncle Sal from Italy was in North America for the World Cup. Sal. who is watching. You want to make him a pesto pizza to cheer him up. Your little brother has been playing with the wire screens and batteries again. Rayleigh1 found that 0. Explain this observation. Roy. What value of Avogadro's Number results? Note: The approximate composition of olive oil is H CH218COOH . While pouring the olive oil. 47. you decide to take a picture. He tells you that he would be happy if only you would solve the following. Soc. and is in a blue funk the blue that is found on the Brazilian ag.X Y Figure 1: Rectangular wire mesh of in nite extent. You are looking head on through the telephoto lens and you notice that the horses seem strangely foreshortened not as long from front to back as they gallop towards the camera. Its density is 0:8 g=cm3 5. Watching the thoroughbred racers Eric's Idle and Paul's Bunyon thunder down the home straight. Holy smokes. 6. as in the diagram Figure 1. . a A rectangular wire mesh of in nite extent in a plane has 1 A of current fed into it at point X. and 1 A of current taken from it at point Y. Will he ever learn? He asks you the following. Of course. Find the current in the wire XY. Proc.81 mg of olive oil on a water surface produced a mono-molecular layer 84 cm in diameter. that's 104 years ago! And you're only learning about it now? Bonus points to anyone who can get me a photocopy of the article.

.. Figure 2: In nite resistor ladder. c The screen has been cut up and now resembles the circuit in the diagram. an in nite ladder. . What is the resistance of the circuit shown..

. a Hmm.. We are going to do the latter. m. the length of the essentially massless ideal string. the angle of the swing. founder of the Church of the Sub-Genius?. Dimensional analysis can be used to check to see if an expression is dimensionally correct or to get the form of an expression if we don't know it. l. What could the period of a simple pendulum possibly depend on? There's the mass of the ideal point bob or is that Bob.1994-1995 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program Solution Set 1: General Physics University of Toronto 1. .

. that would be too complicated. g. each raised to some power: T = Cmw lx . but they're small compared to gravity and besides. We might think to include things like frictional forces. Let's assume the period T is a function of these four variables. and the acceleration of gravity.

y. and z are exponents for which we wish to solve no dangling prepositions here. x. The dimensional equation for this relationship is T = M w L x L=T 2 z . the angle . and w.y gz : C is a dimensionless constant.

T = M w L x+z T . z = . Simplifying.2z which gives us w = 0.1=2. measured in radians has no dimensions. and x = 1=2. Thus the desired equation is T = C l=gf .2z : To have dimensional consistency. we must have 0 = w 0 = x+z 1 = .

It turns out that C = 2 and f .

which gives us the dimensional equation T = M=LT 2 x M=L3 y ML2=T 2 z .x.1. we quote numerical values of things from memory or make good guesses.2x . rounding them o . ' 1 for small angles. T = M x+y+z L . 2. Simplifying. c The general equation for this problem is T = Cpx y ez . which gives us the three equations 0 = x.2x. and . 1 p . 2z .2 = . b The general equation for this problem is ac = Cmx ry vz . and z = 1=3.z .3y+2z T . z = 2. multiply numbers in our head.2z. 3y + 2z . and 1 = . then put in the numbers. Simplifying. Thus T = C p5 . For these ones.z . which gives us the dimensional equation L=T 2 = M x L y L=T z . which are solved by x = 0. Thus ac = Cv2 =r.5=6. which gives us the three equations 0 = x + y + z .x . It may also help to do the problem algebraically rst. and y = . since this will allow us to plug in more precise numbers if we wish. L T . y = 1=2. which are solved 3 e2 1=6 by x = .2 = M x L y+z T . and in general not worry about being too precise. but we can't get that from this analysis. It turns out that C = 1. 0 = . 1 = y + z .

5 m. The x puts the hydrogen atoms on one molecule a distance x from those on the neighbouring molecules. V . To get MA . we take the volume of the sample. they are the averages of the daily highs and lows for a particular day of the year. There is a measure of uncertainty in this last equation since we don't know how much space there is between molecules. the average high and low. in more precise language. That is.3 g3 : 24 = 2  10 : So Avogadro's number is about 1024 molecules per mole. or so they think. There is an end-on view and a side view. To get N . 5. We are o by a factor of 3 from the accepted value. 24. It turns out that the end-on area is nearly square|the zig-zag in the carbon chain compensates for the di erence between the edge length in one direction and the distance from edgecentre to opposite edge-centre in the other direction. Does it then make sense to use the word normal to mean average? In such a case is 25 normal? Probably not. Now A = d=22 and V = M= . thus 1=v ' 121A3=4V 3 and N ' 121A3=4V 2 . The diagram shows approximately what the molecule looks like if we assume that the carbons are at the centres of tetrahedrons with the neighbouring atoms on the corners. The total volume is V = At. 3 :8 g=cm32 84 cm6 298 g NA ' 121 0 2560:81  10. but it is more meaningful to people to use the above form. 4. Thirty days later we check and the watch is ahead one minute. Thus Avogadro's Number is NA = NMA =M . like a telescope. with a little algebra we get 3 2 d6 MA NA ' 121 256M 3 : Putting in the numbers. Thus the volume of each molecule is about v ' 4t3 =121 where t is the layer thickness. Thus the watch is about one minute per month fast. In all three directions a distance of x is added to account for the fact that neighbouring molecules will not be butted up against one-another. averaged over the past 100 years or so for which there are recorded temperatures. We have gained 1 minute over a period of 30 days. v. which is ok considering how many uncertain numbers there were. Thus the molecules form a layer standing side-by-side vertically on the surface of the water.0 m. A telephoto lens. The COOH end of the molecule is hydrophilic while the rest of the molecule is hydrophobic. 26. the gap between 3 . and divide it by the volume of a single molecule. What is left out is the variance of the highs and lows or rather the distribution of the temperatures. we take the formula and the molecular masses and nd the total. makes far objects appear near by giving rise to an angular magni cation. Getting v is the tricky part. and 27. It is really a case of experts not wanting to use precise language because it may end up confusing people. It is possible that the average temperature on August 28 is 25 C but there may be just as many August 28's which were 23. Strictly speaking the units can be canceled to get a unitless number. If we observe the horse head-on when it is 10 m away. We know that N=M = NA =MA where N is the number of molecules in the sample and M is the mass of the sample and the subscript refers to a mole of the substance. The distance between two atoms joined to a common carbon is x|this is the length of an edge of the tetrahedron. Also note that I have seen people with degrees in physics make the mistake of saying fast when they mean ahead! c The normal high and normal low are. Suppose the separation of the forelegs and of the back legs is 0. and the distance between the front and back legs is 2.clock. Let us approximate a horse call him Boxy by a rectangular body with a vertical leg at each corner. 38  1 + 19  12 + 2  16 = 298 g.

giving a solution of 1=3 A.its forelegs will subtend an angle of 1 20 rad at the eye. R0 2 + 2RR0 . Add the two cases together and you get the stated problem. then. b Similarly. However. Alternately. it can be written as a circuit with itself being one of the components. while the gap between the hind legs subtends 1 24 rad. c Referring to the diagram. with the solution that 1=2 A ows along wire XY. a Break the problem into two parts. The apparent size of the front is the same as that of a horse standing 10 m away. if we use a telescope with an angular magni cation of 10. you can see that because the circuit is in nite. 1=4 A runs through the wire XY. If the same horse is 100 m away the same two angles become 1 200 rad and 1 204 rad. Again. The result is R0 =  3 . A very short horse! 6. but now its hind legs appear to be only 0.2 m further back. the two cases each have 1=6 A owing along XY.4 rad. 4 . which are not very di erent. the wire XY must carry 1=4 A of current. consider the mesh with 1 A going in at in nity and 1 A coming out at Y. Consider the mesh with 1 A going in at X and 1 A coming out at in nity. We use the quadratic formula to solve. By symmetry. we have 1 1 1 R0 = R + 2R + R0 : Multiplying by all three denominators and rearranging we end up with a quadratic equation for R0 . This di erence gives most of the impression of the length of the horse. with the negative root thrown out. the angles become 1 20 rad and 1 20. by symmetry. using the rules for combining resistors in series and parallel. 1R. If R0 is the resistance of the entire circuit. 2R2 = p 0.

the corresponding rise is 5 m. a If the real depth is s and the velocity of sound is vs. i. the terminal velocity is given approximately by2 mg= 1=2 = 5:3 m=s. For the rst order approximation. so that the zeroth approximation. 2. is a gross overestimate of the depth|by a factor of about 2. You might also just know that whenever you have a term Atn in the acceleration. then the measured time would be tm = 2s=g1=2 + s=vs and the measured depth would be sm = gt2 m =2. For the zeroth approximation. we neglect the last term so that a = g and thus v = gt. including gravity and drag force but neglecting the small buoyant force. c For the table tennis ball. You should really learn calculus. v2 . with CD ' 0:4. set acceleration to zero. C:D is still about 0:4. In this case. This is too complicated to be evaluated in the present context. the fact that his centre of mass is already 1 m above the ground when he starts. with = CD  r2 . sm = gt2 =2. the drag force is much more important relative to the weight. we obtain s r sm . the error due to the nite speed of sound is clearly given by the ratio of the terminal velocity to the speed of sound. g2 t4=12m. The error due to the initial period of acceleration cannot be evaluated without using the exact solution of the equation of motion. Neglecting squares of small terms.5 m is due to an e ciency of less than 100|or to errors in the estimated quantities. b An approximate value for the nal velocity is1 2gs1=2 ' 24 m=s. thus the air drag and the nite speed of sound give approximately equal errors. g2 t4 =12m. a The dominant consideration is the conversion of the kinetic energy of the running man to gravitational potential energy with something less than 100 e ciency. it gives you an Atn+1=n + 1 term in the velocity and an Atn+2 =n + 1n + 2 term in the displacement. Write force equation for terminal body. Smaller terms arise from i. Equate initial potential energy with nal kinetic energy and solve for speed. the drag force is therefore CD  r2 v2 . From the data given. If. if you knew calculus. we nd that this is about 6. consider the vertical" of a standing person. The velocities are smaller.1994-1995 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program Solution Set 2: Mechanics University of Toronto 1. showing that the Reynolds number is of the order of 104 most of the time. s ' 2gs = 29:830 = : 7:2: 2 s vs 3402 That is. Now. or a = g .e. the work done by his legs on take-o and by his arms in climbing up the pole ? = 0:5 m. 1 2 1 . neglecting the air drag thus introduces an error equal to the last term. ii. the fact that his centre of mass actually passes below the bar ? = 10 cm. The equation of motion is thus ma = mg . Anyway. the depth calculated without taking into account the nite speed of sound would be about 7 percent too large. Both errors make the calculated depth too large.6 for s = 30 m. A better rst approximation is to assume that it travels at its terminal velocity for the whole distance. g2 t2=m. you would immediately integrate this to obtain s = gt2 =2 . there is clearly no hope of Mr. in his approach. iii. In any case. The relative error is thus gt2 =6m ' s=3m. In this approximation. g2 t2 . we insert this value of v into the small last term to give ma = mg . but still large enough to make R 103. The di erence between this and the observed 5.6 m. Fibreglass making good on his boast of 9 m since 10 m s is an excellent sprint speed and the other terms can not be improved by much. Adding these terms together gives approximately 6. then solve for speed. The ball will reach this speed after a few meters. he attains a speed of 10 m=s.

If sideways motion across the vehicle is prevented. of radius R.b Work done is the change in potential energy of my body. a2 . From the answer to the previous question. a For the moon in an orbit of radius r. I am out of shape! c If the rotor. 2 . the pilot must thus generate about 5 kW continuously. a! where F is the force of contact between the rock and the moon. For the system to be practical. GMma =r2 = ma r!2 is also true. x2. For an astronaut of mass ma at the mass centre of the craft. we obtain v = m=s. For a body on the surface of the 2 Earth. GME =rE = g = 10 m=s2. given how winded I was. the mass of the air accelerated per unit time. useful power output is roughly 275-300 W. Neglecting energy losses. If r changes to r . Note that the uncertainty in the stair height dominates. but not relativistic. a2 + F = r . x. For the rock of mass . is R2v . Inserting the values given. The average power output is P = W=t. then ! will remain constant. this must Mg. in orbit of radius r . GMm=r2 = mr!2 . it appears that the maximum rate of energy production by a human is of the order of 1=3 kW. indeed. i. while the uncertainty is P=P = W=W 2 + t=t2 p = m=m2 + g=g2 + h=h2 + t=t2: The result is 348:5  8 W.e. If the rock is to be lifted o . 3. oat. Eliminating ! between the two equations. where G is the universal gravitational constant and ! = 2=T is the angular frequency with T being the period. F = 0. a. I've been told that for longer times 15 minutes to 2 or 3 hours for people of average mass 65 to 75 kg. i. b For any spacecraft in a: circular orbit. A horsepower is the average power a horse can put out over a work day. the energy transferred per second to the bulk motion of the air is v2 =2 which equals 4. a2 ' 1 r 3 m a3 3r2 . we have3 GMm=r2 = mr!2 . With the numbers given. she will. ii. the momentum transferred per second will be v where . A measurement of the actual distance would improve things immensely. Newton's Law gives us GM Gm 2 r . The result is 34:85  0:4 kJ. Thus we are a far cry from being able to run a helicopter by human power. we nd ! = 10:4 rad=s. the period is approximately =5 seconds|somewhat uncomfortable for the intrepid astronaut! We can also deduce that the linear velocity in orbit is approximately 107 m=s ' 0:03c|high. Don't be impressed.5 kW in this case. and if the vehicle is large compared with the mass of the person. i. This is nearly half a horsepower. we obtain M = r3 r . the gravitational force becomes GMma =r . assuming M m.e. Uncertainty is W=W = m=m2 + g=g2 + h=h2: The g=g2 is negligible. gives a downward velocity v to a column of air initially at rest. If the helicopter is to be airborne. W = mgh. where M is the mass of : 4:5 equal the helicopter. By that criteria. I only did this for a couple of minutes. that is the ship will force the astronaut to orbit with 3 p p The gravitational force provides the centripetal force which is set equal to the mass times centripetal acceleration. 3ra + a2 3 a as required.

1v = 2 2 .e. This will reach the value g before the victim has moved more than a few centimetres.4 Think of simple harmonic motion with a spring constant over mass ! 2 = k=ma = 3! 2 . m=m1=2 . the maximum speed. if mv 2 GM 2=2r. Call the increased velocity vf . x above the table in the direction making an angle . Also. 1Gm=4r1=2: The above argument assumes that the mass lost as a result of the explosion is so small that it has no e ect on the result. c Initially Newton's Law gives mv2 =r = Gm2 =4r2: 1 The nal system is most likely to break up if the explosion increases the velocity of one of the one star in the direction in which it is moving at the time of the explosion consider the diagram where before and after denote the situation an instant before and after the explosion. as can be seen by drawing a diagram. they are at a maximum when the graviational source is overhead. v + vf =2 = v : 2 The system will break up if the new kinetic energy with respect to the centre of mass coordinates is greater than the work needed to separate the components to in nity. smaller orbit will be ma r . The di erential radial force calculated above|the so-called tide-raising force|will provide a restoring couple if the attitude is disturbed. If u0=a!0 2=5. is given by u + a!. the required condition becomes p p vf = 2 2 .e. x!2. amgt=I . say. then the ball will roll forwards. slipping stops and rolling begins when t = 2u0 + a!0 =7g = . We choose the positive sense of ! so that the velocity of the point of contact of the ball with the table. this gives the speed of rolling after slipping has stopped. 2a!0=7. Using relations 1 and 2. this gives rise to a maximum speed of 900 m=s 3240 km=h in more homely units. vc . On the way to this unfortunate p conclusion there will be a Coriolis acceleration sideways across the tunnel equal to 2 3!2 x. one can appeal to tides themselves. obtained while 0 passing through the centre. iii. Since I = 2ma2 =5 for a sphere. If u0 =a!0 2=5. the value is negative and the ball will roll backwards towards the cue. 1. will be x!0 . These results combine to give vc = u0 + a!0 . The orbit as described is indeed stable. To enquire whether both motions are possible. say. the same period. we consider an impulse Q given to the ball at a point a . i. This 4 will give rise to a velocity 3!x. approximately 3ma !2 x. If this quantity is denoted by m. 4. This is no longer equal to the gravitational force. 5gt=2a. Starting from the end of the tunnel x = 50 m. gt and the rotation about the centre by ! = !0 . then an analysis along exactly the same lines gives the condition vf =v = 22 . This is equal to zero i. 7gt=2. The centre of mass now has a velocity v . the latter expression becomes ! = !0 . The motion of the centre is thus given by u = u0 . thus showing that the assumption was valid. The value of u at t = is 5u0 . The frictional force F = mg is assumed constant. The force needed to maintain the astronaut in the new. The di erence. vf =2 and the velocity of either star with respect to the centre of mass is. will p accelerate the person towards the centre at a rate 3!2x. This corresponds to the imposition of backspin" as speci ed.

with the horizontal see the diagram. Then mu0 = Q cos .

with p = a sin. and I!0 = Qp.

we get cos . after a little algebra. +  and sin = x=a. If we use the relation 5u0 = 2a!0 to determine the boundary condition between the two modes of behaviour. then.

= sin.

.e. i. + .

x=a tan . 1=2 1 .

= 1 + x=a : Real values of .

can be found for any x=a|except that x ! a would be a little di cult. in practice! 0 0 3 .

then this process can be repeated N times6. The above arguments are strictly valid only if the increment in velocity of the spaceship is much less than c. More quantitatively. we have the relation5 E + m2 c22 = p2 c2 + m2 c2 2 : In the particular case envisaged in the pproblem. The spaceship will have an equal momentum in the opposite direction. say. which thereby acquires momentum p. and the total e ect of the momentum increments between successive inertial frames can then be calculated as an integral sum. a As a rst guess. the period must be less than 10 percent the Earth's year. the centripetal acceleration of a particle moving in a circle of radius r at a constant speed v is . The advantage of 5b over 5a applies at every stage and therefore also overall. It is di cult to say anything more since we don't have an indication of how restrictive our maximum is. the total number N can be conceptually subdivided into small groups for which it is true. This is larger than the other result. Since the acceleration goes as the inverse square of the period. b If we consider the mutual annihilation of two particles. m1 = m2 = m is the mass of a proton or antiproton. one thing we can do is to get a maximum on the period.5. We don't feel the e ect of the centripetal acceleration of our orbiting the sun very easily on Earth. If there are initially N protons and N antiprotons. a The annihilation energy of a particle of rest mass m1 will make available an energy E = m1 c2. in fact. so it must be less than. that is less than a month. the e ect will be to give a total momentum 3Nmc to the ship. each of rest mass m. With the aid of a deep paraboloidal mirror made of a material that can re ect high-energy gamma rays ! all such photons can be collimated into a beam carrying a momentum 2Nmc. a similar argument shows that the scalar total of the momentum thereby produced is 2mc. This leads to the result p = 3mc. There will. a percent of g. If all N ejected particles can be persuaded to leave p the spaceship in the same direction. 6. If this energy is given to another particle of rest mass m2 . If this is not the case. be two photons proceeding in opposite directions since the vector total must be zero.

2 2 r 1 ac = vr = 2T r p : 7:77  105 s = : 9:0 days. which is small compared to g. The net force on the section is 2FT sin. b Consider a narrow section of the ring as shown in the diagram. Thus T = 2 r=ac . That where T is the period. Using ac = g we get T = seems like an awfully short time to go around the sun! Note that we've ignored the gravitation attraction of the star.

This is equal to 2r. This is the centripetal force and must equal mac = mg where m is the mass of the section. towards the centre.

Letting sin. The total mass is the volume times the density. where A is the cross-sectional area. M = 2rA .M=2r where r is the radius of the ring and M is the total mass.

! .

while the right-hand side is the square of the total energy after. the more complicated process of annihilating a proton-antiproton pair giving the energy to another proton and antiproton pair which doesn't annihilate but rather is ejected in the same direction is performed N=2 times. we nd that the tension is given by FT = rA g. 5 4 . using the relationship between energy and relativistic momentum. The left-hand side is the square of the total energy before. 6 Actually. If we take the density of aluminum as a possible density for the material. This is seven orders of magnitude greater than most metals. then the required tensile strength is 4  1015 N=m2. Notice how we don't need to know A. but the e ect is the same. This is just the weight" of the ringworld on Earth if we could weigh it divided by 2! To get the tensile strength we just divide by the cross-sectional area. S = r g. for small angles.

c The rotation of the ring will give it orientational stability. The vertical" component see gure also depends on the position but in a opposing way. then one can see a net gravitational force attracting the ring back to equilibrium. One must use math and it turns out there is a net restoring force. The book describes the material as Very dense. there are cases where one can have an instability. If the ring is pushed so that it moves perpendicularly to its plane. Consider the force due to four pieces as shown in the diagram. I got the idea for the ringworld question from a book by Larry Niven called. It is followed by Ringworld Engineers. thus it would be unstable. with a tensile strength on the order of the force that holds nuclei together. The argument for this is mathematical as well. A Dyson Sphere a spherical shell of similar dimensions surrounding a star would have no net force on it due to a star inside. curiously enough. the situation is not as easy to see." Anyone care to check on whether that would be enough? 5 . If the ring is pushed in its plane. The result is that one can't nd out whether there is a net gravitational force in the plane by simple arguments. The size of the force goes as 1=r2 which depends on the position of the piece on the circle. Remarkably enough. and may be found in the science ction section of libraries and bookstores. Ringworld. but not positional. The positional stability is depends only on the net gravitational attraction of the star.

therefore. Tc Q : Wmin = Th T c c University of Toronto The minimum time. coli is therefore: Cbn = 1  n! . no container material or air. b = 0. . since water expands as it freezes. then it would need to be expandable in some way. . min . and if there were no predator. 000. c Only the water is being cooled i. and Tc and Th are the temperatures of the cold inside fridge and hot outer air reservoirs. 000 surviving bacteria out of N total bacteria. is taken to be a Carnot heat engine. calculate the heat released in freezing 2 kg of water at 0 C. min h Tc where Wmin is the minimum work needed to e ect the cooling. . In other words. a After a long enough time. t = 6 or 7 hours would be su cient. n: 2n 2n b!n . the liquid is at 0 C. and note that absolute temperatures must be used: Wmin 300 K . Since the predator eats either colour at random to keep the population at 10. is given by: c . respectively. 273 K : min = P = 273 K50 W  667  103 J = 1:3  103 s: Assumptions can include: a The refrigerator. namely 1 . where Qc =Qh = Tc =Th . Qc : 3 g  6:0 kJ=mol = 667 kJ Qc = 2  10 18 g=mol The maximum coe cient of performance. N 10. 2. The probability distribution of the number of beige E. there are 2n ways of selecting the n survivors. Thus. as suggested by the model name. the bacteria would amount to a huge number. d If the cold reservoir interior of the fridge were completely lled with ice water. There 2 n are Cb combinations of b beige bacteria to survive out of the n total surviving.1994-1995 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program Solution Set 3: Thermodynamics 1. b! b To answer this. max . then it's the same thing as selecting n = 10. . Since N n. . Let us require N=n  102. where t is the number of reproductive cycles. 1. in every selection the probabilities of surviving beige or fuchsia bacteria are the same. you basically need to determine how long it takes for N n.e. First. Since N = 2t n. . is given by P is the power. max WQc = T T . b The ice and water are in equilibrium. 000.

c Let p be the degree of preference of eating fuchsia bacteria over that of eating beige bacteria. and that of eating fuchsia bacteria is +p . 2 2 The result in a then becomes: . p . .  . 1 The  probability of eating beige bacteria is then 1 .

.

.

.

1H2 . Phys. J. and i are the coe cients of the chemical equation.b  C n = 1 . Note: For a good article on this subject. see Rees. b! The result in b is una ected by the predator preference p. and hence the rate of cooling slows. 2HI  . We are dealing with the chemical equation: H2 + I2 *  2HI: We can write this in the form i iAi = 0. Viney. where Ai are the reacting substances and reaction products. the co ee or milk co ee mixture and the surrounding air is greater. May 1988. 3.e. b Newton's Law of Cooling". Then: :1 . Y P i Ci = Kc . 1 . 4. For the simple case where the milk is colder than room temperature.G. First of all. There are 2 principal competing e ects: a The addition of the milk cools the co ee directly by a simple law of mixtures. 56 5 434. p b  1 + p n. which basically says that the rate of heat loss is greater when the temperature di erence between the two heat reservoirs i. By cooling with milk the cup's contents right at the beginning. the temperature di erence between the two reservoirs is lessened. Hence. 1I2  = 0: Reaction equilibria can be determined by the Law of Mass Action. Am. x CH2  = 811 :04 94 . i where Ci are the equilibrium concentrations of the various constituents of the reaction. d Sewage.04 is the total number of g-mol present. The blackness" of co ee without milk also enables the co ee to be a better radiator of heat.b  n! b 2 2 2 2 b!n . Let x be the number of g-mol of H2 or I2  used to produce HI . x CI2 = 2:11 :04 2 CHI  = 11:x 04 11. . p b  1 + p n. it is in fact better to add the milk at the beginning of the 10 minutes in order that the milk co ee mixture be as hot as possible at the end of the 10 minutes.. we assume that the room temperature falls between that of the milk and the black co ee. and C. W. but this e ect is rather smaller than those above.

Now. using the Law of Mass Action gives: .

1  . x . 2:94 .

8:10 . x .1  .

the angular momentum vector is nearly perpendicular to the long axis of the dust grain. there will be 0. 5. After heating. which states that in thermal equilibrium each degree of freedom contributes an equal amount of kinetic energy to the total energy of a molecule. the subtending angle of the strip is . This is due to the energy equipartition theorem of thermodynamics. we know that the principal moments of inertia satisfy: Iz Ix . 2x 2 = 0:02: 11:04 11:04 11:04 Solving the quadratic equation. Therefore. x j! j = Iy j! j . 2z z 2x x 2y y where w the average angular velocity. we get x = 0:319. Iy : At thermal equilibrium: 1 I !2 = 1 I !2 = 1 I !2 .638 g-mol of HI . Therefore. and choosing the root that doesn't violate the conservation laws. j!z j = I Iz x Iz y r r and Similarly. Assume the initial length is lo . Let the long axis of the dust grain be parallel with the z -axis. Here the dust grain is being treated like a very big molecule. From the shape of the grain. the average lengths of the 2 metallic strips are: l1 = lo 1 + 1 T  and l2 = lo 1 + 2T : Assuming that the radius of curvature is R. 6. Iz jI ! j jI ! j : jIz !z j = I x x x x x r jIz !z j jIy !y j : So.

and the change of thickness is negligible. then l2 = R + x=4..

x=4. and l1 = R .

l1 = x .: Therefore. x l1 + l2 = x l 2 +  +  T  : l2 .

= 1 2 2 2 2R 4R o .

1 = 4x R lo 2 +  1 + 2 T  +  1 + 2  T  : R = x 24 T . we have giving l2 . we know that Making the substitution. l1 = lo T  2 .But. 1 : lo T  2 .  2 1 .

heh heh heh. The laser beam is red at the missile when it is 10 km away and the beam loses 3 of its intensity for every kilometer travelled. What causes the Aurora? Why are they strongest in Northern Canada? b We were all kids at one time or another except maybe Pekka and probably sung Twinkle Twinkle Little Star. For systems with more than one lens we de ne a back focal length and a front focal length.50 C and must be heated to its boiling point at 2500 C . the focal length of a system of lenses will be di erent depending on which side the image is on. anyway. The lasers have an output power of 50 W in a beam diameter of 1 mm.3. a I'm sure most of you have been on trips up into northern Ontario and seen the Northern Lights rst hand. b Something nifty happens when d = f1 + f2 . Why is this? 5. Just give qualitative answers. not that I still watch cartoons anymore. a Holograms are 3-D images that change depending on the viewer's perspective. actually on Saturday. When light is shone through the negative onto photographic paper a positive image is produced. What is it? c Find the focal length of the system for d = 0. well occasionally I see the odd one. You are to consider the viability of a ground based laser defense against ICBM's. It is called a negative because the dark and light areas are interchanged by the developing process. thus destroying them. which are just the two focal lengths for these two possibilities. When the laser res the skin temperature of the missile is . b What angular accuracy must the aiming system of the laser have in order for the laser not to drift away from the target spot? c Suggest three ways that one could use to protect a missile from this laser defense system. which then ends up in your photo album. The outer skin of the missile is aluminum that is 3 cm thick. How is the dimensionality of the image captured on the holographic plate? How is this di erent than normal 2-D lm? b Sketch an experimental apparatus that could be used to produce a hologram. and proud of it by the way. We have all seen those really cool holographic images of our favourite cartoon characters on the cereal boxes. What makes stars twinkle? Do the planets and moon twinkle also? .. 4. c When normal lm is exposed to light and developed. In holography it makes no di erence whether the holographic plate ends up being a negative or positive. Does it matter which side of the system the image is on in this limit? 6. Being a physics nerd. In general. a Find the back focal length and the front focal length of this system of lenses. a How long will it take the laser to burn through the outer skin of the missile. I will now in ict my geeky inquisitiveness on all of you. There are two thin lenses of focal lengths f1 and f2 separated by a distance d. Now for a few small questions that will really get you wondering why you are doing these Olympics in the rst place. which will use powerful CO2 lasers to bore holes in the incoming missiles. a negative is produced. for which I humbly apologize. back to the problem. it won't happen again. The density of aluminum is 2:34 g=cm3 and heat capacity is 0:9 J=g C. I could never just enjoy those pictures without trying to gure out how they work. Now for a really dull question. thus destroying it? Assume that all of the laser power that reaches the missile goes into heating the 1 mm diameter spot. Be sure to explain what is going on. You are conducting a feasibility study into the SDI Strategic Defense Initiative missile defense system..

it can either be left unharmed or be completely shattered.c If you are walking on the beach one day and nd a seashell. Why? . What causes this? d If lightning strikes a tree. Why will some trees be destroyed and others be ne? It turns out that Oak trees are preferentially destroyed over other species. and just happen to hold it up to your ear. you will be able to hear the roar of the ocean.

Si is the image distance and So is the object distance. Si  . hx r1 = D 1 + x D 2 2 hx r1 = D1 + x 2. inverted and mini ed. Here. In other words. n1 2R . Si + x = . Consider rst r1 Using h and using D Similarily x gives x gives 2 r1 = D2 + x . So = 1:2m and R = 10cm gives Si = 36cm and x = 6:9cm.10cm and So = 5cm. This corresponds to n2 . that gypsy's mug is awfully close to the crystal ball. D2 : 2 hx r2 = D1 + x 2+ D2 : r r . h 2 : 2 . the second object distance So = 2R . c For the gypsy lady to produce no image means that x ! 1. Si  x = n . Si  = n2 R or Si = . 2. n n1 So . b The image is real. Solving for x gives 1 R2R . n1 So + Si = R where n1 and n2 are the indices of refraction of the two media. n1  2R . n2 R : 2 Putting n1 = 1:0. n n1 2R . Solving for the image distance 2 RSo Si = n .R where x is the image distance we are trying to nd and all of the other variables have the same meaning as above. n2 = 1:5. Si because a virtual image is formed by the rst surface.1994-1995 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program Solution Set 4: Waves and Optics University of Toronto 1. Therefore the image is 6:9cm from the crystal ball. R is the radius of curvature of the surface.n2 . n1R : 2 At the second surface we have n2 n1 . The rst thing to do is work out the path length that each wave undergoes on its way to the screen see gure 1. a This problem is solved by looking at the interference that the two waves undergo at a particular point on the screen. a To solve this problem we need the equation which describes how a curved surface bends light n1 n2 n2 .

The reason the experimental pattern fades is because the same amount of light doesn't hit all parts of the screen. with far less scattered at large angles. Most of the light passes straight through the slits. Assuming the beam can't move by more than its radius gives an accuracy of 10. cos 2  Iscreen = E 2 D This new formula has its maximum o centre with respect to the two slits. Plugging in the numbers gives H = 126:5 J. To solve this question we must nd out how much energy is needed to evaporate the aluminum. The volume of aluminum to evaporate is V = =4d2h where d is the spot diameter and h is the thickness. r1 = hx=D and phase di erence  = 2xh=D. and then how fast the laser can supply this energy. a b c 4. This means that the interference pattern is brightest opposite the two slits ie at x ' 0.b c 3. The heat needed to evaporate this amount of aluminum neglecting the heat of vapourization is H = CM T where C is the heat capacity and T is the temperature di erence. The laser beam is attenuated to P = 500:9710 = 36:9 W by the time it arrives at the missle so it will take 3:4 sec for the laser beam to burn through the missle's skin. which gives 2 xh Iscreen = E 2 1 + cos 2 D : If the laser is shifted so that the wave coming from one slit is out phase by  radians with respect to the other then the electric eld becomes E Etot = E 2 exp i +  + 2 exp i +  Multiplying this by its complex conjugate gives 2 xh : 1 . which means that the mass of aluminun is M = V with .4 tan. which is the major di erence between the interference patterns. The angular accuracy needs to be enough to keep the laser aimed at the same spot on the missle for the entire 3:4sec. Notice that one wave is phase shifted  radians with respect to the other. The electric eld at the screen will be the superposition of the waves that went through the slits i + E exp i +  Etot = E e 2 2 where the factors of two appear because the wave splits in wave in half when it hits the slits. To nd the intensity we multiply Etot by its complex conjugate. a The path di erence between the two waves will be r2 .

5  104 or the drift in .

which gives no information about depth. use a cloaking device. in addition to amplitude information on the lm. not re the missles. don't piss the guys at ICBM control o . thicken the skin. The thing that makes holograms di erent from normal pictures is that holograms record phase information. send up cha e. have dummy warheads. A hologram on the other hand is just a recorded interference pattern of the image. 7 degrees=sec. must be less than 8:4e . make the skin re ecting. blast laser system and nally. To defend against this sort of attack one could: rotate the missle. The depth information about an image is preserved on the plate in the form of an interference pattern. . increase heat transfer over the skin. A picture only records how intense the light is. or as some of you suggested.

f Since the lenses are located a distance d away from each other we can write So2 = d . Because the object has depth to it. Since the information is just an interference pattern.b To create a hologram one needs to produce an interference pattern of the desired object. At the rst lens we can write 1 = 1 + 1 f1 Si1 So1 or f1 : Si1 = SSo1 . which gives f2 Si2 = SSo2 . and then interferes with the reference beam. f1  back focal length = Si2 = d . a The Aurora are caused by low energy solar electrons that are caught by the Earth's magnetic eld. f2  : front focal length = d . Putting plane waves in one end produces plane waves at the other. thus producing an interferomic record of the object. . Using these three equations to solve for Si2 while eliminating So2 and Si1 gives f2 d . These electrons excite nitrogen and oxygen which produce the characteristic blue of the Aurora. The same can be done for the second lens. the re ected beam will not have the same phase across it when it reaches the holographic plate. c If d = 0 in the above equations then f2 back focal length = front focal length = f f1 1 + f2 or in other words it doesn't matter which side the image is placed on. 6. the di erence between positives and negatives will only e ect the overall phase of the pattern and will not e ect the nal image. This is done by splitting the laser beam into a reference beam and an object beam see gure 2. c It makes no di erence wether the holographic plate is a negative or a positive. f1 . They are then sped up and enter the atmosphere at the magnetic North Pole. Note that the magni cation of the system will not likely be unity. Si1. o1 f1 This will be the position of the image after the rst lens. f2 Doing the same analysis but in the other direction gives f1 d . The reason it is strongest over Canada is that the magnetic North Pole is centred over ??? Island in the Canadian Arctic. f2 o2 2 b If we set d = f1 + f2 then the system acts like it isn't there. a I will rst work out the back focal length using the Lensmakers equation. 5. The probe beam is re ected o the object. It will then interfere with the uniform reference beam. We can write 1 1 1 feff = f1 + f2 : This is just a modi ed version of the thin lens equation. f1 .

which ends up turning the tree into toothpicks. This is due to uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun. d When lightning strikes a tree. the tree isn't wet then the current will pass into the tree and descend through the sap. It is therefore not that Oak trees get struck more by lightning. then the current will pass over the outside of the tree leaving it undamaged. If. This turbulence causes random refracting of the light which we see as a twinkle. This twinkle also appears for larger bodies eg.b Stars twinkle because the atmosphere that the light passes through to get to our eyes is turbulent. just that they are more likely to be destroyed when hit. c The sound from the seashells is actually produced by air currents that pass by the shell and excite the shell's air volume at its natural resonances. If the bark of the tree is wet. . The Oak tree has especially rough bark which makes it di cult for the current to nd a path to ground along the bark. on the other hand. the resonances will be excited sporadically giving the impression of ocean waves. When this happens the sap is superheated and expands. Since these air currents are not constant. the moon but is much less noticable. the current in the lighning stroke needs a path to ground.

All forces mentioned in the following are with respect to conductor B refer to Figure 1.1994-1995 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program University of Toronto Solution Set 5: Electricity and Magnetism 1. Fmag = IB~ lB ~ A is the magnetic eld from conductor where ~ l is a displacement vector along the conductor B. The above expression can be simpli ed to Fmag = IB lBA sin . and B A. The magnetic force on a conductor in a uniform external magnetic eld is given by ~ A.

= IB lBA . ~ A is perpendicular to ~ since B l .

7 N=A2 100 A147 A = 12:566  20:02 m9:8 m=s2 = 1:5  10. neglecting the gravitational elds of conductor A and the non-conducting guides. where o is the permeability of free space. At equilibrium. Fg . we set the forces to be equal.2 kg=m = 0:15 g=cm: . B l where B the linear density of conductor B and g is the acceleration due to gravity. which gives: Fmag = Fg l l o IA IB =  g B 2r o IA IB B = 2 rg 10. is Fg =  g. the magnetic eld B given by o IA BA =  2r . ~ A at a distance r from a wire carrying a current IA is From the Biot-Savart Law. = 90 . The magnetic force per unit length on conductor B is therefore Fmag = o IA IB : l 2r The gravitational force per unit length on conductor B.

R1 = 1 l1 1 : T A 1 Similarly. Ro 1 = A where A is the cross sectional area of the octagonal bars.2. Therefore. Calculate the change in total resistance with respect to the change in temperature.1 = . R2 = 2 l2 2 : T2 A Since the two materials are in a series con guration: Rt = R1 + R2 = 0: T T1 T2 Since T1 = T2. 2 l2 2 = 1 2 =. a The capacitances per unit length due to each dielectric are given by: and . Rt: RT  = Ro 1 + tT  R  T  . 2 1 .R2 and 1 l1 1 = . R1 = . Rt = 0: T For each of the two individual resistance regions: R1 = R  o1 T1 1 1 l1 . Ro = R = o t T Rt =  T = Ro t : Given that t = 0 at 20 C.0:12:  ll2 = 3:22 :6 1 1 c1 = ln2r =r 2 1 3.

9 F=m 2 36 : 0:24 nF=m.8 C = 4:5  103 V: V1 = 4 r 0:06 m For the larger sphere: .9=36 F=m = 51:8 kV=m: 4. Hence. at r = r1 : 172:8  10.9 C=m : Emax r2 = 20:020 m3:010.9=36 F=m = 69:1 kV=m: Similarly for r = r2 : 172:8  10.9 F=m : 0:36 nF=m.9 C=m : Emax r1 = 20:010 m4:510. V1 c2 0:24 V1 + V2 = 1200 V: Solving for V1 gives V1 = 480 V.2 : c2 = ln2r =r 3 2 The total capacitance per unit length is calculated by treating the above two capacitances in series. For the smaller sphere: 1 q = 9  109 N  m2=C2 3  10. Therefore q = c1V1 = 172:8 nC=m: The maximum electric eld intensity occurs at the inner surface of either dielectric. c = c c1 1 + c2 c = lnr =r2+1 2 lnr =r  : 2 2 1 1 3 2 b 4:5  10.  = ln 2 V2 = c1 = 0:36 = 1:5. The total capacitance per unit length is therefore given by: c2 . c1 = 2 36 ln 2 = c2 = 3  10. First calculate the initial potentials on the sphere surfaces.

When the conducting wire is connected. the spheres seek to assume equal potentials.8 C. the direction of charge motion is towards the 12 cm radius ball.9 m2=C23  10. r1 r2 r1 q1 = q2 r : 2 Since q1 + q2 = 6  10. 4 r1 4 r2 q1 = q2 . 1 q1 = 1 q2 .8 C = 2:25  103 V: V2 = 9  10 N  0 :12 m Since V1 V2 . q2 . Therefore.

p : Mlab c4 c2 .8 C = 3  103 V: Vlarger = 9  10 N  0 :12 m 5. 4  10. the total energy is E + mc2 . Let the incident proton have momentum p. of this lab system is then given by 2 2 2 = Etotal .8 C = 3  103 V Vsmaller = 41  r 0:06 m and 9 m2=C24  10. In the frame of the lab.8 C .8 C. and the nal charge on the larger sphere becomes whereas the nal charge on the smaller sphere becomes q1 = 6  10. r1 + 1 = 6  10.8C. The nal potential of each sphere is given by: q = 9  109 N  m2=C22  10.8 C. M . where E is the energy of the incident proton and mc2 is that for the proton at rest. The invariant mass.8 C = 2  10.8 C: The magnitude of transferred charge is therefore 1  10. r2 q2 = 4  10.

Take Avogadro's number to be N = 6:02  1026 atoms kmol. p2 = 4mc2 2 . since we are only calculating the minimum.In the centre of mass CM frame. for this reaction. and the atomic weight of copper to be 63. First calculate the number of electrons per unit volume. 2Emc2 = 14m2c4 . the 4 reaction products are at rest for this problem. the number of electrons per unit volume is Ne = . the density of copper to be 8:96  103 kg m3. Assuming one conduction electron per atom.  E + mc2 2 . E 2 + m2 c4 = 16m2 c4 . we get Since Mlab CM 2 MCM .54 g mol. E 2 + m2 c4 = 4mc2 2. c2 c2 E + mc2 2 . E 2 + m2 c4 + 2Emc2 . The total energy in this system is therefore 4mc2 and the invariant mass is 4mc2 2 = c4 : 2 = M 2 and E 2 = p2c2 + m2 c4. or threshold energy. and E = 7mc2 : 6.

6:02  1026 atoms  1 kmol  8:96  103 kg  1 electron kmol 63:54 kg m3 atom Ne = 8:49  1028 electrons=m3: .

.

.

6 m2. 1 2 mm4 mm = 4  10. The rhombic cross sectional area is 2 The number of electrons in a 100 mm length is N = 4  10.19 C=electron. The percentage leaving the 100 mm length per second is 6:25  1019  100 = 0:184: 3:40  1022 .1 = 6:25  1019 electrons=s pass a xed point.6 m20:100 m8:49  1028 electrons=m3 = 3:40  1022 electrons: A 10 A current requires that 10 C=s1:6  10.

You just gotta love electronics. You all tease him mercilessly until. b Sketch this impedance function as a function of frequency. By measuring the resistance of the cloud we could determine if the Warbird is in there." says Data in his usual monotone.. And just when you think there can be nothing as exciting as that. Then Wesley piped up. Most of them work by using the frequency dependent resistance of capacitors and inductors. 1995 1." You begin to sweat and really wish you hadn't skipped your electronics class all last term..on to the business at hand. This problem concerns itself with a circuit called a tank circuit see gure 1... You're out with your friends one day and you stumble across an ornately carved lamp lying on the ground.. All of those little resistors and capacitors to play with. b Low pass lters do the opposite. Filter circuits fall into the following categories: a High pass lters only allow high frequencies through them. just got rambling. At what frequency is the impedance of the circuit in nite? To do this p you will need the resistance of both a capacitor Zc = 1=i!C and an inductor Zl = i!L. It's even better than having. out come those digital circuits with all of the chips that can be used.. The impedance of this circuit is called the transfer function because it describes how signals are transferred across the circuit.. but whatta name. sorry about that. he rubs the lamp and out comes a genie. but I think it quite likely Captain. Classify the ve circuits given in gure 2. 4. If a certain frequency signal is put into a circuit it will either be allowed to pass through or get blocked by the circuit depending on the frequency dependent resistance of the components. sobbing uncontrollably. d Not a lter at all. The ethereal entity speaks. and I quote:"For teasing my master so ruthlessly.. "The homogeneous material of the cloud has known conductivity c . "Our sensors cannot penetrate the gaseous cloud. where i = . whereas the Warbird has a conductivity of w . if each of the twelve edges has the same resistance.. .1994-1995 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program University of Toronto Problem Set 6: Electronics Due April 3rd . c Band rejection lters block an intermediate range of frequencies. 2. c How will the transfer function change if the inductor has some resistance? Just determine the complex transfer function. One of your friends says that it must be a magical lamp with a genie inside. What is the resistance between opposite vertices of an octahedron. I have no idea why it is called that." He sits in his chair with a stupid smile on his face. Often in electronics one uses lter circuits to remove unwanted frequencies in signals.1. a Find the absolute value of the impedance of the tank circuit as a function of frequency. 3. I will ask you one question which you must get right to live. "Could the Romulin Warbird be hiding in that interstellar gas?" Captain Picard said from the bridge of the Enterprise. The absolute value of a complex number is de ned as p Z = Z  Z where Z  is the complex conjugate of Z .

b If I add a large capacitor in parallel with the resistor. "Make it so. Model the various parts of the cloud as resistors in series or parallel with each other.Picard's face turns red as he shouts. After Wesley is unconscious. Show that Data computes the resistance to be L : R=  b2 c b Data decides to model the Romulin Warbird as a metallic cylinder of radius a. "Will you shut your insolent little face. The funny looking circuit elements are called diodes and only allow current to pass in the direction of the arrow. and that the input and output currents are uniformly distributed across the ends of the cloud. The circuit shown in gure 3 is called a full wave recti er and is used to turn an AC signal into a DC signal. w if c ' w . what signal is expected across the resistor? What will be seen at the resistor for a square wave signal as input? Give reasons for your answer and sketch the output and input waveforms. What is this circuit actually doing and how could it be useful? b Using the circuit from a. a If the voltage source produces a sinusoidal signal. how will it a ect the voltage signal at the resistor? To be more speci c. See gure 4 for a type of circuit that shows up when designing computers and such. stun Wesley and throw him in the brig. the captain remarks to Data." a Data assumes that the cloud is cylindrical with radius b and length L. why must the capacitor be large to produce an almost DC signal at the resistor? 6. This problem concerns itself with the recti cation of AC voltage. length a and conductivity w in the centre of the cloud. . design a full adder that can add three one digit binary numbers. Estimate the relative change in resistance of the cloud to rst order in c . Give the truth table for your circuit. Ignore the capacitor for this part. Worf. 5. a Find the truth table of the circuit. This just wouldn't be an electronics problem set without at least one question on digital circuits. Assume that b a.

Sven hits the brakes. a What is the minimum energy required to lift the two of them up 15 m.1s. b The cable support has a height h = 15 m. so that all braking is performed by the tractor unit. He comes around a corner and nds what else? the icon of the northern Ontario bush. after Batman hooks the winch to Vicky and lets go. What is the maximum angle his trailer unit can make with the tractor unit before it starts to jacknife the truly awesome maneuver when the trailer starts sliding and swings around? 4. As he and Vicky twist in the wind. He is doing 120 km h. He res up one of his awesome cables and attaches it to a girder above the street. a How heavily does he have to brake to avoid bagging a moose out of season and making a mess of his front end? b He is still in the curve when he starts braking. By day he worked as an electrician for General Motors. Sven is tooling down Highway 11 17 with a tractor-trailer load of pulp wood to be fed into the maw of the MacBlo mill in Fort Frances. attached to the vertical trunk" of the crane and supported by cables.1 at 20 C. but by night he assumed a secret identity. The old pro that he is. the hot-shot reporter. are trying to escape the Joker after the debacle in the museum check out the movie if you folks forget this scene. What is the power required to execute this daring move? c In the movie. His winch appears to run out of juice. our masked avenger has a cool get-away planned when he and Vicky Vale.1995-1996 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program Problem Set 1: General Physics Due October 16. But wait! He only gets part way up. In the original movie Batman. Joe build-em tall" Girders is designing a construction crane did you know he learned his stu working with Tinker Toys?. the voltage drop and resistance across the 50 ft length. Can you help Rob calculate the electric eld intensity E .8 mil diameter. she is winched up the rest of the way to the girder. he ponders his potentially fatal mistake. as shown in Fig 1. It has been snowing what else can go wrong? so the coe cient of static friction between his wheels and the asphalt is s = 0:2. standing in the middle of the road. he begins to lift the two of them out of harm's way. and that copper has a conductivity of = 5:8  107 . With his super-cool winch located on his belt. He realises as he hits the brakes that he forgot to connect his trailer brakes. 1995 University of Toronto 1. and the time it would take an electron to move a distance of 1 cm in the conductor? 1 . What are the tensions on the two cables supporting the beams? 2. easy. Can you give a plausible explanation as to what really went wrong with the winch? Did it really run out of energy? 3. He is about 150 m from the moose when his size 13 work boot hammers the brakes. He uses two beams with mass m1 = 9000 kg and m2 = 3000 kg with lengths l1 = 45 m and l2 = 15 m. a How much mass. if we assume Batman tips the scale at a t 75 kg and Vicky really does weigh 47 kg as she claims? b They have to be rising at least 1 m s in order to avoid getting plastered by Joker's henchmen. He already knows that a 50 ft length can carry a current of 20 A.1 m. so his trailer lled with cord wood makes a small angle with the tractor unit. Now Rob often works with AWG 12 copper wire with an 80. one that no soul knew a thing about he became a physics problem solver. should there be in the counterweight located at the end of the second beam to ensure that the crane is perfectly balanced when the crane is not carrying a load. Rob Hanks was a wild and crazy man. mc . a moose.1 and an electron mobility of  = 0:0032 m2V.

the requirement that the net torque on the beam is zero gives X 2 = 0 = . 000 N. Similarily.1995-1996 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program Solution Set 1: General Physics University of Toronto 2 2 1 +h = m1 g 2lh 5 = 139. where h is the height of the vertical support above the beams. for beam 2.T2 sin .

The torque due to gravity on beam 1 is centred through the midpoint of beam 1. Vale up h = 15 m. The torque due to the counterweight is the cross product of the gravitational force and the vector between the axis and the end of beam 2. Them cables are pretty strong. 1a. Thus the net torque is X 1 2 = . F Ditto for beam 2. one has to at least expend the work equivalent to raising them that distance in a gravitational eld it could be more think about the work required 1. 000 N: Its interesting that the tension is highest on the cable supporting the counterweight. and ~ is the force.2 + m2 g l2 + mc g 6 p 2g 2 + h2  T2 = m2 + mc g l2h 7 = 187. a We require that there is no net torque about the axis through the point where the two beams ~ where ~ connect to the vertical support recall that torque is ~ = ~ rF r is the vector separating the axis about which you are calculating the torque and the point where the force is applied. 2. a To lift Batman and Ms. They have to be able to support almost ten tons. The force diagram for the crane is shown in Fig. and that's without any load being carried.m1 g l2 + m2 g l2 + mc gl2 = 0 1 .

if m1 = m2 and l1 = l2 . Can you understand why not? b We require that the net torque on each arm to be equal. For example. Note that we can verify that the equation for mc makes sense. 000 kg. l1 2  mc = 1 2 m1 l2 . the tensions on the cable supporting the two beams are forces. T1 and T2 that act on the ends of the beams and on the vertical support. Let . Can you think of other sanity checks? What about units? Note that we do not have to take into account the torque due to the support cable tension on each beam. m2 = 12. where g is the acceleration of gravity g = 9:8 m s2. which is the case. In this case. then we would expect mc = 0.

Then the torque acting on beam 1 is X 1 = 0 = l1 T1 sin .1 be the opening angle between beam 1 and the cable as shown in Fig. 1b.

1 . l2 m1 g 3 1g 4  T1 = 2 m sin .

1 p 1 .

ii. or iii. We can then employ our usual equations for an object of mass m decelerating uniformly over a distance d. to accelerate them into motion. c Let's consider why the winch stopped in the rst place. b Let's assume they accelerate to vh = 1 m s and then rise steadily the rest of the way. 196 Watts = 1:6 hp: 10 Recall that 1 horsepower is equal to 746 Watts. I would go for iii. Note that we do not consider the the force of tension on the two beams from the support cables. the winch is based on some funky technology that I know nothing about that gives out at exactly the right moment in the script. the drop in tension itself would not have been correlated with the moment when the motor became operative. 2 1 a vo 2 = vo d = 2 11 a 2a 2 v0 2 a = 2 12 d = 5:8 m=s . Why not? The forces acting on the end of beam 1 due to the cable and the weight of gravity are shown in b.a) b) Cable Tension mcg m2g m1g m1g θ1 Beam 1 Figure 1: The forces acting on the two beams around the point at shich they are connected to the vertical support are shown in a. Scenario ii is plausible. There are only a few likely scenarios given that it wasn't really broken: i. which is P = mB + mV  g 9 = 1. motor overheated or otherwise failed. then the time required to decelerate is t = vo =a. with deceleration a. 8 where g is our faithful acceleration due to gravity at Earth's surface. This is an approximation. 931 Joules. as brakes usually fade as they heat up. a We can safely assume that Sven and the pulpwood are going to decelerate uniformly. That's a pretty hefty little motor he has there. Thus. Of course. The fact that it continued to operate and yank Vicky up when Batman let go and the tension dropped indicates that i is unlikely. 3. If v0 = 120 km h is Sven's initial speed. The power expended ignorning the power required for acceleration is just the force  velocity. This is equal to W = h mB + mV  g = 17. 2 . as the power level required to haul Vicky up would be less than that required to haul both of them up. but we have to start from somewhere. and it isn't such a bad assumption. Hollywood rarely cares about conforming to reality. the energy source couldn't continue to supply the needed power.

2. The braking force Fb is shown. Fp = Fb sin . which is over half a g. b The force diagram on the trailer is shown in Fig. That's real heavy braking. along with the component of that force perpendicular to the axis of the trailer. I'm guessing Sven ended up with the meat.Fb θ Tractor Unit Trailer Figure 2: The braking force acting on the trailer.

where ..

There is one other force in the problem. the reaction force of the pavement acting on the trailer through its tires to keep the angle . is the angle between the axis of the trailer and the braking force.

the maximum angle between the trailer and tractor unit is given by the requirement Ff = Fp  s mt g  2 = mt a sin . which we approximate as half the total trailer weight mt . constant note that it is not shown in Fig. 2. Since the braking force is Fb = mt a. The maximum frictional force is Ff = s mw g. 13 where mw is the weight of the trailer resting on the back axle. This reaction force would normally be equal to Fp . so that there is no increase in angular momentum of the trailer note that the trailer is swinging in uniform motion as it turns the corner.

sg  .

1  2a = 9:7 : 14 15 16 Not a big angle in this case. Since a mil is 1000 A= . Note that it matters not a whit what the trailer weighs. = sin. 1 inch. the cross-sectional area of the conductor is: 4.

0:0808 in .

1 = 1:59 V: 3 .2 = 1:04  10.6 m2: 2 1 in The current density therefore is: I = 20 A = 6:04  106 A  m.2 m 2 = 3:31  10. 2:54  10.1: E = J = 56::804  107 .1 V  m.1 The voltage drop is given by: V = E` = 1:04  10.150 ft12 in  ft.6 The electric eld intensity is:  106 A  m.1 V  m.10:0254 m  in.2: J=A 3:31  10.1  m.

5.1  s.2 : R= V = I 20 A Since = .f. v u f which yields a distance of: v = uuf .1 Since J = U . The image distance.1 = 1:81  1010 C  m. where is the charge density: 8  107 .4 m  s. an electron will require approximately 30 seconds to move a distance of 1 cm in the 12 copper conductor. v. can be calculated from the lens makers' equation: 1 + 1 = 1.1  m. where U is the drift velocity: 6:04  106 A  m. where .1 : U=J =1 :81  1010 C  m.3: =  = 05::0032 m2  V.1:59 V = 7:95  10.3 With the above drift velocity. 22 . where f is the focal length and u is the object distance.2 = 3:34  10.

is the limiting angle of resolution. and The Rayleigh criterion.  is the wavelength. .

can be used to calculate the blur diameter: v d = . = 1:D D is the diameter of the aperture.

we end up with D = 3:2 mm.v = 1:22 D : The defocus blur is calculated by similar triangles as: d = v . a The digital logic function is an OR expression encompassing the combinations that lead to a correct process. b Operating on the second term of the above expression with one of DeMorgan's laws of Boolean +B   gives: algebra A  B = A X = A  C  S + A + C + S + C: Applying the redundancy law of Boolean algebra A + A  B = A yields: X = C + A  C  S  + A + C + S = C + A + C + S: The simpli ed circuit is sketched in Fig.ff D : Equating the di raction blur and the defocussing blur gives: s :22vf = p1:22u: D= 1 v . namely: C S  + C: X = AC S +A The circuit is sketched in Fig. 6. 4 The resistance is given by: . 3b. f  For  = 550 nm and u = 15 m. 3a.

5 .a) A C S A•C•S x A•C•S b) A C S A+C+S x Figure 3: The circuit to handle the logic of the starship Compromise transporter control logic is shown in a. A simpli ed circuit is shown in b.

Figure 1: Figure for Problem 1. 3 .

4 .Figure 2: Figure for Problem 2.

5 .Figure 3: Figure for Problem 3.

l0  = mg + kl=l0 h .1995-1996 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program Solution Set 2: Mechanics University of Toronto 1. h = 60 m. 2h 1 + mg kl l + h = 0: Solving for l0 then. it is obvious that L0 cos = L cos . k = 77 kg s2. using energy conservation mgh 0 02 = 1 2 k h .e. v = 0. l is the length of the cord. F = Y l A l F =  Y lA l = kl. Note: In order for l0 to be physical. it must be 0 l0  30 m. l0 = h  r 2 ! mg mg 1 + kl  1 + kl . l0 = 21:4 m. Thus. one gets the only physical solution. Since Y and A are constants.e. l  where h is the initial vertical distance. 1 Using g = 9:8 m s2 . This can be rearranged as a quadratic equation in l0 . where h is the vertical distance of the jumper from the ground. Y is Young's Modulus. l is the change in the length of the cord. l  0 02 = 1 2 kl=l h . b The force exerted on the agpole at h = 0 is: F = mg + k0 h . l0 : The torque exerted on the agpole around the pivot point P is = FL0 cos : But from Figure 1. At h = 0 the velocity of the jumper has to be zero. 0 2 l0 2 . m = 55 kg. and k is the elastic constant of the cord. i. a Assume that the bungee cord obeys Hooke's law. and l = 30 m. where A is the cross section of the elastic cord. kl is constant. i. kl = k0l0 .

. Thus = FL cos .

1 .: The maximum torque the bolt has to withstand is = bT.

Thus equating the above two equations.L F L’ θ T φ P b Figure 1: Figure for problem 1 where b is the distance between P and the bolt and T is the tensile strength times the cross section of the bolt. T = FL cos .

Thus the rotation is clockwise Figure 2a and the centre of mass moves to the direction of the pull. Rotation around a xed axis passing throughP is determined by the torque about that axis.=b = 55  9:8 + 77  30=21:4  60 . the bottom point P of the yoyo has zero instantaneous velocity. a When rolling without slipping. b In order for the yoyo to stand still. 21:4  L=0:5 m  kg s2 = 1:16  104  L m  kg s: 2. the net torque of the system should be zero about the contact point P Figure 2 b. but only F has non vanishing torque. Thus mgb sin .

a. = F b . Then b mg sin .

the sum of the torques around the pivot point P 0.: F = b . tot is = 0 = 1+ 2 = mga sin . a When the yoyo is about to slip.

. a cos . mgb .

where 1 is the torque due to the centre of mass of the yoyo being pulled down by the gravitational force and 2 is the torque due to the friction between the yoyo and the inclined surface.. tot 2 .

F P (a) a b F P’ P θ (b) Figure 2: Figure for problem 2 3 .

Thus a sin .

 = b . a cos .

a = b . a tan .

. 3.. Not that it would have made any di erence in solving this problem. a From energy conservation the energy at h = R + a cos .: Note: The moment of inertia of a cylinder whose rotational axis is perpendicular to the at surface of the cylinder and lies a distance a away from the centre is IR = IM + Ma2 . There was a typo in the problem set.

cos . is 1 2 2 mgR + a1 .

= 1 2 mv + 2 I!sph 1 2 2 = 1 2 mv + 5 mv 7 mv2 = 10 where we used Isph = 2=5ma2 and v = a!sph . Note: The trajectory of the centre of mass of the marble rolled to an angle .

from the top of the bowl is a + R.

Figure 3 a. And R.

one gets a + R. = a . Combining these equations.

= a.

+ Ra=R = a.

+  = a.

sph . which means v = a + R!.

= a!.

+ !  = a!sph . For a marble about to take o from the surface of the bowl the force perpendicular to the surface of the bowl has the same magnitude as the centripetal force on the marble. mg cos . Thus.

cos . = mv2 =a + R: From the above two equations 1 .

= 7=10 cos .

Solving for cos

gives cos

= 10=17. Thus the marble leaves the surface of the bowl at the height of hc = R cos

= 10=17R or hc = 10=17R + a, depending on what your de nition of hc is. b For a rolling pendulum" due to the lack of a better name the potential energy has to be distributed between the rotational motion of the marble and the translational motion, whereas the simple pendulum" potential energy is converted only to the translational motion. Therefore, the simple pendulum has a higher translational speed than the rolling pendulum at the same angle, i.e. it takes more time for the rolling pendulum to complete an oscillation than the the simple pendulum. Brownie points: 4

a

θ

φ

mg mg R (a) to the centre of the bowl

h (b)

Figure 3: Figure for problem 3 5

For a simple pendulum, the energy conservation equation at h looks like 1 mv 2 mgh , h = 2 s . Then p vs = 2gh , h , where h is the release height of the pendulum. For a rolling pendulum, 1 2 2 mv mgh , h = 1 r + I!r 2 2 7 2 = 10 mvr . p p Thus vr =vs = 5=7 for any given height. Which means Ts =Tr = vr =vs = 5=7 4. a The surface of the liquid is perpendicular to the direction of the sum of the forces exerted, centripetal force and gravitational force Figure 4. Thus . The liquid touches the rim of the the cup when tan

sati es the following equation: 2 H , h  tan

= d . Using the above two equations, one can obtain 2gr H , h  r d :8  30 0:15 , 0:12 = 29 0:08 = 14:8 m s: b When the inside wheels of the car are about to leave the ground provided that the car does not slip: W F = hF l 2 d where W = the track width of the car or the width of the car for our purpose; Fd = downward force; h = the height of the centre of mass of the car; and Fl = lateral force: v = 6
r
2 tan

= v g=r

vr = 10=7gh , h

p

i.e.

θ Fl H ho mg θ

d

Figure 4: Figure for problem 4 The downward force is the sum of the gravitational force and the force generated by the aerodynamic device, i.e. Fd = mg + cv. Here c has units of N km hr. Converting it into MKS units, it becomes N km hr = N 1000 m 3600 s = 3:6 N m s. The lateral force is centripetal force, 2 i.e. Fl = mv =r . Rearrange it as a quadratic equation in v: Solving for v c rW v2 , rW 2h m v , 2h g = 0: 2 + 4ag v = ac=m + ac=m 2
p

, where a = rW=2h. Using r = 30 m, W = 2 m, h = 0:4 m, m = 1500 kg, and c = 150  3:6 N m s = 540 N m s, one gets vr = 43:8 m s: However, if mg + cv = mv2 =r, the car is about to slide. Rearrange it as a quadratic equation in v: v2 , rc m v , rg = 0: Solving for v Using  = 0:23 one gets 2 + 4bg : v = bc=m + bc=m 2 7
p

vs = 9:6 m s: Since vr vs , the car will slide before it lifts its inside wheels. Thus the maximum speed you can go through the turn is at 9:6 m s. 5. a For a satellite on a circular orbit of radius r, mv2 = GMm r r2 and p v = GM=r: The velocity of the satellite at the parking orbit h = 200 km is then vp = 7:772  103 m s, where G = 6:673  10,11m3kg,1 s,2 and M = 5:974  1024kg are used. The angular velocity of the satellite on the geosynchronous orbit is ! = 2=24  3600 s = 7:272  10,5 s,1: The radius of the geosynchronous orbit, rg , can be obtained from the rst equation using v = r!, rg
1=3 GM = !2 = 4:224  107 m:

Thus the velocity of the satellite on the the geosynchronous orbit is vg = rg ! = 3:072  103 m s. From energy conservation 1 mv , GMm = 1 mv , GMm ; 2 pt rp 2 gt rg where vpt = The velocity at the perigee of the transfer orbit; vgt = The velocity at the apogee of the transfer orbit; rp = The distance of the perigee from the centre of the earth = The radius of the parking orbit; and ra = The distance of the apogee from the centre of the earth = rg : From angular momentum conservation , and at the perigee and the apogee, ~ r and ~ v are perpendicular to each other, so rp vpt = ra vat 8 ~ rp  ~ vpt = ~ ra  ~ vat

or vat = rp =ra vpt : Thus the energy conservation equation now looks like 1 mv2 1 , rp 2 pt ra giving vpt 

2!

rp = GMm ra 1 , ra

1=2 2 GM = r 1 + r =r  a p a = 1:022  105 m s:

So vpt , vp = 2:248  103 m s. The velocity at the apogee of the transfer orbit is then rp v ra pt = 1:597  103 m s: Thus the velocity change the satellite has to achieve in order to get into the geosynchronous orbit from the transfer orbit at the perigee of the transfer orbit is vg , vat = 1:475  103 m s. b The transition takes half the time for the satellite to complete the elliptical orbit. So using the Kepler's law vat = T1=2 = T 2

2 3 1=2 4   r 1 p + ra =2 = 2 GM

The possible physical e ects are i.3  g. Coriolis force. Relativistic e ect time dilation. Decrease of gravitational force due to the increase in r. = 1:900  104 sec ' 5 hrs 17 min It takes 5 hours and 17 minutes to complete the transition. iii. 4 T is T ' l=g . The change in p p h is g = g . The speed of the east bound plane that Chris is on from the xed reference frame pis v = =12  36006:4106 ' 460 m s. g . t = = 1 . mv =r. v=c2 . But it a ects the same way regardless of the direction of the ight. v2 =c2 . Centripetal force.11T  10. Thus the change in the graviational acceleration at an altitude 1p . l=g ' 1:6  10 l=g. p iv. 6. silly. a Of course not.7 sec : 9 . R=R + h2  = 3:1  10. where l is the length of the pendulum. Relativistic e ects are then on the order of T  T 1= 1 . International ight normally ies at an altitude of about 10 km. etc. 1  10. 2m~ ! ~ v 2 ii.

their angular momentum vectors ~ ! are per~ . and if we replace 2 geff = GM R2 . Thus j~ ~ j = j!2 Rj. ! R GM R2 . ~ Since Pat and Chris are moving along the equator. Then the e ective gravitational acceleration looks pendicular to R !  ~ !R like .b If we use the inertial system with the origin of the coordinates sitting at the centre of the earth as the reference system. the Coriolis force vanishes in this system. GM R2 R . The e ective gravitational acceleration at the earth's surface for an object with angular velocity ~ ! against an inertial system is ^ !  ~ ~ : !R ~ geff = .

with g geff = g . Thus TChris = 2 g . 3!2 R=g s 1 = T 1 . the angular velocity is zero. !2 R: The period of a simple pendulum with the length of the pendulum L is T = 2 L g: Since Pat is moving westward. Thus L TP at = 2 g = 2 g +L !2 R s s 1 = 2 L g 1 + !2 R=g s 1 : = T 1+! 2 R=g Whereas. 3! 2R=g : 10 s s s s . so the angular velocity of Chris is 2!. Chris is moving eastward. L 3!2R s s 1 = 2 L g 1 .L 4!2 R s = 2 g .

TChris . TP at = T s s ! .

11 . 2 1 1 2! R . = T 2 2 1 . Pat's clock goes faster than Chris' clock. 3! R=g 1 + ! R=g g Using g = g . TP at 0. R = 6:4  103 km. !2 = 9:8 m s2. T = 12 hrs. and ! = 2=T one gets TChris . TP at ' 298 seconds : Since TChris . Pat's clock would be 75 seconds faster and Chris' clock would be 224 seconds slower than the local clock at Y.

" 5. a long waited Mercury probe spacecraft. The expansion on freezing raises the weight. 2 . has a 3 m diameter. which in turn implies that this engine can run forever. e The temperature is returned to the initial value and the ice melts. which implies that this heat engine can operate at a single temperature. project. : Tout Tin a What's the maximum coe ciency of performance of the cooling system? b What's the minimum power requirement for the cooling system? c The coe cient of performance of the cooling system onboard the vehicle is rated at 0. The radius of the sun is 6 96  105 km and the temperature on the surface is 6000 K. You are a member of a team developing an autonomous volcano exploring vehicle. Note: The average radius of the orbit of mercury is 5 79  106 km. What is the minimum energy requirement for the dedicated power source of the cooling system? 6. Figure ?? shows the sequence of how the engine works. The electronics bay of the vehicle is insulated and should be maintained at 30 C. You are in charge of the cooling system design. Your supervisor asks you to do the following preliminary calculations. You work for CSA Canadian Space Agency and your team is involved with the Mercury Observer. : : a What would be the maximum radiation pressure that the spacecraft experiences from the sun's radiation when the spacecraft is on the mercury orbit.2 at the conditions above. c The cylinder is cooled and the water freezes. The state of the system is now identical to the initial state. you see. b What would be the surface temperature of the craft a long time after it arrives at the mercury orbit? The spacecraft is spherical in shape. What is wrong with this picture? Uncle Moe won't take answers like yeah. By the way. d The weight is moved laterally. Since ice melts and water freezes at 0 C. that's why. The ambient temperature of the volcano is 530 C. the volume it occupies increases. b A weight is placed on the piston. you cannot violate the second law of thermodynamics. a Initial state: water is con ned in a cylinder with a piston and under 1 atm. Now you know that there is no such thing as perpetual motion machine".  W. doing work. The electronics in the bay produces heat at a rate of 720 W-h and the the heat ow rate into the bay through insulation is 0 002   . No work is done in moving the weight laterally. Now here is a heat engine to exploit that. and its cooling system expels 4 W from the interior to the exterior of the spacecraft. the funding for the project was approved on the condition that the spacecraft be painted black bureaucracy. The typical mission lasts about 100 hours.You know when water turns into ice.

3 .Figure 1: Figure for Problem 4.

589 nm yellow and 656 nm red. You place two small loudspeakers facing each other at the two ends of a 5. a Could Christie hear the concert? b Albion.. these Lilliputs have high pitch. They are afraid that this former famous hockey player will commit suicide. you are not kids anymore but you need to guess what colour a bubble of 400 nm thickness appears to be. He just cannot believe it. The speed of sound is 344 m s. Need some hints? Alright. He placed them 8.. one of the two speakers was destroyed. So you perform experiments using both and you nally agree with him. you decide to study more about loudspeakers. Can you help him understand what was going on? Assume the average frequency is 690 Hz being tiny. Ok. Why is your professor right? To support your arguments compare your calculations for both prism and di raction grating for a source light which emits 434 nm blue..17 m from the midst of the both. you are sceptical .1995-1996 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program University of Toronto Problem Set 4: Wave and Optics Due January 22th ..0m-bench. Your professor told you that di raction gratings are better than prisms for atomic and molecular spectroscopy.644.0 m away from each speaker. The closest audience member. 486 green blue. Learning from Donald Armen's story Problem 1. . a What is the wavelengh of the sirens in the air between O'Samson and his chasers? b What frequency does he actually hear? The speed of sound is 344 m s. 1. 1996 1. He bought a new speaker to increase the loudness of this mono sound system to the one he had. Both sounds are at 1334 Hz and are in phase at the speakers. Christie. Where did he stand? c This ction is far from reality.664. respectively or 9. Take the indices of refraction of heavy int prisms n = 1. It seems that 3000-Hz sirens from the police car do not bother him much. and 1. The angle of the prism is A = 60o and the di raction grating has 8000 lines per centimeter. 1. was among the ones who got angry and destroyed the speaker.675. Explain! 2. A group of police cars moving at 80 km hr are chasing O'Samson's white Bronco.650.00 m apart. respectively. which is travelling at the same speed. He just barely listen to the concert. Donald Armen is still puzzled by the complaints from the rock fans. The rst loudspeaker emits a sound of pressure amplitude twice as much as the second one. a At what point on the line joining the two speakers is the intensity a minimum? b What is the intensity compared to one from the second speaker alone? c At what other points on the line joining the speakers will destructive interference occur? d At what point on the line joining the speakers is the intensity a maximum? e Express the maximum intensity terms of the intensity from the second speaker! 4. Kids love to play with soap bubbles and are always fascinated by them. which correspond to the wavelengths above. was 10. 5. In fact. a What colours do not appear in the re ected light? .. You don't believe it. 3. As a physics-illiterate rock concert organizer on Lilliput island remember Gulliver's Travels. standing on Christie's left.

Ok.36. 6. let us have a break now with a few small questions.b For what colours does constructive interference occur? c So the colour of the soap bubble is predominantly . The index of refraction of the soap lm is 1. .. Why is this so? b You are able to nd a very sharp focal length of a crystal ball.. a Most large astronomical telescopes in use today are re ectors rather than refractors. Right or wrong? Explain..

6. However. can travel in vacuum. you can also use a muon which is heavier by a factor of 207. which is electromagnetic wave. and emit a positron and a neutrino. a You have been told that wave requires a medium to propagate like sound requires air. What is the total kinetic energy of the system now? Of course. Here are a few questions that do not require any calculations. say E . like other waves. too. light.b Instead of an electron. instead of DC-. can transmit energy from one place to another. the story does not end here because the two protons will transform into a deuteron. power in the houses and buildings? . How do you explain this phenomenon? b Electromagnetic wave. How much momentum does it transmit if it can? c Why do we all have an AC-. This heaviness makes the distance between the protons smaller by a factor of 207. NOTE: This minimal distance between the protons is determined by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics.

the data words on a CD are 16 bits long. Her boss wanted it put on the market immediately.1 kHz. Let me tell you about a nightmare I once had.1 kHz. c What is the maximum possible dynamic range in decibels? d What is the data density in bytes m2 on a CD if the angular speed is 500 rpm when the laser pickup is at the innermost point and 200 rpm when it's at the outermost point.1995-1996 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program University of Toronto Problem Set 6: Electronics Due March 18th. handed me a circuit breadboard and a baggy containing half a dozen NOR gates. using all the given gates? Of course. she dreamed up the 5=2 kHz circuit shown in Figure 2. b How do you think this con guration could be useful? 1 . which are rooted in the fact that the standard was established way back in the late 70s. R2. Metallica. so that vd  0 and v1  v2 . and AOL v vd the open loop voltage gain. It was a dark and stormy night and I had somehow become trapped in a dripping dungeon guarded by a band of simian subterranean gypsies. Whether you're taking in tunage from O spring. that a CD plays for 74 minutes. this little gem will most likely come into play oops. in terms of R1. CDs are here to stay for a while. It is a little known fact that Gill spent her teen-age summer months designing power supplies for a small Ontario electronics rm. a Give a truth table for this logic circuit. the creator of ScreenDoors 96 a soon-to-be popular operating system. 5. and asked her to write a speci cation sheet for it. 1996 1. including the magnitude and phase of a the open circuit voltage across the terminals AB and b the driving point impedance at AB with the internal voltage source set to zero. with their glittering colours and cute size? In the early 80s they were heralded as the perfect sound" medium. Av = v v2 . and the nominal frequency limits of human hearing are 20 Hz to 20 kHz. The circuit in Figure 1 is one that you can't easily escape from. 2. One year. could form the basis of many POPTOR problems. First of all. and that there's no data redundancy or error-checking information. Their leader. b Assume that iin is zero. anyway. The digital sampling rate is 44. or a Bach fugue for harpsichord. The shortcomings of the CD format. Rd the e ective 0 resistance between the +" and -" terminals. I then awoke in a cold sweat and realized how stupid I and Murd's band for that matter had been. 0 a Find an exact expression for the voltage gain ratio. Solve for these quantities and you too may be a billionaire someday. then I would be free to leave his dungeon. Gill Bates is the billionaire founder of Sicromoft Corp. How did I do it in my dream. It's a wait for it noninverting operational ampli er circuit. so let's be positive and examine the medium a little. Derive an expression for the voltage gain ratio for this simpli ed case. a How many di erent levels of sound pressure can be represented with this medium? b Discuss why the digital sampling rate was chosen to be 44. He told me that if I could realize the logic function f = A  B + A  B using the devices provided. 3. Aren't CDs just too cool. no pun intended.. Why? 4. The con guration in Figure 3 contains two AND gates and two NOR gates. Murd. The input marked CLK is connected to a square wave generator that oscillates between the 1" and 0" logic states. Assume the outer diameter to be 120 mm. and thanks to the power of advertising many folks still think this to be true.

2 .+ V +d + iin R2 + V 2 + V1 - Vo i R1 - Figure 1: The noninverting op-amp circuit in Problem 1.

3 .8mH 30 12mH Figure 2: Gill's circuit in Problem 2.21 5 kHz 2 A B 50 12 4.

4 .R CLK S Q Q Figure 3: The digital circuit in Problem 5.

but has an amplitude that is 20 less than the input amplitude. She tells you that the resistance between terminals B and C is equal to the resistance between terminals C and D. the output voltage amplitude is attenuated symmetrically about fo . C and D. She also informs you that. is varied either higher or lower. f . roughly as a function of 1= jf . when a sinusoidal voltage with a frequency fo is applied across A and B. and two outputs. and that there is negligible resistance between terminals B and D. why not? 6.c Can Figure 3 be replaced by a system of NAND gates? If so. A and B. What does the circuit inside the black box look like and what can you say about the values of the devices inside? Note: You may assume that there's no active electronics inside only passive devices are used. Your fairy godmother gives you a black box with four terminals on it two inputs. fo j. the output voltage across C and D is also sinusoidal. If the input frequency. 5 . how? If not.

a The feedback voltage. AR R A OL d OL b If iin = 0. i + iin R2: Since i = v1 =R1 and iin = vd =Rd = v0 =AOL Rd:   R2=AOL Rd v : v1 = 1 . R2 R1 and 0  v0 = 1 + R2 : Av v v2 v1 R1 2. The equivalent impedance at terminals AB with the source set equal to zero is: v2 = v1 . where R is the resistance. OL Combining and rearranging the above expressions gives: R1 + R2 0 Av = v : 1 R2 . can be written as: v1 = v0 . v2 = Av0 .e. The quantity XL = !L is called the inductive reactance. Av0 : OL Z0 = . ! is the angular frequency. the voltage at the -" terminal of the op amp. The impedance of a resistor and inductor in series is given by the complex expression Z = R + i!L. Gill's circuit is a Bridge circuit and the problem is solved by calculating the Thevenin equivalent voltage and impedance.1995-1996 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program Solution Set 6: Electronics University of Toronto 1. and L is the impedance. 0 1 + R2=R1 But or vd = v1 . then the currents through R2 and R1 are equivalent and: v0 . i. R1 +R2 v2 = R1 . v1 = v1 .

.1 .

the current on the left side of the bridge is: V I1 = 21 + 12 +20 i5 kHz  4:8 mH . 12 + i5 kHz  4:8 mH + 21 which simpli es to: Z 0 = 47:3 at 26:8 : With the circuit open at AB . . 1 .1 1 1 1 1 + 30 + i5 kHz  12 mH + 50 .

and the data word length for a single sample is 16 bits. Sven Nyquist. 3. insists that we design a logic circuit using NOR gates. things here didn't proceed optimally. The function. a Since levels of sound pressure. and of any frequencies below that point. I2 30 + i5 kHz  12 mH: Substituting and simplifying gives: V 0 = 329 mV at 170:5 : B . 536 levels: b The Danish mathematician. Just like in many other nightmares. proved what is now called Nyquist's Theorem. f = AB +A can be simpli ed to B . 4. so here goes. or intensity. f = A and: +B   + A + B  : f = A Therefore: +B   + A + B  : f = A The circuit of NOR gates is given in Figure 1.   B . the number of levels of sound pressure is: 216 = 65. The question. f = A  B   A and: +B    A + B  . Since any waveform can be decomposed into a superposition of sinusoidal waves. then: Since f = A  B + A   B: f = A  B + A B  . which states that a sampling rate of at least double the highest recorded frequency is required for the reproduction of sine waves of the highest recorded frequency. however. and A  B = A +B   gives: Applying deMorgan's Laws A + B = A   B . 2 . the sampling rate for frequencies detectable by the human ear needs to be at least 40 kHz 2 20 kHz.and the current on the right side of the bridge is: 20 V I2 = 50 + 30 + i5 kHz  12 mH : If we assume that point A is at a higher potential than point B . then we have: V 0 = VAB = I1 12 + i5 kHz  4:8 mH . are related to signal voltage levels in the electronics. so no NOR gates are needed and the output can simply be wired to the input B .

3 .A B f Figure 1: The NOR gate con guration in Problem 3.

We know that CDs o er 65. c The dynamic range of CDs is nominally said to be at least 90 dB. and thus. the stylus spirals along a groove from the outer radius to the inner one while the turntable rotates at a xed angular velocity. since P = V 2 =R V is voltage and R is resistance.op in Problem 5. In this case. is de ned as 10 log10 P P1 . 2 The decibel. 536 = 10 d For vinyl long playing records. the laser pickup instead tracks a spiral from the inside radius to the outer one.S 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 R CLK Q Q 0 0 Q Q 0 1 Q Q 1 0 Q Q 1 1 0 1 0 0 Q Q 0 1 1 0 1 0 Q Q 1 1 ? ? Table 1: The truth table for the gated R-S ip. The linear relative speed at the outer radius is: . and the disc is rotated with a variable angular velocity to provide a constant linear speed di erence between the pickup and the track for any given radius on the disc.536 voltage levels. when used to compare two power levels. the decibel is a logarithmic measure of the relative highest and lowest power levels possible with the CD format. where P represents power. For CDs. the maximum dynamic range is: : 96:3 dB: 20 log 65.

we can calculate the active area of a CD as:  60 mm2 .3 m2 5. 4 . 120 mm 200 rpm = 12 m=s: 2 Equating this with the linear relative speed where the magnitude of the angular velocity is 500 rpm gives an inner radius of 24 mm.  . which is a gated R-S ip. 24 mm2 = 9:5  10. a The truth table for this sequential logic circuit.3 m2: The storage capacity is approximated by using the maximum playtime and the digital sampling rate: 74 min60 sec=min44:1  103 words=sec2 bytes=word = 3:92  108 bytes: The data density is therefore: 3:92  108 bytes = 4:1  1010 bytes=m2 : 9:5  10. is given in Table 1. b The principle of this R-S ip. c Refer to Figure 2 for an equivalent con guration made up of NAND gates. Now that we have the inner and outer radii.op.op can be used to store information in a clocked computer memory register.

R CLK S Q Q Figure 2: The NAND gate equivalent to Problem 5. 5 .

Combining the the given attenuation and interterminal resistance information suggests that there's a passive bandpass lter in the black box. At resonance: Vout = 80 = p R : Vin R2 + r2 The relationship between r and R is therefore: r = 0:75R: 6 .6. fo . where Z is the impedance. The ratio of the output over input voltage amplitudes is therefore given by: Vout = r Vin R : 2 1 2fL2 + r2 . Refer to Figure 3 to see the circuit. 2fC + R2 1: fo = 21  LC r The resonant frequency from the above equation. Since we're only concerned with amplitudes here we can ignore the phase. we can deal with the equation V = I jZ j. is calculated to be: We know that the resistance r exists because of the nonzero attenuation 20 at the resonance frequency fo .

7 .L A r C C R B D Figure 3: The passive LRC circuit in the black box of Problem 6.

traveling at v0 = 500 m/s.e. testing out its new cloaking mechanism. parallel to the window) Daniel must move to target Yiorgos? (Remember that for physicists. The invisible gas ﬁlls the room. The apple reaches the ground at a distance of s = 10 m.8×1026 W of power .2 kg rests on fence post of height h = 3 m.) (b) Daniel. (a) Assuming the ship has a cross-sectional area facing the sun of 20 000 m2 and knowing that the sun produces 3. what is the energy the Stealth absorbs after being cloaked for ten minutes? (b) Assume that the energy the ship radiates is negligible. Daniel is trying to target his pal Yiorgos with his laser beam. What went wrong? 2.teX?. passes horizontally through the centre of the fruit. and similar adjectives generally mean ’negligible’. Daniel (from his sonar display) knows that Yiorgos is hiding in the next room separated from him by an opaque wall and a thin window. ’small’. 1 . Where does the bullet land? What part of the kinetic energy of the bullet was lost as heat when the arrow passes through the apple? 3. What will be the temperature after the ten minute test period? Assume that all the absorbed energy is going into heat. Suddenly he gets a great idea! He pulls a Gas-Bomb from his belt and pulls the trigger.aux teX?. and the average speciﬁc heat of the Stealth and its crew is 2 J/g◦ C. slowing the speed of light to one half of its normal value in air. While playing a game of Laser-TagTM . The cloaking device makes the ship perfectly absorbing of all electromagnetic radiation. Before the test period. 1996 1.5×108 km). Daniel wants to ﬁre at Yiorgos. the average temperature in the Stealth is 18 ◦ C. The prototype spaceship Stealth (mass: 250 000 kg) is in a solar orbit(r=1. delighted with his ingenuity. but he can’t aim without exposing himself. Figure 1: For problem 1 (a) What is the smallest lateral distance (i.aux 1996-1997 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program – University of Toronto – Problem Set 1: General Due November 1st . ’minuscule’. ’thin’. A bullet with mass m = 10 g. He is surprised to see the beam exit the window and continue straight. moves this distance and ﬁres his laser gun through the window. An Ontario apple of mass M = 0.

67×10−8 Wm−2 K−4 ). To determine what it is. Is the answer unique? 5. In her laboratory. ﬁnds out that the resistances across AB . He is told that the box contains three resistors and. phasers on “kill” will automatically wipe him out. He’s under a little stress. What is the peak wavelength of the spectrum that the ship emits? 4. what will be its ﬁnal temperature if the ship stays cloaked? (you might want to use Stefan’s constant: σ =5.(c) In reality the ship does radiate energy. using an ohm-meter. Find the resistances. He is asked to describe the conﬁguration and values of resistances in the box. Starting a 0 V. 2 . Wesley (of Star Trek: Next Generations fame) is given a box with three electric terminals protruding from it labelled A. she applies diﬀerent voltages across the leads and measures the following current going through the device: Figure 2: Device for problem 5 (a) What is the eﬀective resistance of the device at 10V? at 4V? (b) Marie-Eve then uses the unknown device in the following simple circuit: Figure 3: Circuit for problem 5 Using the I-V graph. knowing that if he gives the wrong answer. AC . and C . circle the point (or points) that represents the voltage and current that could be passing through the unknown component in the above circuit. she increases the power supply voltage to 15 V and then decreases it slowly back to 0 V. and BC are exactly 8 Ω each. Marie-Eve ﬁnds an unknown component with two electrical leads. B . (c) Marie Eve replaces the 10V supply with a variable power supply and an ammeter (current measuring device with negligible resistance). Roughly sketch a graph of the current she would observe as a function of this voltage. Taking this into account.

and that the core has a static coeﬃcient of friction µs = 0. and take that the pressure plates push only on circular ends of this core with a force of 13 N on either end.5 cm) and the motion never stops. 3 .27. it soon becomes impossible to pull the paper directly oﬀ the roll without breaking. If the toilet paper can be pulled oﬀ the roll without breaking at the perforations. cardboard core and rolled paper together. which press ﬂat against the ends of the cardboard core. For some roll dispensers of toilet tissue. so that the contact area changed as the roll got smaller. Presumably to interrupt such physics experiments. Figure 4: Roll dispenser for problem 6 (a) Consider a cardboard core 4 cm in diameter and with walls 1mm thick. If the paper is pulled oﬀ starting with a full roll (diameter 11.6. but as the roll becomes smaller. What length of paper remains on the roll for the critical diameter you found in (a) and (b) above? (d) Suppose that the pressure plates pushed on the whole side of the roll. manufacturers often construct the holder to have a spring-loaded pressure plate at either end of the holder. it is possible to drag the end of the roll over and ﬂush the entire roll down the loo like spaghetti. How might the whole problem be changed? Assume you can use the same static coeﬃcient of friction µs . The friction is enough to keep the paper from spinning oﬀ the roll. Empirical studies (!) show that most toilet paper segments will burst at the perforations for a typical tension of T = 3.18. what now will be the diameter of the roll of paper at the point where the paper tears? (c) Take that the paper on the roll wraps at 10 layers per millimetre.5N . what is the minimum diameter of the toilet paper for this to be possible? (b) The kinetic coeﬃcient of friction µk is measured to be 0. with the tissue spinning freely oﬀ the roll.

and as such the light that reaches his eye will follow a similar path as the laser beam. along nearly the same path. Daniel will aim to hit the very edge of the window. if it was physically possible.) b) Nothing went wrong.) .PROBLEM SET #1 Ð GENERAL 1. As you can see from the solution. but backwards. For minimum x. Daniel sees his laser beam due to light scattering back to him from dust or other particles in the air. LaserÐTag This is a standard refraction-type question. will also obey SnellÕs law. Therefore. higher) refractive index than air.e. none of these were necessary. the laser beam will ÔbendÕ around the corner. got part-marks for your efforts. if Daniel was looking along the beam with the lasergun held high to aim. Let x be the minimum distance Daniel must move to target Yiorgos. ni = 2nr sinθr = Also sinθi = x x2Ê+Ê22   √ = nrÊ = x x2Ê+Ê4   √ 4 17 √  4 4 17 √    √ 42Ê+Ê12 = ∴ 2n r x x2Ê+Ê4 √  17x2 = 4 (x2 + 4) 13x2 = 16 x = 1.1 m to the right to target Yiorgos. and. where will the beam hit the window). Since Daniel is in a medium with a different (i. Daniel must move at least 1.1 m (Negative root extraneous). (Many of you came up with ingenious ways that would result in the laser beam not bending.e. (Common error: In Snell's law. to Daniel it looks straight. From SnellÕs law n i sinθ i = nr sin θ r We know that after the Gas-Bomb is used. The only other variable to worry about is at what angle Daniel will aim (i. not the ray and the interface. the incident and refracted angle are measured between the ray and the normal to the interface. This scattered light.

Our current knowledge of physics doesnÕt allow this. Thus. in steady state. the bullet would remain inside the ball.1) Here. ∴ tfinal = (18 + 32) = 50¡C) . Thus.2 J. Both objects fall a distance h to the ground.3 × 103 W mÐ2 ¥ 20 000 m2 = 2. In a completely inelastic collision.5 × 108 g)(2 J gÐ1 ¡CÐ1)} = 32¡ C. a ÔcloakedÕ ship has to be perfectly transparent.8 m/s.2 = 1156. so its horizontal velocity is V = s/t = 12.6 × 1010 J. or.5% of the original energy). but letÕs assume the second case. absorbing all radiation that strikes it but emitting only the same radiation as the molecules it displaced would have. Stealth In the world of science-fiction.8 × 1026 W over itÕs entire sphere. Apple shoot The total momentum of the system remains constant in a collision. b) With no radiation losses: ∆t = 1. this corresponds to a flux of P/(4¹ r2) = 1. Stealth absorbs 2. At r = 1. Initially. mv 0 = mv + MV (2. the kinetic energy is conserved. the conservation of momentum equation yields v = 104 m/s for the horizontal velocity of the bullet immediately after the collision.6 × 107 W. a) We can assume that the sun radiates uniformly over a sphere. Over 10 minutes.6 × 1010 J / { (2. After the collision.6 × 107 J sÐ1 ¥ 10 min ¥ 60 s minÐ1 = 1.2. What is the energy the Stealth absorbs per second? The sun radiates P = 3. the apple covers a horizontal distance of s = 10 m.2) is lost as heat (92.8 J (2. the kinetic energy is Ef = mv2/2 + MV2/2 = 93. next-best.78 s. v is the velocity of the bullet and V that of the apple after the collison. the kinetic energy of the system is Ei = mv02/2 = 1250 J. Note that the collision is n o t completely inelastic.3 × 103 W mÐ2. ∴ Stealth absorbs a total power of 1. In a completely elastic collision. it travels a distance vt = 105 m horizontally from the column. Thus.5 × 108 km. their time of flight is t = √ 2h/g = 0.   During time t. 1250 Ð 93. Since the bulletÕs time of flight is also t. 3.

 2. (Common error: many people just plugged in the only area value they were given. It states: λmaxT = 0. Since Wesley is such a stereotypical thinker. WienÕs Displacement law is the quickest way to the answer. Using StefanÕs law: H = eσ A surf T4 (T in Kelvin). this answer is impossible. the question does not give enough information to really answer this problem. though.6×107 Ð1/4 Τ=   σAsurf  Since we do not know Asurf.c) Unfortunately. the surface area must be at least 40 000 m2. ship absorbs 1. There is no upper limit to this number.) At steady-state. you can determine the corresponding peak wavelength of the radiation distribution. 4. A ship that has a cross-sectional area of 20 000 cannot have a surface area of 20 000. Maximum for Asurf = 40 000 m2 (the minimum):  2. ∴ at steady-state 1. Tmin can approach zero K. power absorbed = power radiated. and since ship is perfectly absorbing. 4. 20 000. i.e.5 µm. 275K gives λ max = 20.1(a).6×107 Ð1/4 Τ= = 389 K = 116¡ C  σ A surf   Since Asurf can be any larger surface area.3 × 103 W mÐ2 ¥ 20 000 m2 = σAsurf T4 . Rbc and Rca shown in Fig. emissivity e = 1. not just the crosssectional area. We can make some guesses at this. A possible ship shape would be a sphere. Since the cross-sectional area =Ê20Ê000Êm2. we can determine only a rough range of T. The radius of such a sphere is πr2 = 20 000 m2 ⇒ r = 80 m Asurf = 4πr2 = 80 000 m2 giving T = 275 K → 2¡C No matter what your answer for T. WesleyÕs test A typical first guess at the contents of the black box is a triangular configuration of resistors of resistances Rab. he immediately grasps at this solution.3 × 103 W/m2. When the resistance .002898 m¥K Substitute for T (in Kelvin) and solve for wavelength in meters. We need the total surface area Asurf .

the resistance of the parallel circuit formed by resistors Rab and Rbc + Rca is 1 1  Ð1 [4. measured in terms of Rp. if Rtotal is to be 8Ω.1: Two black box circuits.3] [4.2] [4.2) and (4. (4.5] Figure 4. (a) a a (b) Ra Rab Rca c Rbc Rb b Rc c b .1). the resistances measured across terminals bc and ca are 1 1  Ð1 Rbc-total =   RbcÊ+ÊR caÊ+ÊR ab   and Rca-total respectively. From the similar equations (4.across terminals ab is measured. Since all three measurements give the same result. then Rp = 12 Ω . [4. is 2 1  Ð1 1 = 3 Rp R total =   R p Ê+Ê2R p   and so. Rab-total = Rbc-total = Rca-total .1] Rab-total =   R abÊ+ÊR caÊ+ÊRbc   Similarly.4] 1 1  Ð1 = Ê+Ê  R ca R abÊ+ÊR bc   [4.3) it can easily be shown that Rab = Rbc = Rca ≡ Rp The total resistance for each pair of terminals.

2. The resistors are connected together and to each terminal is associated a single resistor named R a . As above. But this is not a linear device. PS#1. b) We do not know the voltage drop across either component or the current. Even if you have no calculus experience. When the device is linear. Would you have been able to confidently answer this question? 5. if the configuration above were the only solution the answer would certainly be yes. At both these points. In this circuit. R = V / I.Is the answer unique? This is the tough part of the problem (assuming you got past the ÔguessingÕ part). However. Thus we can find a solution(s). there is another possibility. V vs. Too bad. Wesley. i. immediately thought that the answer was unique. you can find an intuitive solution for VÊ=Ê10 V and V = 4 V.. so this relationship is not useful. So we have 4 equations with 4 unknowns. VR : V? : iR : i?: Right away. bc. Start by listing the unknowns. so this definition comes back to R=V/I then. an increase or decrease in voltage corresponds to no change in current. Nonlinear electronics a) For a linear device.1(b). . Well. Reff is huge. and ca must require Ra = Rb = Rc = Rs and for Rtotal = 8 Ω. the local rate of change of voltage with current Ñ the slope of the tangent. that impetuous fellow. approaches ° . which is shown in Fig. Shows that one should put oneÕs mind into gear before thinking. A more general definition is R effective = dV/dI. Rs = 4 Ω. and Rc . Rb . I is a straight line through the origin.e. it can be shown that equal measurements across ab. 4. a measurement across terminals ab will give the resistance of the series circuit formed by Ra and Rb. we know Voltage accross resistor Voltage across unknown device Current through resistor Current through unknown device the current flows through one then the other i R = I? V R + V? = 10 Volts V R = iR ¥ R the resistor is a linear device I? = F (V?) where F() is the function shown in fig.

Since we assume there is no noise in the system. the operating point moves up the curve: .Start with V R = iR R but VR = 10 Ð V? ∴ 10 Ð V ? = iR R but iR = I? ∴ 10 Ð V ? = I? R ⇒ i? = Ð V?/R + 10/R Now we have 2 equations with 2 unknowns. c) At V = 0 V Current (mA) 25 Voltage (V 10 i?=-v?/R+0/R This line moves as Marie-Eve increases the voltage. The intersections between the two lines are possible operating points. but we must solve it graphically. Current (mA) 25 possible operating points Voltage (V) 10 The actual voltage/current across/through the unknown device depends on how Marie-Eve started the circuit (as shall be discussed in the section below).

continues up to 15 V with I? = 0A As Marie-Eve decreases from 15 V: Current (mA) 25 Voltage (V 10 .Current (mA) 25 Voltage (V 10 At this point (Vvar. P.s.s. the operating point jumps to Current (mA) 25 new operating point 10 V var p. = 13 V).

s. TP Pull Vvar power supply (V) Comment: see the POPTOR web pages. Also a friction-lock. the operating point jumps to: Current (mA) 25 10 LetÕs put this all together. = 9V).27    = 3. we can find the total frictional (drag) force: FnÊ=Ê13N  Ê ÊÊ⇒ÊÊFDÊ=ÊµsÊFNÊ=Ê0. a) Knowing the normal force on each of two faces of the roll. using stacks of many plates to increase the drag torque.27Ê×Ê13NÊ µsÊ=Ê0. in the quick-release adjustments of an adjustable office-chair.At this point (Vvar p.51N @ each end . Voltage (V i? (mA) 25 15 This is an excellent case of hysteresis! 6. under Problem Set Extras for a photograph of such a roll-dispenser.

testing from rest at different ÔbÕ) So. Tpull = Tdrag while pulling.18) 13 (2) = 9. and Tdrag is constant in the static case (i.0N ⋅cm = 4 cm 3.5N b is minimized where Fp u l l is 60 Tdrag-roll 50 40 30 20 10 0 Tpull Torque (N•cm) 0 2 4 6 8 b 10 12 14 16 Figure 6.4 N ⋅ cm (0.351 N ⋅ 2 cm = 14.1: Comparing the constant drag-torque from the friction plates on the cardboard roll (red dashed line) to the maximum-deliverable pulling-torque.e. as the roll size increases (black solid line).0 N ⋅ cm = Fp u l l ⋅ b unless it breaks b.094 N ⋅ m) . the last b for not breaking is b= 14. b) T D = 2 µ sF N ⋅ ro = 2 (0. and the paper breaks at b = 4 cm. 14.5 N.14 N⋅m ) Torque from pulling: Tpull = Fpull ⋅ b where Fpull ² 3. since it is rotational forces Torque from drag: TD = 2 ⋅ FD ⋅ ro = 2. as the lines cross. maximized.0 N⋅cm (0.The question is properly a matter of torques. even the maximum tension on the paper (burst-strength) is not enough. but as the roll becomes smaller. The paper is pulled only with as much force as is necessary to overcome the drag-torque.

.e.1 mm layer-1 = 0. A = (¹b2 Ð ¹ro 2 ).7 cm. for b = 4 cm. for b = 2. starting from the core (not a perfect spiral anyway .T pull = Fpull ⋅ b b= 9.01 (100) (201) cm = 3776 cm = 37.) length layer = 2πr 2 cm ²r ² 5.4N•cm = 2.7 cm 3. A = 10.01 cm. The torque changes because the frictional force is applied at a changing effective radius..01 layer-1 Thus we have (4 cm Ð 2 cm) * 100 layers cm-1 = 200 layers 200 ∑ n=0 2π(ro + n ∆r) j 1 where ∆r = 0..34 m. rather than finding the spiral length from an integral: consider separate layers.70 m. i.70 cm2. c) Approximate.7 cm left on roll.2) * 100 = 70 layers length = 70 (2πro) + 2π ∆r (70(71)/2) = 70 (2π) 2 cm + 2π 0. so A/∆r = 37.01 ¥ 35¥71 cm = 1036 cm = 10. This is probably just as good as the approximation above (thanks.7 . so A/∆r = 10. we get n=1 200 n=0 200 n=0 = ∑ 2π o + 2 π ∆ r ∑ n = 200(2πro) + 2π ∆r (200(201)/2) = 200 2π 2 cm + 2π 0. 0.7 cm (2. ∆ r = 0.01 cm.75 cm (d/2) increment in r is ∆r = 1mm/(10 layers) = 0. Gordon Cook!) d) In this case the frictional force is the same (area increases but normal pressure decreases) BUT the torque changes.36 m Compare this with the answer you can get by dividing the area of the side of the roll by the thickness of a single layer Ñ giving a length.7 cm.5N TD = Tpull ⇒ 2. A = 37.34 cm2.76 m Likewise for b = 2. Using ∑ n = 2 j(j + 1) to simplify.

then we can write πPn(b Ð ro) Fn = (bÊ+Êr ) and substitute for PN o 3 (b3Ê-Êro ) 4 Tdrag = 3 µs FN 2 3 b Ê-Êr 4 = 3 µs FN (b2Ê+Êbr o 2 oÊ+Êro) (bÊ+Êro) now as you can see. never. b.ro ) So. it is not hard: Consider a roll of diameter b.To best do the problem requires adding up all the torques contributed by all the similar regions (r = const). Plan ÔAÕ: If you can integrate. and core size ro . or always Ñ you have to compare this drag torque to the pulling torque you can produce from .πro2). Then for an annulus (ring) very thin of width dr set at radius r. the drag torque is not constant but scales with the outer diameter of the roll. the force per unit area is PN = FN/(πb2 . the force on the annulus is dFdrag = µsPNdA = µsPN2πrdr then the torque-contribution due to this annulus is dTdrag = r⋅dFdrag = µs PN 2πr2 dr The whole drag-torque on each side is then the sum of torques over all annuli 1 2 Tdrag = 2π2 dr b T(b) b d Tdrag = ∫ T(ro) ∫ ro µs PN = µs PN 2π ∫ r2 dr = µs PN ro b 1 2π 3Êr3 r   o 2π 3 = µs PN 3 (b3 . since Fn = Pn π(b2 Ð r o2 ) = Pn π(b Ð ro )(b + ro ). With a normal force FN evenly distributed over this area. To find out if the paper breaks Ñ ever.

2: Comparing the changing drag-torque from the friction plates on the decreasing roll (dashed lines: redÐµstatic . each contributing a torque from the drag at its particular radius. you can also do it by series summation: ∆Fdrag (r) = µs PN ∆(Area) = µsPN2πr∆r the torque about the cylinder axis from just this ring is then ∆Tdrag (r) = r ⋅ ∆ Fdrag = µsPN 2πr2∆r we can take each ring of width ∆ r to be an additional layer. there can be barely a solution for a little while until the paper roll becomes too small.ro)/∆r layers. In the static case. Plan ÔBÕ: If you do not yet integrate. with a rolling start (the kinetic case). 80 70 60 Torque (N•cm) Tpull Tdrag-area Tdrag-area-kinetic 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 8 b 10 12 14 16 Figure 6.the maximum (breaking) tension of the paper applied as a force at the radius b of the roll. the maximum pulling torque is never enough Ñ the paper always breaks. Then for a diameter b there are (b . greenÐµ kinetic ) to the maximumdeliverable pulling-torque (solid black line). so .01 cm as in part ( c ) above. then ∆ r = 0. as the roll size increases. adding all the torques up on one side gives us half the total drag torque.

So N(NÊ+Ê1) 2 N(NÊ+Ê1)Ê(2NÊ+Ê1) } Tdrag = 4πµs PN∆r {ro2 N + 2 r o ∆ r + ( ∆ r) 2 6 where N = (b .01 cm b = diameter of roll (cm) ro diameter of core (cm) If now you let the layers become very thin. = = ∆Tdrag (ro) + ∆Tdrag (ro + ∆r) + ∆Tdrag (ro + (b-ro)/∆r ∑ n=1 ∆Tdrag (ro + n∆r) . µs PN 2π(ro + n∆r)2 ∆r. 2 (ro + 2ro ∆r •n + (∆r)2 n2) . ..ro)/∆r ∆r = 0.. o = µs PN 2π∆r∑ n=1 (b-r )/∆r (b-ro)/∆r = µs PN 2π∆r = µs PN 2π∆r { Now N ∑ 2 ro + ∑ 2ro ∆ r •n + ∑ (∆ r)2 n2 n=1 2 ro ∑ 1 + 2ro ∆r ∑ n + (∆r)2 ∑ n2Ê } ∑ Ê1 = N n=1 N ∑ n=1 N n= N(NÊ+Ê1) 2 N(NÊ+Ê1)(2NÊ+Ê1) 6 ∑ n=1 n2 = where N is number of layers = 100 (b . so that ∆r → 0 and N → °. n is layer index-number.ro). this becomes TdragÊ = 4πµ P r2 (N∆r) + r (N∆r) 2 + 1 •2(N∆r)3 s N o o 6 with N∆r = (b Ð ro ). (b-ro)/∆r (b-ro)/∆r = ∑ n=1 = µs PN 2π∆r ∑ n=1 (ro + n∆r)2 .1 2ÊTdragÊ 2∆r) + .

1 2 + 3 = 4πµs P n r2 (b Ð r ) + r (b Ð r ) o o o o 3 (b Ð ro) 4 = 3 πµs PN(b Ð ro)3 + 3ro(b Ð ro) 2 + 3r2 (b Ð ro) o 4 2 = 3 πµs Pn (b Ð ro) (b Ð ro)2 + 3ro(b Ð ro) + 3r o Fn Then with πPn(b Ð ro) = (bÊ+Êr ) o as above. . (bÊÐÊro)2Ê+Ê3ro(bÊÐÊro)Ê+Ê3r2 4 o TdragÊ=Ê3ÊµsÊFnÊ (bÊ+Êro) (b2Ê+ÊbroÊ+Êr2 ) 4 o =Ê3ÊµsÊFnÊ (bÊ+Êr ) o The same answer as the integral. because this is in fact doing the integral from first principles.

B. In this machine. C. you do not need to pull the spring knob too hard. The pinball-plunger spring constant is 200 N¥mÐ1 . and the ball has a 0. where will the ball go: bumper A. We model the service stroke of both players as a circular arc with the arm and racquet forming a straight line from the shoulder to the tip of the racquet. a good serve can make the difference between a mediocre player and a very good one. it must bounce in the service area after clearing the net (see figure). at 5Õ 3Ó tall. In tennis.0 cm and a mass of 100 g. D. For a serve to be a legal one.1996-1997 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 2: Mechanics Due December 13. 3.60 m diameter of 3.0 cm a) What is the minimum d is ta n c e fro m the top view equilibrium point of the spring that one has to pull the knob so that the ball could reach the top of the semi-circle? b) After it reaches the top. 1 . the table is tilted at 15¡.40 m 20 cm table is frictionless. ball Assume that all thicknesses not 15 deg specifically indicated are knob side view negligibly small. As a good pinballer. c) Pinball semi-wizard Elton does not pull the spring hard enough. Amanda is also a good tennis player. or E? Explain. and the ball does not even get into the semi-circle (it barely touches F) after he releases it. How far did he pull the knob? [Chairul] 2) Net result Martina is 6 feet tall and is a very good tennis player. 1996 1) Pinball pastimes A pinball machine is one of the ancient ÔarcadeÕ games (see figure). C The ball is assumed not to F B D roll and the contact A E plunger between the ball with the 1.

Assume that they each can generate the same racquet-head speed, and further that the angular velocity remains constant throughout the stroke. Take it that the ball speed after leaving the racquet is 1.8× the racquet-head speed. Here are Martina and AmandaÕs vital statistics: Statistic Height Height from ground to shoulder Arm length Martina 1.82m 1.57m 0.71m Amanda 1.60m 1.35m 0.56m

length of racquet from handle to middle of racquet head: 0.46m. Height of the net 0.91 m.
8.23 m

6.40 m

Service Area

a) Serves must land in the service area, which includes the lines. The fastest way to get the ball past your opponent is to maximize the itÕs velocity component parallel to the ground, vp. At what point in the stroke should each player hit the ball to maximize vp? Now assume both players hit the ball at this point. If they want to hit a power serve touching the centre service line, what is the maximum v p with which each player can hit a legal serve? b) Contacting the ball at the top of their stroke, what is the minimum v p with which each player can hit the ball and still clear the net? (Ignore air resistance.) c) What is the maximum speed with which each player can hit the ball at the top of their stroke and still have it land in the service area? (Ignore air resistance.)
23.7 m

Point of service

d) In a match, Amanda tried a trick serve in which she struck the ball early Ñ she hit the ball with her arm at an angle of 50¡ to the ground. What would the angular velocity of her arm need to be in order that the ball would make it over the net into the service area? How high in the air would the ball go? (Ignore air resistance.)

2

e) If Amanda wants to increase the speed v p with which she can serve the ball into the service area, explain qualitatively how she could apply spin to the ball and use it to her advantage. [Nipun] 3) Mind for rocks, or rocks for brains? Some of us students here at the University of Toronto have taken up gym climbing (indoor rock climbing). For safety reasons, a rope is attached to the harness of the climber. It runs through a metal loop bolted to the top of the wall, and down to a device attached to the harness of a partner (or ÔbelayerÕ) standing on the floor. A good belayer never allows any slack on the rope. For the sake of this problem assume that climbing ropes donÕt stretch. a) Assume no friction in the system, what is the maximum mass of climber with whom you would want to be partnered? Why? b) When we started climbing, we were told that the general rule for relative masses between partners was ÒMore than double, youÕre in troubleÓ. If this is the case, what would be the coefficient of friction between the rope and the metal loop if this is the only friction in the system? c) There is also friction between the floor and the belayer. For simplicity ignore the friction between the metal loop and the rope for this part of the question. Does standing farther away from the wall allow you to support more mass than in part (a)? Is there an optimum angle? Assume the floor friction coefficient is 1.0. [James] 4) Dense and denser Diane walked into her physics lab to find her demonstrator Erica standing in front of a cylinder floating upright in a tank of a clear fluid. Diane asked her what she was doing. ÒIÕm measuring the density of the fluid. I know that the 10 cm long cylinder has a density of 0.63 g¥cmÐ3 Ó. 5 cm a) Diane, trying to impress her demonstrator, remarked that since the cylinder was half submerged, she knew what the fluid density was. What was her answer? b) ÒGoodÓ, responded Erica,Ó now try something more challenging. Cause the cylinder to sink farther into the fluid without touching it.Ó Diane looked around the lab and spotted a compression chamber. ÒI need a force, and pressure is force per unit area, so IÕll let air pressure do my work for me.Ó She put the tank with the cylinder in the chamber and increased the air pressure to 100 atm while keeping the temperature constant. What happened to the floating cylinder? Assume that the fluid is incompressible, and that air is an ideal gas (density= 1.29 kg¥mÐ3 at 1 atm).

3

c) What would Diane observe if she could increase the air pressure in the chamber to 1000 atm? (Keep the totally silly assumption that the gas remains ideal.) [James] 5) ÔI crush your moon Ñ crush crush!Õ a) The moon takes about 29 1/2 days to orbit the earth, as related to the earth (the synodic period) or about 27 1/3 days as related to the stars (the sidereal period). Knowing the constant of acceleration on the surface of the earth, and the earthÕs radius of 6.38 × 10 6 m, show how to estimate how far the moon is from the earth. b) Knowing the result of part (a), the neighbourhood tyke, O. Bray, takes a ruler out at night and uses it to figure out the approximate diameter of the moon. Explain how he might best have made his measurement. [Robin]
¥ For Hubble Space Telescope info & pictures, try http://www.stsci.edu/public.html ¥ For NASA info, pictures and teaching materials, try: http://spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov:80/Instructional.Materials/Curriculum.Materials/Sciences/Astronomy/Our.Solar.System/

6) WhatÕs the buzz? P ART I: Sepsis is a housefly. Interestingly, when houseflies land on a ceiling, it goes something like this: they fly up close to the surface while still upright, put up their forelegs up above their head, and stick Ôem to the ceiling Ñ then they swing around that way, doing a sort of flip, until they smack all their legs onto the ceiling and they are upside down.

a little like...
Take it that Sepsis weighs 0.3 gm, and that he is about 15 mm long from ÔtailÕ to compound eyes. We need a simplified model of a fly, so take Sepsis to have legs that reach 1 cm from his centre-of-mass, and take that his main legs let him bounce about 1.5 mm on landing. Say that Sepsis is cruising along at a good 1 m sÐ1, when he decides to alight on the spot of the last ceiling spaghetti-test. He sticks his forelegs to the ceiling when his centre-of-mass is 7 mm below the ceiling, and pivots rigidly around that sticking-spot to a landing. a) If you ignore any slowing-down by drag in the air, how quickly does he land Ñ how much time between sticking his forelegs and touching down all his legs? b) How fast is Sepsis going toward the ceiling when he finally ÔsticksÕ his landing? c) If he has only 1.5 mm to bounce, then he has only 1.5 mm to stop Ñ what is the minimum acceleration Sepsis suffers at the end? 4

5

— University of Toronto — Solution Set 2: Mechanics

1.

Pinball pastimes

We can consider the ball as a point concentrated in its centre of mass. This assumption is valid since the ball is not rolling and the contact between the ball and the table is frictionless. a) When the ball reaches the top of the semi–circle, it already has speed v; thus, it also experiences a centripetal force: mv2/(0.285 m) = mg sin 15° or (0.285)(9.79) sin 15° = 0.850 ms–1 v=√   [1.2] [1.1]

Let x be the distance between the ball with the equilibrium point of the spring. Using the conservation of energy (with the equilibrium of the spring as the reference point, x = 0):
1 2 1 kx2 – mgx sin 15° = 2 mv2 + mg(1.170) sin 15°

[1.3] [1.4]

or 100x2 – 0.253x – 0.333 = 0 Solving this equation, one obtains x = 0.0590 m or 5.90 cm. (The other root is not used for obvious reason). b) After it reaches the top, the ball continues to pass A since it has momentum. Due to the inertia, the ball tends to go straight but the curve bends the path. One can also get the same answer using the symmetry argument. c) Since the ball barely touches F, its speed v = 0 and its position from the equilibrium is s = 0.870 m.
1 2

kx2 – mgx sin 15° = mg(0.870) sin 15°

[1.5]

or 100x2 – 0.253x – 0.220 = 0 Solving this equation, one obtains x = 0.0482 m or 4.82 cm. [1.6]

2.

Net Result

To maximize vp, want to maximize the velocity component of the ball parallel to the ground. Therefore, one should hit the ball at the top of the stroke, i.e., when the racquet head is perpendicular to the ground. a) The "power serve" hitting the centre service line with the maximum vp (and still being a legal serve) would land at the back of the service area. Horizontal distance travelled by ball:
ball’s trajectory 40

x2 = a2 + b2 = (4.12)2 + (18.25)2 vertical distance travelled by ball:

⇒ x = 18.7 m

Martina: 1.57 m + 0.71 m + 0.46 m = 2.74 m Amanda: 1.35 m + 0.56 m + 0.46 m = 2.37 m
50

time ball is in the air: d = Martina: tM Amanda: tA

1 2 gt ⇒ t = 2 = 0.75 s = 0.70 s

2d g

∴ maximum vp for: Martina: v = x/ tM = 18.7m / 0.75s = 25m/s or 90 Km/h Amanda: v = x/tA = 18.7m / 0.70s = 26.9m/s or 97 Km/h We, of course, have to make sure that balls with these velocities will clear the net! (see part b) b) (Note that a more precise solution to this problem can be obtained by the methods of calculus. We sketch here an approximate solution.) Using the same trajectory for the ball as in part (a), we need to find the distance from the server to the net. By similar triangles: 4.12 x 18.25 = 6.40
2
net y1

⇒ x = 1.44m ⇒ y2 = 6.56m
4.12 m

∴ y2 = (6.40)2 + (1.44)2

∴ y1 = 18.7 m – 6.56 m = 12.14 m To find the minimum vp for each player, time for ball to fall from point of stroke to height of the net:

y2 x centre line 18.25 m

tm′ =

√  √ 
2(d m – h net ) = g 2(d a – h net ) = g

2 (274 – 0.91) = 0.61 s g

ta′ = vmin:

√  √ 

2 • (2.73 – 0.91) = 0.55 s g

Martina: Amanda:

12.14m / 0.61 s = 19.9 m/s or 71.5 km/h 12.14m / 0.55 s = 22.1 m/s or 79.5 km/h

So, the serves in part (A) are fast enough to clear the net. c) maximum speed is for longest-possible horizontal trajectory, as horizontal distance vp = time for ball to fall to ground so we want the ball to land in for rear corner of service area: Horizontal distance travelled by ball = ((8.23)2+ (18.25)2)1/2 = 20.0m Maximum speed: Martina: Amanda: d) We need to know: 1) how high above the ground the ball is when Amanda hits it 2) how much vertical distance between the release point of the ball and the top of the net — gives time available to clear net 3) the horizontal velocity component of the ball needed to reach the net at the closest distance to the point of service such that the ball will land in the service area. (See part b) 1) ball height at release point: 1.35 + (0.56 + 0.46) sin 50° = 2.13 m 2) d = (2.13 m – hnet) = 1.22 m ∴ Time available to clear net = (2d/g)1/2 = 0.50 s 3) From part (b): distance = 12.14 m vhorizontal = 12.14m / 0.50s = 24.3 m/s vtotal (tangential to the arc of the racquet): vhorizontal = vtotal cos 40° vtotal = 31.7 m Racquet head speed × 1.8 = ball speed vracquet = 17.6 m/s 20.0m / 0.75s = 26.7 m/s, or 96.0 km/h 20.0m / 0.70s = 28.6 m/s, or 103 km/h

angular velocity of arm = ω = v / r = 17.6 / (0.56+0.46) = 17.3 rad/s vertical velocity of ball: vy = vtotal sin 40° = 20.37 m/s So, the maximum height above the ball’s release point is 2gy = vy2 ⇒ y = 21.1 m Max. height of ball = 1.22 m + 21.1 m = 22.4 m

3.

Mind for rocks, or rocks for brains?

The system has been simplified since ropes don't stretch and so no slack is allowed on the line. This of course is not physically reasonable (climber would almost always be supported by belayer and so could never actually ‘climb’!) but is a good first approximation. a) Let 'c' indicate climber Let 'b' indicate belayer Let R be force by floor on belayer

Tc mcg

Since belayer does not want to accelerate off the ground: Σ Fb = 0 Since there is no friction Tc = Tb ∴ Τb + R = mbg Tc + R = mbg

Tb mbg

R

Climber is also not accelerating. ∴ Τc = mbg

Maximum mc for a given mb occurs for R = 0, i.e., belayer barely touching floor. ∴ as expected, max. mass of climber is your mass, as belayer (Of course in real life, you would not want to be right on the edge of stability, but within the assumptions given the correct answer is ‘maximum mass = your mass’, not ‘< your mass’ which some people stated. This is a minor point.) b) Same pix as before except for friction on metal loop. Friction force opposes motion. Again we are trying to find a max. mc for a given mb. Start by setting R = 0. Note that forces on rope must balance ∴ mcg = f + mbg (direction of f choosen since we are opposing motion of climber dropping, not belayer dropping).

Frictional force is standard static friction, i.e. f ≤ fmax ≤ µs (mcg + mbg) For maximum mc, set f = µs (mcg + mbg) ∴ mcg = µs (mcg + mbg) + mbg mcg (1 – µs) = mbg (1 + µs) ∴ mc = mb (1+ µs) / (1− µs) but question states that mc = 2mb for maximum mc ∴ 2 = (1+ µs) / (1− µs) ⇒ µs = 1/3 <— cofficient of friction between loop and rope. c) Since there is no friction in the rope, Tc = Tb. Since climber does not fall Tc = mcg, ∴ the forces on the belayer look like: f ≤ ≤ µs R 1.0 R mcg

f

Tc mcg

Tb mbg

R

For maximum mc, f = 1.0 R Since there is no acceleration, Σ F = 0. Standard way would be to break this up into horizontal and vertical forces but more elegant way is to consider vector sum of forces: (since Σ F = 0, can draw triangle) And write: (mbg – R)2 + (1.0 R)2 = (mcg)2 but we know: (a + b)2 ≥ a2 + b2

θ R f m bg

mcg mbg-R θ f=R
4. Dense and denser

∴ (mbg – R)2 + R2 ≤ (mbg – R + R)2 ≤ (mbg)2 ∴ (mbg)2 ≥ (mcg)2 ∴ max. mc is mb ∴ friction of floor does not help!

a) Effective buoyancy force = g (mdisplaced air + mdisplaced fluid), but the masss of the displaced air is very small, so can be ignored. Net force = 0, ∴ g Vc /2ρfluid = g Vc ρc ∴ ρfluid = 2 ρc = 1.26 g/cm3

b) This problem explores what happens when you take a model and go to a silly extreme. You are required to make one simplification. The question states only the pressure for one point in the chamber. Of course, as the gas becomes more dense the pressure increase due to gravitational forces (ρgh) becomes more important. It is this very pressure gradient that causes the cylinder to rise. For this part of the question, since the pressure is increased only a small amount one can assume that the gas it displaces would have a minor pressure gradient across the length of the cylinder. Thus one can assume a constant density and that Diane’s measurement was taken at a height similar to the height of the cylinder. Let x be the distance that the cylinder is submerged. Net force = 0 ∴ g Vc ρc = g (x Vc ρfluid +(1 – x)Vc ρair) You cannot ignore the displaced air. ρc = (l – x) ρair + x ρfluid ρair is calculated from PV=nRT . ∴ x = 4.4 cm Cylinder moves up 6 mm. Note: cylinder floats higher in fluid. Diane should have reduced air pressure, not increased it. c) Cylinder + fluid 'float' to top of chamber.

5.

‘I crush your moon – crush crush!’

a) Knowing the period of the moon’s orbit, we can figure out its distance from the earth, because the period depends on the orbit radius r and orbital speed v: Torbit = distance 2 π r M , m = speed v rM, m = earth-moon separation, v = speed of moon [5.1]

The orbital speed and radius are also related by the centripetal-force formula: FMm m v2 = rM ,m m = mass of moon [5.2]

Where the centripetal force is gravitational attraction: FMm = GMm 2 rM ,m M = mass of earth, m = mass of moon, G = gravitational const. [5.3]

Equations [5.2] and [5.3] both give the force, so with right-hand-sides equal, we can eliminate the moon mass m, to get:  2π rM ,m  GM = v2 =   , where the last equality uses [5.1]. rM ,m  Torbit  Then we have rM ,m
2  GM Torbit  =  2  4π  1/ 3 2

For G = 6.67 × 10–11 N m2 kg–2, M = 5.98 × 1024 kg, Torbital = 27.333 days * ( 8.64 × 104 seconds/day) = 2.36 × 106 s, this gives rM,m = 3.83 × 108 m (cf. 3.844 × 108 m). b) Ah, now that we have the distance rM,m we can figure out the diameter of the moon by constructing similar triangles: r earth-moon r-measure

disk, or ruler moon By holding a small paper disk, and moving it toward and away from the eye until it exactly covers the moon, then recording both the disk size ddisk and the distance held away from the eye rmeasure, the earth-moon distance from (a) can be used to figure out the moon’s size: dmoon d = disk r M , m rmeasure dmoon = ddisk rM ,m rmeasure or finally

When I did this, I found roughly ddisk = 5 mm at rmeasure = 50 cm, and so dmoon = (0.5/50)3.83 × 108 m = 3.83 × 106 m. Compare this with a reference-table value of 3.476 × 106 m. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Small Shortcut: Instead of using the values of G and of M, you might note that at the earth’s surface (rearth,m = rearth) we must have FMm = m g, where g = 9.8 kg m–1 s–2, so:

4 ° Momentum: 0. then while the moon is orbiting.7 p Angular momentum is conserved. sideral: How should you measure a complete rotation of something in space? Suppose the earth did not rotate at all.7cm angle θ : 1. it sees no torque and so is conserved without contribution from the ceiling.. making a bit more to catch up. If the moon ‘start-finish line’ for an orbit is an imaginary line between the earth and some very distant star.7 p •10–2 m. The same holds for the moon and its orbit of the earth. the earth orbits the sun.3 g = 3 × 10–4 kg.7cm p = 1cm = p⊥ = 0.1 × 10–6 kg m2 s–1 . every spot on earth would have daytime and night-time. this line will change along with the earth’s orbiting.FMm 2 GMm rearth 2 = 2 = m g 2 .0cm = sin θ = 0.7 ⇒θ = 0. and so on.m [5. constants easier to remember rM . (Of course. If it made one orbit of the sun. though in terms of the ‘fixed’ stars it had not rotated (no sidereal days at all). The momentum resolves along the rigid rod and along the ⊥ to the rigid rod. earth. GM = g rearth .m rM . then it will orbit and come back to this line again in a sideral period. so the earth would see one revolution or one day in terms of the sun. which has a well-known formula. L = P⊥ • r = 0. p⊥ 0. So the synodic and sidereal periods for the earth are not the same. The problem ends up like figuring out from 8:00 pm exactly when the minute hand ends up opposite the hour hand: in 10 minutes it is opposite where it used to be. but then the hour hand in that time moved 1/12th of 1/12th of 10 minutes. and so on. i. with the free-pivot action.. What’s the buzz? a) Need some approximation 0. a complete revolution in these terms will take longer. = 2. during the time it takes to catch up. . As the moon orbits the earth.) 6. both. With a retreating finish-line. If the start-finish line is a line between the earth and the sun. So the minute hand reaches the corrected place 1/12 of 10 minutes later.4] ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Synodic vs. The answer can be found using the sum of the series (1/12)n.e. the line will have moved a little bit again. but the hour hand has moved an angle 1/12th as much as the minute hand just moved..775 radians = 44. so the finishing-line also will move through some angle in space. mv = 2 × 10–4 kg · 1 m s–1 = 3 × 10–4 kg · m s–1 . etc.

9 ms –1 0.16 × 103 = 1. halfway down his body.5 × 10 3 × 10 F = Mhuman • a = 70 kg (–163 m s–2) = –1. Either is good for the sort of rough estimates we are making on behalf of flies! You figure. b) Again depends on final angle. we’ll accept answers 0. about one frame of a video camera.63 × 102 = 163 m s–2 – 3 – 3 21.3 × 10–3 kg (–163 m s–2) = –49 × 10–3 kg m s–2 = –4.. etc.7 × 1 m s–1 = 0.7 ms we’ll accept 15 – 35 ms.3ms–1)2 –2 a=– 21.39 × 10–2 s = 33. if assume constant acceleration force (unless you let the passenger bounce) . Say.7)2 = = 0.37 rads · 1 cm = 2.It’s undefined what the final angle is when he reaches the other side — he could swing around until he is parallel to the ceiling.14 × 104 N d) F = Mfly • a = 0.37 radians or 135.7 m s–1.000 kg) (–23 m s–2) = –2. take 1st case: the final angle is π radians.7 · v = 0.37 × 10 –2 m t=v= = 3.35 – 0.6° Arc length: ∆θ · r = 2.37 cm = 2.37 × 10–2 m Speed: v⊥ = 0. hit the roof. Then he swings through (π – 0.49 (0.7 m s–1 d 2. leg length.9 × 10–2 kg m s–2 = –4.775) radians = 2.3 × 104 kg m s–2 f) not very significant that belts stretch a little.14 × 104 kg m s–2 = –1. but approx v⊥ = 0. or maybe until his 1 cm-long legs.5m = –23 m s .9 × 10–2 N PART II 30 km/hr = 30 × 103 m / 3600 s = 8.3 ms–1 e) v2 = u2 + 2ad v=0⇒ (8. much less than for the fly F = m • a = (1.7 depending on final angle u2 v = 0 ⇒ –2d = a c) v2 = u2 + 2ad a=– 0.

Pressure is (4.75 m) = – 55.6 kN.416 kN corresponds to the weight of ~450 kg – almost half the weight of a small car.75 m ∆x = 1.9 m s –1 )2 a = – 2d = – 2(1.01325 × 105 Pa] – about 2.9 m s – 1  t = –   = 0.total distance is 1.75 m 50 km/h = 50 × 103 m / 3600 s = 13.0175 m2 area for belt.416 kN Then 0. the whole force on the person is F = 4. to compare another way. How long does it last? 13.416 kN / 0. say my fist is 7 cm × 9 cm = 63 cm2 = 0. or you can hit the windshield. but much better the belt! Buckle up — it saves lives.35 m • 0.52 × 105 Pa [1 ATM = 1. so to produce the same pressure I would need a force of about 1. can bruise heavily where the belt cuts in – or. Or.5× atmospheric pressure. so this is a serious force.2) m s –2 Perhaps this is something like being directly hit by a motorcycle? You can hit the belt.0175 m2) = 2.126 s = 126 ms  2(–55. . and probably a really decent heavyweight prizefighter punch if the followthrough is strong.9 m s–1 u2 (13. the weight of about 162 kg — much more than I weigh.0063 m2.2 m s–2) = – 4.2 m s–2 F = m • a = 80 kg • (–55.05 m = 0.

really cold. Alain the co-op student forgot to pick up the insulation before the launch. If we assume that this rate is constant throughout the sunÕs life.nascom. http://sohowww.nasa.054 kJ. and somehow also the outer layer never got painted. 1997 1) Great balls oÕ fire! The sun may be modelled as a ball of hydrogen gas. ~60. Assume its main energy source is the conversion of hydrogen (atomic weight = 1. a) How much energy is given off during the life of the sun if only 10% of its hydrogen is converted to helium? b) The power radiated from the sun and arriving at the earth has a density today equal to 1400 W¥mÐ2 .gov /gallery/EIT/index. a) What would be the minimum power requirements for the heat source for a black spherical satellite of radius 2 m? Assume that outer space is really.8 ft2¥F¡¥h¥BTUÐ1. This insulation has an R value in vacuum of 18. this is the unit often used for insulation. the engineers decided to put a nice flat black outer layer around the satellite and stuff it with Fibreglass Fuchsia insulation.html . The electronics require a minimum operating temperature of 200K.) What is the new power requirement to keep the electronics working properly? The radius of the shield is only slightly larger than the radius of the probe.48 cm. where c is the speed of light. b) To reduce heating bills. estimate the life expectancy of the sun. Since it is a deep-space probe the engineers had to provide it with a heat source. even in our SI-enlightened society. The energy emitted is given by the famous Einstein equation. Assuming that the emissivity 1 EIT image in the He II emission line at 304•. (1 BTU=1. E = ∆m c 2 .1996-1997 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 3: Thermodynamics Due January 13.0026 amu) roughly by the process 4H → He (the real process is much more intricate than this). 1ft = 30.000 K. (Believe it or not.0078 amu) to helium (atomic weight = 4. 1F¡ = 5/9 K) c) Unfortunately. upper chromosphere/lower transition region. Is this value plausible? [Nipun] 2) Running Amok The Amok IV space probeÕs initial design included no insulation or shielding.

Express your answer in m3¥sÐ1. If the air pressure is 1 atmosphere. they have overlooked one very important detail Ñ they forgot to insulate the walls of their cabin from the cold! As soon as they set up. By cooling rubidium atoms to extremely low temperatures. Their base is a structure of dimensions. only to find that the temperature then dropped at a rate of 1¡ C every 5 minutes! a) Assume that the research team is well-insulated (they're all wearing parkas). 20×20× 3 metres. they powered up their generator to heat the room to a cozy 20¡ C and then shut the generator off. what was the steady-state temperature of the interior of the satellite? [James] 3) Too blue to be true? Light from a star has the broad spectrum pictured below.2. all the frequencies of the light from the star will be Doppler shifted. By WienÕs displacement law.8978 × 106 / T [K]. While they have brought along with them many of the conveniences of home. 6 5 fitted blackbody spectrum star's emission spectrum a) From the distribution. how much power would the generator have to emit to stabilize the temperature? b) Bicycle pumps get hot by adiabatic compression of air: if they wanted to try and stabilize the temperature by compressing the volume of the cabin. so that the heat capacity inside the cabin is due only to the air. [Robin] Relative Brightness 4 3 2 1 0 0 300 600 900 1200 Wavelength (nm) 4) Huddle up! Edna Hillary and her team have set up a research station in the antarctic. λmax [nm] = 2.of the silver shield was 0. they underwent a 2 . what is the temperature of this star? b) Travelling in a spacecraft toward this star at 0.1 c. and it fits a blackbody distribution pretty well over much of the frequency range recorded. as measured in the frame of reference of the traveller. and so the peak of the spectrum shifts. [Nipun] 5) They chilled out and got it together The first realization of Bose-Einstein condensation was achieved last year by researchers in Colorado. Furthermore. what is the new recorded temperature of the star? Present your arguments about whether or not this is really a new temperature for the star. treat the air as a diatomic ideal gas. at what rate would they have to ÔshrinkÕ the cabin.

ÒIt is a real challenge for me. Cooling them to liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K).0 × 1010 N ¥ mÐ2).00 mm and the outer diameter of the nickel is 28. BoseEinstein condensation occurs when the de Broglie wavelength exceeds the interatomic spacing. a) To begin. but it is adequate to get a rough idea of the required temperature.00 mm. you wouldnÕt have to go to as low temperatures. c) If you could reduce the atomic spacing.phase change resulting in the group of atoms condensing into one single state Ñ a kind of ÔsuperatomÕ. He made sure that the brass could barely fit into the nickel while cold.Ó Svend was very good at counterfeiting coins. What about a nitrogen molecule at room temperature and pressure (vavg = 400 m¥sÐ1)? While you are sitting in your chair doing this problem set. is your wavelength infinitely long? b) By recalling the equipartition theory (each degree of freedom contributes on the average (1/2)kT of energy). The diameter of the hole was 12. When he got a ÔtooneyÕ in his change from the newstand at the Pearson airport. Effectively. 2. with wavelength: λ = h / m v . he drilled a hole in the nickel plate in and fitted it with a brass centre-plug. estimate the wavelength for a car speeding down a highway.1 × 1010 N ¥ mÐ2 and 19. You should realize that the equipartition theory does not apply well to these low energy atoms. b) Would police catch Svend if he used this ÔtooneyÕ based on its weight? Compare with an actual one. a) What is the approximate pressure between the two metals at room temperature (293 K)? Assume the hole expands in the same proportion as the rest of the plate. Assume that you start at room temperature with a pressure of 1 atm and that you maintain constant volume. estimate the temperature one must cool a group of rubidium atoms (ideal gas) down to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation. which says that entropy (and randomness) must always increase? [James] 6) The curious case of the cold calculating counterfeiter Svend just arrived in Toronto. [Chairul] 3 . their densities at room temperature 8. he got an idea. (Measure one yourself!) (Note: the thermal coefficients of linear expansion brass and nickel are 19 × 10Ð6 KÐ1 and 11 × 10Ð6 KÐ1. Why do you think the first experiments didnÕt use very high pressures? d) Obviously this new state of matter is much more ordered than your original state. the atoms overlap in space. I will duplicate it.85 g¥cmÐ3 . Much work has been done in the quest to create this new form of matter since it was originally proposed by Albert Einstein and Satyendra Nath Bose. So he bought two plates of metal: brass and nickel with the same thickness. Have you broken the second law of thermodynamics. A rough understanding of this new state can be understood in the following way: de Broglie proposed that all matter can be viewed as waves. their YoungÕs moduli 9.00 mm.87 g¥cmÐ3 and 8.

Running Amok a) The probe will lose heat due to radiation.g.99 x 1029 kg For reaction 4H → He.0078 amu / atom × 1.0026 amu = 0. then amount of hydrogen converted to helium = 10% of (1.94 × 10 W The life expectancy of the sun is ~10 billion years. × 10 29 kg 1.6606 × 10 − 27 kg / amu .49597 x 1011 m = re ∴ "surface area" of orbital sphere = 4Bre2= 2..75 x 10–29 kg Energy given off by 4H → He: E = ∆mc2 = (4. emissivity (e. and the background temperature.0286 amu = 4.23 × 1017 s = 1. so the calculated value is pretty good! 2.0078 amu) – 4. × 10 56 atoms = 119 4 hydrogen per reaction = 2. 1 .94 x 1026 W 127 .81 x 1023 = 3.00 x 108 m/s)2 = 4. white or grey).97 x 1055) x (4.99 x 1030 kg) = 1.75 x 10–29) x (3.1996-1997 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 3: Thermodynamics 1. The net rate of heat loss depends on its temperature. surface area.97 x 1055 groups of 4 H ∴ total energy: (2.27 x 10–12 J Total # of hydrogen atoms in reaction: 199 . × 10 44 J = 3.27 x 1012 J per reaction) = 1.02 × 10 10 years ∴ life of sun = 26 3. mass loss is: ∆m = 4 x mass of H – mass He = 4(1. black.8 x 1023 m2 ∴ energy flux from sun: 1400 W/m2 (at earth’s distance) ∴ total power = 1400 x 2.27 x 1044 J b) mean radius of earth’s orbit = 1.99 x 1030 kg If sun is made of hydrogen. Great balls o’ fire! a) Total mass of the sun = 1.

It is radiating power as in part (a).” i.3 m2 Since it is black. substituting each successive approximation back in I will demonstrate method (3): numbers [x] indicate the iteration being made 1) Start by assuming Tshield << Tprobe. To.31 J We want minimum power requirement.e. A = 4π r 2 = 50. Energy is being transferred from probe to shield at a rate determined by R value. thus take Tprobe = R σ Tshield4 and solve for Tshield: 1 /4  Tprobe  Tshield =   = 181 K  Rσ  2 . e = 1. i. Minimum power radiated corresponds to minimum temperature. Tshield. R = 18.e.Tshield ) ∆T = A probe P2 = A R R Thus σAshield e shield Ts4 = Question states A(Tprobe − Tshield ) R P1 TPROBE P2 Ashield = Aprobe eshield = 1 ft 2 o F h Thus. Tmin = 200K ∴ Pmin = 4..6 kW b) We must find the temperature of the shield.8 BTU m2 ⋅ oC ⋅ s = 3.= 0). area At steady–state P1 = P2 P1 = σ Ashield εshield Τ4 (T . thus Tprobe = 200K Need to solve: Tshield = Tprobe – R σ Tshield4 — cannot isolate Tshield easily.. really cold. Tprobe..Power radiated from a surface follows Stefan’s Law: P = σ A e T4 where σ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant A = area e = emissivity (between 0 (white) and 1 (black) T = temperature (Kelvin) (we are neglecting background temperature since question states “outer space is really. Many ways to solve this: 1) computer or fancy calculator (HP28s or better) 2) graphically 3) by iteration.s.

c) All heat transfer here is radiative.97 kW This is larger than part (a) by more than a factor of 4. ‘s’ = ‘shield’): P1 = σ Aes Ts4 P2 = σ Aes Ts4 = P1 P3 = e s P4 P4 = σ Ae p Tp 4 P5 = P2 + P4 − P3 (since we are at steady state and eprobe = 1) 3 .Plug this in and find new Tshield. then repeat as it converges and a self-consistent value emerges: 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)  200 − 181  1/4 = 100K Tshield new =   Rσ 200 − 100  Tshield new =     Rσ  200 − 152  Tshield new =     Rσ  Tshield Tshield Tshield new 1 /4 = 152K 1 /4 = 126K 1 /4 200 − 126  =     Rσ   200 − 141   =   Rσ  = 141K 1 /4 new = 133K 1/ 4 new 200 − 133 =     Rσ  = 137K = 135K 1/ 4 200 − 137  Tshield new =     Rσ  1/ 4 200 − 135  Tshield new =     Rσ  new = 136K 1 /4 200 − 136  =  Tshield   = 136K  Rσ  ∴ Tshield = 136 K ∴ P = σ A e T4 = σ (4π (2)2) (1) (136)4 = 0. Consider all possible radiated power processes: P1: P2: P3: P4: P5: from outer shield to outer environment from inner shield to inner environment from inner environment to shield from probe to inner environment from inner environment to probe P3 P4 P5 P2 P1 Right away we can write (‘p’ = ‘probe’.

ν′ = ν Here N = 0 so ν ′ =ν =ν 1− v / c 2 2 1−v / c 1− v / c 1+ v / c =v 1− v / c (1 − v / c)(1 + v / c ) with v = –0.9 x 10–3 m · K In the figure the peak is around λmax = 460 nm.1 c this gives ν ′ = 1.For shell.300 K 460 × 10 −9 m b) The relativistic Doppler–shift means a change in frequencies: 1 v (1 − cos φ) 2 2 c 1− v / c where N is the angle between the direction of the photon and the spacecraft motion in the star’s frame.11 ν 4 . so T= 2. Wien’s Law gives the peak of the distribution. Too blue to be true? a) For a black–body distribution. according to: λmax T = 2. at steady–state: P 1 + P2 = P3 2σAeshieldTshield4 = eshieldσAeprobeTprobe4 ∴ 2Tshield4 = Tprobe4 Power radiated out by cabin = P4 – P5 = P 4 – P2 – P4 + P 3 = P 3 – P2 = eshield σATprobe4 – σAeshieldTshield4 = eshield σA(Tprobe4 – Tshield4) = eshield σA(Tprobe4 – 1/2Tprobe4) e σA 4 ∴ power radiated by cabin: s Tp 2 Power source is still the same e shield σ A Tprobe4 ∴ 0.9 × 10 −3 m ⋅ K = 6.97 kW = 2 ∴ Tprobe = 242 K 3.

as diatomic molecules add to the molecules’ internal energy but don’t affect the entropy so the pressure isn’t affected. the patterns of these lines would be shifted from their usual positions.04l / mole 5 .11 T = 6965 K Is this a ‘real’ new temperature? Well. In thermal terms.P. does the blackbody distribution still fit? 8π hν 3 uν = 3 c [exp( hν / kT − 1)] hν ′ hν = if ν ′ = 1. so a distribution of this kT ′ kT type still fits. adding a constant velocity to all particles does not change its kinetic temperature. 4. it is no longer normalized properly.c ν c c c so λ’ = = . with an overall factor of 1. fitting a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. However. 12 . × 10 6 l ∴ volume = 20 × 20 × 3 = 1 × 10 −3 (1l = 1000 cm3 = 1 x 10–3 m3) at S.T. λ = 0. If it were not a perfect blackbody but included some spectral lines. and (ν’)3 = 1.4l   = 24.99 × 104 moles ∴ Total # of moles: 24. × 10 6 l = 4.. this is not really an issue in a typical real measurement — it may simply seem like a larger star radiating more power. nonimally. a higher temperature T’ = 1. 1 mole of ideal gas occupies 22.37 ν’.4 l  293K ∴ at 20 °C: 22. from Wien’s law.37.11 then . helping you guess what had happened. and that the volume of the researchers is negligible (probably not true) 1200m 3 = 12 . Therefore we have the same equation of state.04 l • mole–1  273K Or use PV = NRT which is right for an ideal gas and often OK for a diatomic gas too. Huddle Up! a) Temperature drop: 1°C / 5 mins Cv = 5/2 R for a diatomic ideal gas (J • K–1 • mole–1) In finding total # of moles. let’s assume we deal with the gas only. (Diatomic nature of gas doesn’t change the equation of state. λ νλ=c ⇒ λ= This means a shift in the peak to shorter wavelengths. Since the overall amplitude of the distribution uν changes. and so.11 ν and we take T’ = 1.90 = 090 ν ′ 111 .

and thus from (1) (2) 0 = n CV ∆T + p∆V We can write the differential of pV: ∆(pV) = p(∆V) + (∆p)V p∆V + V∆ p so. where n = # of moles. assume the gas is thermally insulated from its surroundings (adiabatic conditions) Changing the volume of the gas will do work on the gas and the internal energy of gas will change.5 5 R = k B = 20. heat-energy transfer is ∆ Q = ∆ E + p∆ V (1) In terms of heat capacity at constant volume. pV = constant Instead. so ∆Q = 0.7 J ⋅ mole −1 ⋅ K −1 2 2 1°C / 300 s = 3. = = CV 5 R 5 2 Integrating equation (5). ∆T = nR into (2): (CV + R) p∆V + CVV∆p = 0 Dividing by CVpV: ( CV + R ) ∆ V ∆p + =0 CV V p ∆V ∆p ⇒ γ + =0 V p where C C +R γ= V = p CV CV (3) (4) (5) 7 Cp 2 R 7 For diatomic ideal gas. so the temperature will change. For an adiabatic process. ∴ at constant temperature and particle number.46 x 103 J • s–1 = 3.7 J • mole • °C = 3. We need the relationship between volume and temperature. From 1st law of thermodynamics.99 x 104 mole) × 20. ∆E = n CV ∆T. with ∆V as a differential dV: γ ln(V) + ln(p) = constant γ ⇒ pV = constant γ–1 ⇒ V T = constant ⇒ V2/5 T = constant (γ = 7/5 for diatomic ideal gas) 6 .33 x 10–3 °C • s–1 ) × (4. there is no heat transfer. CV = b) Adiabatic compression: For an ideal gas pV = nRT.33 x 10–3 °C • s–1 ∴ Power = (3.46 x 103 W For a diatomic ideal gas.

but my instantaneous velocity is not ∴ my λ does not approach ∞. b) Since these are atoms.3 × 10–26 kg v = 400 m • s–1 ∴ λ = 7. ignoring internal degrees of freedom for now. ∴ for one molecule. m = 2.33 × 10 −3 (1200m 3 ) 2 / 5 Take the difference: |V2 – 1200 m3| ∴ Need to compress at a rate of 0.33 x 10–3 °C from 20 °C V12/5 T1 = V22/5 T2 ∴ T1  V2  2/5 20 o C V2 2 / 5 =  ⇒ = T2  V1  20 − 3.1 × 10–11 m My net velocity over time might be zero. They chilled out and got it together a) DeBroglie wavelength.5 g • mole–1 ⇒ 1. 3 ∴ Ekin = kT 2 But this also equals: 1 E kin = mv 2 2 3 = kT 2 3kT ∴v = m Mass of a rubidium atom: 85. λ = h/p = h/mv assume car v = 100 km • h–1 = 28 m • s–1 assume car mass = 1000 kg ∴ λ = 2.42 × 10–25 kg atom–1 λ= = h h m = mv m 3kT h 3 kT m 7 .4 × 10–38 m N2 mass is 14 g/mol.For a change in temperature of 3. they have 3 degrees of freedom (corresponding to 3 directions of motion).034?] 5.5 m3 • s–1 [0.

The curious case of the cold calculating counterfeiter The assumption that the hole expands in the same proportion as the metal is valid. (It is similar to scaling up the grid points). when one considers that the plate is composed of atoms.38 × 10–23 J • K–1 T = 300 K ∴ x = 3. One can also look at it from macroscopic view point.What is the interatomic spacing as a function of T? Since question states that we start at room temperature.) c) Relatively vague question. x = λ (spacing between particles is about one de Broglie wavelength) h ∴ x= 3kTm h2 T= 2 x 3k m T = 6. 6. x distance apart from each other: density is 1 atom/x3 1 N P ∴ 3 = = x V kT with P = 1 atm = 1. From ideal gas law: PV = nRT n P = RT V n P N P = ⇒ = V RT V kT where now N = number of atoms and k = Boltzmann’s constant. and maintain a constant volume as we cool.01 × 105 N • m–2 k = 1. From the microscopic point of view. thus decreasing pressure d) Overall entropy of system does go up.4 × 10–9 m. possible answers: 1) increasing P often increases T1 which is undesirable 2) methods to cool atoms lose the warmest atoms. the inter–atomic distance increases in all direction for each atom. atoms x 8 . (Our problem is that the equipartition theory breaks down for low temperatures. Assuming atoms are evenly distributed in space. independent of T for this question For condensation.5 mK This is actually much warmer than what is really required. spacing does not change.

06 × 10 8 Pa 1 1   −10  +  × 10  9.Mathematically. 110%. The brass will expand according to thermal expansion: r o → ro + ∆ B where ∆B = ro αB (T – To) Similarly the hole (of the nickel) will expand r o → ro + ∆ N where ∆N = ro ∆N (T – To) a) Now. the pressure (Jpress) is primarily determined by Young moduli YB. say. p N = YN ∆ − ∆N r + ∆ II where ro + ∆II is the radius of the hole. the brass is inside the nickel. as action = reaction forces. So we have two unknowns and two equations: (∆B – ∆)/ro = p/YB (∆ – ∆N)/ro = p/YN  1 1  Y (∆B – ∆N)/ro = p  +   YB YN  which we solve for p: p= (∆ B − ∆ N ) / ro (α B − α N )(T − To ) =  1 1 1  1 +    +   YB YN   YB YN  (19 − 11) × 10 −6 (293 − 77) = 1. Since ∆B > ∆N. Since the pressure forces act perpendicular to the contact surface (we are dealing with the geometry of annulus).0  = 1050 atm Thus p= 9 . and thus using different materials creates pressure. like a photocopier set to enlarge to. so that both the brass and the hole expand with the same expansion: r o → ro + ∆ Of course ∆N < ∆ < ∆B. there is a contact force (consequently a pressure) between the two. Suppose we have a situation that the brass is NOT inside the nickel. Both ∆I and ∆II are negligible compared to ro and pB = pN = p due to action = reaction. Similarly for the nickel. YN.1 19. it is a scale transformation. The pressure which inhibits the thermal expansion of the brass: ∆ −∆ pB = YB B Ι ro + ∆ where ro + ∆I is the radius of the brass after an equilibrium temperature T (room temperature).

00 mm [1 + 11 × 10–6 (293 – 77)] = 14.010 cm3 Hence the mass of tooney: m = (VB • 8.84 mm3 = 1.87) + (VN • 8.0333)2 – (6. not 12 mm! 10 .95 g compared to the one I measured: 7. This is about a 30% difference in weight — easy enough to tell the coin.00 mm 91 .b) The expansion of the brass at T = 293 K p ∆ = ∆B − ro YB = [α B (T − To ) − p / YB ]ro  1.53 mm3 = 0. The brass centre piece is actually 16 mm wide in a real tooney. and so is the inner radius of the nickel (the hole).65 µm Thus the radius of the brass r = 6. t is thickness: VB = π r2 t = π (6. where r is radius.85) = 10.06 × 10 8  = 19 × 10 −6 ( 293 − 77) − × 6. × 1010    = 17.0333 mm The volume of the nickel annulus VN = π (R2 – r2)t = π [(14. In fact.0177)2 2 = 227.31 g. The volume of the brass.0177)2] 2 = 1009.228 cm3 The outer radius of the nickel also expands R = Ro [1 + αNi (T – To)] = 14.0177 mm. Svend would NOT get away with his coin even by its rough appearance.

Jesse then sits with his one (remaining) good ear 1. on a direct line between the two. in amplitude and in phase.5 m from his own speaker. face-to-face with BongoÕs and 6. a) At what frequency(ies) in the music would Jesse hear minimum sound at his position? b) Are there points along the line joining the speakers at which Jesse cannot hear sound of any frequency? c) What ways might Jesse set up his speaker.0 m away. and absorbs the other component. and θ is the angle between the Êv axis of the polarizer and the input E field direction. She inserted a linear polarizer between the flashlight and the detector and measured the current. Bongo has already blown his right speaker. 1997 1) JesseÕs Ôanti-musicÕ Jesse has a problem with his roommate Bongo. What was this value? θ 1 . BongoÕs stereo is way TOO LOUD! In fact. better to cancel BongoÕs racket? [Chairul] 2) A new twist on light Like any vector. a) Why does MalusÕ law involve cos2θ. and that JesseÕs head doesnÕt interfere with the sound. So Jesse decides to fight sound with sound. where I is the transmitted light intensity. For the following. The speed of sound in his apartment is 331.0 mA of current generated by the detector due to the light intensity. you can assume that Jesse and Bongo are pumping out exactly the same signal. and is pumping his Too-Much Music over the left one. not cosθ? b) Kimberly wanted to verify MalusÕ Law. the electric field of linearly polarized light can be considered as the sum of two components. She shone a flashlight on a photodetector and measured 1. Io is the incident light intensity. This results in MalusÕ law. on the left channel of the same station. which states that the light transmitted by a polarizer is: I = Io cos2θ. He places an identical speaker of his own.1996-1997 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 4: Optics and Waves Due February 14♥.45 m s Ð1. A linear polarizer allows through only the component that is aligned to its ÔaxisÕ.

p ∝ a3.75. . she measured the current. what do you expect this value to be? f) For large N . Io .33. The light scattering off of the sphere causes the charges in it to oscillate and thus induces an electric dipole moment p in the sphere. With the first and last polarizers aligned perpendicularly. she placed a third polarizer after the first two and aligned it with its axis 45¡ to the first one. What problems would you face if you attempted part e) in real life? What is a much easier way to produce vertically polarized light from a horizontally polarized beam. Without changing the orientation of the first two polarizers. For really big N.. at Customs she accidentally drops the cube in a glass of water and the inspectors catch her. Therefore she wants to paint only some parts of the surface.. she decided to extend her studies. she inserted two polarizers aligned at 30¡ and 60¡ to the first one.c) She inserted a second polarizer and rotated it to minimize the current generated by the photodetector.) [Chairul] 4) NothinÕ but blue sky. What was the new current generated? e) As a result of her findings in section (d). and what was the angle between the polarizersÕ axes? d) On a whim. p increases as a function of the volume of the sphere. She safely implants the pellet in the centre of a solid transparent cube of index of refraction n = 1. a) What is the least surface she must paint Ñ and in what shape? b) Unfortunately. but knows that Customs officers will be suspicious of such an obvious concealment. all aligned at 90¡/(N-1) to each other. It scatters off a small sphere of radius a << λ. She decides to paint the cube black. we should be able to calculate the intensity of the scattered wave Iscatt as a function of the distance R from the sphere. A plane wave of light has a wavelength λ. What current did she measure? She exchanged positions between the second and third polarizers. Kimberly effectively rotated the polarization of the beam by 90¡. so that the intensity of scattered radiation Iscatt from such a sphere scales as the square of p: Iscatt ∝ p2. Oscillating dipoles radiate electromagnetic waves. we want to know how the scattered intensity varies with the wavelength of the 2 . In particular. What was this current. but realizes the glow of the pellet will give her away. What is the smallest surface she should have painted? (The index of refraction of water is 1. What current did she measure? Write down the general expression for the amount of current generated for a total of N polarizers. using only a few standard mirrors? [James] 3) People see through Claire Claire (not her real name) plans to smuggle a tiny glowing radioactive pellet out of Ukraine. If we know the intensity of the incident wave.

exactly. c) The situation above can be used to model the sky. moved. Use this knowledge and the result of part (b) to explain why the sky appears blue. so letÕs approximate the light by a single ray as illustrated. through a microscope. Note that the three length-dependent variables in the problem are λ .ÊAshkin and J. As a result. 19.incident radiation. and analyze the change in momentum for a photon of wavelength λ = 530Ênm.. rather than. Focussed laser light can be used to push tiny spheres around.182 (1971) 3 . Then in moving the spheres with a laser. a) By conservation of energy.M. incident on the sphere at 6 µm off the normal-incidence axis. green. and a. Appl. Phys. Lett. The human eye has evolved so that it is most sensitive to that part of the spectrum for which the intensity of light given off by the sun is maximal. As a result. b) For a laser with power 1 W.4. stretched. Consider a plastic sphere 25 µm in diameter and with an 6 µm index of refraction n = 1. It is possible to coat these tiny spheres with biological antigens and make them glue themselves to particular polymer molecules. Visible laser light can be focussed to a spot a few micrometers across. p. where visible sunlight of all wavelengths scatters off of water molecules in the air. Sometimes this is referred to as optical tweezers The force doesnÕt come from light pressure. how must Iscatt depend on λ? Use the dependence of Iscatt on the other length-dependent variables (which you know from above) to obtain your answer.stanford. but through refraction. we are most sensitive to green and this sensitivity falls off as we move to either the red or violet ends of the spectrum. perhaps also see ÔOptical Levitation by Radiation Pressure. even the end of DNA strands. [Nipun] 5) Just tweezing.edu/dept/news/relaged/940509Arc4280.html (a sort of press-release on related work at Stanford University).. say. Dziedzic. what is the net force exerted on the sphere as it changes the momentum of all the photons in the beam? You can assume the sphere doesnÕt move [Robin] Web reference: http://www-leland. How does Iscatt scale with the distance R from the scattering sphere? b) The ratio Iscatt /Io is dimensionless. the polymer molecules can be manipulated. a) Find the approximate path of refraction through the sphere.Õ A. R . the amount of radiation flowing through any spherical shell at any distance R from the sphere must be a constant.

I is the intensity of light in W cmÐ2. and 5 mm thick in the middle (see figure). where n is the index of refraction. find the approximate focal point of the beam. n o is the ordinary index of refraction for lowintensity light. 50 mm in diameter. and n2 is a constant equal to 5 × 10Ð15 W cmÐ2 for glass.5 else where b ≡ 10 6 – (2.996875 Because the light is more intense in the middle. c) Consider light which has flat wavefronts as before.6) Photons get the bends In one kind of description. The speed of the wavefronts is the phase velocity vφ = c/n. the wavefronts are delayed in the middle of the beam relative to the edge.5)2 = 999. For this intensity and for a block of glass 10 cm thick.66. If the glass has an index of refraction n = 1. it is not hard to see that the beam must collapse to a focus. a) Consider a simple lens. and again the beam will come to a focus. b) What is the radius of curvature of the new wavefronts. Then by HuygenÕs construction. the flat wavefronts come out curved concave-forward. but is more intense in the middle than at the edges. it increases the index of refraction it encounters. [Robin] 4 . Where light is very intense. find out how much the wavefronts in the middle of the beam are delayed in time relative to the part of the same wavefront that passes through the very edge of the lens. as: n = no + n2 I where n is the actual index of refraction. It turns out that the index of refraction depends also on intensity I. and where do they come to a focus? Something similar can happen in an ordinary flat block of glass when very intense light is incident on it. flat on one side and with a spherical surface on the other. When a plane wave passes through a positive lens. with the distribution: 2 × 1013 −b + 10 6 – x 2  I [ W cm ] =   0 –2 ( ) for x ≤ 2. lenses work by changing the curvature of the wavefronts of an incoming beam.

0 m 9 where L=6.5 6. Each speaker is at the antinode position.5 3. Jesse’s anti-music This problem here is a simple standing-wave problem.0 1.0 m is the distance between the two speakers and λ the wavelength. To have minimum sound.0 4.1996-1997 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 4: Optics and Waves 1. Wave patterns 1 Mode fundamental n 1 L = 1/2 λ L= λ L =3/2 λ L=2λ L = 5/2 λ L=3λ L = 7/2 λ L=4λ L = 9/2 λ 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 0. 1 . Jesse has to be at one of the nodes of the standing wave pattern.

in fact. and f = v / λ = v (2 m – 1) / L for m =1. c) If Jesse has only one speaker.. a) Consider with a set axis and a general r (instantaneous) electric field vector. Thus n = 2. Transmitted electric field is E ||. the intensity must be a minimum. much faster than a detector can follow.25 n π) for the acceptable n. the electric field is oscillating very fast (≈ 6 × 10 Hz). … At position x =1. To try and be as ‘correct’ as possible. the appropriate wavelengths can be obtained by imposing the antinode boundary conditions: cos ([2π/λ] L ) = ± 1. …. 2. A new twist on light This problem can be answered with different levels of rigour.24 Hz. 165. he could not do any better no matter what direction his speaker faces. He. 2.21 Hz.a) Analytically. Thus transmitted intensity is: r IT = < | E || |2 > 2 . So the frequencies would be minimum for f = 55. …. b) No. …. We do not require ‘I’ as a function of time for this question. while avoiding integration. 2. If he has more speakers he could arrange them as such that more frequencies can be cancelled out. 3. 276.73 Hz. I will define intensity as the time average of the square of the electric field: r I = < | E (t)|2> This is necessary since for visible light fields. 3. 6.k. r a polarizer r where | E || | = | Eo |. there is some complication due to the interference between his own speakers. Nevertheless. 14 PLEASE NOTE: Many of you may have taken a simpler approach (more likely to be found in an OAC-level course) by writing: r r I = | E |2 (ignore oscillating nature of E (t) ) This is o. would hear some frequencies louder (at maximum with intensity four times larger than its original without his own speaker). thus [2π/λ] L = n π for n = 1.5 m. but not as rigourous as my solution. meaning cos([2π/λ] x ) = 0 ⇒ cos([2π/λ] Lx / L) = 0 ⇒ cos([2π/λ] L [x / L ]) = 0 or 0 = cos ([n π]x /L ) = cos (0. This method can also be used for a slowly-varying –12 field by taking the time average over a length of time corresponding to detector response (≈ 10 – –6 10 s).

This can be written as: N r N v ITOT = <| ∑ E n|| + ∑ En⊥ |2 > r where E n|| : N: n=0 n=0 (1) is a parallel component of the nth source. and with their polarizations pointing in all directions. E polarizer axis E|| θ E Let’s do this a little more rigourously. If using calculus. A really rough answer to this would be that since there is no preferred direction. We can model the flashlight as a very large number of linearly polarized sources. What does Kimberley measure without the polarizer? N r 2 ITOT = <| ∑ En | > n=0 where N is very large. ∴ she measured 0. This means the polarization of the EM (light) field does not have a preferred direction. and 1/2 is orthogonal. 1/2 of the intensity is polarized parallel to the polarizer. 3 . all with the same amplitude.5 mA.r 2 = < Eo cos2 θ > r 2 = < Eο > cos2 θ r 2 but Ι ο = < Eo > ∴ IT = Io cos2 θ b) Required assumption: current on photodetector ∝ intensity of light. N → ∞ and all the sums become integrals). A flashlight is an unpolarized source. a very very big number (I’m working hard to avoid calculus here.

r r To simplify the third term. chose θ = 90°. c) Only linearly polarized light is transmitted by the first polarizer. ∴ I 2 = 0 and current = 0.5 mA of current. A. Thus ‘parallel’ and ‘orthogonal’ are arbitrary and the first two terms must be equal. consider a case with only two sources.0 mA. n=0 I ∴ Ipol = TOT 2 She observes 0. we can write. π . B The third term looks like r r r r <|( A || + B || ) ⋅ ( A⊥ + B⊥ )|> r r =0 since A || ⋅ A⊥ = 0 r A || ⋅ B⊥ = 0 r r B || ⋅ A⊥ = 0 r B || ⋅ B⊥ = 0 Therefore (1) ⇒ N r ITOT = 2 < | ∑ E n|| |2 > (since first two terms are equal). Therefore no matter how Kimberly placed the polarizer. N r N r N r N r 2 2 = < | ∑ E n|| | > + <| ∑ En⊥ | > + 2 < |( ∑ E n || ) ⋅ ( ∑ En⊥ )|> n=0 n=0 n=0 n=0 We know that the flashlight polarization had no preferred direction. The angle between the axes is 2 4 . Therefore the second polarizer transmits 2 I2 = I1 cos θ For minimum I 2 . she would get the same result.With the polarizer she oberves N r 2 Ipol = < | ∑ E n|| | > n=0 (2) We need I pol ITOT N r N r N r N r 2 2 ITOT = <| ∑ E n|| | + | ∑ En⊥ | + 2|( ∑ E n || ) ⋅ ( ∑ En⊥ )|> n=0 Take (1) ⇒ n=0 n= 0 n=0 Due to the absolute value brackets.

42 I1 6 Therefore she measures 0. Slightly more rigourously 90 =0 lim N →∞ N − 1 N →∞ 2N lim cos 0 = 1 Therefore she measures 0. where N is a large number.21 mA. she is outputting more light! For N polarizers: N  2  90o   I FINAL = I1  cos    ( N − 1)     By ‘subbing’ in increasing values for N. we see this coefficient is approaching 1. I2 = I1 cos2 45° = e) Output intensity is 2 2 2 Ifinal = I1 cos (30°) cos (30°) cos (30°)  3 = I1    2  ≈ 0. (Recall I1 is intensity of light passed by one polarizer).5 mA. Thus very little light would make it through N polarizers. By adding more polarizers. f) Real polarizers are not perfect. They still absorb some of the EM wave polarized parallel to their axes. recall what happens to a polarized beam in reflection: 5 .d) Let I1 be intensity of light passing through first polarizer. After exchanging: I1 2 I 2 I3 = I2 cos (90° – 45°) = 1 4 ∴ she measured 0. I2 = I1 cos2 90° = 0 And the final polarizer is aligned at 90° – 45° = 45° to the second one: I3 = I2 cos2 45° = 0 ∴ she measured 0 mA. Let I2 be intensity of light passing through second polarizer.13 mA. To change the polarization direction using two standard mirrors.

is less than the critical angle (θ c). Any direct rays fall with θ i > 45° in one side will fall on the adjacent one. Coming from the source.polarization parallel to surface of paper polarization orthogonal to surface of paper So arrange two mirrors as follows: 3. Due the geometry of the cube (shown as a square in the figure at left). measured from the normal. the ray will be totally reflected and it will be reflected forever! To see this effect refer to the figure. θc has to be less than 45 °. Otherwise the whole surface has to be covered. the light will be reflected by side A with θ i . A θi θc θr ray with incident angle θc ray with incident angle θi > θc ray with incident angle less than θc B If θc < θi < 45°. People see through Claire The light-ray from the pellet will be refracted out if the angle of incidence (θ I). The second reflection will be θr = 90° – θ i > 45° which is certainly 6 .

014 0. In this case θi can be as large as 54. and the third will be θ i .26°...e.greater than θ c . The light rays can also run in a direction not parallel to the edges of the faces of the cube: the extreme case is one in which the rays are directed along the planar diagonal of the cube.00. As (length)4 ∞ is the only remaining length– dependent variable. units) 0.012 0.26°..85° and the radius of the circle r = d is the vertex of the cube. θ c = 49.01 0.46° so Claire has to paint it all! 4. b) First we have to check whether in water.e.26°.e. 1 2 d tan θc = 0. a) A point source will emit light spherically. Using the same formula. θc < 35.006 0.004 0. We must have same 1 2 radiation flux through surfaces 4π R12 and 4π R22.3808 i.. The area she covers must be such that θ i < θ c cannot penetrate. So the area she must cover is R = π r2 / d2 = 1 4 π tan2 θc = 0.73° (i. and so on alternately. we have Iscatt 1 ∝ 4. Io λ much more blue is scattered out of the beam than red is Wavelength (nm) 7 .349 d . thus θc = 34. i. 38. θc = sin–1 (nfluid / ncube) For air nfluid = 1. tan–1 ( 2) ). So Claire must paint in a circular shape on each side. The radius of each circle will be determined from θc. θc < 35.. we need θc < θr.002 0 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 scattered power (arbitrary units) Iscatt ∝ p 2 ∝ ( a 3 )2 Io to be dimensionless 1 dependence. R and R . Nothin’ but blue sky . To contain this ray also. In this way a cube is a good container for hiding an object.008 0. with θr = 35. so 1 I∝ 2 R b) and Iscatt 1 ∝ Io R So for requires a Iscatt Io Power (arb.08% of the total surface. where a) Assume that the radiation is emitted symmetrically for 2 radii.

the blue end of spectrum is preferentially scattered away by water molecules and the sun appears reddish or red-orange. Our eyes’ sensitivity peaks near green and sensitivity falls off towards red and violet. c) From part (b).. bluer light — sent sideways from the transmitted beam of sunset light — has showered sideways to become someone else’s blue sky.. we see a peak near the blues. As the beam enters the sphere. superposing the eye’s sensitivity and the Rayleigh scattering law. due to refraction at the interface sinθ1 = n sinθ2 α = θ 2 + ∆θ = θ 1 ∆θ = θ 1 – θ 2 (Snell’s Law) (opp.This 1 dependence is known as ‘Rayleigh λ4 scattering’. So. ∠ th’m) θdev θ1 The amount the beam deviates is then ∆θ ⇒ θ2 r when the beam leaves the sphere the angle of incidence at the exit is again θ 2 and then θ 1 at the exit. Just tweezing . its direction deviates. and again the angular deviation is ∆θ . Thus especially at sunset (when the sunlight passes through the longest stretch of atmosphere). longer wavelengths experience smaller scattering. The shorterwavelength. 100 10-1 Relative Sensitivity rods (scotopic) 10-2 cones (photopic) 10-3 10-4 10-5 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 Wavelength (nm) 5. looking at the sun. Thus the overall deviation in angle is θdev = 2∆θ = 2(θ1 – θ2) b b sin θ1 = sin α = → θ1 = sin −1    r r 1 b b → θ 2 = sin −1   sin θ 2 = sin θ1 =  nr  n nr −1  b  −1  b   Thus θ dev = 2  sin   − sin     r nr  r θ2 ∆θ α θ1 b 8 .

67 × 1018 photons per second dp 18 –28 –1 FTOT = x = Nx • ∆px = 2.4 25 µm     = 2 (13.25 × 10–27 kg• m•s –1 ∆px = 1.67 × 10–10 kg•m•s –2 = 4. Here λ = 530 nm = 5.03°) = pγ (0.75 × 10 kg• m•s dt = 4. then px = pγ sin(θ dev )   b b  = pγ sin 2 sin −1   − sin −1     r  nr     here px = pγ sin(8.62 × 10 J • s.66 9 .3 × 10 −7 m = 3.88° – 9.75 × 10 −19 J b) Laser 1W = 1 J/s 1 photon has energy hν = so 1 J = 2.67 × 10 ⋅1.62 × 10 −34 J s [but J: kg•m2•s–2 ] p= −7 5.b = 6 µm   n = 1. where h = 6.30 × 10 m: c λ 6.75 × 10–28 kg•m•s–1 hc (6.03° If the photon This new direction means photons have a new x-component of momentum.30 × 10 m = 1. momentum is pγ originally.140) For a photon: p = so hν h –34 –7 = . a) vφ = c / n phase fronts move slower in glass where n = 1.67 × 10–10 N Photons get the bends air only glass only 6.87°) = 8.62 × 10 −34 J s) 3 × 108 ms −1 = λ 5.4  ⇒   6 µm   6 µm   θ dev = 2 sin −1   − sin   25 µm   1.

47 1 3/8" cm 10 .00 5 × 10 −3 mm = = vφ c 3 × 108 ms −1 = 1.3 mm  2 2 2 so R = (R – 3.3 mm 50 mm R a R This is a chord of a circle.3 mm) + (25 mm) 2 2 R = R – 6.47 cm after the lens! 9.6 mm⋅R + 625 mm2 625 mm 2 R = = 94.7 – 16. the 11 ps relative delay means distance ct = 3 × 10 ms • 11 × 10 s = 3.6 mm = 9. then Huyghen’s Principle shows the wavefronts converge to a point — the focus 8 –1 –12 Right after lens.7 ps (picoseconds) • time through 5 mm air t = d nd 1.nd 1.66 5 × 10 −3 m = • time through 5 mm glass t = d / vφ = c 3 × 108 ms −1 = 2. What is the radius of the circle? b = 25 mm  2 2 2 a + b = R a = R − 3. and this is where the beam comes to a focus 9.7 ps ⇒ time difference is (27.3 mm behind edges: –11 s b 3.77 × 1011 s = 27.7) ps = 11 ps b) In one way of describing it.67 × 10 = 16.47 cm So the radius of curvature is 9. lenses focus by putting a spherical curvature on phase fronts.7 mm 6.47 cm.

996875 –3 y = 3.13 × 10 so ∆z = y/100 = 3. then the equation of a circle.17 m) ↑ ↑ depends on x So all the curvature in the beam comes from the second term: ∆z = n2 I(x) d = 5 × 10–15 • 2 × 1013 W • cm–2 • (–b + 10 6 − x 2 ) = 0. Let’s find wavefront delay according to x ∆t = n( x )d c n(x) = no + n2 I(x) d = 10 cm = 0.c) The form of I looks complicated.1 m c = 3 × 108 ms–1 no d n2 I ( x )d + c c constant for all ↑ ↑ causes curvatures in wavefronts ∆t = and the physical displacement of the wavefronts is: c∆t = no d + n2 I(x)d constant (0.13 × 10 –5 m 11 .01 ( 10 6 − x 2 – b) 2 –1 Note the units of n2 : cm W — there was an error in the question! (eek! ) Then (100 ∆z + b) = 10 6 − x 2 (100 ∆z + b)2 = 106 – x2 x2 + (y + b)2 = 106 cm2 Take y = 100 ∆z.01 (–b + 10 6 − x 2 ) = 0. That is because it is pre-cooked to give an easier answer! n = no + n 2 I ∆n = n2I across the beam. with R = 103 What is the y-displacement? y = yo where x = 0 2 6 (y + b) = 10 3 y + b = 10 y = 103 – b = 1000 – 999. offset by –b along y. making wavefronts curved following intensity changes across beam.

12 .996875 cm The beam focuses in 10 m.Use the same method as in (a) to get the curvature a 2 + b2 = R2 2 6 2 R = 10 cm 3 R = 10 cm = 10 m a = 2.5 cm b = 999.

. Note also that the current in a wire is proportional to the average velocity with which the charges are moving. 1997 1) Gauss visits Planesville. except that the town is two-dimensional Ñ it is lacking the third dimension that we experience everywhere else on earth.5 mC mÐ2. consider a solid disc of charge of radius 10 cm and charge density 0.1996-1997 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 5: Electricity and Magnetism Due March 7. Manitoba is much like any small Canadian town. What is the electric field of such a disc in Planesville as a function of the radial distance from the centre of the disc? Sketch a graph of this field as a function of the radial distance from the centre of the disc. For an arbitrary charge distribution.. or is it accelerating? Does this charge obey OhmÕs law? 2) ItÕs not just a good idea. a) Êv A single point charge Q is moving freely under the influence of a constant electric field E . GaussÕs law takes the form of an integral. would GaussÕs law still apply in its usual form? (Hint: Derive the form of GaussÕ law in a 2-D world for a point charge. but recall that for a point charge Q. [Nipun] Êv Êv Êv OhmÕs law for conductors can be written in the form V = IR or as J = σ E . itÕs OhmÕs law! 1 . Is such a charge moving with a constant velocity. where J is the current per unit cross-sectional area flowing in a wire and σ is the electrical conductivity of the material.. so a constant electric field produces a constant current. Ê For our purposes.. we can draw a gaussian sphere at radius R from the charge and use the radial symmetry to write GaussÕs law as: Esphere ¥ (area of sphere) = Q/εo a) If CoulombÕs law applies in Planesville in the same form it does everywhere else. the important thing is that the current is proportional to the v electric field E .) b) How could we ÔfixÕ CoulombÕs law so that GaussÕs law would apply in Planesville? Write the expression for the new force law. The (very obscure) town of Planesville. c) For the force law of part (b). We want to see how GaussÕs law might be different in Planesville.

He recalled a physics demonstration. When a sudden voltage was v applied across the ends of the B wire. outer diameter = 1. thickness = 0. resistance = 10Ð3 Ω . in which a metal ring is placed on a metal post. length = 50 cm. a) With the metal ring anchored to the post so it could not slide. µ = 500 µo). What caused this time lag? 2 . Noah decided to try to build one himself. we neglected the fact that the electrons (at room temperature) have a lot of thermal energy. He measured the current (in amperes) as a function of time and determined that it satisfied the following equation: I = 1. they are constantly jiggling about in random directions with a thermal velocity v t. attached to the top of a solenoid. Noah decided to make use of this effect ring post to build his own rail gun. Êv what is the new time between collisions? If we then apply an electric field E to the wire. what would Êvhappen to the current at very high and very low temperatures for a constant applied field E ? [Nipun] 3) Total Recoil After seeing a recent Schwarzenegger film ERASER. Noah turned on the voltage source and found that the current did not reach its maximum value immediately.5 g ). Therefore. The hand-held gun fired metal projectiles at near-light speed with rather destructive results. instead of free point charges.b) Now.0 (1 Ð exp(Ðt / T)) with T = 0. µ = 500 µo).04 s. we consider electrons flowing through a wire. metal ring (inner diameter = 1 cm. the metal ring was launched away from the solenoid. On average. The solenoid consists of a wire wrapped many times around a cylindrical metal core. switch Noah's first design contained the following components: solenoid (core wrapped with 2000 turns of wire. Such electrons undergo occasional collisions with ions making up the metal. what is the average electron velocity? Does this result agree with OhmÕs law? d) If the model of conduction in part (c) was accurate.5 cm. mass = 0. If this thermal velocity determines the time between electron-ion collisions (because vt is much greater than the electron velocity due to any applied field). For a Êv constant applied field E . Noah was impressed by Arnie's nasty rail-gun type weapon. an electron travels a distance d before colliding with an ion and stopping altogether. metal post (length = 5 cm. what is the average time between collisions? What is the average velocity of an electron? Does such a result agree with OhmÕs law? c) In part (b).1 cm.

What is the new net force on the anchored metal ring. what is the Lorentz force ( F = q v × B . where v = velocity of particle of charge q) the ring feels as a function of time and in what direction? If the ring weren't anchored to the post. what would be its resulting motion? e) The magnetic field is of course not uniformly pointing parallel to the solenoid axis but starts to diverge as it exits the solenoid (as shown in the diagram). To get an approximate value for the resultant speed. g) Noah decided to improve his design. the discovery of the Λ Ð particle played a significant role. but Noah didn't want to be greedy. Suppose the free kinematics of this decay is such that all particles before and after the decay move in the 3 . assume that at the fixed position of the ring. Arnie's gun was supposed to fire at near-light speed. pointing exactly parallel to the metal v Ê v Êv Êv ringÕs axis. Noah was seriously injured. Somehow Noah succeeded in building it and though it worked perfectly. d) If the solenoid creates a uniform Êmagnetic field. He redesigned his device to launch the projectile with a velocity of 0. What value of magnetic field does Noah generate. and I is the current in the wire.b) From a physics text. the field lines leave the post at 15¡ to its surface. What had he forgotten to take into consideration? [James] Êv 4) The Lambda particle: outstanding in its ( B ) field. One of the most important decay modes of this particle is the decay to proton and pion: Λ → p+ + ¹ Ð The minus sign for ¹ denotes that the charge of this pion (¹) is Ðe. Use this constant force to get a rough idea of the velocity of the ring as it left the metal post. He closed the switch again and the ring was projected forward. 3 × 108 m¥sÐ1). what is the magnitude and direction of the current induced in the anchored metal ring as a function of time? You can assume that the current response of the ring is instantaneous. as a function of time? f) Noah turned off the voltage supply and removed the anchors so that the metal ring could slide freely on the post. For simplicity. Noah determined that the magnitude of the magnetic field at the end of a solenoid is: B = µ N I /2l where N is the number of turns of the solenoid. In the dawn of the field of particle physics. In the movie. approximate the force applied to the metal ring for arbitrary time t to be the same as calculated in part e) at time t = T. as a function of time? c) Recalling Faraday's law of induction.01 c (c = speed of light. It is relatively long-lived. l is the length of the solenoid.

is applied to separate the moving proton and the pion. What is this speed as a fraction of the speed of light c? [Chairul] 6) Plasma. and later dissipates as the vehicle slows down and cools. M¹ = 140 MeV ¥ cÐ2. where c is the speed of light) This problem can be solved in a non-relativistic way (even though it will not be accurate). whether ionized by heating (as in the sun). away from the proton component. in this classical model: (a) The force of electrical attraction between the proton and the electron. or by dissociation in solution (as in blood). Find. what is that of the pion? (rest-masses: MΛ = 1115 MeV ¥ cÐ2. (b) The speed of electron.same direction (see figure). the plasma frequency. reflecting the signals and blocking communication for a period during re-entry. perpendicular to the motion of the particles. by electric discharge (as inside a fluorescent light tube).053 nm. A similar kind of reflection takes place for short-wave radio waves reflecting off the right part of the ionisphere. When spacecraft re-enter the earthÕs atmosphere. one should take into consideration the mass missing after decay. on the wall Practically all of the mass of the universe is not solid. 4 . like a parallel-plate capacitor. however. with equal density of electrons and protons. This plasma sheath can actually act like a mirror for radio-wave communications between vehicle and ground-control. [Chairul] 5) Bohring after the truth Λ p π decay (no magnetic field) p Λ π decay (under magnetic field) In the Bohr theory of the hydrogen atom an electron circles the proton in an orbit of radius 0. which will contribute to the kinetic energies of the proton and the pion. If in a region of plasma (as illustrated) we pull the electron component to the left. the heat of re-entry produces an envelope or sheath of ionized air and ablating heat-shield surrounding the craft. plasma. made of a mix of electrons and protons only. Now a magnetic field of 1 T. The density of this plasma increases as the craft enters thicker atmosphere. but in the form of plasma. it leaves two slabs of excess charge. If the radius of the proton path is 3Êcm. Mp = 938 MeV ¥ cÐ2. and not quite gaseous. This happens because plasma is a good conductor and because plasma of a certain density has a characteristic resonant frequency. The electrostatic attraction of the proton for the electron furnishes the centripetal force needed to hold the lectron in its circular orbit. Plasma is any ionized matter. Consider a hydrogen plasma. not liquid.

[Robin] . This is the frequency of best reflection of electromagnetic waves by the plasma Ñ any frequency lower than this is reflected. and m the electron mass. each. and a particle density of N cmÐ3 for the protons and the the electrons. c) Show that this is a restoring force F = – kx. like a mass on a spring. d) Find the minimum density N of plasma needed to reflect shortwave radio at λ = 30 m. assuming a displacement x of the electrons relative to the protons. b) Find the force on the electrons and ions within this parallel-plate capacitor.a) Find the amount of charge in each charged slab. Under the assumption that the protons have so much more mass that they hardly move. show that the force constant k leads to an oscillation frequency for the electrons sloshing back and forth given by: + + ++ + – – –++ + + ++ + + + + ++ + +++ – – –+ + + ++ + ++ ++ +++ + + + + + ++ + + – ++ + + + + + + + – + + + + + –– – + + + – + – – – + ++ +++– – ++ +++ –– + + + – – + – + + – – + –– + ++ + + – – –– + ++ – – + + – ++ + + + – – + + + – + – + + – + + – –+ – + + +++ ++ + – ++ + + – – + +– – – –– – –– – – ––– –– – – ––– – – – –– + –– – –– – – – – – – – ++ + – + –– –– –– –– – ––– – + + – – – – – ++ –– ––––– + – –– – – + – – – – – –– – – –– – ++++ –––– – – + + ++ – – – ––– – – 5 νp = 1 1 ωp = 2π 2π N e2 ε o me where N is the particle density (electrons or ions). e is the electron charge.

a) It's not just a good idea .1996-1997 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 5: Electricity and Magnetism 1. charge in 2-D: GAUSS’ LAW: E • (circumference of circle) = Q 4 πε o R 2 2 πR = Q 1 Q ⋅ ≠ 2ε o R εo which is what one would expect from Gauss’s law b) to ‘fix’ this. i... J ∝ Vavg = ∴a= qE m ∴ charge experiences constant acceleration qEt ∴ current should increase linearly with time! (‘non-Ohmic’) m 1 . 2 (Ro = 10 cm) E(R) Field needed to satisfy Gauss's Law in 2-D outside disc: 2 E • 2π R = σ • π R o –2 where σ = 0.5 mC•m ⇒ E= 2 σ Ro 2 R disc radius Ro R 2.e. R < Ro. Gauss visits Planesville . it's Ohm's law! F = ma = QE.5 mC•m ⇒E = σ R .. make Coulomb's law ∝ ... E= then Q 1 ⋅ 2 πε o R R (point charge) Q 1 Q ⋅ ⋅ 2π R = 2πε o R εo (satisfies Gauss’s law) 1 R E ⋅ (circumfere nce of circle ) = c) inside disc: 2 E •2π•R = σ • πR –2 where σ = 0. a) for a pt.

5) = 1.04 ) Tesla c) Faraday’s law of induction dΦ E =− dt where ε is the induced electric field r r M is the flux = B ⋅ A r B is the magnetic field r A is orthogonal to the loop area r A = area of loop r Since the B direction is effectively orthogonal to the loop 2 . If T decreases. and will continue until the system reaches steady-state. vthermal decreases. Total Recoil a) The voltage increase causes an increasing current in the wire of the solenoid. 3.04 ) = 2(0. In brief.3(1 − e − t / 0. as T increases. the effect is the ‘induction’ of a ‘reverse’ electric field (and current) in the solenoid. B= b) µNI µN (1 − e − t / T ) = 2l 2l 500µ o (2000 )(1 − e − t / 0. This increasing current creates an increasing magnetic field through the solenoid.b) d= 1 2 at ⇒ t = 2 ∴ vavg = 2d 2d ∝ a E 1 1 at = a 2 2 2d ∝ a∝ E a ∴ it is non-ohmic c) if v thermal >> v due to field . This increasing magnetic field acts back on the solenoid wires to create an ‘induced’ voltage which opposes the original voltage change. vthermal increases so the resistance is greater. so the resistance decreases. v avg = at = a ∝E 2 2 vthermal ∴ it is ohmic d) σ∝ 1 v thermal from part (c) so. t= d vthermal 1 1 d then.

ring.r r Φ = B⋅ A = A B so dB dt µN d 0.i= R –t/–0.3 e − t / 0.4 = 2.5 e − t / 0. looking down solenoid This results in NO motion (unless the ring implodes). a =    π m2  2  2l dt –3 –t/T V = 2. Thus q = –neR r r F = − nelv × B r F r r = − nev × B l r r But within this model B is orthogonal to v and –ne |v| = i (current).5 e •A ε = –A (in opposite direction to current in solenoid. B is orthogonal r to the ring.) (We can ignore back-induction from the ring since it is very small.04 (1 − e − t / 0.01 2 = –A (1 − e − t / T ). 3 . v r is parallel to the ring. pointing towards the centre of the ring.04 ) l 2 = 3.04 ) out of page F B r r r r Direction of F is parallel to v × B .04 (1 − e − t / 0..5 × 10 e ε .) r r d) F = qv × B Let n be the charged particle density per unit length. r F r =i B v l µN = 2. Thus F is on the surface enclosed by the ring.

04 ° e (1 – e ) –1 For a constant acceleration: ⇒ v2 – v1 = 2ad v2 = 2ad = 1. Their final velocity is 4 .04 = 2. g) Noah forgot about the conservation of linear momentum.7 × 10 –3 = 6. but now F is not on the surface enclosed by the ring.1 m/s.01) π sin 15 = 3.3 -2 –t/.e) Even in this case v is still r r orthogonal to B . Consider m1 to be the mass of the ring m2 to be the mass of the gun and Noah v1 to be the final velocity of the ring v2 to be the final velocity of the gun and Noah Since the system starts at rest: m 1 v 1 + m2 v 2 = 0 v1 = –v2 m 2 m1 Guess that Noah and gun mass is on the order of = 100 kg. and we are left with a horizontal component facing to the right.04 s) = 2.04 r v F solenoid F v B post out of page into page B (1 – e ) (.04 –t/. r F FNET = l sin l –t/.3 × 10 N F = ma F ∴a= m 2 = 13 m/s –2 –1 –t/. r The vertical components of F cancel.1 m/s 2 2 but v1 = 0 The ring would leave the post going 1.7 × 10 e (1 – e )N f) but F(t = 0.

36 × 10 m • s . 6 –1 6 –1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 .2) (4. Nevertheless. (4.21 (vπ / c) − 1.1) (4.787)/ e (1 T) = 0.3) and substitute the term in (4. The Lambda particle: outstanding in its (B) field We can determine the speed of proton from the radius of its circular path Rp = pp/e B = Mp vp / e B So. its speed vp = Rp e B / Mp = (3 × 10 m) e (1 T) / (938 • 10 eV • c ) 6 –1 = 2. let us find out the radius of the pion path.00959 c.88 × 10 m • s = 0. the deceleration would probably be quite disastrous. MΛ vΛ = Mp vp + Mπ vπ. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 –2 6 –2 (for non-relativistic case).99 = 0 So we can obtain vπ = 0. We apply the conservation law of energy and momentum: EΛ = Ep + Eπ p Λ = pp + pπ which can be written non-relativistically as MΛ c + 1/2 MΛ vΛ = Mp c + 1/2 Mp vp + Mπ c + 1/2 Mπ vπ .787 c = 2. 4.3) vΛ can be eliminated by taking the square of (4.00959 + 140 vπ/c) /(2 × 1115) MeV − 2 2 938/2 MeV (0.13 (vπ / c) − 36.367 m = 36. Even if Noah wasn’t hurt in the acceleration.7 cm The full relativistic treatment (especially for pion) gives the radius of 40.2) MΛ c + 1/2 (MΛ) (Mp vp + Mπ vπ) = Mp c + 1/2 Mp vp + Mπ c + 1/2 Mπ vπ (1115 − 938 − 140) MeV + (938 × 0. Rπ = pπ / e B = Mπ vπ / e B = (140 × 10 eV • c • 0.00959) − 140/2 MeV (vπ/c) = 0 61.0005 100 Being accelerated to > 50 km/hr in such a short time could hurt quite a bit.v1 = − 3 × 10 6 = 15 m / s = 54 km / hr 0. This is a relativistic problem and the assumption of non-relativistic pion is incorrect.0 cm. The assumption of non-relativistic proton is applicable here.

where there are both electrons and ions. plasma. which measures x × y × z. with the two thin excesscharge slabs as the two charged plates of the capacitor. by a tiny amount ∆x. The volume of each little excess slab will be: (∆x) × y × z If the density of electrons is N [cm–3]. If the negative electrons are pushed off the positive protons to one side.00 ×10 ) • (1.31 × 10 6 –1 = 2. then there will be a thin slab of excess charge on either side — one positively charged and one negatively charged. on the wall a) Consider a slab of plasma. Hence the speed of the electron is v = √ (F r / m) = {(8. we can find the field between the two plates of a parallel-plate capacitor. b) For this. to solve for pπ and Rπ = pπ / e B.19 × 10 m • s = 1/137 c –8 –9 –31 )} 1/2 6. In the middle.Use the following formulae: MΛ c + 1/2 MΛ vΛ = Mp c + 1/2 Mp vp + Eπ. E = 4 π kc σ where kc = 9 × 10–9 N m2 C–2 σ = charge per unit area on each plate [3] [2] [1] 6 .22 ×10 ) • (0. what we have is something like a parallel-plate capacitor. Plasma. E π = Mπ c + p π c .22 ×10 N b) 2 2 2 9 –19 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 ) / (0. a) Bohring after the truth Applying Coulomb’s law: F = k e /r = (9.] 5. MΛ vΛ = Mp vp + pπ.053 × 10 ) / (9. so the net field in the middle is just what is produced by the thin slabs of excess (unbalanced) charge.053 × 10 ) –9 2 The centripetal force F= m v / r.602 × 10 –8 = 8. then the amount of excess charge will be N e (∆x) × y × z = N e (∆x) × A where A is the area of the side of the slab In other words. as in the question. the charges of each cancel each other out (unless you give them time to move around and redistribute themselves).

causing something like the excess charge in the model above. and experience a force: F=qE which depends on q. we can find the charge per unit area of the two slabs of excess: σ = (N e (∆x) × A) / A = N e (∆x) and the field between the plates is: E = 4 π kc N e (∆x) Now the charges in the middle see the field produced by the excess charges. being more massive. and it is quick to find the contribution each parallel plate makes to the overall field. given just above in [11]. So the force on an electron between the charge-excess thin slabs is a restoring force against the separation of charge. Since the ions are relatively massive. Most of them see the electric field between the two plates. the E-field can begin to drive electrons back and forth.] Then from the second part of [2]. but the electrons oscillate sinusoidally. Fr = – k (∆x) where k = 4π kc N e2 [10] [9] This is the restoring force of a simple harmonic oscillator (SHO) — it means the electrons mostly will slosh back and forth past the ions. have a certain ‘right of weigh’) in the electric field they see. +ve or –ve [6] [5] [4] This then gives us the force on each charge within the thin slab: F = q E = q 4 π kc σ = e 4 π kc σ = e 4 π kc (N e (∆x) ) = 4π kc N e2 (∆x) c) The whole block of electrons in the diagram of the question is free to move (the ions.[The easiest way to see this is to use Gauss’s Law (if you know it). with a frequency which depends on the electron mass: ωp = where ε o = 1 4π kc [11] Then νp = ωp / 2π to get the result shown. and having one side between the plates and the opposing side outside the plates. The field is perpendicular to the plates. drawing little rectangular boxes with sides parallel to the plates. 7 . d) When an electromagnetic wave is incident on a plasma. as does a SHO. barring collisions. by the symmetry of the situation. they hardly move. once they are released from their initial displacement. This is called an electron plasma wave. If the EM wave is at exactly the same frequency. The electrons then oscillate at their own frequency. it is in resonance with the electron plasma wave. and this pulls them back onto the ion background.

in the ionosphere. 22.4 × 10 Much less dense than this — shortwave radio is usually reflected not from fully ionized gas at atmospheric pressure.4 l = 22. cancelling the light that comes in and sending it back as a reflection.and oscillations can grow very large. 8 . × 1012 m −3 = 1. and that current can radiate EM waves itself. At what frequency does this happen for shortwave radio at λ = 30m? c = λ ν ⇒ ν = c / λ = 3 × 108 cm•s–1 / 30 m = 1 × 10 7 s–1 v = 1 × 10 7 = ⇒ N = 1 2π Ne 2 εo m e vp = 1 1 ωp 2π 2π Ne 2 εo me [12] (2 πv) 2 ε o m e = 124 . This means that a large AC current flows back and forth in the plasma.69 × 1019 cm − 3 3 22.022 × 10 23 cm − 3 = 2.24 × 106 cm − 3 2 e Compare this to gases at sea-level: 1 mole of ideal gas occupies 22.4 l @ STP.4 × 103 cm3 6. but from a layer of partially ionized highly rarefied gas high up.

). A heavy power cable might be an inch in diameter.s.1996-1997 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 6: AC Circuits and Electronics Due March 28. 1997 1) WhatÕs a gigawatt? Thirty of Ôem?? The province of Ontario requires something like 3 × 1010 watts of electrical power (aÊplausible guess?: a kilowatt or so for every person.. He decided to incorporate an LED as an indicator that would light up whenever the waffle iron is plugged in. -2 2 Voltage (V) a) After many serious burns.m. at 110 volts AC ( r. Calculate: a) the power lost per metre from Ô I2R losses. if it loses all this power by blackbody radiation.15 µΩ mÐ1. A slightly more realistic I(A) diode has a turn-on voltage. DonÕt forget to indicate your axis and scales. Say the whole province was supplied by a single cable a metre in diameter Ñ what would happen? Take it that the cable has a resistance of 0. 1 . An ideal diode has zero resistance for positive voltage and huge resistance for negative voltage. To begin. Anton decided to characterize his voltage source Ñ normal household AC Ñ so he measured the voltage as a function of time.Õ b) the length of cable over which the whole 3 × 1010 watts would be lost. and then twice as much again for all of industry).1 when a voltage greater than the turn-on voltage is applied across the device. Graph what Anton measured (2 cycles is sufficient). and c) how hot the cable will get. One typical use of a diode is as a light source. Anton (the Waffle Czar) Duzzleeater pledged to improve current waffle-maker technology. Your answer ought to be preposterous Ñ why is our electrical power system not ridiculous in this way? [Robin] 2) Waffling on the issues. These light-emitting diodes (LED) produce visible light 0.. as shown in the figure at right. the issue of waffles A diode is an electronic device that allows current to flow only one way.

b) Without bothering to think about it. [James] 5) Impeding oneÕs reactance In a DC circuit. she finds AND ((NOT A) AND B) OR ((NOT B) AND A) circuit is a very useful combination. the nature of the sum depending on whether the resistors are in series or in parallel. OR Her supervisor said to her that she can make any combination. the total resistance is a sum of the individual resistances in the circuit. Unfortunately. In an AC circuit. Lo and behold. plays the role of resistance and sums in the same way as resistance. Z. and NOT. is given a bunch of digital gates.to be or not to be. that is the question!] Wendy.. OR. however it has both real and imaginary parts. what would be the voltage drop across it as a function of time? Does the LED emit light? When? LED heating coils (R=10 Ω) c) Unfortunately for Anton as soon as he plugged the circuit in. [James] 3) 2B ∨ (~2B) ← Q! [. If the diode had a similar I–V curve to the one shown in figure 1. to simultaneously achieve the desired voltage and current. a Physics Olympiad student. For ideal resistors. the contributions to the total impedance are as follows: resistors: inductive reactance: ZR = R Z L = iω L capacitive reactance: ZC = (iωC)–1 2 . Anton wired the LED in series with the waffle heating element (schematic at right).. Can you name that NOT simple circuit? [Chairul] 4) Connect the dots! Who said that physics wasnÕt all fun and games? See the figure on a separate page: the challenge is to connect the dots using the components given. Draw a more intelligent circuit that would avoid this problem. the impedance. inductors and capacitors. she only has three types of gates: AND. the diode flashed a brief burst of light and began smoking. The diode couldnÕt take the excessive current. Draw the circuit for that combination. The symbols ÔAÕ and ÔVÕ correspond to ideal ammeters and voltmeters. Note that you may not need to use all the dots (or components) and you may want to attach more than two components to the same dot. Make a Boolean table for that circuit.

which is given by |V out| = ( Vout ¥ V out*)1/2 where Vout* is the complex conjugate of Vout. the current will oscillate back and forth through the lamp before dying away.. a) What is the total impedance of the circuit in the figure below? b) We are interested in only the amplitude of V out. These are the facts about the flashlamp circuit: ¥ the electric current pulse through the flashlamp must last for a certain amount of time τ in order best to ÔpumpÕ the laser ¥ if only a flashlamp and capacitor are connected in series. C = 200 µF? c) Find the current i (t) through the resistor R . L Ð inductor. large capacitors are charged to several kilovolts and then a fast. which can then be represented as shown at right: C Ð capacitor. where f is the frequency of the input AC signal. highvoltage switch closes to discharge them through the flashlamp.. b) Assuming the voltage is the fastest-possible decaying simple exponential. i(t ) Ð time-dependent current through flashlamp. If the capacitor is charged to 2. R c) How would such a circuit affect a highfrequency input signal? A low-frequency signal? What do you conclude it might be used for? [Nipun] 6) Say ÔcheeseÕ! (. but hugely larger. and that C and R are fixed. R Ð resistance of flashlamp.Here. how much energy is discharged through the lamp? [Robin] 3 . what must be the value of L? What is the exponential decay time. It is very much like an electronic camera flash.Zap !!) V in C V out In high-power lasers pumped by a flashlamp discharge. an inductor like a coil of heavy wire is added to the circuit. What is |V out| for this circuit? Sketch |V out|/|Vin| as a function of log10 ω. ω = 2¹ f . given RÊ= 1 Ω. L C R i(t) a) What is the equation for the charge q on the capacitor? What is the voltage across the capacitor in terms of the charge q on the capacitor? Show your approach.5 kV. and this can damage the lamp or cause it to explode ¥ the best shape results when the capacitor voltage is a simple decaying exponential ¥ the exponential should be the fastest-decaying one possible To make these things possible.

2A V wires b) Set voltage=6V.g. I=.Figure for ÔConnect the Dots!Õ e.) Set voltage=5V. I=5A A V 5V A 5V 1Ω 1Ω V wires 10Ω a) Set voltage=4V.2A 5Ω A 6V 10Ω A 4V 6V 6V 6V 10Ω V c) Set current I=0A (note: short-circuiting batteries is baaaaaad!) 5V 10Ω A 10Ω 50V 90Ω wires 4 . I=.

As well.670 × 10–8 W m–2 K–4)) 1/4 =15.e. the last time quite near the delivery site.5 m) 2. I recall) with smaller losses.14 (0.7 m (a pretty pathetic distance!) power loss by Stefan-Boltzmann law: P= σ A T4 trivial power gain from 20°C room temperature. i. so the power is delivered at much higher voltages (like 250. with P = IV (i...e.5 × 10–7 ohm • m–1) = 1. basically because of Nikolai Tesla: with AC current we can easily manage step-up transformers.1 × 1010 W • m = 2. Waffling on the issues .1 × 1010 W • m–1 = 1...48 m2 • 5. a) What's a gigawatt? Thirty of 'em?? Power lost per meter.000 V.48 m2 T = (P/(σA))1/4 = (3 × 1010 W / (8.800 K This doesn’t happen.7 m of cable is A = 2π r L = 2 • 3. and then stepped-down several times. 2. power and voltage are pre-set) 2 P loss = I2 R = (P/Vrms)2 R = (3 × 1010 W / 110 V ) • (1. the issue of waffles b) c) a) Normal household voltage in about 120 V (rms) which corresponds to 170 V peak-to-peak 170 voltage (V) 1/60 -170 time (s) 2/60 1 .1996-1997 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 6: AC Circuits and Electronics 1.7 m = 8. likewise: P= σ A (293 K)4 so that net: P= σ A [(T4 – (293 K)4] ≈ σ A T4 Area of surface of 2. the total diameter of cables is far in excess of 1m.1 × 1010 W • m–1 length for loss: 3 × 1010 W / 1.

that is the question!] The circuit of this combination is A C E G B D F Boolean table Input A T T F F B T F T F C F F T T intermediate nodes D E F F T T F F T F F F F T F Output G F T T F Clearly. as indicated by the asterisks in the graph below.. 170 voltage across 2 L. (V) * * 1/60 time (s) 2/60 -170 c) One possible circuit is shown at right. Rb AC heating coils 3..D. 2 . Thus it flashes at 60 Hz. this circuit is an exclusive OR gate (XOR). to be or not to be. This reduces the amount of current that flows through the LED.E.b) The LED emits light only when it is forward-biased. 2B ∨ (~2B) → Q! [. where R b is a large resistor.

I=. the total impedance is ZT = R + (iω C) Similarily.2A 5Ω A A 6V 6V 6V 4V 10Ω 10Ω c) Set current I=0A (note: short-circuiting batteries is baaaaaad!) 90Ω 10Ω 5V V A 10Ω 50V wires 5. 3 . I=.4. Therefore.2A All R=10Ω V wires 6V b) Set voltage=6V. the impedances are in series. as seen by VOUT Z= –1 1 iω C b) The ratio of VOUT to VIN is given by the ratio of the impedances. Connect the dots! a) Set voltage=4V. a) Impeding one's reactance As they are seen by VIN.

4 0. we can establish a dt relation in terms of change of charge. units) 6.VOUT ZT 1  1  = =  R+  VIN Z iω C  iω C  VOUT VIN −1 = 1 1 + iω CR 1 1 * V  VOUT   2  2  2 1 1 1 OUT =  =  × ×   =   2 2 2 V  VIN    1 + iω CR 1 − iω CR  1 + ω C R   IN  1 so. RC 1 c) for ω << 0. Be careful about the signs: Since I = • choose allocation of +q/–q on capacitor • +q plate is at higher potential.6 for ω >> 1 . Zap !!) Each element has a charge-dependent voltage associated across it: resistor: ∆ V R = IR capacitor: ∆VC = q/c dI inductance: ∆ V R = –L dt dq .1 1 10 100 So this is a filter which allows only low frequency AC signals to pass.. all signal is passed.. and since the potential drops around the circuit must sum to zero. all voltage is dropped RC 0. VOUT = VIN 1  2 1  2 2 2 1 + ω C R  1 . The cutoff frequency can be changed by adjusting R and C ω (arb. a) Say 'cheese'! (. so sketch current direction (flow of +ve charge) consistent with dropping potential Then the current carries charge away from +q dq so I= dt 4 .2 –log(RC) 0 0.8 | Vout | / |Vi n| 0.

meaning that the discrimant (root here) should be non-negative (else get imaginary numbers.d2q q/c + L + dt 2 or L Then dq =0 R d2q dq 1 + R + q =0 dt C dt 2 a ‘second-order ordinary differential equation’ ∆Vc (rise) + ∆VL (drop)+ ∆VR (drop)= 0 dI q/c – L – IR = 0 dt assume the form V(t) = Voe so q(t) = CVoe –t/τ –t/τ b) and substitute into differential equation 1 2 –t/τ  1    + RCV o  −  + Vo}e = 0 {LCV o  τ  τ e –t/τ 0 must mean 1 2  LCV o   – RCVo  τ 2  1  + Vo = 0   τ  or multiplying by τ both sides τ – RC τ + LC = 0 then −b ± b 2 − 4ac τ= 2ac + RC ± R2 C 2 − 4 LC = 2  4L  1 1 ± −  R2 C  = RC   2       The solution should be a simple exponential. which lead to cosine/sine terms — oscillations) 1− 4L >0 R 2C or 4L < R C 2 2 quadratic formula 5 .

e. C = 200µF ⇒ T = 100µs c) This was rather (too?) tricky: one way to see the solution is to start with τ 1.e. as 1− 4L → 0+ 2 R C i.. from above RC then τ1 .R2 C L> 4 Then there are two solutions because of ± q(t) = CVo (a1e –t/τ1 –t/τ2 + a2 e ) a 1 + a2 = 1  4L  1 + 1 −  R2 C  τ1 = RC   2        4L   1− 1− 2  R C τ 2 = RC    2     One of these τ1. τ 2 → 2 R = 1Ω. i. τ1 ⇒ a1 = τ1 − τ 2 − τ2 a2 = τ1 − τ 2 but 6 . τ2 is always the longer time — the fastest decay is as τ1 → τ2. τ2 and the condition 0 = I (t ) = −   1 dq(t ) 1 −t / τ 2  = − CVo  − a1   e − t / τ1 − a2 e  dt τ2  τ1    so a a  I(t = 0) = –CVo  − 1 − 2   τ1 τ 2  a1τ2 = –a2τ1 a1 + a2 = 1.

(close enough) 7 .I (t ) = + CVo  = as L → rule: numerator demominator So the answer I (t ) = CVo = t −t / τ e τ2  1 1 e − t / τ1 − e −t / τ 2   τ −τ τ1 − τ 2   1 2  CVo − t / τ1 −t / τ 2 (e −e ) (τ1 − τ 2 ) R2 C 0 and τ1 → τ2 this gives a indeterminacy.5 × 10 V) 2 = 625 J of energy. which we can work with l’Hôpital’s 4 0   1 2 d (e − t / τ1 − e − t / τ 2 ) = e − t / τ1  −t  −  dτ1   τ1   d ( τ1 − τ 2 ) = 1 dτ1 CVo −t / τ 2 te ( RC) t2 Vo – I (t ) = 2 t e RC R C E= 1 2 CV 2 1 3 2 = 200µF (2.

gc. 1997 1) Connect the dots! Who said that physics wasnÕt all fun and games? See the figure on a separate page at the end of this set: your mission. to what temperature can you heat the initially cold (blue) water. any sizes you wish. check out: www. [James] 2) Out with the bad air. indoor pollution. It is a bit too complicated for POPTOR to calculate efficiency for a heat-recovery ventilation system. So for such houses. dyed red). Note that you may not need to use all the dots (or components) and you may want to attach more than two components to the same dot. In fact. and to what temperature can you cool the initially hot (red) water. but still allowed to exchange heat. the efficiency is surprising.cmhc-schl.souheat. in with the good. etc. to simultaneously achieve the desired voltage and current. These containers prevent heat loss to the air. by arrangements of letting them swap heat? [Peter] [Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) is a remarkable Canadian gold-mine of housing research and public information of every imaginable sort. heat recovery ventilators. To order publications. presenting the warm and cool air above.1997-1998 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 1: General Due November 3. or from the occupants themselves.ca/InfoCMHC/contact. dyed blue). and there might arise a risk of pollution-buildup from building materials.com/gallery. from cooking and cleaning. of temperature 0¡ C. but consider this problem: Say you have 1L of hot water (say.. In homes which meet the R-2000 standard of energy conservation. and 1L of water (say.htm] 1 .. Say also that you have many specially-insulated containers. The symbols ÔAÕ and ÔVÕ correspond to ideal ammeters and voltmeters. but exchange heat perfectly when two (or more) touch each other. designers may include a heat-recovery ventilation system Ñ basically a kind of heat-exchanger in which stale air exits the house but first passes much of its heat on to the incoming cooler air. of temperature 100oC. should you decide to accept it. fresh air enters the house fairly warm and stale air exits the house fairly cool. Because the outgoing and incoming air streams are kept separate as they pass each other. is to connect the dots using the components given. there are virtually no drafts which let in (cold) fresh air. including energy-efficient R-2000 houses. The question is like warming the incoming air in the house: without mixing the two together.html#Publications] [Wonder what a heat-exchanger looks like? There are some photographs of heat-exchangers for industrial processes at: www.

only the standing waves are excited by his voice) How many different frequencies is this? You should ignore the issue of how his (large) body interferes with the sound in the shower. so they can be resonant within the space. so the walls are ÔnodesÕ or zero-points for the molecular motion. Only certain-frequency waves naturally meet this condition. How many standing-wave modes of light are amplified in a laser resonator which is 80 cm long? [Robin] 4) Opposites attract. Therefore. For sound.. how many standing wave modes in the shower can his voice excite? (Alas. Consider a grounded cylindrical conductor. or maybe a marble washroom stall. These are Ôstanding waves. standing electromagnetic waves are formed in the laser cavity. of great length compared to its radius r. Metallic mirrors also set a condition on the electric field in light: the transverse electric field must vanish at the surface of a conductor (see question below). several items are brought together: a laser cavity (consisting of two mirrors facing one another) and an optical amplifying laser medium are the bare minimum. b) Krystal has a Nd:glass (Ôneodymium glassÕ) laser.. If the conductor is of finite size. a) Luciano Pavarotten is an operatic shower-singer.3) Waves ˆ la mode If you have ever sung in the shower. and would begin to move Ñ any positive charges in one direction and any negative ones in the exactly opposite direction. and find the period of the orbit.Õ and sometimes called Ômodes.Õ In making a laser. In orbit around this fat wire is a small charged particle of mass m and charge q . which is for that reason sometimes called a Ôlaser resonatorÕ. The distance from the point to the surface of the cylinder is d << r. If his shower stall is 1.5 m × 1 m × 2 m. but when 2 . but a narcissist always loves himself. [Peter] HINT: For this quite-neat question. which typically operates at about 1 Ð6 micrometer (1 µm = 10 m) wavelength. you may have noticed that certain frequencies really pick up: they resonate within the space. the charges canÕt keep on forever. and their reinforced amplitudes can be larger than that for other frequencies. You may not know that a note an octave above another has twice the frequency. ignore air particles. the air molecules moving cannot move into the wall. with a three-octave range starting at C below middle C (middle C is 256 Hz). The laser cavity provides ÔfeedbackÕ Ñ a way to recirculate the light many times through the amplifying medium to make it more intense. Neglect gravity. Not obvious? Say that there were a field inside: then the free charges in the conductor would see that field (and so a force). and pay no attention to the man behind the curtain. you may need to know these two things that you may not already know: a) A perfect electrical conductor has no electrical field inside. It can amplify any wavelength within ±5 Ð9 nanometers (5 nm = 5 × 10 m) of this wavelength. Why should a charged particle orbit a grounded conductor? Explain the phenomenon.

(θ = 180¡. and your smooth table-top. It's pretty difficult.6) ÔStacking the Deck Ñ Friction in the House of Cards. with the cards lying flat on the ground is stable. µ1 be the static coefficient of friction between a card and the smooth table-top. Describe what you do. Give an error-range for your final answer. predict θbest.. the largest Fmin) Ñ and determine that angle. and figure out estimates of uncertainties about your measurement process. b) Now knowing µ1 and µ2 . and why. alright. For your cards. When two cards are stacked together at some angle θ. Find out whether there is some optimal angle. there is some minimum force F min required in order to collapse them. Does it seem reasonable? Explain why. I'm using a brand new Bicycle deck. a) Find a deck of playing cards Ñ a couple of baseball or hockey cards (or perhaps even computer diskettes) will do. you know. measure µ 1 and µ2 . [Peter] θ 4 . How do you get µ1 and µ2 Ñ just look them up in the CRC Handbook of Playing Card Constants? Doh! You could measure it. Note that everyone will (most likely) get a different answer Ñ it's how you do it that matters for POPTOR. but useless Ñ that special case does NOT count!) PART II Ð Suppose that you want actually to predict the value of the angle θbest. so the cards are slippery and µ2 < µ1 . using results from PART I. θbest Ñ an angle at which the cards will be most stable (i.Õ by Kitty Kelly PART I Ð Consider the problem of making a structure out of cards. Let θ be the angle between the cards (we're assuming symmetrical stacking).e. Step One: consider the simplest problem of leaning two cards against each other on a flat surface. and µ2 the coefficient between the two cards. this is essential because it represents to others how closely they can trust your exact answer.

A 2 wires each R=1Ω 13V c) Set voltages: V1=11V. A V 5V 1Ω 7 wires A 5V 1Ω V wires 10Ω a) Set the current measured by A1 to be I=2A. What is the current measured by A2. A3 and A4? A2 1 A3 A4 2 wires A 15V All R=5Ω b) Set the current: I=3A using only the given components.) Set the voltage: V=5V. V2=7V. and V3=5V using only the given components. 1 V 2 V V 3 17V 6V 3 unknown R 4V 2V 5 . using only the given components. current: I=5A using only the given components.g.For Question #1: e.

not 1969. It turns out that the question was in error.73) = approx. the straight line joining the sun and a given planet sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time.html] 2) Free falling. We can estimate the value of S as the area of a circular sector (50/360) πR2.1997-1998 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program Ñ University of Toronto Ñ Solution Set 2: Mechanics 1) The Pluto Problem KeplerÕs Second Law results from the conservation of angular momentum of the planet about the sun. m the mass of a person who is jumping down and v is a value we are looking for.9 x 5. Therefore. at \$4. to the PlutoÕs orbital period T is equal to t/T = S/(πab) The denominator of the right side is the area of the ellipse representing the PlutoÕs orbit. [http://seds. Thus. and Pluto became closer to the sun i n 1979. k is its elasticity constant. Pluto will be again the ninth planet from the sun in 1999.9 x 5. Therefore.73) = (5/36) x (18.25)/2)2 x (248)/(5. According to this law.edu/nineplanets/nineplanets/pluto. and the numerator S is the area of the sector of subtended angle 50 degrees.50 a throw a) Let l be the length of a non-stretched rope (l + h < H).arizona.4 + 4. It is obvious that at the equilibrium height h your velocity had the maximum value. during which the PlutoÕs elliptical orbit is situated inside the NeptuneÕs circular orbit. where for more accuracy we can substitute R by (rmin + R)/2. t = (50/360) x (((rmin + R)/2)2 x T)/(ab) = (5/36) x ((4. the ratio of the time interval t.71 x 248)/(5. We can write the following three equations: 1) the equilibrium condition at the height h : 1 . 20 years.lpl.

m = 100 kg and l = 38. or sometimes heÕs a simple harmonic oscillator (SHO) a) submerged length of the cylinder force of gravity on the cylinder: volume of water displaced by the cylinder Y F=mcylg Ya 2 .6] If H = 25 m.5] [2.4Õ] [2.1 m/sec or 61.2 m/sec or 58 km/hour.mg = k (H Ð l Ð h ) 2) the energy conservation law at the height h : mgH = mgh + (k /2)( H Ð l Ð h )2 + (1/2)mv 2 3) the energy conservation law on the ground level : mgH = (1/2) k (H Ð l)2 Divide [3] by [1] and obtain l = √ H (H Ð 2 h ) Then rewrite [2] using [1] in the following form : mg (H Ð h ) = (mg /2) (H Ð l Ð h ) + (mv 2/2) and get v = √ g (H Ð h + l ) or using [4]. v = √ g (H Ð h + √ H (H Ð 2h )) [2. from [6] we have v = 16. h = 10 m.4 km/hour. 3) ÔBobÕs your uncleÕ. we have k = 261.73 m (from [4]).18 m (from [4]). h = 10 m. we have k = 787.4] [2.8 H/m. If H = 25 m. c) Elasticity constant can be found from [1] : k = (mg )/( H Ð l Ð h ). then v = 28.2 m/sec of 101. For H = 50 m. then v = 28 m/sec or 101 km/hour. b) Only the third equation will be different compared to case a) : mg (H Ð h 1) = (1/2) k (H Ð l Ð h 1)2 Hence.1] [2.4 H/m (the rope must be 3 times stronger for the height H = 50 m compared to the one for the height H = 25 m). m = 100 kg and l = 11. If H = 50 m. For H = 25 m.6 km/hour.3] [2. If H = 50 m.2] [2. l = √ H (H Ð 2h ) + h 1 (2h Ð h 1 ) [2.3Õ] Use [4Õ] in [5] and get the new value for v . then v = 17.

y0 is the maximum amplitude of Bob. This requires cos(φ) = 1. whether we start off by lifting Bob or by pushing him down a little. in the amount: F = − mg = − ayρ water g and likewise if we pull the cylinder up.3] holds. so: a m cyl g = Yaρ water g Y= mc yl Bob h 1'-1" ρ waterπa y -8" b) For a small displacement from equilibrium. it is easy to show that y(t) = y0 cos(ωt+φ) is a solution of any equation of the form m(d2y/dt2) = Ðky.So the force of gravity on the cylinder = Yaρwaterg At equilibrium. We will use this same form in future POPTOR problems! The maximum/minimum value that y can take occurs when cos(ωt+φ) = ±1. If we let go of Bob at an amplitude y0. Then the increase in the buoyant force is an excess force. A is acceleration. c) (Note: in this section. the excess is in the opposite direction. while a is the cross sectional area of Bob) F = m cyl A = mcy l d y = − ρ water ayg 2 dt 2 [3. 3 . Assume we push the cylinder slightly deeper into the water than the equilibrium point. Then y (t = 0) = y 0 cos φ = y 0 [3. the two forces are equal. then this should be his maximum amplitude. there is a small difference between the buoyant force and gravity. y. as in part (c).1] so. 2 dt m cyl [3. So. d 2y ρ ag = − water y. measured from the equilibrium point.2] d) Just by substituting. at time t=0. which is true as long as we make φ = n 2π. where n is any integer.

ω = (k/m)1/2. m BØ B = ρwga(yw Ð yB) Ð m Bg. (If however t=0 is chosen at some other point in BobÕs oscillation.7] e) F = buoyancy + gravity = ρwga(yw Ð yB) Ð mBg at equilibrium F = 0.5] so. mB¥ accelÕn = F. equilibrium: = ρwga((yw Ð ywo) Ð (yB Ð yBo)) = ρwga(∆yw Ð ∆yB).6] ω= ρ water ag mcyl [3. so 0 = ρwga(ywo Ð yBo) Ð mBg mBg = ρwga(ywo Ð yBo) where ywo and yBo are equilibrium (rest) values. we will need φ to take on some other value. d y k = −ω 2 y0 cos(ωt + φ ) = −ω 2 y = − y 2 dt m 2 [3.8] y w 2' A mBØB = ρwga(yw Ð yB) Ð ρwga(ywo Ð yBo) .For convenience. so. we simply set φ = 0.4] To determine ω for Bob.) dy = −ωy 0 sin(ωt + φ ) dt [3. note that. k ρ ag = water mcyl mcyl therefore. From part (c). [3. In general. ∆yw ≡ yw Ð ywo 4 but we substitute for m Bg the value from 1'-5" a Bob yb [3.

as the cylinder becomes huge. the period is smaller if the water level also rises and falls.11] [3.10] Note: as A → ° . Thus. ωo2 → T = 2π ( A − a) m B aA g ρw i.13] aA gρ ∆y = 0 (A − a ) w B [3..9] The overall volume of water in the tank is constant.e.e. mB(∆ØB) = ρwga(∆yw Ð ∆yB) [3.since (ØBo) = 0.12] [3. we have ØB = (∆ØB). i.. and this is the same value at equilibrium: V = A⋅yB + (A Ð a) (yw Ð yB) = const = A yBo + (A Ð a) (ywo Ð yBo) thus A(∆yB) + (A Ð a) (∆yw Ð ∆yB) = 0 or (A Ð a) (∆yw) + a(∆yB) = 0 Substituting this into (A Ð a) × I we get mB(A Ð a) (∆ØB) = ρwag[(A Ð a) ∆yw Ð (A Ð a) ∆yB] = ρwag[Ða∆yB Ð (A Ð a) ∆yB] = ρwag[ÐA∆yB ] So m B(∆ y B)+ Thus ωo2 = aA gρw (A − a ) m B a g ρw as above! mB [3.14] [3. (where by (∆ØB) I mean the second derivative in time of (∆yB) ). 5 .

they will accelerate toward the centre of the square at the same rate. b) This is not as easy as it looks. 6 . U is the final speed of the protons and q is the magnitude of the charge of an electron (k = 1/(4πεo)). By symmetry. and signifying nothing. 4πε o Since this result holds for any a. the same is true for the protons. The particles will obviously be repelled to some large distance. their velocities along the diagonals will be equal. the proton-proton pair.4) Full of fury. a) The system will annihilate.  m V2  4kee 2kee 4kee 2kee + − − = 4 e  b a 2b 2a  2  where b is the final size of the box.. The terms on the left are due to: the energy of the positron-positron pair. Their final velocities [same number] could be found from: potential = Hence. and the masses of each particle are equal. by symmetry. and they will keep accelerating inwards. So the formation will be preserved. Note that this gives infinity for b = 0. Conserving energy E= kqq kqq kqq mV 2 MU 2 + +4 =2 +2 a 2 2 2a 2a 1 kqi q j 4kee 2kee = + ∑ a 2 i ≠ j rij 2a where V is the final speed of the positrons. and hence their positions will be equal. and the positronsÕ with their neighbouring protons (respectively). where their interactions will be virtually zero. consider any particle Ñ the net force is. Since they all start from rest. directed towards the centre of the square. the final velocity of each of the positrons will be equal and opposite. It has a magnitude of: FNET = kee kee kee 3kee + 2 − 2 = 2a 2 a2 a2 a (k = 1 ). and they start from rest. There is a net force of 3kee [towards centre of square] 2a2 on each particle To see this..

We get: MU 2 = [2] Dividing [1] by [2] gives mV 2 +1= 4 2 + 2 MU 2 V M = 4 2 +1 U m ( ) Or. an oncoming air particle has a horizontal velocity of r*ω m/s. 5) Sikorsky meets Newton From Newton's 2nd law. we'll put ourselves in a frame rotating with the blades. At a distance r from the origin. mV 2 = kqq kqq +4 a 2a kqq 2a [1] Now. the force is dp/dt. We'll assume that the collision is partially elastic with a parameter k. we can consider the protons. the accelerations of the protons = 1/2000 of accelerations of positrons Ñ thus. that the positrons have escaped. This gives E= kqq kqq kqq mV 2 kqq + +4 =2 + a 2 2a 2a 2a Solving. the positrons will escape before the protons will have moved.. k = 1). Note that the magnitude of their velocity is krϖ = U 2 + V 2 By NewtonÕs second law there must be equal an opposite forces acting on the blade Ñ thus there is a vertical component (lift) mU. and a horizontal one mV. the particles will move downward with some speed U and backward with some speed V. Now. After a collision. the protons are virtually stationary. slowing 7 .e.Conserving momentum yields no new information Ñ it is conserved because of the symmetry of the system. I. I.. after the collision the air particle has a velocity k*r*ω (for perfect elasticity. 115 plugging in M/m = 2000. however. that because M >> m. Note.e.

Electronic circuits control that ω is steady and the helicopter does not spin around. ( ) ( ) 8 . but weÕll make life easy and use the average r Ñ that is. R/2. instead. the area swept out by a blade is: area = 1 / 2 * dα * a 2 The volume thus swept out is: volume = 1 / 2 * dα * a 2 * b sin(θ ) And the mass hit is: mass = ρ *1 / 2 * dα * a 2 * b sin(θ ) θ The downward component of k*r*ω (U) is: krϖ cos(θ )sin(θ ) Note that this varies this r Ñ technically speaking.the rotation of the blade. tiliting the rotor axis seems like a good idea (so part of the lift is sideways) but I suppose too hard to build. when passing over the front) each bladeÕs pitch (θ) is changed Ñ this adds an extra force. but luckily we assumed that the rotation rate is constant (the engine compensates). (m = mass of one air particle) Now. after rotating through an angle dα. for 1 blade: F = ρ *1 / 2 * dα / dt * a 2 * b sin(θ ) * (kR / 2ϖ * cos(θ ) *sin(θ )) For N blades: F = N ρ *1 / 2 * ϖ * a 2 * b sin(θ ) * (kR / 2ϖ *cos(θ )* sin(θ )) BONUS: Well. This would make the problem complicated. Thus. as necessary. What is done. we should integrate here. is something much more interesting Ñ during a part of the cycle (say.

4 63.2 37.0 84.8 77. Here is such a table.2 55.4 27. and that the columns marked indicate how many count data-points fell into the range of each box of pulse-heights.8 59.6 70.4 81.0 48.8 23.40 9.8 41.00 12.6) Pulse-height analysis a) The data in the table can be plotted as a histogram Ñ a range of values of the output.6 16.0 66.2 73.4 45. and then a count of how many times the values fell into that range. and two different ways of plotting it: 14 12 10 137 Xo 1.6 88. 9 .2 19.6 52.80 5.2 N 0 2 2 3 2 4 2 3 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 4 12 3 0 Cs Pulse Height Distribution Count 8 6 4 2 0 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 Range 14 137 12 10 Cs Pulse Height Distribution Counts 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 80 Pulse height range The first plot better shows how there are bins.0 30.6 34.

speed v and crosssectional area S: Fd = 1 2 ρ f CD v 2 S = 1 2 ρ f CD vterm2 πr 2 [6.1] For wind resistance. and the package which holds the NaI scintillator and the photomultiplier tube. i. Fg = mdrop g − mair g = (ρw − ρ f )V g = (ρw − ρ f ) 4π 3 r g 3 [6. In the background is the electronic apparatus which sorts pulses as they happen. here is how a Ôpulse-height analyzerÕ package does the job: In the foreground is the Cs gammaradioactive source.. b) The raindrops will have a terminal velocity .For comparison. So we can find the terminal velocity by figuring out the balance of forces: gravity and wind resistance. and adds them to bins much as you did by hand. Working from: g acceleration due to gravity: ρ w density of water: ρf density of air: r droplet radius 980 cm s Ð3 1 g cm Ð3 Ð3 1.2] Thus we start with Fg = Fd so that: 10 .e. some maximum constant velocity.2928 × 10 g cm at NTP Ð1 we need to subtract the buoyant force of the air Ñ a small correction given the density of water compared to air. drag coefficient CD. If the velocity is terminal (constant) there must be no net force on the droplet. with density of air ρf.

[6. [6. and then see from the results what it will take to justify the assumption. [6.8 cm s ±1 11 . solving for vterm . CD ~ 24/Re.0166 cm . letting us find the corresponding condition on r: 80 > Re = 3 ρ f (ρw − ρ f )4 g r 3 9η2 9η2 then solving for r . First we find vterm: 1 2 ρf 24 4 vterm2 = (ρw − ρ f ) g r 3 Re and substituting for Re thus.4] 6 η vterm 4 = (ρw − ρ f ) g r 3 r 2 (ρw − ρ f )g 2 vterm = r 9η ρ f vterm 2r η  (ρw − ρ f )2 g r 2  2 r ⋅ = ρf  9η η     = ρ f (ρw − ρ f )4 g r 3 9 η2 Then this goes into the formula for the Reynolds number: Re = [6.3] 4π = (ρw − ρ f ) gr 3 If we assume that we have a sphere. vterm = 333. we can consider our two limiting cases for CD: we assume each case to start. using this we require that Re < 80.5] Now.6] 180 η2 = r < 80 • ρ f (ρw − ρ f )4 g r 3 ρ f (ρw − ρ f ) g 180 η2 r< ρ f (ρw − ρ f ) g 3 ⇒ r < 0.1 2 1 2 ρ f CD vterm2 πr 2 = (ρw − ρ f ) ρ f CD vterm 2 4π 3 r g 3 or. Case I: Re < 80. cancelling.

4 First we find vterm: 1 2 4 ρ f 0.4 cm s ±1 So this approach works for droplets larger than 0. solving directly for vterm .4 2 thus. [6.4 vterm2 = (ρw − ρ f ) g r 3 4 (ρw − ρ f ) g r 3 = 1 ρ f 0. 12 . CD ≅ 0.7] vterm = (ρw − ρ f ) 20 gr ρf 3 Then this goes into the formula for the Reynolds number: Re = ρ f vterm 2r η 2  ρ f vterm 2r  (ρw − ρ f ) 20 =  gr    3 η ρf [6.So this approach works for droplets smaller than 0. [6.9] 3η2106 80 g ρ f (ρw − ρ f ) 3η2106 80 g ρ f (ρw − ρ f ) ⇒ r > 0.17 mm. vterm = 703. for which the terminal Ð1 velocity will be around 7 m s . for which the terminal Ð1 velocity will be around 3.8] = ρ f (ρw − ρ f ) 80 η 2 3 g r3 Now from this we require that Re > 1000.3 m s . letting us find the corresponding r: 2 Re > 106 ρ f (ρw − ρ f ) 80 η r3 > r>3 2 3 g r 3 > 106 then solving for r .98 mm.098 cm . Case II: Re > 1000.

10] ρw (ρw − ρ f ) 20 g ρf 3 = 9.5 (r > 0. 101 9 10 14 9 R e <80 R e >1000 momentum (g cm s– 1) 10 104 10-1 10-6 10-11 10-16 10-21 10-26 0.07 × 106 r 5 4π 3 r • 3 (ρw − ρ f ) 20 4π • gr = 3 3 ρf (r < 0.1 1 radius (cm) In order to find radius from experimental m o m e n t u m data. or momentum deposited by the droplets.98 cm ) We can plot this.01 0. so it is the scaling between terminal m o m e n t u m mdrop¥ vterm and droplet radius which is needed: ∆p = mdrop vterm = ρw V vterm = ρw  ρw    = ρ  w    4π 3 r vterm 3 4 π 3 2 (ρw − ρ f )g 2 8π ρw (ρw − ρ f )g r 5 r • r = 3 9η 27η = 5.39 × 103 r 3.Momentum The microphone will approximately record the impulse. 13 . for points in-between.001 0. we start on the y-axis (ordinate) and look up the radius on the x-axis (abscissa).016 cm ) r 2 7 [6. there is a plausible smooth curve to sketch the transition between the two regimes.

14 .L.For your interest. ed. Anderson. American Institute of Physics. H.. a fuller set of data for CDs for spheres Ñ found by experiments Ñ looks like this: 1 02 1 01 CD 1 00 1 0-1 1 0-1 1 00 1 01 1 02 1 03 1 04 1 05 1 06 R adapted from: A PhysicistÕs Desk Reference. New York (1989).

693)=8. Now we can use the formula (5) to calculate the temperature on the EarthÕs surface: T = (µ)(g)(h)/(R) = (28. Planet X a) Let us find first the value of the gravitational field constant for the new planet. we have µ = (0. assuming that the missile is painted a nice dull black so that emissivity =1: P/A= σ e T 4 For spot size of diameter 1m: T=3300K or 3000°C.3) = 4. From the equation of state for ideal gas pV = nRT = (M/(µ ))RT we find (3) 2 Ð11 2 (1) )(10 ))/((9)(10 ))=0.3) = 273 K = 0°C.56)(8. 5 For a spot size of diameter 1mm: T=10 K ! Kappoey!! 2.74)(5)/(8. it is too cold to live on this planet !!! (4) (5) b) For the molar mass of our atmosphere (78% of nitrogen and 21% of oxygen).6 km).8)/(8. 2 .7)(10 p = ρ gh where ρ is the atmospheric density.6)/(0. The good approximation for the height of the atmosphere equivalent to ours but of constant density can be found from the following condition: ∞ 0 ∫ ρ (x) dx = r0 h From this condition we obtain the value of h = (h0)/(ln2)=(5. Ðx/ho We can express this dependence as the function ρ(x) = ρ0Ê2 =Êρ0Êexp{(Ðln2)(x)/h0}.21)(32) = 28.1)(9. where x is the distance from the surface of the Earth.74 N/kg 25 14 The atmospheric pressure on the surface of the planet is equal to (2) ρ = M/V=(p(µ ))/(RT) and from (4) and (2) T = (µgh)/R = (10)(0.56 g/mol. LetÕs use the same expression as used above. The EarthÕs atmospheric density decreases at the same rate as the atmospheric pressure (1/2 per each h 0 = 5.1 km.b) Missile time! In a very short time the missile surface heats up and starts emitting. How much power is it radiating at equilibrium? The same as it is absorbing: 5MW (ow!). From the universal gravitation law we have for any mass m mg = G (mM/r ) g = GM/r = ((6. Assume that g is constant since h << r.5 K = Ð268°C Unfortunately.78)(28) + (0.

3 ρ2 = ((µ)(α2)(ps2))/(R)(T2)) = ((18)(0. You should be careful about signs here: I have implicitly defined that compression yields negative δx and expansion corresponds to positive δx.8 g/m ) / (17.95)(600))/((8. V 2 = V1 (T2 /T 1 ) = 1.0 atm (at steady-state with the room) V′ = 1 l V″ = 0.3)(273)) = 4. thus: W= ÐP δ V.8 g/m . In July.6 %. Jessica cycles heat a) The gas presses on the pump handle with a force = P A where A is the crosssectional area of the pump and P is normal atmospheric pressure. 3 3 so the relative humidity will be (0.48) = 0. 4. The molar mass of water µ = 18 g/mol. this gives that the work done by the gas is P A (δx). b) Given : P′ = 1. some people get nosebleeds.87 g. When the Santa Ana winds blow about this dry into Los Angeles. a) From the equation of state for ideal gas pV = nRT = (m/µ )RT .089 m = 0. The distance the handle moves is δx.4 times more vapor than in humid November (α 1 = 95 %). In November.3)(308)) = 15. in dry July (α 2 = 40 %)..5 l 3 . ρ1 = ((µ)(α1)(ps1))/((R)(T1)) = ((18)(0. we obtain ρ = m/V = (µ p)/(RT) = (µα p s)/(RT). skin .. In this situation. (1) where ps is the saturation vapor pressure for given temperature T and α is the relative humidity. where A is the cross-sectional area of the bike pump. The air will be uncomfortably dry.25)(3. Blow ye winds and crack your.089 m . the air contains 3. When the outside air is heated from Ð4°C to 20°C.87 g / 1.5 g/m . its volume increases.5 g/m . er. The density of water vapor in the heated air is equal to 0. The definition of work is the force vector dot product with the displacement. Therefore. where δ V=( δ x 3 3 3 3 3 A) . where n is the number of moles and µ is the molar mass. The work done on the gas is the opposite of this.4)(5500))/((8. b) The mass of water vapor in 1 m of outside air is equal to (0.3.3 g/m ) = 0.046 = 4. Thus. pV 1 /T 1 = pV2 /T 2 .

0 0.0 . Thus the area is a square + a triangle: Work = ÐArea = Ð(Ð0.Using adiabatic compression expression we find that: P ′/P ″ = (V″ /V ′) so P″ = 2.4 P 2.76 0. the work corresponds to the area under the graph give in part (b).5 l*(1 atm)+(1/2)*(Ð0.6 2.0 1.76 atm P′V′ = P′″V′″ 2.0 atm (at steady-state with the room) V ′″ = 0. Integration of this function will provide an accurate value.0 0. 1.9 atm l or in the more usual units for work: Work = 91 J P d) Using the ideal gas law again: P ′V ′/(P ′″V ′″) = TÕ/T′″ but here TÕ = T′″ so giving P ′″ = 2 atm There is no work done on the gas. Thus we can say: P ′V ′/(P ″ V ″ ) = T′/T ″ so that the final temperature is: T″ = 381K or about 110 ¡C .6 1.5 1.0 V P 2.5 1.0 l Using adiabatic compression expression again we find that: P″″ = 0.5 l)*(2. This assumes that the system started at room temperature (293K).5 4 1.6 atm Using the ideal gas law: PV=nRT or for a constant number of molecules: PV/T = constant. e) Given : P″′ = 2. but you can approximate the curve as a straight line connecting the beginning and final states.0 V . as can be seen in the PV graph (area under the curve is 0).5 l V ″″ = 1.0 V c)Using part (a).0 1.6 atm Ð 1 atm)) = 0.

The reason for the discrepancy is due to the linear approximation. δT for the cooling stage (stage 2): δT for the warming stage (stage 4): 381KÐ293K=88K 223KÐ293K=Ð70K The total number of moles in the gas is: n=PV/(RT)=0. 5.) Work: Q = 0 (No heat flows into the system.Using the ideal gas law again: PV/(P ″″ V ″″ ) = T/T″″ so T″″ = 223K or Ð50°C Wow eh! Using a linear approximation: Work= ÐArea= Ð.V 2).19J/cal * 0.0 .76 1. these two numbers would agree.98 cal/(mol K) * 4. or U(T1.041 mol =9 J We would expect this to equal the work done on the gas (calculated above as 21 J). as it is W = 0 (No net work done by the system) The energy change in the system after opening the valve is U 2 Ð U1 = ∆U = ÐW + Q (1st law of thermodynamics) = 0 So U 2 = U1. 5 . not that work is being done on the gas). P f) Easy one: final pressure: final T: 1 atm room temperature (293K) 1. It is only transferred when the gas is held at constant volume.5 h) No heat is transferred in the adiabatic compression and expansion.041 mol Thus the total heat transferred from the gas to the surroundings is: total heat = 18K * 2. g) Net work on the gas is 91 J + 0 J Ð 70 J + 0 J = 21 J 0. If the area was calculated accurately. Batboy chills a) Heat transfer: adiabatically insulated.V 1) = U(T2. since the area under the curve o n the PV diagram at right is again 0 (as in section d).69 atm l = Ð70 J Thus the gas does work of 70 J (the minus sign indicates that the gas is doing work on something.0 V No work done on the gas.

U1 = ∫T 1 Cv (T 1 )d T 1 + a∫V o T V dV 1 o (V 1 )2 dV 1 . U = Ðm l. ∆ U = cv ∆ T Ð a/v ∆ V. Batboy would have nothing to fear. The possible configurations of the magnets are: Both up: first up. where here the ∆ now refers to the difference in T and V in each compartment before and after the valve was opened. second down: l = +1 first down. b) As for part (a). where CV (T) = heat capacity (V 1 )2 U 2 = ∫T 2Cv (T 1 )dT 1 + a∫V 2 o o U1 = U 2 ⇒ ∫T 1 Cv (T 1 ) d T 1 + a∫V o T V T V 1 dV1 T2 V2 dV 1 1 = C (T )dT + a ∫ ∫ v To Vo o (V 1 ) 2 (V 1 ) 2 Assuming Cv doesnÕt change with temperature.For an ideal gas. CvT1 Ð a/V1 = CvT2 Ð a/V2 so (T2 Ð T1) = a/cv(1/V2 Ð 1/V1) With T2 = Ð5οC a = 0.15 T1 = 15οC Cv = 21 J/(mol K) V 2/V1 = 2800 V2 +1.V1) = U(T2.V2) 2 For our interacting gas. 6 . U(T1. meaning that T1 = T2. The Ôthermal physicsÕ (statistical mechanics) of computing a) For a system of 2 magnets. Relative to some arbitrary initial temperature To and volume Vo. Unless the gas in V 1 was initially very cold (which wouldÕve required fancy refrigeration). so U(T1) = U(T2). so V2 would have to be very large! 6. l2. U is independent of volume. to minimize the internal energy U. second up: l = Ð1 both down: ↓ l = Ð1 ↓ l = +1 ↓ l = Ð1 U = Ðm ↑ l = +1 ↑ l = Ð1 ↑ U = +m ↑ l = +1 ↓ U = Ðm U = +m So we want spins to be parallel to one another.

a state with lower internal energy. This means that internal energy determines the state of the system and so all the spins will tend to align in parallel.= 1 N −1 So UTOT is maximal if all magnets are aligned in the same direction. which is incorrect. ↑ 1 ↓ 2 ↓ 3 ááá th ↑ ↓ (iÐ1) i magnet: th ↑ ááá (iÐ1) ↑ ↑ ↓ (NÐ2) (NÐ1) N Interaction energy for the i U l = Ðm (liÐ1 lI + lI lI+1) Interaction energy for the (i+1) magnet: U l+1 = Ðm(lI lI+1 + lI+1 lI+2) Note that U l + U l+1 counts the interaction between l and l+1 twice. high entropy d) F = U ÐTS i) If U > TS. b) Energy difference = (energy before flipping a spin) – (energy after flipping a spin) If the flipped magnet was at the end of a chain. a flipped spin affects 2 bonds. low entropy ii) → moderate energy. 7 . ∴ energy increase = +2m So. we find: UTOT = − M ∑ li li + l i.For N magnets. which has a low entropy. If we follow this through for the whole chain. ∴ energy increase = +m Otherwise.. c) For 3 magnets: i) ii) U = Ðm(1+1) = Ð2m: U = Ðm(1Ð1) = 0: ↑ ↓ ↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↑ 2 configurations 4 configurations 2 configurations iii) U = Ðm(Ð1Ð1) = 2m: i) → lowest energy. all nearest neighbours have the same interaction as for 2 magnets: Ex. ∴ (all spins up or all spins down. is preferred. This is often called the Òordered stateÓ... the change in energy is due to 1 bond. flipping a spin from the parallel state increases the internal energy. high entropy iii) → high energy.

+ y N = ∑ x N − t yt 2 t = 0 (N − t)!t! N −s and sum over s Let s = Nup Ð Ndown. This is typically the most ÒrandomÓ state of the system..ii) If TS > U. state possible = (↑ + ↓) Let x = ↑ and y = ↓ By binomial theorem.. Other values cost energy and entropy Ð you can see how much of a free energy cost there is in constructing other states by evaluating U and S for a given T. such as ↑ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ 1 0 1 0 1= 21 or ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↓ 0 1 0 1 0 = 10 are easiest. the system will want to be in the energy state with the most number of configurations available to it. This is given by the coefficient of the binomial term with value s. state possible = (↑ + ↓) (↑ + ↓) = ↑↑ + ↓↓ + ↑↓ + ↓↑ 3 3 spins. BONUS: For 1 spin. ∴ g(N. then the ÒrandomÓ states. state possible = ↑ + ↓ 2 spins. Replace t by 2 (x + y) N = x N + Nx N − 1 y + (x + y) N = ∑ N N!  N + s  ! N − s  !  2  2  s= −N 1 (N + s) x2 1 (N − s) y2 well. if TS > U. the same form also applies to writing out our combinations of ↑ + ↓ (↑ + ↓ ) N = ∑ N N!  N + s  ! N − s  !  2  2  s= −N 1 1 (N + s) (N − s) 2 ↑ ↓2 The number of states with given energy is determined by # of up and down spins. a state of higher entropy is preferred. state possible = (↑ + ↓) N N spins. Conversely. If U > TS. in fact. iii) U = TS defines the Òorder-disorderÓ transition e) This depends on temperature. s) = ( )( ) N! N+s N−s ! ! 2 2 8 . we would know right away for x and y: N 1 N! N ( N − 1) x N − 2 y 2 + . then the configurations ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ 1 1 1 1 1 = 31 and ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 0 0 0 0 0 =0 are the easiest to code.

can be found from the following equation: qqp /(4 πε 0 R) = aStqp /(4 πε 0 R) = E .45 • 106 sec = 40 days This value is tiny compared to the age of the Earth. which will prevent 9 protons with the kinetic energy E < 4 × 10 eV from reaching the Earth. NOTE: the charge on a conductor distributes itself uniformly on the conductorÕs surface.? No! No! a) At a distance of 5 cm from a large sphere. The critical charge q of the Earth. 2) C. S = 4πR is the area of 6 Ð19 the EarthÕs surface. which is equal to 5 × 10 years.1997-1998 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program Ð University of Toronto Ð Problem Set 5 Solutions: Electricity and Magnetism 1) The Earth as Cosmic Doorknob The charge accumulated by the Earth during the time interval t is equal to 2 2 qÊÊ=ÊaSqpt.9)(1.4 × 10 m is the radius of the Earth.14)(0. qp = 1.6)(6.C. where a = 1 proton/cm . they are not considered as a component of cosmic rays. GaussÕ Law charge enclosed ε0 Q E • 4 πr 2 = ε0 9 ∫ E • ds = 1 . E field of a spherical conductor with charge Q. we must treat only that section of the sphere near where you are standing (your closest point to the sphere). R = 6.sec is the flow density.4)) = 3. where ( 4 πε 0 )−1 = 9 • 10 9 Nm 2 C −2 From this equation we have: 2 2 t = ( 4 πε 0ER)/( aSqp ) = (Eε 0 )/( aqp R) = 108 /((3. This is for the same reason that we can treat the earth as being flat locally at its surface even though it is really a sphere. Since their energy is extremely small.6 × 10 C is the charge of proton. Protons from the cosmic rays continue to reach the Earth because their charge is compensated by the charge of electrons also reaching the Earth.

A more sharply curved or ÒpointyÓ surface on a conductor has a higher electric field and therefore reaches spark discharge for a lower applied charge. I have heard that there was an ongoing disagreement between Benjamin Franklin in the U.8 × 10 3 b) For the large sphere. The argument went like this: all this.05) ∴ at 5 cm: 0. and European investigators as to what the best shape for a lightning rod should be: sharp spike or small ball.2 × 10 −10 C 2 m 4 πε o (. but the strong field around a sharp spike might cause air to ionize 2 . E2 ∝ 2 r1 r1 With the same constant of proportionality for each.∴E = Q 4 πr 2 ε o V Q = ⇒ Q = 2. is true.S. 1 q1 V1 = 4 πε o r1 Small sphere. ∴The ratio of the electric fields is E1 = E2 but q1 / r12 2 q2 / r2  q1    r  = 1  q2     r2  1 r1 1 r2 q1 q2 = r1 r2 E r ∴ 1 = 2 E2 r1 So the field is higher on the surface of the smaller sphere. above. the potentials of the spheres must be equal: 1 q1 1 q2 V1 = V2 ⇒ = 4 πε o r1 4 πε o r2 ∴ q1 q2 = r1 r2 The electric field at the surface of each sphere is given by q1 q2 E1 ∝ 2 . V2 = 1 q2 4 πε o r2 But since the spheres are part of the same conductor.

and move less from the forces).3 T + – + + + – + – – +– ++ + – + + +++ ++ + Ð19 + – + +–– – – –– (opposite = 1. The separated charges lead to an E-field. what we have is something roughly like n= –– – – ––– –– – – ––– – – – –– + –– – –– – – – – – – – ++ + – + –– –– –– – ––– –– – + + – – – – – ++ –– ––––– + – –– – – + – – – – – –– – – –– – ++ + –––– + – – + + ++ – – – ––– – – 3 .9 V m How much will the charges separate from each other. the electrons and ions will separate from each other in a B-field Ñ the Lorentz force pushes opposite ways for the opposite charges. this means we have 2. and the stream of positive charges will also move a little in the opposite direction.3 m s ¥ 0. and the same density of positively charged ions. If so. will – +++ + + + + – – + + – – + – + be: –– – + + ++ + ++ + –– – – + + – ++ + + – Ð19 Ð1 + – – + + – + 1.69 × 1019 cm −3 3 3 V 22. The two will balance. because as the charges separate. If the electrons are just pushed somewhat off the ions (the ions are much more massive. or 2.44 × 10 N – directions for electrons. and just separate as a stream? We can figure out the 23 details: air at STP is 22.69 23 3 × 10 electrons per m . ions) A block of plasma.as the rod began to charge up.69 × 10 electrons per cm . with the electrons pulled aside from the ionsÉ So when the flowing gas becomes ionized.022 × 10 23 = = 2. From this we find the number of particles per unit volume: N 6. they are still attracted to one another by the Coulomb force: v v FCoulomb = q E Then the net force is going to be: v v v v F = q (E + v × B) Basically. Do they end up going in circles in the B-field? Probably not. there would be glob of ionized air (plasma) near the rod. on each particle.6 × 10 C ¥ 0. and to an attraction between the two streams. stream of electrons will move aside from the gas stream.022 × 10 particles. so Ð1 E = 0.4 × 10 cm 17 3 With 1% ionization.44 × 10 N = q E. if we assume they keep their original density. so that F = 0 What will be the electric field to cancel this? Ð19 1.4 l per mole. and 1 mole = 6. and plasma is a conductor Ñ so the effective conductor would have a larger radius than if a lightning rod had a ball on the top to start with! 3) Goats & Sheep Ð the Hall Effect in plasma + + ++ – + ++++ + The point here is that moving charges in a – – ++ + + – + + ++++ + + magnetic field see a force Ñ the Lorentz – –+ + + + +++ ++ +++ + force: + + + + v v + – + v + + ++ ++ FLorentz = q v × B + + + + + – + + + + + – + + + – – + – – + ––– – + ++ +++– The Lorentz force.

given the size of an atom!).9 mV. where kc = 9 × 109 N m2 CÐ2 σ = charge per unit area on each plate The charge per unit area of the two slabs of excess comes from the charge density. the charges of each cancel each other out (unless you give them time to move around and redistribute themselves). where there are both electrons and ions. The particle moves in a circle. 4 . so the net field in the middle is just what is produced by the thin slabs of excess (unbalanced) charge. we can find the field Ñ the same as between the two plates of a parallelplate capacitor. Consider. In the middle. the potential measured across the jet from one side to the other would be 0. iii) vperpendicular non-zero: The cross-product simplifies to a multiplication and the resulting force is always acting perpendicular to the motion. therefore same result as first case.84 × 10 m A very tiny displacement (actually nonsensically tiny. though. with the two thin excess-charge slabs as the two charged plates of the capacitor. that if the jet is 1mm across. From the given equation and knowing that for perfect circular motion (such 2 as a satellite in orbit) the acting force is F = mv /r we find the radius of the circle is: r = mv/qB v out of page B v out of page B iv) We combine the results from sections iii) and ii) and get helical motion. For this. 4) Shepherding fields a)For the four cases suggested in the problem: i) v=0 There is no force acting on the particle and therefore no acceleration.a parallel-plate capacitor. and the distance the electrons are pushed off the ions: σ = (n e (∆x) × A) / A = n e (∆x) and the field between the plates is: [5] E = 4 π kc n e (∆x) or ∆x = E/(4 π kc N e ) Ð16 = 1. E = 4 π kc σ B B ii) vparallel non-zero: The cross-product is zero.

It undergoes oscillations (much like a torsional pendulum) such that: 2 2 2 I θ = −µ o mBz sin(θ) ≈ −µ o mBzθ here. 5) Science on a shoestring First we suspend the magnet from the stand (using the string). parallel to the z axis). and I is the moment of inertia of the magnet. with the added circular motion around the Z axis d) vz(z)=0 when z =(B0 vz(0) ) / (b0 vper(0) ) Total KE is conserved. m is the magnetic moment. Treating it as a thin stick.e.Since in all cases the velocity of the particle is always orthogonal to the acting force.. b) As given in the question. the work done on the particle is 0. Combining this with the result from part a): 2 2 vper(z) /B(z) = vper(0) /B0 This gives: 2 2 2 2 vz(z) = vz(0) Ð vper(0) (b0 z ) / B0 c) Shades of Bob. the motion is simple-harmonic with a period of 5 . I= M d2 12 ⋅⋅ Now. kinetic energy is conserved. in the X-Y plane) and vz is the component parallel to B (i. Energy from translational KE transfers to rotational KE.e. Thus the square of the magnitude of the total velocity at any given point in time is constant: 2 2 2 v(z) =vper(z) +vz(z) =constant where v is the total velocity. The particle swings back and forth along the Z axis. We want to find vz(z): 2 2 2 2 vz(z) = vper(0) +vz(0) Ð vper(z) We also know that flux is conserved: B(0) A(0) = B(z)A(z) where B is the magnitude of the magnetic field and A is area enclosed by the loop that is orthogonal to the field. in a similar way to a weight on a spring. We tilt it by a small angle and let it oscillate. vper is the component perpendicular to B (i. itÕs simple harmonic oscillator! KE is transferring from parallel motion to perpendicular circular motion. Bz is the horizontal component of the EarthÕs magnetic field.

we get r >> d Bz = 2π I µ o T r tan(β) 2 3 Ideally. but that is a lot of work (when done by hand). etc. The direction of the induced E field is such that it resists the change in the magnetic field (Lenz' Law). and divide the result by 10 (as long as the time does not decay too much). and get Bz that way.15 × 10 Tesla. it is best to time say 10 periods. Doing the experiment outside would thus be ideal. and this might be the biggest error here. Ð4 The accepted value is about 0. it ο might be best to set β at. the induced electric field circles the magnetic field direction. one would collect a set of βs by varying r. 6) How much do you charge for a free ride? a) B circles around a straight wire in a direction dictated by the right-hand rule (which comes from the Biot-Savart law). β tan(β) = 2m B = Bz 4 π r 3 Bz Combining. (figure next page) 6 . r is simply measures with a ruler. plugging in one set of numbers will do. To measure T. and then change r to obtain that deflection (to make measuring it easier) Ñ but one has to be careful that r >> d! To get the error. And thus. B I b) For a time-varying magnetic field in the z direction. where δX/X is the biggest error found (most likely for β or r. we note that δBz/Bz ≈ δX/X. and plot the equation (on log-log paper).T = 2π I mBz µ o Now. In fact. North Clearly. then. BUT it varies a lot because of interference. we align the compass to the north. like the magnetic field around a wire. δX means error in variable X). Then. we place the magnet some distance r >> d away from the compass and measure the deflection angle β. say 45 . Measuring β might be difficult.

more generally. This induced E-field accelerates the charges into circular motion. r and F are perpendicular and F = qE = (λδl)E. The total angular momentum is L = ∫Ndt where the integral is from an initial time to just before the B field is changed to the final time t just after the B field has stopped changing. The torque on the Merry-Go-Round wheel comes as a result of the E-field produced as the B-field produced by the solenoid vanishes (dB/dt . 2 L = Ðρλ πa ∫ ((dB(t)/dt)*dt)) (from to to t) 2 = Ð ρλ πa ∫ (dB) (from Bo to 0) as initially B=Bo. we integrate around the whole wheel dB(t)   N = r λ ∫ Edl = r λ − π a2  dt  B(t) increasing direction of induced B(t) decreasing direction of induced where we have used the result of part (c). and finally B=0.c) ∫(E•dl) around the loop = Ð∫ ((dB/dt)•ds on a surface bounded by the loop = ÐdΦ/dt. In our case. 2 ∫(E•dl) = Ð πa (dB(t)/dt) d) The total torque on the wheel about its axis: N = r × F over the whole wheel. where Φ(t) is the magnetic flux through the loop at time t. we see that the value of the final angular momentum is independent of how fast the field is switched off. or. it depends only on the initial field value. 7 .0). 2 so L= ρλ πa Bo e) From part (d). making our loop of radius a. taking the wheel to which they are bound along too. Therefore δN = rλδlE For the total torque. For a piece of the wheel of length δl. it depends on the difference between the initial and final field strengths BONUS f) Marks were given for any interesting answer Ñ the question is relatively sophisticated. centred at the centre of the wheel.

8 . Conservation of angular momentum canÕt Ôhold offÕ. Someone might argue that the B-field pushes the electrons to one side of the wire (the Hall effect. 3) so that the angular momentum they pick up doesnÕt match the positive chargesÕ. the wheel will accelerate when it sees the B-field changes. or wait. as the (kinetic) angular momentum of the wheel increases. this is a bit of a red-herring Ñ the solenoid has equal numbers of positive and negative charges. long distance D away. so it doesnÕt pick up momentum this way.0) as it induces an E-field. where c is the speed of light. but thereÕs no hope here! ÃÃ: Basically. The changing fields the wheelÕs motion creates will reduce the angular momentum of the overall electromagnetic field. this changing electromagnetic field must have angular momentum which is ÔleftÕ with the wheel. So the angular momentum must be in the electromagnetic field. the charges (already moving) in the solenoid see this changing B-field from the Merry-Go-Round disk (dB/dt . However. until the solenoid ÔlearnsÕ that it is pushing on the wheel Ñ a time D/c at the earliest.XX: Some might argue that this new circulating current produces a B-field of its own. even if the solenoid is a long. see Q.

. and only consider light pressure. This pulse can be focussed to a spot about 10 µm across.000 kg. c) How much force from light pressure does such a pulse exert? Roughly how much momentum is transferred? What is the pressure exerted by the light? [Robin] 2) Out of sight. This spacecraft uses huge sails to move the ship along on the solar wind (a stream of charged particles) or by light pressure from the sun. 1998 1) Pushy photons In an episode of Star Trek: Deep Space 9 .e. a) What is the best colour for the sail? b) For a sail area the size of a soccer field on a small ship of 2. resistors. how fast will the ship be moving after 24 hours? After 1 year? In my research laboratory we have a laser which produces a terawatt of power (1012 W) in a pulse of light about one picosecond (10Ð12 s) duration. But Ñ reversing things Ñ when the battery is connected across terminal-pair ÔBÕ. only)? Two pairs of terminals come from the box.1998-1999 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 1: General Due November 6. if only passive elements are used (i. You try to figure out what is inside it by making measurements across the terminals. a) Is the following black box possible. Benjamin Sisco makes a hobby out of recreating an early spacecraft. from alien archaeological records. Capt. the voltage measured across ÔAÕ is V. capacitors and inductors. hope you donÕt mind In electronics. If it is possible. the voltage measured across terminal-pair ÔBÕ is V/2. a Ôblack boxÕ is a mystery package with electrical terminals. what is inside? [123 Tricky] 1 . Consider such a craft the same distance from the sun as is the earth. If a battery of voltage V is connected across the terminal-pair ÔAÕ.

In the following five cases. To make things simpler. take it that light travels in straight lines). ignore diffraction and anything other than simple ray optics.] If you use something other than a small hole. [You can make a pinhole camera yourself: take a shoebox and make a small hole in the centre of one of the small sides. i. In a darkened room put a candle in front of the pinhole. You will be able to observe the inverted image of the candle on the wax paper. the image you see will be distorted. Example of imaging with a pinhole camera: i) View from side: Object Opaque sheet Screen Observer ii) From observer's point of view: Illuminated object Opaque sheet Image on screen 2 . Don't worry about the exact proportions or intensity. (For you fancy-pants out there. and image) and your task is to draw the missing component that is consistent with the other two.e. just draw the shape that is consistent with the other two shapes. you are shown two of the three components (object. opaque sheet with hole in it. Rays from an illuminated object travel through the pinhole and form an image on the viewing screen.3) LeonardoÕs camera obscura Simple ray optics can be demonstrated using a pinhole camera . Cut out the side directly opposite it and replace it with wax paper. This consists of an opaque sheet with a small hole in it. and a viewing screen (see layout below). I have drawn the objects from the observer's point of view (see below)..

All the following are from the observer's view: a) Illuminated object Opaque sheet Image on screen b) Illuminated object Opaque sheet Image on screen c) Illuminated object Opaque sheet Image on screen d) Illuminated object Opaque sheet Image on screen 3 .

c = speed of light [m¥s ].e) Illuminated object Opaque sheet Image on screen [James] [Artists used pinhole cameras in their invention of perspective drawing. How long does it survive? The power radiated by an accelerating charge is given by: dE K q 2 2 = 3 a dt c where K = 6 × 10 N¥m ¥C . One of the spheres lies on a heatinsulating plate. But their cameras were entire rooms. and the hole was in a wall. while the other hangs on a heat-insulating thread. so atoms cannot survive by classical physics alone. But it is wellknown that an accelerating charge radiates electromagnetic waves: light. They could sketch on the opposite wall. can you estimate the difference in temperature? [123 Tricky] 5) Death of an Atom Before quantum mechanics saved the day. and eventually be drawn into the nucleus. 9 2 Ð3 Ð1 Assuming the electronÕs orbit is a circle (atom is Hydrogen) a) Find the energy radiated during 1 cycle (frequency is f) b) At this rate. This means the electron will lose energy. x-rays. and a heat of 250kJ. etc. how many cycles before the radius is down to practically 0? 4 . it was noticed that there was a pretty basic problem with the atom. If one thinks of the atom as an electron orbiting the positively charged nucleus Ñ as a planet orbits the sun. The same amount of heat is transferred to the two spheres. This was the camera obscura.] 4) Heat works Consider two identical spheres made of aluminum. q = electron Ð2 charge [C]. but with electric fields instead of gravity Ñ it means that the electron is accelerating because of centripetal force. a = instantaneous acceleration [m¥s ]. Which one will have the higher temperature? For spheres of 100g each.

that all collisions are perfectly elastic (energy-conserving). [HINT: what if the slippery assumption doesnÕt hold?] [Peter] [Try www. As a matter of fact. to discover if we succeeded in putting a movie of this there!] Useful Bits of Information Al: linear expansion coefficient = 2. if the balls are hit sufficiently hard they will all sink. above.utoronto.4 J K mole density = 2.] 6) Stupid bet tricks Consider the following arrangement of balls on a pool table: 4 balls are lined up (touching each other) next to a pocket.c) Therefore estimate the classical-physics lifetime of a hydrogen atom. My friend claims that he can sink all the balls this way. TV or microwaves. given the initial velocity of the cue ball is V Ð1 m ¥s .physics. Calculate the final velocities of all balls. [Peter & Robin] [This radiation by accelerating charges is the principle of a broadcasting antenna for radio. then explain how it actually happens.7Ê×Ê10 kgÊm 3Ê Ð3 Ð1 Ð5 Ð1 K Light intensity from sun at earthÕs orbit Solar constant = 1.353 kW m Ð2 5 .31 × 10 heat capacity = 24.ca/~POPTOR. Next. the cue ball is aimed exactly between the two middle balls. Is he right? Assume an ideal table (no rolling friction) and slippery balls. and that all balls are identical. If you found this to be impossible.

which is only 1 • 10 % of the value of the delivered power.3 min. which is 27 times greater than the delivered power. [1] and plugging into [2] gives: 1 . The power loss in the line Ð2 now is equal to P1 = 6 W.500 V + 110 V = 1. the output voltage must be 1.500 kW. Differentiating eq. The voltage drop along the Ð3 line U = 3 V.65)(1.7)(10))/((1.1997-1998 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program Ð University of Toronto Ð Problem Set 6 Solutions: AC Circuits and Electronics 1) MishaÕs MomÕs Medallions Faraday law of electrolysis states that the mass of substance liberated in electrolysis is proportional to the charge passed: m = kq = kIt = (m0/F)It. and most of the voltage drop occurs across it [Rcapacitor >> R. Misha has to pay 4 dollars for his momÕs birthday present.05)(5)(5.500 V.610 V to deliver 110 V to the factory. the capacitor is charging/discharging all the time. Therefore. for low frequencies. Where k is the electrochemical equivalent of the substance. we can claculate the turns ratio n2/n1 = V2/V1 = 500 and the current in transmission line I2 = I1 . Hence. [1]. F = NAqe is the Faraday constant which is equal to the product of the AvogadroÕs number and the electron charge. Therefore. m0 is a molar mass.8)) = 1458 sec = 24. 2) Tesla Yes! Edison No! The electrical power delivered to the factory P = VI = 55 kW. 3) Analog differentiation and integration a)we have q dq + R = Vin C dt dq R = Vout dt [1] [2] Now. The transmission line conductors have a resistance of 3Ω ⇒ the voltage drop along the line U = 1.1)(1. The mass of medallion m = Vd = Ahd = m0It/F. we can drop the Rdq/dt in eq. The power loss is P1 = 2 UI = 1. which is only 5 • 10 % of V2 = 55 kV. Thus the period of time for silver-plating the medallion t = FdhA/m0I = ((9. if you like]. If we use transformers. (n1/n2) = 1A.

there is not enough time for the capacitor to be 2 [1] [2] . dVin dt [condition: low frequencies. for high frequencies.q ≈ Vin C d  q  dVin = dt  C  dt dq dV V = C in = out dt dt R Or. input frequency << 1/RC] Vout = RC Plots i) iii) dotted line: output (cosine) normal line: input (sine) dotted line: output normal line: input ii) 0-line: output normal line: input NOTE: plots are not to scale! b)Circuit: R Vin C Vout we have q dq + R = Vin C dt q = Vout C Now.

charged. and most of the voltage drop occurs across the resistor [Rcapacitor << R. Hence. Differentiating eq. angular frequency of input signal >> 1/RC] Plots i) iii) Vout = dotted line: output (-cosine) normal line: input (sine) dotted line: output (parabolas) normal line: input ii) dotted lines: output normal line: input NOTE: Plots are not to scale! 4) What goes around. comes around a) If the voltage across the battery is V. [1]. [2] and plugging into [1] gives: dq R ≈ Vin dt d  q  dVout = dt  C  dt dq dV V = C out = in dt dt R Or. we can drop the q/C in eq. then the voltage across the capacitor is ÐV in steady state. 1 ∫ Vindt RC [condition is: high frequencies. V 3 . if you like].

The solution to this is I(t) ∝ cos(kt) where is k is some constant dependent on the inductance and capacitance in the circuit.b) From the rather direct hints in the question. and Vc is the voltage across the capacitor Again. I(t) is the total current running through the circuit as a function of time. the change in voltage across one device must equal the opposite change in voltage across the other device. For this to be true for all time. the voltage across the capacitor looks like: dVc/dt ∝ I(t). He must put a resistor in series with it: As you know. d) As soon as Frido tries to do something with his circuit. Bob (no relation to the author). what is the current at I(0).e. Alas. you can show that energy is leaving the circuit. from the oh-so-subtle hints. so that we are starting the clock just after the battery has been shorted and removed. as seen in a previous problem set featuring everyoneÕs favorite oscillator. (I am being a little lax here about the boundary conditions. or else the inputs are driven so that 4 . i. he will no longer have a perfect LC circuit. where ∝ indicates proportional. poor Frido has been boondoggled.) c) Energy transfers from the electric field in the capacitor to the magnetic field around the inductor and back again. By writing the solution as cos(kt). This allows us to write: dVc/dt = ÐdVi/dt 2 I(t) ∝ Ðd I(t) / dt This is the same as 2 2 x(t) ∝ Ðd x(t) / dt which is the equation for a simple harmonic oscillator. the sum of voltages in a circuit must be zero. electrical energy is turned into heat in a resistor according to RI where R is the resistance and I is the current flowing through the circuit. I am assuming that the initial current is non-zero. 5) Operation: ÔAmplifierÕ a) i) 0V ii) Ð15V iii) 15V 2 2 b) With any op-amp circuit there are two possible results: either the inputs are different and the op-amp is in saturation. If you are not sure if this is a proper solution. substitute it into the equation and verify that the LHS=RHS. Without even solving the circuit equation. the voltage across the inductor is: Vi ∝ dI(t) / dt From KirchhoffÕs voltage law. not before.

This circuit inverts the input voltage ii) Same reasoning as in part (i). iii) Vout = Ð1. Thus a pulse in R causes the outputs to "flip flop" between the two stable configurations.line. For this to happen. iv) Vout = 2V. b) pulse 0 1 2 3 4 A 0 1 0 1 0 B 0 0 1 1 0 C 0 0 0 0 1 We can see that if we let the output of A be the 20 binary digit.g. This circuit doubles the input voltage (no inversion) 6) Flip-Flopping on a counter proposal a) If R and S are both set to 1. or Q=1 and Qbar=0. i) The current flowing through the feed back loop must be the same current flowing out the V. the current must be 1V/100 Ohms.they are at the same voltage. This circuits adds and inverts the input voltages. 4 = 100 base2) 5 . If we switch R to 0 and back to 1. Feedback allows the the second result in each of the given cases. there are 2 equally stable output configurations: Q=0 and Qbar=1. B be the 21 digit. We try to find a self-consistent situation were VÐ =0. This circuit inverts and amplifies with a gain of five. the input voltage. Vout = Ð5V. Thus Vout = Ð1V. Q and Qbar will switch from the stable configuration they started in to the other stable configuration.. and C the 22.9V. this counter gives the binary value for the number of pulses that have been fed into the input (e.

So this would mean (pÐ (Ðp)) = 2p for the momentum transferred to the sail.25 × 10 Ð5 Ð2 8 Ð1 Ð2 N Also. E = pc. So we can write: P= or F= P c dE dp = ⋅c = F⋅c dt dt or actually F = 2P/c if we let the light be reflected.353 kW m ¥ 5000 m = 6. here): v = u + at . The power P incident on the Ð2 2 field is intensity times area: P = IA = 1. roughly 100m × 50m might be reasonable.000 kg spacecraft would be: ms The velocity after constant acceleration for a time t depends on initial velocity (which is zero. on the right-hand side. power P is defined as the rate of change of energy with time. so the acceleration of the 2. A soccer field isnÕt always the same size. it reverses its momentum. For light.1998-1999 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 1: General 1) Pushy Photons a) Black is good Ñ it would absorb all the light. but has to be in a certain allowed range of sizes. and force F is defined as the rate of change of momentum with time. so the force on the whole large area would be F = 2¥ 6.353 kW m . on the left-hand side. F = ma. But silver would be better Ñ when the light reflects back to where it came from.765 MW (quite a bit of power). and therefore transfer all the momentum of the light. so by taking derivatives we also have that: dE dp = ⋅c dt dt However. b) From the useful bits of info at the bottom of the question sheets.765 MW / (3 × 10 m s ) = 4. the solar Ð2 constant is 1.51 × 10 a = 2.

c) Again. about 710 m s . The force is only applied for a trillionth of a second. F = 2P/c = 2 ¥ 1012 W /(3 × 10 m s ) = 7 × 10 N. which is the gravitational force of the smallest automobile. which is jogging speed. [Gnädig/Honyek] A R R B 3) Leonardo's camera obscura a) Illuminated object Opaque sheet Image on screen . So the Ð1 velocity after a day would be 1. After a year. So this pressure. Worth noting: since the terminal-pairs ÔAÕ and ÔBÕ donÕt behave the same.A day of seconds is (24 hr) ¥ (60 min/hr) ¥ (60 sec/min) = 86. though. like a big dust-mote moving in a sunbeam. because this force is applied over a tiny spot: P = F / A = (7 × 10 N) / ( (10 × 10 3 Ð2 3 Ð6 m) ) = 7 × 10 2 13 Nm Ð2 100 kPa = 100 × 10 N m is roughly one atmosphere of pressure. [Robin] 2) Out of sight. if the light is reflected. or a raindrop in a very misty rain.400 s. The pressure is a different story.94 m s . which is roughly 10% of the orbital speed of a low-orbit satellite. the circuit must not be symmetric for the pairs of terminals. using any two identical resistors. hope you don't mind This simple circuit works. so the momentum transfer (the impulse) is: p ¥ ∆t = (7 × 10 N) ¥ (10Ð12 s) = 7 × 10 3 Ð9 8 Ð1 3 kg m s Ð1 which is small. briefly exerted by the focussed laser pulse. is something like 700 million atmospheres of pressure. it Ð1 would be 365 times this value.

. However. In the absence of external forces we would expect each sphere to have an equal temperature change. is transferred. Q Joules say. One rests on an insulating table and the other is suspended by an insulating thread. since gravity is present and the volumes of the sphere will increase therefore their centres of mass will move. To each sphere the same amount of heat energy.b) Illuminated object Opaque sheet Image on screen c) Illuminated object Opaque sheet Image on screen d) Illuminated object Opaque sheet Image on screen e) Illuminated object Opaque sheet Image on screen [James] 4) Heat works We begin with two identical spheres at some uniform temperature.

31 × 10-5 ∆TA]ri = 4. initially at some temperature T I K (the density of aluminum is 2. Suppose each sphere is 100 g.31 × 10 −5 ∆rA ri The heat capacity. Let ∆rA and ∆TA denote the change in radius of the sitting sphere. of 100 g of aluminum is simply C = 24. sphere A and ∆rB and ∆TB denote that for the hanging sphere. For the hanging ball.).Since the ball on the table will have its centre of mass rise.31 × 10 −5 ∆rB ri 1 2.7 × 10 3 kg m −3 then  3 × 10 −3  3 ri =   ≈ 0.0207 m  27 ( 4 π)  1 Assuming a linear expansion coefficient to apply over the entire uniform heating we have (to first approx.7 × 103 kg mÐ3) and 250 KJ of heat is added to each.777 Hence ∆TA = and ∆TB = 1 2.4   J 27 ⋅ ⋅ (100 g) K ⋅ mol  27 g/mol   J K = 90. The initial radius of each sphere can be calculated with 1 kg [mass of aluminum] 4 3 10 πri = = 3 [density of aluminum] 2. Clearly the centre of mass of sphere A will rise by a distance equal to ∆rA and the centre of mass of sphere B will fall a distance equal to ∆rB.3704 Where we have used the molar mass of aluminum to be 27 g/mol. however. C.777 and ∆rB = [2. sphere B. some heat energy will be used to do work against gravity. the situation is reversed. . Therefore the resting ball will have a lower final temperature than that of the hanging ball.31 × 10-5 ∆TB]ri = 4. ∆rA = [2.

The radius is R ≈ 0. the final difference in temperatures is ∆T = ∆TB − ∆TA   1 1 = 250 000  −  −7 90.81 ( 4.170 × 10 −10 ≈ 2. c3 We will assume the radius of an orbit stays constant for any one cycle (the electron is actually spiralling in.777 × 10 −7   90.3704 ∆TB 10 [ ] Therefore the difference in temperature is approx 2. Pretty small! 5) Death of an Atom The energy given off in a time ∆t is roughly kq 2 a 2 ∆t c3 In 1 orbit (time T).925 × 10 −5 9. We have m V = kqq = ma .777 × 10Ð7 + 90.777 × 10 ≈ 250 000 1.777 × 10 −7 ) ∆TA + 90. Plugging all this in yields the nice expression: 2 .3704 + 4.777 × 10Ð7 + 90.3704 − 4.87 × 10 [Gnädig/Honyek & Peter] Ð5 K. so this is not really true). The electron is kept in orbit by the attraction between it and the ∆E = nucleus. where m is the mass of the electron and V is R R2 the orbital speed.3704] ∆TA Similarly 250 000 = [4.5 Angstroms. The charge of the nucleus is +q for Hydrogen.3704] ∆TB Therefore. ∆E = kq 2 a 2T .Since the heat energy transferred must balance the change in potential energy plus the energy due to the temperature change we have 250 000 = mg ∆rB + C∆TA = Thus 250 000 = [4.

n = 3. [Peter] 6) Stupid bet tricks i) First. for this to happen is simply nT (T is the period) which comes out to about 6*10-11 s. . Let the labeling be as follows: If we tried to do the question directly. but we will remember that this is the energy lost] The total energy of the orbit is: − kqq 2R compared to that for a gravitationally orbiting object: − Gmm . Surprisingly. This is because there are supposed to be no frictional forces. this equals about 4. then. notice that when the balls collide all forces between them (and hence the momentum transferred) will be normal to the surfaces (that is the only point of contact between them). A. The time. Either way. If we assume that the energy loss per cycle is as in i) (not really true). Plugging in the stuff. 2R  R  c  where n is the number of cycles. momentum).Ecycle = 2 πkq 2  V  3 . this is a very short time.4*105. It is not really meaningful to carry the first digit because of all the approximations we made. direction of B) and only 2 equations (energy. we will have:  2 πkq 2  V  3  kqq = n . doing a more accurate analysis leads a very similar answer. and we have to conclude that the classical answer cannot be right. R The electron will presumably ÒdieÓ when all this energy is exhausted.4*10-24 J / cycle [this should be negative. B. we couldnÕt Ð we have 4 unknowns (U. R  c Here.

Doing this we get: where the final speeds of the pair of balls are C (symmetric). that of A is [positive x-axis]). since the collisions last a very small amount of time we can split the problem into the two middle balls interacting with the cue ball and THEN the two middle balls interacting with the outside balls. Additionally. We could write down all equations and solve this by brute force.However. the two remaining collisions (which are symmetric. Hence. C = Now. we see that the momentum of each ball must be at a 30o angle to the normal: So. Solving the remaining equations yields C 3 = V 2 5 3 B= V 5 A= (the direction of B is [positive y]. or we could simply notice that Cy will be unchanged because there are no tangential forces (the balls are slippery Ð they donÕt ÒstickÓ). Cx 1 = tan(30) = . 5 5 Solving. So we have: . so we only solve one Ð the right hand side one). B y = C y . U = V [negative y direction]. Cy 3 2 3 1 V (direction is 30o to y-axis).

ii) When you hit the balls hard they deform slightly and do ÒstickÓ to one another.And it seems the trick shot didnÕt work Ð only the outside balls have been sunk. Numbering the balls 1 to 4 from left to right [see picture above] yields the following: 2 has a counterclockwise spin and 3 has a clockwise spin. That means that there is a tangential force between the outside most and middle balls (remember in the solution above we assumed no tangential forces to solve this collision). Now that you are completely confused look at the picture to make some sense of this: [Robin is still trying to get a video picture of this pool-shot onto the website. which is fairly soft.physics.ca/~poptor ] [Peter] .utoronto. the spin of ball #3 will make it rebound at more or less the same angle as it came in at Ñ so 3 will go into another corner pocket. Upon hitting a bank. moreover. the 2 centre balls now also have a horizontal velocity component [why ?].at www.

total height 80 m. where t is time (this is called Ôparametric formÕ). Say that when the ball is released. when the top of the box is even with the water line. and then rises at a constant speed of three seconds per floor. truth in film-making. and a velocity r v at an angle θ to the centre-line. estimate the time it takes sink Ñ that is. in orbit around the sun. find the depth at which the Titanic supposedly came to 3 Ð3 rest. and a horizontal 2 hole at the bottom of a side of the box of area AÕ = 100*0. ω < 0) [Peter] 5) A matter of some gravity i) The moon rose in the east today at 7pm. x(t) and y(t).] [Peter] 4) When bowling. you may use BernoulliÕs equation.) ii) The spaceship GalileoÕs mission is to study Jupiter and its surrounding moons. Will the bag split open Ñ should Kit have double-bagged? What should be the maximum number of cans that Kit can load up with? [Robin] 3) Sink. you have to prove it. Given this. Plot some nice-looking representative paths (ω = 0.. NASA had the vessel fly-by both Venus and Earth to 2 . so that its path curves. by giving the x-cošrdinate and y-cošrdinate as time goes by. and y as the horizontal sideways direction. sank. density of water is 10 kg m (ignore air pressure). ω points along the x-axis). If the lunar cycle (number of days between full moons) is 29 days..e. Approximating the Titanic as a rectangular box of cross-sectional 2 area A = 882 × 34 feet . ω > 0. The ÔrealÕ answer is 12600 feet. Assume the point of contact between the ball and the floor is very tiny. Comment on the results.e.5 m . At another point in the movie someone estimates that the Titanic will sink in a time of roughly half an hour. To get the vessel into a Jovian orbit. All floors are 4 m apart. but if you do.This elevator starts with constant acceleration over two floors between the ground floor and the second floor. i. when will the moon rise tomorrow? (One other subtly ÔhintfulÕ piece of information: if the earth were moving more slowly. Take the x-axis as the centre-line down the bowling alley. the lunar cycle would be shorter. i.. always signal your lane-changeÉ Consider the problem of throwing a bowling ball with an initial spin. mass M = 40 tons (loaded). it has an initial spin ω r with the top of the ball moving sideways (i. The moment of inertia of the ball will be that of a sphere.e. Find the path of the bowling ball. [HINT: assume the flow stays practically at equilibrium as water goes in. sunk At some point in the movie ÒTitanicÓ it is said that the pressure at its sunken depth is 2 5500 pounds/inch . Ignore air.

Pinch the neck of each balloon so that no air escapes.increase its speed. as a function of the size of the balloon. for POPTOR marking). Were your predictions right? Try squeezing the balloons. or beaker with volume markings two large soup cans 1 large bucket or plastic laundry tub (a nearby sink or bathtub will do fine) 3 . if its Ð1 speed before the encounter was 5 km s ? Galileo (mass: 1000 kg) actually did this type of maneuver twice with Earth on its way to Jupiter. To examine this interesting phenomenon further.nasa. Carefully insert one end of the straw into the neck of each balloon and tape it air-tight. hold the straw gently and have your friend release the balloons. It will look like a balloon bar-bell for weightlifting. ItÕs not too hard.gov/galileo/index. What is the maximum speed that the vessel could have attained after this interaction. This type of trajectory which provides acceleration without the burning of expensive fuel is called a sling-shot maneuver. but itÕs full of physics. below) 1 clear flexible tube about 1/2 metre in length 1 two-hole stopper with holes to fit the tubing snugly some duct tape 2 metre sticks or long rulers You might want also to use (optional) 1 500 ml (or larger) kitchen measuring cup. How many such sling-shots would have to occur for the length of our year to decrease by one second?. Consider one of these interactions in which the EarthÕs large velocity was used to accelerate the vessel. do the following measurement: Try to determine the air pressure inside the balloon. [James] [Check out www. You will need: clear flexible tubing about 3 to 4 metres in length (see INFOBITS.html for some great pictures and information on this billion dollar space mission] 6) Balloon tug-o-war experiment HereÕs a neat experiment you are welcome to do with a friend (put both your names on. Then. what do you think will happen when your friend stops pinching the balloons so that air can flow between the balloons? Argue for your predictions on the basis of what physics you can figure out or guess. one at a time. You will need: 2 good-quality round balloons 1 thick drinking straw some scotch tape Have your friend blow up one balloon about 1/4 full and the other about 1/2 full. while still pinching. Before actually trying it. and see what happens.jpl.

can you explain the outcome of the first 2 balloon experiments? [Bonus-mark ÔsequelÕ experiments: It would be interesting to see if the pressure in the balloon. for the balloon inflated to different sizes (including not inflated).To set up: 1. Seal one end of each piece of tubing into the stopper 2. Be sure to label your axes with dimensions. ∆h 4 . Finally make a graph of your data with height vs. How can you best measure the size of the balloon: Cast a shadow onto paper. like water? (How could you change the manometer in order to use water in the balloon?)] [Simal and Robin] 4 . balloon With the right amount of water in the long tube. You may need more adjustments once you begin. and measure the shadow-size? Use a tape measure to find the circumference? Use the measuring cup and tub to trap air released from the balloon. as a function of size. If you notice air leaking anywhere you might use some Vaseline or duct tape to seal it up. and connect the points with a smooth line. and read its volume? WeÕre interested in your best ideas Ñ change anything you want. This will be a manometer for you to measure pressure with. Now fit the balloon onto the stopper. Make the end farthest from the stopper to be sloping. varied differently depending on whether you were inflating or deflating the balloon. blowing air into it through the short tube. What is the relationship between air pressure in the balloon and difference of water levels in the manometer? Now make a series of measurements of air pressure. balloon size. Make the long tube into a rough ÔUÕ shape. as pictured. 3. and tape each side onto a meter stick or long ruler. With the ruler or metre stick at a sloping angle you can measure along the tube. Do you get a different answer if you measure volume of air and if you measure diameter of balloon? Would it make a difference if you filled the balloon not with air but something incompressible. Be sure your setup is stable. Half fill the long tube with water. From your results. Gently fill up the balloon. you can measure the difference in height of the water on each side of the ÔUÕ. and then use trigonometry to figure out the height.

and hard to stuff into a rubber stopper (stock no.utoronto. 0.physics.D. clear. we thought C HECK THE POPTOR WEB PAGE for other hints. DO NOT attempt to use glass tubing.5 × 10 m N m kg 2 Where to get parts for experiments: there is plastic tubing at Canadian Tire.INFOBITSª Ñ Useful Bits of POPTOR Information Mass of Earth: 6.25Ó O. translucent. SKU: 039166056224) 2-hole rubber stoppers: from chemistry class.. not quite clear (stock no. × 10 Mass of sun: 2 × 10 G = 6. but soft.D. in the Plumbing section.7 × 10 Ð11 30 24 kg 11 kg Ð2 Distance between Earth and Sun: 1. It is pretty easy to break it and have it go right through your hand. SKU: 039166056347) ¥ vinyl. (outer diameter). 3/16Ó O.ca/~poptor 5 . and any corrections we might post: www. 7 78380 022022 1. 7 78380 02032 0. ¥ polyethylene. if your technique is wrong Ñ especially when putting it into rubber stoppers. unless you have teacher supervision. for 17¢ per foot.

We hope that you find the solutions and these comments are so good that they partially make up for the delays. We have had a change in our team: Carolyn MacTavish joins us. to help us mark. 1) Football fizix Carrie sez: Good job! This problem was done fairly well by all (avg. however. The marking. have contributed to this. baby Carrie sez: Excellent job! The majority did very well on this problem (avg. I am now 2 for 2 in getting the wording of my questions mixed up. follow questions 3. well. actually that was my fault. The wrong revisions of questions going out. In all cases. me not being able to multiply. you all have my apologies.2/10). etc. Peter & all POPTOR participants. make up solution sets. Peter sez: With problem set 2 finished. Either way. 4 and 6 as you had them (not necessarily as I planned). 6. WeÕre rushing to catch up. The most common error was in the assumption that the bag would break if it contained exactly the weight of 16 cans (at rest). Robin adds: Er. and my comments. If you havenÕt bothered with #3 because weÕre so late. and you should have #3 Ð Thermodynamics returned with solutions pretty quickly this time. the mistakes have not changed the core of the questions (yet).1998-1999 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Marker’s Comments on Set 2: Mechanics General Comments from POPTOR:: Our apologies on how late we are in getting material back to you. Sorry. 8. this is not the best choice since it does not yield the maximum horizontal velocity (given the constraints of the defence wall and that you are aiming for the top corner of the net-furthest from Plante). The most common mistake was in assuming an initial velocity of 30 m/s. 2) Chow. and run the POPTOR invitational weekend. However.7/10). please jump right back in for #4 Ð Waves and Optics! Lots of people miss handing in one set. 1 .

This is a purely philosophical argument. since experimental questions donÕt have a long tradition at POPTOR (more like none at all). I hope you keep trying. they do take extra time an effort. Final Comments: Peter sez: Concluding I once again want to stress how impressed I was by peopleÕs solutions to these questions considering how hard they really were. On the other hand.stuff in Excel (or something similar) and typed the whole thing up. Most did not attempt the experimental question Ð which is perfectly understandable. and speaking of trying we finally got the movie of the trick shot (problem set #1) on-line (digitizing it was harder than making the shot!).utoronto. because to do well you not only have to know your equations.ca/~poptor/Com98/98GenXtra. but also understand what they mean. at: www. I would argue that experimental questions teach you the most physics. Check it out. so if youÕre not into that kind of stuff you should realize that at both the national and international levels experiments are a major component of your mark (50%). Also. To encourage people to do the experimental questions (which we will have more of) they will be weighted more than the other questions Ð each will be equivalent to two theoretical questions (plus a bonus for any interesting ideas / set-ups you come up with).physics.html Proof positive that physics worksÉ (rules!) 3 .

To minimize the flight time.5m corner of the net. As always in these projectile motion problems: separate the problem into horizontal and vertical components. This gives Plante more diving time to intercept the ball. y = 0 m. but a corresponding vertical speed that will allow it to barely miss the defenders and still go into the top corner of the net.3m If you kick it at too high an angle. Since there are no air effects. it will easily clear the heads of the defenders but will take longer than necessary to make it into the net. and vertical motion with gravity: vx(t) = vx(t=0) = vx vy(t) = vy(t=0) Ð g * t = vy Ð g * t So the ballÕs path is: x(t) = vx * t y(t) = (vy Ð (g/2) * t) * t (note how I am defining vx and vy) 1 . Constraints: 1) At x = 8 m. as in the net you figure at right. over the heads of the defenders and into the upper 3m 2. We can reduce this to a two-dimensional problem by looking at the cross-section along the ballÕs trajectory.1998-1999 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 2: Mechanics 1) Football fizix Your best bet is to go for the corner of the net farthest from Plante (see figure given in question). Ð1 4) Max speed = 30 m s The equations of motion are horizontal at constant speed. you kick the ball from x = 0 m.5 m 2) At x = 23. y < 3 m. 3) At t = 0 s. y > 2.3 m. the ball heads straight from your foot. you want the ball to have the maximum horizontal speed (covering the distance to the net the fastest). (Yay! Cheers!) 8m 23.

23.5 Thus 2. in the region above curve Ô1Õ.5/8) + (4*g) / vx Constraint 2: Let t = t2 when x = 23.3 = vx * t2. The intersection is at: largest vx solution 3 1 2 vx * (3/23.3) + (23. This will still meet the constraints imposed by equations 1 and 2. Constraint 1: Let t = t1 when x = 8 m. 8 = vx * t1. y(t2) = (vy Ð (g/2) * (23.Constraint 3 is satisfied by how I set up the equations.3/2) * g / vx <=Eqn 2 Constraint 4: vx +vy ≤ 30 2 2 2 <=Eqn 1 <=Eqn 3 Graph the three inequalities. Ð1 To make sure that you are not hitting the crossbar.5/8) + (4*g) / vx or Ð1 vx = 20. 2 .2 m s This corresponds to vy = 8.1ÊmÊs .3/vx) vy < 3 / (23.3/vx) vy < vx * (3/23.3/vx) > vy Ð (g/2) * (23. to get a clear picture of how they can be satisfied.3) + (23.5 / (8/vx) + (g/2) * (8/vx) vy > vx * (2.25 m s . below curve Ô2Õ and below curve Ô3Õ: see that the maximum horizontal speed v x occurs very close to the intersection of eqn 1 and eqn 2.5 / (8/vx) < vy Ð (g/2) * (8/vx) vy > 2. say.3. reduce vx slightly to Ð1 20.3/vx)) * (23.3/vx) but y(t2)<3 Thus 3 / (23. y(t1) = (vy Ð (g/2) * (8/vx)) * (8/vx) but y(t1) > 2.3/2) * g / vx = vx * (2.3/vx) + (g/2) * (23.

The acceleration is only 1% greater.111 m s Adding this to the acceleration due to gravity. Ð initial velocity is zero. 3 .91 m s Ð2 Ð2 2 2 d = 2¥4m = 8 m Ð1 v = 4m/3s = 1.33 m s u = 0 The ratio of the acceleration in the elevator to that standing on the ground is therefore: 9. Until now: Kit can be the first person to test out the bags at this weight.80 = 1. (I am using g = 9. v = u + 2ad 2 2 (1.01. The 14 would weigh in the accelerating elevator the same as 14. [James] Ð1 2) Chow. without having to cut up a can of cat food in the band-saw.) BONUS: Air effects can help you.7 m s at an angle of 22 Ð2 degrees above the horizontal. you might be able to curve the ball enough so you go around the defenders instead of over (ÔcurlÕ or ÔswingÕ the ball left or right).33) = (0) + 2a(8 m) Ð2 a = 0. By giving the ball the proper spin. the total acceleration will be: gÕ = 9. but we donÕt know whether a little bit over 15 would.80 m s + 0.Therefore you must kick it with an initial speed of 21. you can cause the ball to deflect downward from its normal parabolic path. baby Find acceleration a: Ð elevator has constant acceleration over two floors.01) = 15. This will allow you to increase the initial horizontal velocity but still have the ball go in the net.91/9. Ð final velocity is one floor per 3 seconds.15 cans would at rest.15 cans would break the bag.11 m s Ð2 = 9. or else carry only 14 cans of cat food. Does it mean the bag would not break? No! We only know that 16 will break the bag. ThatÕs because cans come in units of 1 can Ñ there was no way to test whether 15. This is less than 16. If you are really fancy. Recommendations? Double bag. Find weight of cans with this additional acceleration: Then 15 cans of cat food accelerated in the elevator would weigh on the bag the way that 15 ¥ (1.8 m s throughout this problem.14 would on the ground. (Soccer is a science!).

Ignoring air pressure. For equilibrium. Later. but as ∆tÊÐ> 0. P = 0. Let us use the hint and use a force approach: First note that outside of the hole the water will hardly be moving Ñ the water comes in from all directions. and we get: h= P ρg Here. PA + m g = P ′A PA + A h ρ g = P ′A P′ = h ρ g + P Now extend the pill box to be a tall cylinder of height h (depth h to water level). because 15 cans under normal acceleration was! [Robin] 3) Sink. the water inside is stationary at first.And any weight 15. For a small time ∆t an external force (due to external pressure) and a negative force (due to pressure of water in the ship) acts at the hole. so that the velocity at any one point is almost 0 (but because the ocean is so big this adds up to give a large flow in the hole). Additionally. so thereÕs good agreement. sunk Consider a pill box of water of area A and height h. As the system starts without any water inside.00 or under in the elevator is definitely safe. it reaches steady state. a part of the force will push some of the water upwards. ∆m is hence pushed an amount 4 . The net force will force in a small amount of water ∆m. sank. ∆x Ð> 0 and this is negligible. the water must be accelerated (thatÕs why you cannot use BernoulliÕs equation inside the ship. we will consider the system in a small time interval ∆t. h Å 12600 feet [roughly] for 5500 punds/inch2. which only applies to steady flows). Now. Since we are in equilibrium.

1 a(∆t)2 2 1 (ρ g h − ρ g x)A′ ∆s = (∆t)2 2 ∆m ∆s = 0 + Since the pressure due to a height z of water is ρgz (from i)) ∆s = 1 ρ g A′(h − x) 1 g(h − x) (∆t)2 = ( ∆t ) 2 2 ρ ∆s A′ 2 ∆s From conservation of mass. 000 tons.e. the system comes to equilibrium. and amount ∆m of water at the hole must be equal to the amount of water that causes a rise of the level in the ship. ∆m = ρ∆sA' = ρ∆xA Using this gives: A 1 (∆s)2 =   (∆x)2 = g(h − x)(∆t)2  A′  2 ∆x A′ 1 dx g ( h − x) = = ∆t A 2 dt 2 (in the limit) As the water flows in. In fact. i.. From this we find: 5 . this is just ArchimedesÕs principle) And so h(t) = x(t) + M/(ρA) Plugging this into the expression for dx/dt yields: dx A′ 1 gM = dt A 2 ρA So the water level rises at a constant rate. at time = 0. x=0 And h = M/(ρA) (M is the mass of the ship Ñ 40. To compensate for an increase ∆m in mass the ship must have moved (down) an amount ∆h = − ∆x Note that this does not imply that h = x! This simply says that x and h change by the same amount.

dh A′ 1 gM = dt A 2 ρA  A′ 1 gM  M h(t) =  t+  ρA  A 2 ρA  Putting h = 80 m.5 m) is so small. P= Using conservation of mass we now get: gM dx A′ = 2 dt A ρA which is the same as the equation above. except for the factor of 2 Ñ which is just as good because we used approximations in either solution. to make this effect negligible. Note that you can use BernoulliÕs equation. [Peter] 4) When bowling. which is fairly close]. if you set it up the following way: take a streamline from the top of the water to the hole in the ship Ñ this flow is steady and you get something like: Mg 1 = ρV 2 (where V is the speed of the water coming in. First. always signal your lane-change The math here isnÕt too hard. we find t ≈ 40 minutes. Speaking of BernoulliÕs equation. since we know there is friction. the proof may be found in virtually any textbook (which is too bad) Ñ see e. We didnÕt catch them this timeÉ _______ This answer is pretty good Ñ only the Ò1/2Ó factor above may have to change [I did an experiment sinking a shoe box. but one has to think about whatÕs going on or itÕs very easy to be off be a minus sign (the International Olympiad judges kill (well. Note also that the flow of the water is different while the hole is not completely covered with water Ñ thatÕs why the height of the hole (0. 6 . Using BernoulliÕs equation gives nonsense for the time it takes the ship to sink (something on the order of 1 minute). and it looked more like it should be a Ò1Ó. almost) for errors like this). P the pressure A 2 at the holeÕs depth). we see that it will oppose the ballÕs motion. Halliday & Resnick. Now we resolve the motion to two directions Ñ x and y Ñ and two motions Ñ translational and rotational.g.

t≤t* t≥t* X: This is very similar: V = Vx − µ k g t 5 µk g ϖy = ϖ − t 2R 7 . This will occur at a time given by: Vy − µ k g t* = t* = 2 Vy 7µ k g 5 µk g t* 2 The motion thus consists of two phases Ñ with skidding and without: 1 y(t) = Vy t − µ k gt 2 . 2 y© (t) = y(t*) + V(t*)t = 12Vy 2 49µ k g + 5Vy 7 t. until Iα = τ 2 M R 2α = µ k ( Normal)R 5 5 µk g α= 2R 5 µk g ϖ=0+ t 2R The ball will continue to skid until itÕs rotating fast enough so that it can roll.ω y x Y: Translational: (friction slows motion) M a = − µ k ( Normal) = − µ k Mg a = − µk g V = Vy − µ k g t Rotational: (friction causes ball to spin faster. V = ωR. Then.

Then do the plot I asked for and get nonsense. and after about 8 in the y.When skidding stops Ð V = ωR. It turns out that the ball stops slipping after about 3 seconds in the xdirection. but by that time the ball has long left the bowling alleyÉ Plotting yields figure at right. 2 x© (t) = x(t2 *) + V(t2 *)t = t ≤ t2 * (ϖR + Vx ) 5V − 2ϖR t. But we have to be careful! In this case. and so the above should actually read |V| = |ω|R! [How do we know it changes sign? Well. the moon rises later every day. you can do what I did Ñ go through the whole calculation carrying the wrong sign. Thus. Or you can be a lot smarter Ñ assume that V changes sign (or not). By how much? 8 . and then go back and see if your assumption holds] t2 * = 2(ϖR + Vx ) 7µ k g 1 x(t) = Vx t − µ k gt 2 . t ≥ t2 * (12Vx − 2ϖR) + x 49µ k g 7 Now we can finally proceed to plot this. We have to calculate t* and t2* to know which motion occurs when. V changes sign. This means the direction of rotation of the earth is the same as the direction of the moon around the earth Ñ it has to ÔchaseÕ it instead of meeting it Ôhead-onÕ. the lunar cycle would be shorter. the [Peter] 5) A matter of some gravity i) From the information given we know that if the earth was rotating more slowly.

earth ray from moon a moonrise b Thus the time between moon rises is: 24. Thus the final speed of the ship is: 5. We consider the system before the interaction (far from the earth) and after the interaction (far from the earth).vs+dvs: velocity of the ship before and after interaction me: mass of earth ms: mass of the ship 2 2 2 Conservation of energy gives: me * ve + ms * vs = me * (ve + dve) + ms * (vs + dvs) 2 For maximum increase in speed for the ship. ve+dve: velocity of the earth before and after the interaction vs. There are 3.In the time the moon has moved by angle a. The total initial 9 7 4 Ð1 4 Ð1 2 2 .5 × 10 m s . The fact that the interaction is through gravitational forces does not change how one solves the problem.1 × 10 s in each year.e. The two triangles are set so that the moon rays are parallel to the surface of the earth.86 hours. Variables: ve. ii) This is a standard two-particle collision problem.. the initial velocities should be parallel.1 × 10 ) of its total. We can write: Fg = me * ve / r = G * msun * me / (r ) This gives ve = 3 × 10 m s . tomorrow it will rise at 7:52PM. They are similar triangles so a = b Ð 360 ¡ Also (where t is measured in hours): a=t / (29*24) *360¡ b= t /24 *360 ¡. Both energy and momentum of the entire system must be conserved. then we must change 7 the momentum of the earth (i. its speed) by 1/(3. For this to change by 1 s. One slingshot maneuver changes the momentum by ms * dvs . the Earth has moved by angle b. We can drop the vector notation: me * ve + ms * vs = me * (ve + dve) + ms * (vs + dvs) ==> Ð me * dve = ms * dvs Substituting this into the above gives and solving for dvs gives: dvs = 2 * (ve Ð vs) / ( (ms/me) +1) We need to know the speed of the earth relative to the sun. Thus if the moon rose today at 7PM.

and make it a bit smaller than the other one. The picture below shows my own setup for this experiment. So. or the right balloon small. so I tilted the manometer arm. but not at the same time! The balloon you squeeze to be the smaller one always expells most of its air. The earth is not in peril from this. Bistability can be described with a potentialenergy diagram that has two local minima: there is equilibrium in one minimum or in the other. they each do the same thing. It is even a little bit easier to do than to describe! What did you think would happen between the two balloons fitted to opposite ends of a straw? The first time I thought of this. or maybe even showing what the potential energy curve looks like for two balloons on a straw. so I figured they should do the same thing Ñ and that means they would keep the same amount of air in them. Wrong! Instead. Therefore it is ÔbistableÕ (bi = two). and it wonÕt just change by itself. what happens is that one balloon will be bigger and the other smaller. I thought perhaps the balloons would end up being the same size. it will almost collapse.momentum is me * ve. but you can switch between them.1× 10 ) * me * ve Huge. And if you squeeze the bigger one. be: N ≅ 1× 10 14 Thus the total number of sling-shots. It is the same for any system with a similar potential energy curve Ñ like the two balloons on a straw. but it will cost a little energy to switch between them. even though it is pretty simple. because the balloons are identical and used the same way. but not much in-between. These will stay that way. N. yet! [James] 6) Balloon tug-o-war experiment This experiment is great Ñ it shows all kinds of different physics relationships. This is technically called ÔbistabilityÕ. and 10 . taped it to a meter stick. ThatÕs where squeezing the balloon comes in! The rest of the experiment is about showing why there are two minima. So there are two ÔstableÕ or fixed arrangements: the left balloon small. and become the smaller one while the other is the bigger one. would have to 7 N * ms * dvs = 1/(3. and it also describes the kind of room-light switch that you can snap on or snap off Ñ it can be one or the other. I guessed it would be a bit hard to read the fairly small pressure changes of a balloon. A ball can come to rest at either of two places on a curve like this.

02 0..e.04 0. for a given height change ∆y (i. over atmospheric pressure. tilting the tube made the water move farther along.measured the surface of the water as it moved along. and measured the difference in height ∆h of the water surfaces (meniscus).1 0. I tried two methods: deflating the baloon by letting air out into a beaker turned upside down underwater. either way. adding it to the height ∆ L by which the water level in the other arm dropped. Actually. ItÕs interesting that the curve for the balloon as it is being inflated is not identical to the curve for the same balloon as it is being deflated.06 0. through the extra smaller tube. Since the height difference gives me the pressure in the balloon. This is because the balloon is not perfectly elastic Ñ it has a sort of ÔmemoryÕ because it takes a little while to recover itÕs shape after 5000 4000 Pressure (Pa) 3000 inflating 2000 wrinkled & deflated 1000 deflating 0 0. ∆L. I could use it as I inflated the balloon or deflated the balloon. and converted it to a height raised. I measured ∆L. This gave me the pressure inside the balloon. The second method was good Ñ it was sensitive. I blew up the balloon.12 Radius (m) 11 .08 0. also I used a tape measure to measure the balloonÕs circumference. it was pretty easy. Below is the curve I graphed from the data I took. Each symbol marked on the graph is a measurement I took. ∆L/∆y = 1/sinθ ). then measuring its volume. To measure balloon size. and I didnÕt get as wet.

Since the balloon becomes small. which stays a bit magnetized afterward).12 the sizes of the two Radius (m) balloons. the balloon is larger after being inflated. This means that even though it returns to zero Ôgauge pressureÕ (pressure above atmospheric). When you squeeze the larger balloon. and it comes up in many places in physics.02 * 0. which shows a maximum pressure as the balloon is being inflated. So the deflated balloon ends up wrinkly. With a perfect setup. since it has not gone back to its original shape.08 0.06 0. This potential energy has the same 12 Pressure (Pa) . the pressure of both balloons increases (they are still connected together!). and youÕll find that t w o 1000 different sizes of balloon can have that same 0 pressure Ñ these are * 0. 5000 When connected together by the straw.04 0. and the small balloon inflates because there is a (nearly) constant volume of air for them to share Ñ they approach each other in size. and the small one the large one! MORE FOR THE VERY INTERESTED: You can also describe all of this in terms of the potential energy of the twoballoon system. on the graph above. Draw a line across the graph for 2000 this pressure. which is to be minimimized. the balloons have the same size. then the balloon collapses under your hand to become the small balloon. The pressure drops back to what it was originally Ñ only now the large balloon has become the small one. for the same values of radius Ñ is called hysteresis. You may see it in the future in things like magnetism (say. The large balloon is squeezed smaller. and can switch which one will be smaller. a nail used in an electromagnet. 4000 the two balloons must have the same same pressure 3000 pressure. so the line of the shared pressure rises. you arenÕt squeezing it much anymore.being stretched.1 0. The balloon may recover its shape after a half-hour or so. when the line touches the maximum. This kind of general effect Ñ having a curve which is different going up than it is coming down. The balloon tug-of-war doesnÕt depend on hysteresis though Ñ it is due mostly to the curve of the inflating balloon.

so the potential energy of the system increases. [Robin] 13 . in squeezing the balloon and increasing the pressure. in the following way: The work done when squeezing. and then the system of two balloons can go over to the other minimum. and the system rests in one of the local minima of the curve. Because each local minimum is ÔstableÕ. for the balloon as it changes size. and the force is the pressure × area (F = P ¥ A).type of curve as shown above for bistability. You need to increase it to get it over the hump in the potential energy. to compress a balloon is force × distance moved (W = F ¥ ∆ r). because ∆V < 0. and there are two of them. This potential energy change is positive. since A ¥ ∆r is the change in volume of the balloon. So the potential energy change. You can see how the size-changeover works. You do work. the system is bistable Ñ it can be at equilibrium in two different states. for a small change ∆r. is the work done on it: ∆U = Ð W = Ð F ¥ ∆r = Ð P ¥ A ¥ ∆r = Ð P ∆V.

estimate the time it takes sink Ñ that is.e. Ignore air.g. when the top of the box is even with the water line. sank. [HINT: assume the system comes to equilibrium every time a bit of water goes in. you may assume that the flow is steady (i.. as this does NOT hold initially. Bernoulli's equation) Ð but be careful.1998-1999 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 2: Mechanics Erratum There are minor errors in the version of Question #3 in this problem set. Approximating the Titanic as a rectangular box of cross-sectional 2 area A = 882*80 feet . find the depth at which the Titanic supposedly came to 3 Ð3 rest. mass M = 40. should look more like this! The change in the hint is interesting. Comment on the results. 3) Sink. sunk At some point in the movie ÒTitanicÓ it is said that the pressure at its sunken depth is 2 5500 pounds/inch . and a horizontal 2 hole at the bottom of a side of the box of area AÕ = 100*0. as we rushed to distribute it. We will mark student solutions based on the question we distributed.. but does not very much alter the answer.5 m . has a constant velocity) Ð you may then use conservation theorems (e. i.e. truth in film-making. Given this. The ÔrealÕ answer is 12600 feet. but you may wish to know that the data. when the water is accelerating!] [Peter] 1 .000 tons (loaded). At another point in the movie someone estimates that the Titanic will sink in a time of roughly half an hour. total height 80 m. density of water is 10 kg m (ignore air pressure). especially.

we see that this value is: specific heat of water: C = 4. the heat loss is constant. This relationship between heat content and temperature is what we call the specific heat: how much heat do we have to add or remove in order to make a kilogram of water go up by one degree? From INFOBITSª at the bottom of the problem set.49 m Ends area (each): 5Õ × 9" = 3. but this is day and night Ñ like leaving the oven light on. then.20 + 1. and so the rate of cooling will. There are different heat conductivities Ñ κ 1 for the (bottom + sides).25 m + 2¥ 0. bottom area (each): 5Õ × 7Õ = 35 ft = 3. In a month. (Hmm.1998-1999 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 3: Thermodynamics 1) Newton's Law of Cooling a) dQ = κi A⋅ ∆T dt With ∆T kept constant by the heater system ( (90 Ð 70) ¡F = 20 ¡F = 11 K).44 per month Ñ much less than a refrigerator. is the relationship between temperature and heat content. then (which is 24 ¥ 30 = 720 hrs).2 kJ kgÐ1 KÐ1 1 . So what we need.35 m ) +É Ð1 Ð2 Ð1 + 0.3 ) JÊKÐ1Ê sÐ1 } ¥ 11K = 16 J sÐ1 = 16 W The heater must be delivering an average of 16 W. too. to go with what we can figure out for heat flow vs. As the water bed loses heat.49 m + 2¥ 0. I thought it cost me about \$10 per month for this waterbed!) b) Newton's Law of cooling tells us the rate at which heat will leave the water bed Ñ proportional to the temperature difference ∆T with the room. DoesnÕt sound like too much. it will cool down.25 m } ¥ 11K 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = { ( 0. this amounts to 11. Top. this amounts to roughly \$1.25 m Sides area (each): 7Õ × 9" = 5. At a cost of about \$0.25 ft = 0.5 kW-hrs. and κ 2 for the for the top Ñ and they each contribute to heat-flow out.4ÊJÊK Êm s ¥ 3.125 /kW-hr.35 m dQ = (κ1 A1 +⋅ κ2 A2 )⋅ ∆T dt = { 0.04ÊJÊKÐ1Êm Ð2 sÐ1 ¥ (3.75 ft = 0. Or like leaving a reading lamp on for five hours a day all month. time. for me. to start. too. and ∆ T will decrease.

0 m2 m3 Chisq R 75. ∆ TÊ=Ê{TÊÐÊTroom}. In our case. I turned the heat off on my own waterbed at home.0 Water temp (°F) 85. and measured the temperature as time went by.99638 Error 0. (∆T)o = (90 Ð 70) ¡F = 20 ¡F. The exponential curve at right shows NewtonsÕs Law of Cooling! (Actually.74 m = 740 kg 3 and so the heat capacity of the whole waterbed is C ¥M = 4. we can write ∆T = ∆Q/(C¥M) . So temperature differences decay.) Now.104 NA NA Water temp (°F) 80. The mass of water in the waterbed is: M = 1 g cm Ð3 ¥ (5 ft × 7 ft × 9/12 ft) ¥ (0.1604 10.2 kJ kgÐ1 KÐ1 740 kg = 3. This lets us rewrite NewtonÕs Law of Cooling as: dT dQ =Ð /(C¥M) = Ð ∆T ¥ (κ 1 A1 +⋅ κ2 A2 )⋅/(C¥M)⋅ dt dt = Ð ∆T ¥ 1. this is a good solution: ∆T = (∆T)o exp{Ð t / (574 hrs.305 m ft ) = 10 kg m Ð1 3 3 Ð3 0.1 MJ KÐ1 ) Ð1 = Ð ∆T ¥ 4.295 -102.5 JÊKÐ1Ê sÐ1 /(3. as the energy of the hotter object will flow over to the cooler one.1 MJ KÐ1 .057 -25.And ∆Q = C¥M¥∆T.8694 0. so we have a minus sign. for ∆Q a change in heat energy of the water in the waterbed.8 × 10 sÐ1⋅) ¥ ∆T = Ð∆T / (574 hrs. In fact. (Heat flowing out of the bed is a drop in the energy in the bed.37342 1. we have that Troom is constant so: d ∆T Ð7 = Ð ( 4.14 6.) dt and you may know that the exponential function A ¥exp{Ðαt} is a function with just such a derivative.0 y = m1+m2*(1-exp(m0/m3)) Value m1 89.0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Time (hours) . Therefore.0 65. until they are each the same temperature ( ∆T = 0).) } where (∆T)o indicates the initial value of the temperature difference. I made the 2 90.8 × 10 s = Ð ∆T / (574 hrs) Ð7 where ∆ T is the temperature difference between bed and room air. it gives a drop in temperature.0 70.

The plot at right -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 shows how my waterbed Time (hours) reheated.5 MJ which is 4. the bed would 75. But I messed up.) } = 20 ¡F ¥ 0.2 × too large or too smallÉ) According to the numbers given. after I plugged it back in again. I have to remember to plug it in about 2 days before my guests arrive! [Robin] Water temperature (°F) 3 . and it would cost a little more 70.0 Water temperature (°F) than twice as much to reheat the bed Ñ about 50 65. so that the answer would work out to match the curve. and confused a calorie with a Joule. in the 80.0 574 hrs. the cooling is faster than these numbers I mis-invented Ñ instead of 85. the number is more like 135 hrs.0 be at room temperature within the two weeks. after two weeks (336 hrs.4 MJ.1 MJ KÐ1 = 15. The increased energy.58 = 11 ¡F so.numbers κ up from this data. The difference is about 25 cents worth of electricity Ñ maybe not worth the trouble of unplugging the bed. 90. or 5 K.0 In reality.0 cents... 16 W average for two weeks to keep the bed warm would have cost 5.) } = 20 ¡F ¥ exp{Ð (336) / (574 hrs.4 kW-hr.0 formulae above.3 kW-hr.) the waterbed will be warmer than the room by: ∆T = (∆T)o exp{Ð t / (574 hrs. the average rate of heat lost is higher. so all the numbers are 4. As it works out. over those two weeks. it will have dropped by 9 ¡F. if the bed is left plugged in. To reheat the bed will then take: 5 K ¥ 3. or 19. is lost because in keeping the bed warmer. On the other hand.

light cannot be focussed to a tight spot either. so lets consider the effect of focussing one of the shields on a ship part.66 × 10 −8 m 2 = 2. D.2) Spears into pruning hooks a) In order to ignite the ship part we'll need a temperature above a 'dull red heat'. to 1/2 and 1/10 the corresponding values for water (since the ship is floating!) Then the thermal capacity.13 m. on the shield of 500 nm (about where sun's energy peaks). To determine the time consider a surface layer about 1 cm thick. the worse the narrower the slit.1 kJ mÐ2KÐ1 or 1.7 × 107 kW¥mÐ2 ÷ 2. of the wood is.66 × 10Ð8 m2.7 × 107 kW ⋅ m −2 This is much. We also shouldn't assume that the shields are perfect reflectors and that the wood is a perfect absorber. So an intensity greater than 40 kWámÐ2 is required in order to ignite the ship part. λ . A factor of 2 should give a reasonable margin of safety and )hopefully) account for all this. Now to calculate the rate of heating lets assume that wood has a density and a specific heat equal.42 kJ kg -1K -1 ) = 2.1 kJ m −2 K −1 ∴ The rate of heating is 2. Thus. respectively. I shield = 1 kW 3. on the ship part.3 × 107 K sÐ1 4 . 1 kW.01 m)(0.08 × 10Ð4 m. The limit of a focal spot is given by: y = 2. Ctotal. The power on the tight spot is the whole power the shield intercepts. Using Stefan's constant σB we acquire the rate of radiation I = σ BT 4 ∼ 20 kW ⋅ m −2 Without knowledge of the thermal constants of the wood we can only estimate how much should be added to this to account for heat losses by conduction and convection. created by the shield. Where y is the radius of the bright central spot. much more than the 40 kW ¥mÐ2 loss. Assume the round shields are each 1m2. The focal length. So. thus each has a diameter. Since light diffracts any time it goes through a slit. about 500 ¡C or 773 K. without diffraction.44 fλ /D (derived from principles of light diffraction) yields a value y = 1. Ctotal = mC = ( 500 kg ⋅ m −3 )(0. is taken to be 100 m (distance to ships) and assume a wavelength of incident light. the area of the spot is approximately 3. f. of about 1. We are given that the shields are curved. the intensity of light produced from focussing one shield is.

But as the temperature of the disk increases the radiation losses become more important. if: γ= γ (2) (nR + C) C This is fine since these are all constants. We have also assumed that the mirrors are perfect reflectors and that the iron is a perfect absorber Ñ which may be close to true for the mirrors but won't be true for the disk. However. we can write: ii) ÐPdV = CdT (1) From the ideal gas law: PV = nRT. even at the maximum temperature. [Carrie] 3) Sounds coolÉ i) We tried to write the question so as to lead you through this standard derivation. we substitute it into both sides and verify they are equal. dP we get: ii) Using the above expression and B = − V dV B = γ P and thus γ P ρ nM ρ= where M is the molar mass of air. radiation losses are negligible compared to input power. V v= v= γ PV nM 6 . and taking the differential (like the derivative): PdV + VdP = nR dT Using (1) VdP = (nR + C) dT Divide (1) by (2) to get rid of the temperature variable: PdV −C = (VdP) (nR + C) P C  V =−  dV  (nR + C) dP To confirm that P¥V =constant is a solution.power. they are difficult to calculate. You can find it in first year physics and introductory thermodynamic books. while these are not negligible. Finally we have also ignored convection losses. in the case of our disk. For an ideal gas with no heat transfer. So. the melting point.

e. then s Given that v = γR = 300 M so we can say that v = 17 T .3 × 10 y = 3 × 10 x + 4200 ¥20 ¥ x But there is 1 l of water.e.86 kg Now consider that all the water (1 kg) had to be cooled from 20¡C to 0¡C: 2. Consider that only the x kg had to be cooled from 20¡C to just above 0¡ C. Just before ice is formed the temperature is 0¡C. Conservation of energy: 2. but I do notice it with sound source that is at least ~50 m away (i.17 s. not only would sound not travel (something the Star Trek/Wars folks havenÕt figured out yet) but you physically wouldnÕt last too long. the speed would have to decrease by a factor of 2. The boiling process requires heat thus cooling the remaining liquid until it freezes. I can not observe a time lag with a friend who is 20 m away. corresponding to a temperature of 48 K.P.9 kg.5. For me to notice a time lag with a friend 20 m away. so. So I can observe a time-lag of around 0.. the firing of a gun at a track meet).. 6 5 6 5 7 . That is pretty cold. which has a mass of 1 kg so: y=1Ðx and thus x = 0. In fact. Therefore the colder the air. all the nitrogen/oxygen/carbon dioxide/etc would be frozen. Before you turn on the pump it is 20¡C . T ≅ 300 K). [James] 4) Ice ice baby i) Temperature of the vapour is the same as the surface of the water. but they are some sort of upper and lower limits for the correct answer. Consider x kg freeze while y kg are changed into vapour. (i. iii) From personal experience. Since we require the answer to only one significant digit.85 kg.3 × 10 y = 3 × 10 x + 4200 ¥20 ¥ (x+y) and thus x = 0. the slower the speed of sound. it is 0. Of course neither case is correct.T.Using the ideal gas law: PV = nRT we get finally v= Tγ R M 300 m at S.

.e. For a glass of water. There is heat transfer with the rest of the room so you cannot cool the water without also cooling the room.iii) Water evaporation is used in many instances to cool things. i. there is very little heat transfer from the vessel to the chamber since vacuum is a superb insulator [James] 5) Reduce. note: I think this should be +W. this process does cause the water to cool but there are other factors that do not allow it to get very cold. re-use. Slope of the line in TÐP graph is R/v1) ii) W=1J Q = ÐW = Ð1 J (edÕs. Within the vacuum system. from wineskins to your own perspiration. recycleÉ We have: ∆E = Q − W W = ∫ pdV i) W=0 3 V1( P2 − P1 ) 2 3 3 ∆E = nR∆T = V1( P2 − P1 ) 2 2 Q = ∆E = (NOTES: all results are obtained from PV = nRT = RT here. +1J) ∆E = 0 (cyclic process) iii) W = P2 (V2 − V1 ) 8 .

W = ( P2 − P1 )(V2 − V1 ) The heat is positive during the first 2 processes.Q = ∆E + W = 3 ∆E = P2 (V2 − V1 ) 2 iv) 5 P2 (V2 − V1 ) 2 W = − P1(V2 − V1 ) 5 Q = − P1(V2 − V1 ) 2 3 ∆E = − P1(V2 − V1 ) 2 v) W=0 3 Q = − V2 ( P2 − P1 ) 2 3 ∆E = − V2 ( P2 − P1 ) 2 vi) The net work is just the area inside the box (only on a PÐV graph!) Ð or you could just add up the work from the previous parts of the question. so 3 5 Qincoming = V1( P2 − P1 ) + P2 (V2 − V1 ) 2 2 The efficiency is 9 .

Here. The warm air and cold air will mix and we model the final temperature by supposing a reversible flow of heat. Therefore 10 . we have to make the denominator of the x and y expressions big. Therefore y ∆ t moles of warm air at temperature TR enters the fridge. P1 = yP2. Clearly. This is much higher than our cycle. To do this. V1 = xV2 . To make e big. [Peter] 6) Keeping your cool a) We're given: X moles of air inside fridge at temperature TK y moles sÐ1 escape molar heat capacity of air is cp (which we shall assume constant) the room temperature is T R In a small finite time ∆ t y∆t moles of air escapes. e = 2/5 = or 40 %. and is equal to 1. Since the heat gained by cold air must equal the heat lost by the warm air we have c p (X − y∆t) (T∆t − T) = c p y∆t (TR − T∆t ) Where T ∆T is the final temperature of the mixed air.e= Wnet Qinco min g = 3 2 V1 P2 +5 V2 − V1 P2 − P1 = 3 2 1 x +5 1− x 1− y Here. or anything like that. so 0 ² x. and so I wouldnÕt recommend rebuilding your car engine. PV e = 1 − 1 1 = 1 − xy P2V2 The maximum occurs for either x or y = 0. y ² 1. Then. For a Carnot engine we would get T e = 1 − c where T c and Th are the coldest / hottest temperatures (respectively) Th occurring during the cycle. we have to make the denominator small. the maximum occurs for x = y = 0.

by definition of the derivative T −T dT = lim ∆t dt ∆t → 0 ∆t = lim = ∆t → 0 y (TR − T) X y (TR − T) X Thus the rate of change of temperature inside the fridge is dT y = (TR − T) dt X b) Verifying T(t) = TR + (T(0) Ð TR The L.S.H.H. T(t) approaches the asymptote TÊ=ÊTR.S. we have. is dT  y −Xt e = (T(0) − TR ) −  X dt − t y = (TR − T(0)) e X X y y y − t )e x is a solution of 1.T∆t − T = ⇒ y∆t (TR − T∆t ) X T∆t − T y = (TR − T∆t ) X ∆t Then.S.S. is y  − t y  TR − TR + (T(0) − TR ) e X   X      − t y (TR − T(0))e X X y     Thus the L. equals the R. The R. This is very reasonable for the unplugged fridge Ñ it goes to room temperature! d) In a small finite time interval ∆t the temperature change is T∆t − T = y∆t (TR − T∆t ) X 11 .H. and so T(t) = TR + (T(0) Ð TR) y − t e x is a solution c) Since the second term above decays to zero exponentially as t increases.H. as ∆t → 0.

[Simal] 12 . therefore we conclude that this value is a minimum for the required power. For a Carnot refrigerator working between the cold air inside at T(0) and to warm air at room temperature TR the Ôcoefficient of performanceÕ is given by η= Hence  T − T(0)  W= R  ∆Q  T(0)  = TR − T(0) c p y∆t (TR − T(0)) T(0) (T − T(0))2 W ∆t = lim R cpy T(0) ∆t ∆t → 0 ∆t ∆Q T(0) = W TR − T(0) Thus. by definition. the power required is P = lim ∆t → 0 (TR − T(0))2 = cpy T(0) Since the Carnot refrigerator is the most efficient.To make this change zero the refrigerator must do work and remove the heat responsible for this change: y∆t (TR − T∆t ) X = c p y∆t (TR − T(0)) ∆Q = c p X Where T ∆t = T(0). since the temperature inside is constant.

ii) the Earth has an atmosphere. find the tilt of our sphere's axis relative to the plane it sweeps out as it circles the sun. exactly?) While travelling through the Yukon this past summer. assume that the atmosphere is 3 km high and at standard pressure and 0¡ C. calculate how much farther south than the Arctic Circle you could position yourself and still be able to observe the midnight sun. Consider my simple interferometer: the beamsplitter reflects 50% of the incident intensity and transmits mirror x1 mirror beamsplitter x2 1 1 . If the earth was a simple sphere (like a billard ball) circling the sun while rotating on its own axis. two identical beams can add together constructively or destructively depending on their relative phases. [James] 2) Making light of photons Since light is a wave. a line at this latitude would experience exactly one day a year of unending daylight. 1999 1) The land of the midnight sun (is where.1998-1999 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 4: Optics and Waves Due February 12. rising from a perfectly spherical Earth). by taking into consideration: i) you are standing on a hill (height: 300 m. Interferometers. make use of this fact to measure very small distances. North of this line would experience more than one day of continuous daylight and south of this line would have a sunrise and sunset every day of the year. whether large such as found in a satellite array suspended high above the Earth or else small like the one on my laboratory table.7 degrees). b) In reality. For the purpose of this problem. it is possible to see the midnight sun at points south of the Arctic Circle. and that the Earth is a perfect sphere. In each of the following cases. we travelled across the Arctic Circle (latitude 66. a) Using this information.

which we can label F and FÕ. what is the smallest ∆x you could clearly distinguish? iv) If you travelled back a century. For a beam from my HeNe laser (frequency ν = c/632nm). just as water waves travel in water or sound waves travel in air. What is the magnification of this virtual image? [Hint: magnification M can be defined as the apparent size of an image divided by the size of the original object. If the ether were also moving. [James] 3) Imagining imaging When you look at yourself in a mirror. and the corresponding angle the rays seem to form when traced back to the virtual image. it can also be defined using the angle between two rays of light leaving a point on the object. assume you still had a monochromatic source of the same wavelength as in part iii). t is time. Your mirror image might even appear far enough from you to be in the next room! No light really passes from the place your image seems to be. Can you find a well-defined magnification? [Robin] 2 . i) What is the electric field at the output (1) as a function of the relative displacement (∆x=x1Ðx2). ii) You will notice for certain values of ∆x. All reflections involve a 180¡ phase change. so the image is called ÔvirtualÕ. when you take a photograph. Pretend that you are a scientist at this time and you want to establish the existence of the ether. i) Prove that any point A a distance d from a flat mirror has a virtual image AÕ which is the same distance d on the other side of the mirror. you would find that many believed that light moved in a medium. this kind of image is called ÔrealÕ. Show that one is the virtual image of the other. by a version of the Doppler shift. there is zero electric field at (1).the rest. ν is frequency (Greek ÔnuÕ). On the other hand. Consider the input field to be monochromatic and to have an electric field of E=Eocos(2π v(x/c Ð t)) where Eo is the amplitude. Where has the energy from the light gone?! iii) Put a screen at (1). This supposed medium was dubbed the ÔetherÕ. this could change the effective speed of light. and c is the speed of light.] F F' ii) Any hyperbola has two foci. How might you use your interferometer to measure the speed of the ether relative to your lab? What limit you can place on the etherÕs speed? (For simplicity. you need real photons to hit the film. you see yourself behind the mirror by the same distance as you are in fact in front of it. reflected in the hyperbola.

i. f ′ / f . Y. Find the motion of the centre of mass of the lattice.000 s? A nickel-steel guitar string. CO2 .795 m and L = 0. N2 . The left ball [at (0. The particles are connected by an initially extended ideal (massless. etc. ii) If the suspension system is brass and the change in temperature is 20¡ C how much time does the clock gain/lose in one day if Τ = 1. we have an ordinary 2-particle collision. Toys What are the physics rules for oscillating molecules? In this question we will consider different physical models of a linear molecule (like O2 . and what weÕll examine is their motion after the collision. determine an expression for the ratio of the final period over the initial period..0) ] is hit by the incoming object. and the linear expansion coefficient. All collisions are perfectly elastic.e. α . initially of length lo . T ′ / T .4) Correct time and temperature. is stretched to a length L such that it has a frequency f for its fundamental frequency. 3 . due to an increase in temperature of 20¡ C? Take lo = 0. of the 1-atom chain afterwards? Part I Ð stringy bonds Consider now a 2-atom chain (a dimer) having an inter-particle spacing L. if the change in temperature is ∆Τ .8 m. or some long-chain polymers) which has just been hit by a single-atom molecule (like He or Ne). iv) If the initial frequency is 440 Hz (ÔAÕ above middle ÔCÕ). at the toneÉ Consider a pendulum clock: i) If the pendulum arm is made of a material with a linear coefficient of thermal expansion α . and velocity V [ to the right]. balls or whatever) of mass m each. as a function of time. how Ôout of tuneÕ will the guitar be. to be constant. Toys.. Model a linear molecule as consisting of evenly spaced particles (atoms. Assume Young's modulus. the first (left-most) particle of the chain is hit by an object of mass m . Consider first a chain consisting of just 1 particle (a monomer ) Ñ i. What weÕll change is the model of the force between atoms. non-dissipative and nonstretchable) string. Initially. iii) If the temperature is increased by ∆ T.e. What is the speed and position. [Simal] 5) Toys. determine an expression for the new fundamental frequency in terms of the old one.

Describe (in words) the ensuing motion from both frames (laboratory and centre of mass) of reference. there is some dissipative force of size Ð γ* (instantaneous drag force on object) = Ðγ(dx/dt). Discuss the plausibility of the models used in Part I and Part II. [HINT: consider the centre of mass frame first]. also. or other light sources you may have. one which is good enough to reveal the individual lines contained in the spectrum of light from a fluorescent light tube. BONUS: Consider that there still is a spring. 4k > γ2 ] Can you suggest a realistic dissipation mechanism for molecules? [Peter] 6) Making a shoebox spectrograph.Generalize to an n-particle chain (a polymer). Sketch the corresponding position-time graphs for each ball (use one graph for each of the two reference frames). What is the motion of the centre of mass now? Find and draw a sketch of the position (as a function of time) of the left ball in both the centre of mass and outside frame. keep it a linear (straight-line) molecule! Describe (in words and equations) also the motion of the two balls as seen from both the centre of mass frame. That is. dx/dt(0) = V(0) = U. except that now the two atoms are connected by a spring (with spring constant k). using a compact disc Have you ever noticed the rainbow colours reflected from a compact disc? The tracks on the CD are arranged with such mathematical regularity that a CD makes a nice diffraction grating. [HINT: a solution to the differential equation: md2x/dt2 = Ðkx Ð γ(dx/dt) is 2Ue − γt m 1 k  γ 2  4 − t sin  m  2 m   4 k  γ 2 − m  m where the initial conditions are: x(0) = 0. and an outside (laboratory) frame of reference. Part II Ð springy bonds This is same as Part I. find the motion of the centre of mass and sketch the position-time graph of the left ball in both frames. but there is now also a dissipation mechanism. This pretty easy experiment lets you make a spectrograph from a shoebox and a CD. as in Part II. streetlights. 4 .

and along the middle of this foil make a 3cm-long cut with your razor-knife (hold the knife at a shallow angle. inside the box on the side box-panel. and not the blade-tip. tape a compact disc. . also at exactly the midpoint. on the small end-panel of the box farthest from the slot you cut in (2). It should be roughly 2 cm high by 3 cm wide. too!) a cardboard box the size of a box for input hiking boots. with the slit horizontal and centred. as sketched in the picture above. Refer to the illustration. centred on the alignment line. across. or Exactoª knife (CAUTION: danger to fingers!) a ruler 1. Set it up so that the hole through the CDÕs middle is centred on the alignment 5 To set up. 4. to pull the cutting edge. YouÕre making the input slit Ñ you want the narrowest slit that will be sure to pass enough light: 0. and down the middle of each face Ñ see dotted line in figure). 3. too. tape the foil over the rectangular hole in the end-face. read all these instructions before beginning. to use for alignment (up. It saves my music collection. cut a hole through the box. and go all the way to the end of the topmost panel. Cut from about the midpoint lengthwise. lay the box on its side. across the foil). about \$2slit 3. When done.You will need: • • • • • • • • peep-cover any compact disc (my favorites are the goldcoloured CD-R blank used for recording output slot CD-ROMs. or other reasonably opaque tape scissors a pen or marker a utility razor-knife. use scissors or razor-knife to cut a lengthwise slot about 1 cm wide along the top of the box. Put it on a firm pad of paper to cut it.1 mm is pretty good. cut a piece of aluminum foil about twice the size of this hole in (3). Measure and mark a mid-line around the outside of the box. 5. It must be centred on your alignment line. a shoebox or small corrugated cardboard CD diffraction grating box might do aluminum foil some duct tape. 2. label-side down. Put a similar line around the inside of the box. and positioned toward the top of the box-end.

and try different places along the slot. or neon light. To use your spectrograph. from an incandescent lamp. so try cutting a piece of cardboard or dark cloth to cover the slot. though you may not recognize the damage immediately). incandescent lights. ii) Describe what you see. to figure out how many total tracks there are on a CD? [Robin] 6 .line you drew inside the box. The spectrograph is now complete. so only the half farthest from the input slit will be used. candle-flames. or many spectral lines from a fluorescent light. Cover the front half of the disc with opaque tape. relative to the disc. The placement of this disc depends on your placement of the input slit: a ray from the input slit to the middle of the exposed section of the CD should make an angle of about 30¡ from the CD surface. Even these simple sources can cause damage to your eyes. you should point it so that light will pass through the slit and onto the compact disc in the bottom. you can look at different places along the output slot to find the best spread-out rainbow. neon lights. for different light-sources such as fluorescent lights (different types?). or the sun. and still keep stray light out by sliding the peep-hole card. But you want the only light inside the box to have to come through the slit. except for figuring out how to use it! YouÕll need to look down at the CD through the long slot in the top. or HeNe laser. and your own observations. Then you can peep at different points along the slot. You may have to try moving the disc forward and back in the box to get the input and output right. iii) Can you use the formula above. streetlamp. When this is exactly right. with a 1 cm peep-hole to look through. The experimental assignment: i) Write down your own description of how you made this spectrograph. a laser-pointer (caution: never stare directly into a laser pointer. streetlights of different types. and how you made it work.

Only at very special angles are the conditions right for constructive interference for waves coming from all of the grooves.0 × 10 K MINI-TUTORIAL: The physics of diffraction-grating spectrographs: The input and output angles of light diffracted from a diffraction-grating depend on wavelength.0003 radius of the earth: R = 6 × 10 m nickel steel YoungÕs modulus: Y = 18. or tracks of the CD. which you can investigate. and practically no intensity of light is sent on.physics.0 × 10 Pa Ð5 Ð1 coefficient of thermal expansion: α Å 2. measured similarly. and θd is the angle of the diffracted light.INFOBITSª Ñ Useful Bits of POPTOR Information Remember to check the POPTOR web-page for hints and any necessary corrections! www.ca/~poptor index of refraction for air at standard pressure and 0 deg C: n = 1. d is the spacing between grooves of the diffraction-grating. The input light is scattered from very many regularly spaced grooves or tracks in the compact disc. at other angles there is only random or destructive interference. measured from the perpendicular to the surface (the surface normal).4 × 10 K brass YoungÕs modulus: Y = 9. 10 10 6 7 . The n is an integer which gives the order of diffraction. At these special angles the light of a certain wavelength is bright. and on the diffraction grating itself: n λ = 2d • (sin θi + sin θ d ) where θi is the input angle.utoronto.2 × 10 Pa Ð5 Ð1 coefficient of thermal expansion: α Å 1.

ii) Refraction causes the rays to bend at the air/vacuum interface. Modelling this as a single interface isnÕt exactly right (the interface is continuous and still causes refraction 1 . The Ôside viewÕ looks like: Axis for Earth rotation observer on Arctic Circle 66. b) i) Exaggerated for clarity: s sun rays hill c Re Thus c=arccos(Re/(Re+300m)) and the subtended arc opposite from angle c is 60 km. Thus you are 60 km south of the Arctic Circle.7¡.1998-1999 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 4: Optics and Waves 1) The land of the midnight sun (is where.7deg sun rays equator Once the picture is drawn it is obvious that the tilt of the sphereÕs axis to the plane it sweeps out around the sun is 66. the sun rays are tangent to the perfect sphere at the Arctic Circle. exactly?) a) At midnight on the summer solstice.

SnellÕs law: sin(90¡)=n sin(a) as defined in the cartoons below: s Ra s a Re+Ra Re So: Thus a=88. Thus the most southern ray to intersect the ground intersects the atmosphere at a point towards the sun: s Ra AC b s c b a As shown on the diagram. the index difference larger. or the Earth bigger.due to the index gradient).e. Thus we find that angle c is (90Ð88. For this triangle.19¡ to the normal. this refracted ray is tangent to the earth surface. Solving for s gives an imaginary number (i. with − 1 ).6¡. This is the distance you are south of the Arctic Circle. We still have to find out how far south we are.85¡ to the normal.19Ð(90Ð88. but it does not. [James] 2 .66¡. What went wrong? We assumed that the refracted ray that intersected the interface exactly over the Arctic Circle would eventually intersect the ground. the refracted angle of the ray in the atmosphere (angle: a) is 88.. If the interface were lower. it could intersect the EarthÕs surface. Using the value of Re. the corresponding arc length is 69 km. We find s=190 km. The incident angle (angle: b) is 88.85)) = 0.

ii) From the above expression. in this case c.2.25.. iii) There is some subjectivity to what it means to Ôclearly distinguishÕ but I would argue that you can clearly distinguish between a maximum and a minimum output.. no electric field is found at (1) and we have total destructive interference..5 since I~E .c.. but this phasor notation is easier and extremely useful! Thus the sum of the two beams at position (1) is:  E     2 ⋅ x1 + x0    2 ⋅ x 2 + x 0    Etotal = 0 exp(iπ)exp i 2 πv − t  + exp i 2 π − t   + c. Ð1.e.. where c. Remember that though the intensity after one reflection followed by transmission through the beam splitter is 0. i.c. Maxima c at (1) occur when Dx = n ( 4v) where n=.Ð3.e. . 1/4 of the wavelength. Convince yourself that this relationship is true. Thus if the beam does not exist at position (1). Thus. Where does the energy go? Consider the electric field that is reflected back in the direction of the original beam..Ð3. using the fact (you may not know) that exp(ia) = cos(a) + i sin(a).. Ð1...   4 c c    where Dx is (x1Ðx2). the 2 electric field changes by 0. Due to fact that one beam undergoes three reflections and the other only one (instead of two and two).c. indicates complex conjugate (i. The problem still can be done by writing cos() and sin() everywhere. you can see that there is no electric field at position (1) c when exp(i 2πv 2Dx ) + 1 = 0 ie.Ð2. when Dx = n where n=.c.1.2) Making light of photons a) The output at (1) is the sum of the two beams..3..3.c. it is reflected back the way it came.=exp(Ðia) ). So we can write (Dxmax − Dxmin ) = 0−c . you can show using the same method as above that the MAXIMUM c reflected occurs when Dx = n ( 4v) where n=.. ( 4 v) 3 ..1. this form is easier to deal with.. Energy is not lost. The math in this problem is easier if you replace 2*cos(a) by exp(ia)+c. This can be rewritten in terms of cosines but for the purposes of the rest of this question.0.         4  c c  where x0 is the distance from the beam splitter to position (1). where i = − 1 . Rewriting:   E 2 π ⋅ v ⋅ x0   2 ⋅ x 2 + x0  Etotal = 0 exp i 2 πv −t +π+  {exp(i 2 π ⋅ v 2 ⋅ Dx) + 1} + c. if the ( 4v) difference in distance is 1/4 of the wavelength (recall wavelength=c/ν).

Even if the ether is not moving . The trick is to rotate your interferometer and see if you can see a change in the light output at (1). Thus:  x1 x1 2x 2  1  (c + V ) + (c − V ) − c  = ( 2 v)    2x1 x2 x2   c − c + V − (c − V )  = 0   Simplifying this gives: V2 = c2 ( 4 v) (Destructive) (Constructive) Rotate the c   x1 + x 2 +  4v  4 . the output intensity only needs to change by a small amount. Also you would still have ether existing in vacuum. interferometer by 90¼ and this term changes to:     2x1 x2 x2   − − + 1  exp i 2πv   c + V (c − V )    c    Define the minimum V such that by rotating your interferometer. you go from a case of destructive interference to a constructive interference. iv) First assume the ether exists and is moving relative to your laboratory. To contrast. This is really determined by the noise in your system. The ether must exist in space though since light travels in space. thus you would have something with mass existing in a vacuum and now my head is starting to hurt. so you could measure a distance corresponding to ~300 atoms. This seems to make sense unless the ether is held to the surface of the Earth due to gravity. and then you would get some interesting light bending effects due to the concentration of ether around massive objects. you find that destructive interference occurs if     x1 x1 2x 2   + − + 1 = 0  exp i 2πv   c   (c + V ) (c − V )    where V is the speed of the ether relative to your interferometer.). such that you would be moving relative to the ether. so we take the strongest case required. That would require the ether to have sizable mass. which is a subject we are not going to discuss here. (You might argue that this is too much to require.The wavelength is 632 nm. so the smallest distance change you could clearly measure is 158 nm. atomic spacing in a solid is on the order of 5× 10Ð 10 m. That is pretty small. you could put your apparatus in a vehicle. If one arm is parallel to the ether motion and the other is perpendicular to it.

this can be determined using the angle between two rays of light leaving a point on the object. The virtual image is life-size and erect. or the magnification is +1. This makes the triangles VPA and VAÕP congruent. which is true of all object/image points. This is most easily done with the following geometry in mind. and the corresponding angle the rays seem to form when traced back to the virtual image. and therefore ∠VAP = ∠VAÕP. We have already shown that ∠ VAP = ∠VAÕP. Increasing x1+x2 to 100m reduces minimum V required to be observed to ~1× 104m/s. For a source of wavelength 632 nm. As for the magnification. θi = θr Also θi + θr is the exterior angle of the triangle AAÕP. Thus the apparent size of an image divided by the size of the original object. On the diagram given in the question label the following: 5 . you would require V~1× 10 5 m/s.To make your scheme as sensitive as possible. But ∠ VAP = θ i . you want to make x1+x2 as large as possible. and is therefore equal to the sum of the alternate interior angles ∠VAP and ∠VAÕP. [James] 3) Imagining imaging i) From the law of reflection. Say 19th century technology limits you to x1+x2=1m. ii) To demonstrate that one focus is the virtual image of the other we will prove that the angles the incident ray and reflected ray make with the tangent are equal. in which case d(object) = d(image).

6 . So we want to prove α = β . x x y y b2 x m = 2 o → gives the equation of the tangent → o2 − o2 = 1 a b a yo Now we can use the formula for the tangent of the counterclockwise angle from one line l 1 to another l in terms of their respective slopes m1 and m. o) the focus F′ → image point with coordinates (c. o) the incident ray (leaving F) → line l 2 the reflected ray (`leaving' F′) → line l 1 the point of reflection on the surface of the F′ branch of the hyperbola → point A with coordinates (xo. yo) yields the slope of the tangent line. x2 a2 − 2 =1 b b2 x a2 y y2 2 x 2 yy ′ ∴ 2 − 2 = 0 → y′ = a b Substituting (xo. yo) Also draw in the tangent line at point A → label it line l Then label the angle between l 2 and l → angle α the angle between l and l 1 → angle β where both α and β are counter clockwise angles. namely tan α = m − m1 1 + mm1 yo − 0 where the slope of the line l 1 is m1 = x − c o plugging in the values for the slope you get something not as bad as it seems.the focus F → object point with coordinates (Ðc. Suppose the curve is in `standard position' so that the equation is.

Thus each focus is the virtual image of the other. The respective periods are then: T= g L and T′ = g L′ 7 tan( F ′) →∞ tan( F ) . A proper image isnÕt really formed. Thus the magnification depends on which pair of rays you are tracing out and thus cannot be well defined. and therefore α = β. [Carrie] 4) Correct time and temperature. The magnification is not well defined. In other words reflected rays appear to come from F′ or the focus F′ is the virtual image of F. where we have used the fact that a 2 + b2 = c 2 and b 2 xo − b 2 xo c + b 2 a 2 b 2 ( − xo c + a 2 ) The same calculation with Ðc replacing c gives tan(−β) = b2 cyo so tan(β) = −b 2 cyo so tan( α ) = tan(β). If for example you consider the rays drawn in the diagram (given in the question) and the corresponding angles they make with the x-axis (our second ray reflected back along the x-axis) the magnification. be L and L′ respectively. The same argument can be made for the reverse situation (F ′ the object point and F the virtual image). at the toneÉ i) Let the initial and final lengths.tan α = 2 b 2 x 2 − b 2 cxo − a2 yo a yo = 2 o  b 2 x   y  a y o ( xo − c ) + b 2 xo y o 1+  2 o o   a y o   xo − c  2 b 2 xo − yo xo − c = 2 2 ) − b 2 x o c + (b 2 x o − a 2 yo ( a2 + b 2 )xo yo − a2 cyo −b 2 = 2 = = c xo yo − a2 cyo cyo (cxo − a2 ) cyo 2 2 − a2 yo = a2b 2 for a hyperbola. M M= Since the angle F ′ → 90o If another two rays are taken an entirely different value for M can be obtained. This is clear when you compare the angle between two rays of light leaving a point on the object with the corresponding angle the rays seem to form when traced back to the virtual image. due to a temperature change of ∆ TK .

Thus f = . it isnÕt exactly the change in lengths which change the frequency. 2L The wave speed c is given by µ where τ is the tension in the string and µ the mass 1 τ density per unit length.9 × 10 −5 K −1 and we're told ∆T = 20°C = 20 K Since T = 1. 8 . 2L µ τ We can determine τ from the formula for Young's modulus. l is the initial length and Y is ÔYoungÕs modulus. The string is stretched to a length L.28 s. Therefore the clock gains time 1 by a factor of = 1.9 × 10 = 0. iii) In the case of a stretched string. we have T′ = g L(1 + α∆T ) − 1 2 = (1 + α ∆ T ) T − T′ = (1 + α ∆ T ) 2 T 1 Thus the required ratio is ii) Now for brass we have α = 1.Õ a constant.0002 days = 0. since the string doesnÕt need to be stretched as much.0002(24) (60) (60) s = 17. For transverse waves in a stretched string we use the equation c = f λ where c is the speed of the wave.9998 −5 1 2 (10)) − Since the new period is shorter the clock will measure time faster and so gain time.28 s per day. namely τ/ A = Y . it becomes less taut Ñ the tension in the string isnÕt as great. T Thus after one day (as measured by the clock initially cold) the warm clock gains 0. Therefore the clock when warmer by 20 K gains approximately 17. where ∆l / l A is the cross sectional area ∆ l is the change in length due to the applied tension. Since the now warmer clock measure is in just 0. Instead. no matter what. Thus f = .0002 per unit of real time. This distance L is then equal to one c half the wavelength λ.9998 s. The first harmonic vibrates with the only nodes at the end points of the string.000 the new period is T ′ = (1 + 1.Since LÕ = L(1 + α∆T). f the frequency and λ the wavelength. as the string expands.

lo = 0.795 m and L = 0. (We would have been better off to assume that Y¥A was constant).795) ⋅ (1 + 0. ∆T + 20 K . James & Robin] 9 .9822 (0.00022) f ′ = 432.8 − 0. The cross-sectional area A will increase as the metal expands. and the string is stretched out by an amount ∆l = (L − lo ) and µ =ρA where ρ is the density of steel at the initial temperature. Now. using α = 1. After the temperature increase ∆T we have length lÕ prior to being stretched. is defined in terms of the initial A.2 Hz.795 (1 + 0.8 − 0. assumed to be constant.So we have f = 1 Y A ∆l 2L lµ Initially we have string-length lo. Therefore the final frequency of the now-warmer guitar is 432. and stretch amount ∆lÕ l′ = lo (1 + α ∆T ) ∆l′ = L − l′ = L − lo (1 + α ∆T ) The linear mass density doesnÕt change. Therefore f=  1 YA ∆l 1 YA {L − lo } 1 YA  L = =  − 1 2 L µ lo 2L µ 2 L µ  lo lo  and f′=  L 1 YA ∆l© 1 YA {L − l© } = 1 YA  L − 1 = 1 YA  − 1 =    l© 2L µ l© 2 L µ 2 L µ  l©  2 L µ  lo (1 + α∆T )  L − lo (1 + α ∆T ) f′ = f (L − lo ) (1 + α ∆T ) It follows: and this is the required ratio.. f = 440 HZ.8 m we have: f′ = 440 0. which is out of tune by about 8 Hz.1 × 10 −5 K −1 .2 Hz. but our YoungÕs modulus. [Simal.00022) = 0. because we always stretch to length L.

respectively (they clearly point in the x-direction. The position of the centre of mass is given by: xc. = dxc. First. as acceleration = 0 . so after the collision the ÒlatticeÓ will move at V m/s [right]. so that at any point in time we will have: mV = mL + mR V =L+R [1] where L and R are the velocities of the left and right balls.m. 2 2 R′ = 0 − V V =− 2 2 at t = 0. so we drop the vector sign).m.5) Toys. Toys. which will take a time of L/2/(V/2) = L/V their velocities will be: L′′ = − V . note that momentum will be conserved. which moves at V/2 m/s [right].m. The motion may be written as 10 . = mxL + mxR 1 = ( xL + x R ) 2m 2 [2] where xL and xR are the positions of the left and right balls (in the laboratory frame). (the balls are thus approaching each other) The situation is perfectly symmetric and we can right away conclude that after the two balls collide. and conserving momentum and energy yields that after the collision we will have: L′′′ = L′ = V V . respectively. Note that the motion is not simple harmonic. Toys The masses are equal. Vc. the balls will be pulled by the string. R′′′ = R′ = − 2 2 The balls therefore oscillate with a period of 2(L/V). In the centre of mass frame then. 2 R′′ = V 2 (the balls are going away from each other) Next.Ðkx. the velocities of the balls become: L′ = V − V V = . x(t)Ê=ÊVt is the position as a function of time. 1 V = ( L + R) = dt 2 2 using [1]. Hence.

t mod > V V 11 .L′(t) = V L  2L  . I think it is (more or less) clear the graph looks something like this: (the dashed line corresponds to the right ball. If you have never seen ÒmodÓ before. t> mod 2 V  V xL ′ (t) = 2L  V L  t. t< mod  2 V V 2L  V L  . so using it we can figure out what part of the period t is in. ÒmodÓ gives the remainder after division. t mod > V V L(t) = V . t mod 2L L < V V 2L L xL (t) = const . and we know its velocity. the solid corresponds to the left one) Since we have the motion in the centre of mass frame. t > 2 V  V L′(t) = − xL ′ (t) = − the primes denote centre of mass frame. t mod Plotting this gives: xL (t) = Vt . This gives: 2L L < V V 2L L L(t) = 0. donÕt sweat it. t < mod  2 V V 2L  V L  mod t. we simply transform to the laboratory frame.

and so on. The system looks somewhat like a centipede Ð first the back moves. then the front moves. From ii). with the front being stationary. like jello). which is also the motion of the centre of mass. x R. It is instructive to try this by brute force Ð keeping the same symbols as in i) (xL. we can treat the system as two springs of length L/2 (kÕ = 2k). but not at the high school level] LetÕs take the hint and go to the centre of mass frame. The motion is simple harmonic with a period: T = 2π m 2k  2k  m t sin 2k  m  The motion of the left ball is xL ′ (t) = V 2 [this gives the correct initial conditions Ð xLÕ(0) = 0. the centre of mass still moves at V/2 m/s [right]. In an n-particle lattice. the motion looks like this: x L (t ) = V V t+ 2 2  2k  m sin t 2k  m  Plotting gives (not to scale!): 12 . the speed of the centre of mass would be V/n. in the outside frame. In that frame we once again get the balls approaching at equal speeds (V/2).The solid line is the motion of the left ball. R for right) L+R= 2 dxL dxR + =V dt dt 2 2  dxL   dxR  mV = m +m + k(L − ( xR − xL ))2  dt   dt  This is a system of differential (momentum and energy) equations that just screams out Ògo awayÓ [NOTE: if you rearrange it Ð it takes lots of work Ð you end up with something workable. the thick line is the average of the two. Since the compression on each half of the spring will be equal. the dashed that of the right. L(0) = V/2] Thus. L for left object. Note that if we had a body of mass 2m colliding with one of mass m we wouldnÕt get the same results as here Ð our system loses energy (itÕs a soft object.

This is very similar to ii). The motion looks once again like a centipede. but kind of weird (nonuniform). green line is the left ball. straight line is the motion of centre of mass.The black line is the right ball. except that the solution is now V − 2 e 2 γt m 2 1 k γ  sin 4 − t 2  m  m   xL ′ (t) = 4 k γ − m  m 2 Plotting gives something like this: 13 .

ii) is most unrealistic as it experiences infinitely long vibrations and the bond between molecules is most likely not a rigid string (this implies that the force acting on the molecules occurs 14 . then: Ve x L (t ) = V t+ 2 − γt m 1 k  γ 2  4 − sin t  m  2 m   k  γ 2 4 − m  m which gives (not to scale!): Here. the left ball is black. After a body collides with something.Note that the particleÕs motion eventually decays and remains at x = 0. Clearly. we might expect its molecules to vibrate for a little bit. but not forever as in ii) or iii). In the outside frame. the last model is most realistic. right ball red and centre of mass is green (straight line).

labelled n = Ð1. of different colours.over an infinitely short amount of time. measured from the perpendicular to the surface (the surface normal).8 nm. and on the diffraction grating itself: n λ = 2d • (sin θi + sin θ d ) where θ i is the input angle. as given Ñ this is something of a convention). If you look at fluorescent lights. which you can investigate.7 µm. the 1st order diffracted angle was found to be 22 deg. We used a HeNe laser from the lab. measured similarly. etc. Since the HeNe wavelength is 632. the spacing between adjacent grooves on the CD works out to be approximately 1. the input and output angles of light diffracted from a diffraction-grating depend on wavelength. that make the fluorescent light 15 Diffraction orders: This figure was made using a CD and a laser-pointer. Ð2. Try the equation yourself to see why theyÕre negative. held at the right. The dissipation mechanism is due to radiation Ð an accelerating charge radiates away its energy [see problem set 1]. [Peter] 6) Making a shoebox spectrograph. and a CD that was kicking around. or tracks of the CD (rather than d . You can see the laser-pointer.Õ and then to the right are three orders or diffracted light. you can easily see the different spectral lines. leading to infinite accelerations. using a compact disc As given in the Ômini tutorialÕ under InfoBitsª. 2d is the spacing between grooves of the diffractiongrating. and found that with normal incidence (θi =0). The brightest spot of light is the undiffracted specular reflection (sometimes called the Ôzeroth order. Ð3.). . The n is an integer which gives the order of diffraction. and θ d is the angle of the diffracted light.

look white. the scientists can use the frequencies between spectral lines to peer through to the deep sky. Your school may have a wall-chart that shows characteristic spectral lines of different materials (these are available through Edmund Scientific. [Robin] 16 . a picture of part of one of ours is below. If you look at street lights. and then the phosphor coating. If low-pressure sodium lamps are used. Astronomical observatories care very much which sort of lights a city installs. The atoms are excited by absorbing ultraviolet light. Incandescent lamps give a whole or continuous spectrum. since too much scattered light (light pollution) can wreck observations. So fluorescent lights are doubly fluorescent Ñ first the mercury vapour inside. The colours come from different phosphors coated on the inside of the glass tube Ñ each spectral line comes from a quantum transition in the atoms making up the phosphor. which comes from mercury atoms which are themselves excited by electrons accelerated up and down the tube. but in highpressure lamps the much more frequent collisions between atoms make the spectral lines spread out or broaden. among other places). but low-pressure and high-pressure sodium lamps are different: the low-pressure lamps give spectral lines. you may find that there are different kinds.

but static Ñ so that they do not fly together or apart. ÒPsst buddy. you decide to check out his 1 . Better think quick. ÒOkay.Ó ÒHey. ÒHmm. What is the charge and in what arrangement?Ó He screws up his face to think. ÒThree balls: two with charge +4q. hoping that if this doesnÕt go well. You ask him ÒThree balls. You decide that this endeavour is not in your best interest so you challenge him back to a Ôreal toughÕ game of point-charge placement. Hurry up twerp!Ó What is your answer? ii) You got him on that one but now it is your turn. tweek!Ó You assure him there is one. but you get to pick the amount of charge. ignore them and pretend itÕs a perfect insulator. one copper and the other iron. The crossCu Fe sections are identical. a man in a dark trench coat whispers to you. exclaiming ÒThere better be a real answer for this. the other with charge Ðq. ya interested in an almost-new physics equation?Ó Being the foolhardy type. placed on the points of an equilateral triangle. but I go firstÓ says the bully. all with charge q. Two other balls with identical charges on them. Unfortunately. so the charges cannot moveÓ you respond. you seem to have challenged the only bully in advancedplacement physics in the entire kindergarten class. and you must arrange them to be free. ÒHuh?Ó says the bully so you explain: ÒPretend you are given a set of electrically charged balls. What electric charge naturally accumulates at the boundary between the two metals? How many elementary charges does that correspond to? [Hint: GaussÕs law] [Gnädig/Honyek] 3) ÔAscending and Descending VoltagesÕ: a circular argument ÒPsst!Ó. what is it? [James] 2) Charged with resistingÉ A current of 1 mA flows through a conductor made of 1 mA two wires. the big bully challenges you to a game of ÔNo-mercy pink leg wrestlingÕ. what about gravity or friction or redistribution of the charges on the balls?Ó the bully demands. 1999 1) Bully for you! i) Back in kindergarten.1998-1999 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 5: Electricity and Magnetism Due March 5. and the wires are butt-welded as shown in the figure. the recess bell will ring before leg-wrestling becomes an option again.

i) Consider a circuit of total area A with some current I passing through it. changing its volume by 3%. This wouldnÕt be very important. except there is a theorem which states that the solutions to electrostatic problems are unique: if you find some electric field that satisfies the boundary conditions. given in InfoBits below] [Robin & Gnädig/Honyek] 6) Mocking mirrors The method of images is very useful for solving a variety of electrostatics problems. What is the resulting magnetic field BÕ ? (total area A) (total area AÕ) ii) If the object is a solenoid shrinking from a radius 10rÕ to a radius rÕ. The sides of the device are suddenly imploded so as to cause the area to shrink to AÕ. This causes a uniform magnetic field B perpendicular to the plane of the device. But you could also make an infinite constant-potential surface if you had two opposite charges (+q and Ð q) a distance 2d apart Ð the potential on their perpendicular bisector is a constant. using a current-carrying circuit and high explosives. the charges on it will move so that the potential on the surface of the plane is constant (until this happens.4) Flux compression Ñ putting the squeeze on a B-field This is an actual experimental problem in practice Ñ a way in which very high magnetic fields can be produced. it is the only solution. Because the plane is a conductor. what is the resulting field? [HINT: one of MaxwellÕs equations will be useful] [Peter and Bryan] 5) Scratch and dent sale on capacitors i) What is the capacitance of the earth. taking it as a perfect sphere? ii) Consider the earth not as a perfect sphere Ñ say a comet smacks into the earth and dents it. Consider a point charge +q a distance d away from an infinite conducting plane. By what percentage does the earthÕs capacitance change? [B ONUS : extra points awarded for deriving the formula for capacitance of a sphere. The twinned charges give the right 3 . this field makes the charges move). there is a field in the conductor. with I = 1A and n = number of turns per unit length = 100 / 1 cm.

i) So. A charge is placed symmetrically inside one quadrant.potential for the infinite plane.physics.9875 × 10 9 N m 2 C −2 = 8. what is the field at any point y just outside our infinite conducting plane? +q d ii) Consider two infinite conducting planes.utoronto. so their field around +q is the same as the field of a single +q charge above a conducting plane. crossing at a 90¡ angle. E = energy.ca/~poptor Csphere = R . Where do you have to place +q image charges so that the planes will be equipotential d d surfaces? [HINT: in this case you can think of the planes as mirrors. Q = charge. C = capacitance 2C 4 . the charge +q as an object. parallel planes separated by a distance 2d. k C = capacitance. a distance d from either plane. and the image charges as images of the object formed by the two mirrors] [Peter] INFOBITSª Ñ Useful Bits of POPTOR Information Remember to check the POPTOR web-page for hints and any necessary corrections! www. R = radius k = 8.9875 × 10 9 F m −1 Ecapacitor = Q2 . with a charge +q midway. d What is the field just outside the conductors now? What image charges can you use to produce the same field? d +q iii) Consider now two infinite. conducting.

UNLESS you think in 3D. Symmetry says that each negative ball must be an equal distance from each +q ball. Put the negative ball in the middle. with two balls sounds impossible. We find that we have to satisfy two equations: n2 3nq cos(b) = 4A2 C2 2nq sin(b) = 3 q 2 2 C (vertical forces acting on ball Ðn) (horizontal on ball q) Since A = C * cos(b). where angle b is opposite side B. 3 -n b A B C q From the side. Place each ball above and below the plane holding the three balls. From the top this looks like the figure at right. These two equations then give: A = 1± 2 3 1 . and place the other two to balance the Coulomb force. Define the equilateral triangle to have sides of length 1 unit. the net force on each of the three balls will be zero. ii) This is a classic lateral thinking problem. Now balance B the Coulomb forces. this looks like the figure at left. from which B B 1 we can find that B = . the first equation simplifies to: n  A = 12  C q 3 The second equation simplfies to n 3 3 = C q 2 So 2 A = C 2 Recall that A 2 + B2 = C 2 . Trying to balance three balls in a triangle. No matter how far apart are the positive charges.1998-1999 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 5: Electricity and Magnetism 1) Bully for you! i) The symmetry gives it away.

if the given equation is correct. which is only 1/30th of an elementary charge! Though a measurable macroscopic current flows through the wire. and fractional charge excitations.001π . so the total voltage (E ¥d) is: Bo ⋅ 0. over a distance of 2 0.] [Gnädig/Honyek] 3) ÔAscending and Descending VoltagesÕ: a circular argument a) Obviously. This strange result shows that classical electrodynamics (imagining charge carriers as small balls) cannot always correctly describe electrical phenomena. M. the accumulated charge is only a small proportion of the microscopic elementary charge.10 −21 C.e.4q or 0. of the interface).. and the total current is this value divided by 500 ohm. Escher makes use of a lovely illusion to draw a staircase with no beginning or end. b) The picture you are mumbling about is called ÒAscending and descendingÓ (note hint in the title of the question). [You might be interested to note that the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics was shared by Robert Laughlin for his theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect. but not on the cross-sectional area of the wire (i. OhmÕs law for a wire of length l gives U = I Ê ρ l /A which yields E = U / l = ρI/A for the electric field strength in the wire.001π . the difference in the electric field strengths implies an accumulation of charge at the boundary of the two metals (see figure). The total induced electric field. and with people on it constantly descending or ascending. the charge is found to be Q ≅ 5.001 ⋅ 2 0. Substituting the known data. Actually. is simply 0. Therefore to give the same current in each part. The total charge accumulated at the interface is Q = ε 0EA = ε 0 I (ρFe − ρCu ) It is interesting that this quantity depends purely on the current and material constants.C. The voltage across one bulb is 1/5 of the total.001 Bo .33q.and the value for n=10. Only application of the more sophisticated laws of quantum theory and statistical physics can give a more accurate description. A the cross-section of the wire and ρ1 and ρ 2 the resistivities of the materials. I did not miss my true calling as a screenwriter. The resistivity of copper is lower than that of iron. Cu Fe According to GaussÕs law. the electric field strength has to be smaller in the copper than in the iron. You win! [James] 2) Charged with resistingÉ Let I denote the current flowing in the wire. my colleague Julian (who is a fine violinist I might add) comments 2 .

you have a runaway effect! Any small perturbations in any small magnetic field will cause it to increase dramatically and without end. the initial flux is just B¥ A. endlessly producing power. c) Consider the right-hand rule in comparison to the equation your new friend is trying to sell you (another hint that I included in the equation). As hinted. Thus you start out at the same voltage you began with. this will increase the induced current that will create more flux. The real equation has a negative sign. The induced current acts against changes in the magnetic field. The induced current will create a magnetic field that will increase the flux in the loop. with a water fall linked in a similar way. since the 3 → → . Of course this is not realistic so there must be a problem with your buddyÕs model. We have: dΦ B = −Emf dt Φ B = ∫ B • dA So the change in the magnetic flux causes and induced emf. The area of the loop is actually much smaller than that of the sides. so that they start touching each other at the far end and finally end up being connected at the low end. The two sides of the device have explosives attached to them. the Maxwell equation we will use is that for induced emf. we have no such ÔtricksÕ in physics. in New Mexico. V R V R V R V Of course. USA. so the voltage drop across each resistor matches the voltage increase across 1/5 of the length of the wire. In our case. The current is caused by a capacitor discharging. Mother Nature is truly a conservative force (no political insinuations intended) [James] R V R 4) Flux compression Ñ putting the squeeze on a B-field This experiment is apparently done at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This is similar to the circuit at left. so what is going on in the circuit? The voltage ÒsourceÓ is distributed through every bit of wire.that there is an additional Escher print on the same theme.

from this it follows Ð4 2 Ð1 Ð1 that the capacitance of the earth is 7. From this it follows that the capacitance of an isolated sphere is: Csphere = Q/V = Q/ (k Q/R. Thus we can write C = Q/V. Also an electrostatic field of field strength E has an energy εE2/2 per unit volume and when the capacitor is indented the electric field penetrates a volume where it was not previously present. Note that the field grows as the B′ = B = µ 0 In  r′   r′  square of the radius. However. If the change in energy of the capacitor can be found the change in its capacitance can also be calculated. and we have reached a steady state. because then ∆B = 0. where R is the sphereÕs radius. where the electrostatic potential approaches zero) The earthÕs radius is 6.) = R/k (the ÔgroundedÕ capacitor plate is at infinite distance. The energy of the capacitor is higher when it is indented. For a spherical distribution of charge. Which direction is this current? From the equation we see that it will oppose the decrease in the flux Ð i. V = k Q/R. and k = 8. where Q is the charge on the capacitor and V its electrostatic potential. As the area of the device is shrinking.378 × 10 m.26 T in this case. [Peter and Bryan] 5) Scratch and dent sale on capacitors i) Capacitance C is defined such that Q = C V. 6 9 2 Ð2 2 2 4 . or 710 µF. which in turn produces a current.e. the field and potential outside the sphere is exactly as it would be if the entire charge were concentrated at a point at the centre of the sphere.. since the surface charges move in a direction opposite to the force acting on them. which means that we can achieve very large fields (~ 1000 T) with this technique. How much does the flux grow by? It will keep growing until it equals the original flux. we see that flux will be conserved in this process and we will get Φ B = const = BA = B′A′ A B′ = B A′ Field of solenoid is B = µ 0 In using AmpereÕs Law. emf induced = 0.9875 × 10 N m C . we see from above that this change induces an emf in the circuit.field is uniform and perpendicular to the plane of the device.1 × 10 C N m . the flux is decreasing. Thus at the sphereÕs surface or a vanishingly small distance beyond. Seems kind of small for such a big planet! ii) The energy of a capacitor of charge Q and capacitance C is Q2/(2C). the current will flow in a direction to oppose the decrease in flux and will thus increase it. Thus. A direct application of i) gives  r  r which gives 1.

Thus. the potential. The capacitance of the new capacitor (of reduced size) is therefore 1% smaller. Thus. and the capacitance of the capacitor of the original question decreases by the same amount. a self-consistent solution is: 5 . so the potential is indeed constant in the planes. the relative change in their capacitance is identical as well. the capacitance of a spherical capacitor is proportional to its radius.If the surface of the capacitor is only changed a little the electric field can be considered as identical to the original one near the surface. Further. Imagine that the capacitor is hammered so that its volume decreases by 3%. y) is given by: r 2 cos(θ)q ) 2dq ) E(0. The ratio of the energy of such a capacitor to the energy of the original one is the same as the ratio of the energy of the indented capacitor of the problem to that of the original one. y) = − x=− x 2 3 2 / 4 πε o R 4 πε o y 2 + d 2 ( ) And it has no y-component. but its shape remains spherical. Hence. which is just the integral of the field (up to a constant) gives zero (since ∫ 0dy = 0 ). the change in energy depends purely on the change in volume and not on the actual shape of the indent. Its radius is therefore reduced by 1% (as the volume of the sphere is proportional to the cube of its radius). or noticing that the image charges correspond to images of object as produced by a mirror. ii) By comparing this to i). [Robin & Gnädig/Honyek] 6) Mocking mirrors i) We have: So that the field at a point (0.

This is equivalent to the forming of infinitely many images when you stand between two mirrors Ñ the 1st seems a distance d away. So we put a charge +q a distance 3d left / right of A / A' (respectively). We have: [Peter] 6 . 0). iii) Consider this reasoning: to make A equipotential we have to put a charge Ðq a distance d left of it. ad infinitum. a distance 3d = d + the distance of the light ray bouncing from the opposite mirror. we put Ðq a distance d to the right of A'.The field at any point (0. by symmetry. y) is r 2dq 2dq ) E(0. But now the two Ðq charges cause A and A' not to be equipotential again. To make A' equipotential. the 2nd. And so on. y) = − x+ 3 2 / 4 πε o ( y + d)2 + d 2 4 πε o ( y − d)2 + d 2 ( ) ( ) 3/2 ) x which is also the field at a point (Ðx.

but at a higher voltage the gas inside ionizes in the strong electric field.1998-1999 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 6: AC Circuits and Electronics Due April 2. with closely spaced electrodes. The bulb can support about 80 V across it without problems. and a discharge takes place between the electrodes. and gives the impression it might be part of a burglar alarm. The flashing light comes from a small neon-filled bulb. and set it by the basement windows of his house as a burglar deterrent Ñ it makes a flashing light. roughly how long does each flash of light last? iii) During a flash. 33 kΩ neon lamp 30 µF i) How frequently does this particular design flash? ii) If the neon lamp goes from 220 kΩ in its normal state to about 0. i) Consider this attempt at a logic gate. B. which produce the light. Once electrons stop flowing. What kind of gate is it? Name at least one major problem A B (output) 1 . The discharge electrons excite the neon atoms. CÉ are inputs.5 Ω during the discharge. the resistance drops drastically. Make a truth-table for this setup: show the output for each possible combination of inputs (use 0s and 1s). roughly how much electrical energy goes into the lamp? iv) How could you easily modify this circuit to make the flash last longer? How long would the flash then be? [Robin] 2) Logic rules (!) For the questions below assume that a logical high (Ô1Õ) means a voltage of about 5 V. 1999 1) Thief of time 100V A chum of mine once upon a time had built this circuit. and a logical low (Ô0Õ) means a voltage around 0 V. the ionized gas recovers and the resistance rises again to the original value. Straight lines are wires and things labeled A.

A transistor essentially functions as a switch. the conduction band of the semiconductor inside shifts toward the collector and then current can flow from the collector to the emitter. can you figure out what the following circuits do? Give a basic description of each and figure out the truth tables (as described above). ii) Knowing this. if you chose to accept it. Remember Jim. Connecting diagonal dots does work though. is to connect the dots using the given components to obtain the required currents or voltages (see figure on next page). but wireyÉ Your mission Jim. say. we can use a wonderful device known as a transistor.this gate would have. The wires and components are delicate so do not bend them. voltmeter) is much higher than R] [Peter] 3) Small. if used in some circuit. It has 3 electrical connection points Ð the base.. V a) b) V V R R R (output) (output) collector A base emitter A B [NOTE: in all circuits the resistance of the load on the output (e. the collector and the emitter. directionality?] To avoid the problem you may have found above. Otherwise. the band is near the base and the device does not conduct between the collector and the base.g. all the components are ideal (wires have no 2 . [HINT: does the gate have. When the base is at a higher voltage than the emitter. Semiconductor Ñ get it? Sometimes itÕs like a conductor and sometimes it isnÕt.

resistance.. we think this one might be harder than it looks.. 14. e. etc.5kΩ A1 A2 1kΩ 9V wires c) The voltage across the unknown element AC changes as a function of time (see V1(t)).). 13.) Set voltage=5V. 5V 1Ω 9V 9V A V 5V 1Ω wires A 10Ω V a) Set I=2mA. What is I1? A 1kΩ 1kΩ 12V 1kΩ wires 0.5 mA. Set V2(t) as shown.) A 13kΩ 13kΩ wires connectors 13kΩ unlimited supply of all three components 1V [James] 3 . You have 15 seconds before this unit self-destructs. V1(t) V2(t) t t Recall Jim that the current across a diode looks like: I V1 AC V2 wires diodes V d) Set I=47.g. b) Set I2=18mA. (Be careful Jim. there is no voltage drop across an ammter.. current: I=5A.

ca/~poptor 4 . which makes the question far too boringÉ [Peter] 5) ÔE pluribus unumÕ Given a large number of exactly 1 Ω resistors. Some long time later. [HINT: the value of the new resistance is arbitrary. the switch S is opened. describe using circuit diagrams how to make a resistance of any (arbitrary) given value. how do the lamps rank? Explain. [Gnädig/Honyek] r R r a b S C L L C L Remember to check the POPTOR web-page for hints and any necessary corrections! www. after connecting two more resistors r. is it possible to add two more rÕs so that the total resistance remains R? Note that all the resistors must have both their ends connected Ð i.e. but it can only be measured to a finite number of digits] [Peter] 6) Inductive reasoning The circuit shown in the figure Ñ composed of three identical lamps and two coils Ñ is connected to a DC power supply.4) Is resistance futile? Given a resistance R (made of n smaller resistors of value r connected together any way you want). the following is illegal: The resistance from a to b obviously remains at a value R.utoronto. In order of brightness..physics.

1 ( ) . the capacitance of the capacitor in parallel with the bulb Our basic equations are: VC = VB (in parallel) VR + VB = 100 V (the whole voltage drop around a closed loop) I R = I B + IC (the current is conserved as it splits over the bulb and capacitor paths) VR = I R ⋅ R (OhmÕs law) VB = I B ⋅ RB QC = C VC (charge on a capacitor). which gives: ˙ = CV ˙ (just taking the derivative) ⇒ IC ≡ Q C C ˙ = CV B Then this can go into OhmÕs law to give a voltage.1998-1999 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 6: AC Circuits and Electronics 1) Thief of time i) LetÕs use these symbols for the various bits: R = 33kΩ. the normal resistance of the bulb C = 30 µF. to reduce just to an expression for the bulb-voltage:  VB ˙  + CV  B  ⋅ R + VB = 100 V  RB  1 1  100 V ˙ +V 1  V + − =0  B B C  RB R  RC which we can write in a simpler form for the constants. the resistor after the battery RB = 220kΩ. VR = I R ⋅ R = ( I B + IC ) ⋅ R ˙ ⋅R = I B + CV B V ˙  =  B + CV B ⋅ R  RB  and then this can be used in the voltage-sum expression VR + VB = 100 V .

and therefore: be no changes in time. so V B VB (∞) ⋅ b + c = 0 ⇒ VB (∞) = − RB c = (100 V ) ⋅ R + R  b  B Thinking about the start. you might guess that the change is an exponential relaxation.e. if we didnÕt already guess it above. or if you integrate the equations (or if youÕre lucky!). to V B B dt integrate. Then there could ˙ (t ) = 0 . youÕll see easily that it actually works: {(a − b)⋅ VB (∞) e−at } + {VB (∞)⋅ b + c} = 0 (− a) VB (∞) e − at + VB (∞) (1 − e − at ) ⋅ b + c = 0 This has to be true for all values of t. we need to have VB(0) = 0. So the right solution starts at zero and asymptotically (over a long time) goes to a constant as a limit. so the solution is: 1 1 1   −  + t RB  C  RB R   VB (t ) = 100 V ⋅ ⋅ 1− e  R + RB    or with our exact values put in: 2 . when the battery is connected but no charge has yet flowed through R. The first term to be zero gives us a=b. or if you know 1st order differential equations.. will have a Ôsteady stateÕ). so that you get an expression d V on one side and dt on the other. we can guess that if the bulb hasnÕt broken down. Taking the second term to be zero gives VB (∞) . the capacitor will be all charged up and that nothing will be changing (i. If you already know RC circuits. which if we start at zero and go to VB (∞) would have the form VB (t ) = VB (∞) ⋅ 1 − e − at ( ) If you put this into the equation above.˙ +V = b+c = 0 V B B b= 1 1 1 +   C  RB R  100 V RC We can solve this several ways Ð the most straightforward is just to integrate. using ˙ = dVB . After a long time. which means each parenthesis term must be zero independently. c=− A neater answer is to think about what this means Ñ what is going on.

5 Ω + R′) ⋅ 30 µF which you can control by the value of R′ and we can make the bulb light up for longer.16t ( ) ⇒ t = 2. Then τ = RC = (0. the capacitor discharges through the bulb. But since ˙ = − CV ˙ I B = IC = − CV C B ˙ (t ) will be smaller with R′ added. then the current through the bulb will be and V B smaller and it wonÕt be as bright. 1 2 2 energy stored in a capacitor charged to voltage V is: iv) going back to (ii) we can make the flash last longer by adding a resistor R′ series with the bulb.VB (t ) = 87.5 Ω ⋅ 30 µF = 15 µs = 30µF ⋅ (80 V ) = 96 mJ (not enough to make the bulb explode.18 s ii) At breakdown.16 t ( ) VB (t ) reaches breakdown for the bulb (80V) when 80 = 87¥ 1 − e −1. V C = VB IB+IC=0 QC = C VC ˙ ⇒ IC = C V C and with VB=IB RB and also (with current left-to-right taken positive) 0 = I B + IC This then gives VB ˙ =0 + CV B RB ˙ + 1 V =0 ⇒V B B RC which has a solution VB (t ) = VB (0) ⋅ e iii) The 1 CV 2 2 − 1 t RC So a good characteristic time of the bulbÕs flash is RC = 0.0 V ⋅ 1 − e −1. until the bulb ÔrecoversÕ. [Robin] 3 . I hope!) It is all dumped through the neon lamp.

the output is low. by a similar argument as above. The transistor is thus cut-off Ð no current flows from the collector to the emitter (it acts like an open circuit).. [Voltage across R would be RI and that across the device rI. the voltage drop across R is negligible and almost all voltage (Vo) goes through the device. But when more than one input is high. 0 V). When all of A. The first gate is a NAND.2) Logic rules (!) i) This is an OR gate. C are low (i. If we have something fairly sensitive connected to the output. 0 V). If we now connect a device with a large resistance (>> R). the output is naturally low. the current is now n2 I) Ð this is clearly a problemÉ ii) a) This is a NOT gate.e. Hence. all the voltage drop will be across R [since it is smaller than r Ð the resistance of the output device]. So this is a NOT gate. When A is low (ca. final current is nI. some current flows through the circuit. say. But when either A or B or C are high. the gate is a NOT (NAND) = AND. Note that using transistors the output and current voltage are constant. Note that the current flowing through both is the same] When A is high. WhatÕs worse. but since r >> R the first may be ignored. however another problem. we could fry it if the current is too large. the currents actually add. Thus. from above. B. So the output is high. the currents will add (if we have n inputs. the base and the emitter are both at 0 Volts. There is still. If we feed n of such gates into another similar gate. Problem: when either A or B or C conduct. in a computer many gates are connected together Ð but if we connect a few of these gates to the inputs of another gate. b) The second gate (from the left) is a NOT. the transistor conducts (with almost no resistance) Ð thus. but IÕll let you figure it outÉ [Peter] 4 . so will the output be. voltage is.

b) Set I2=18mA. and thus I1=9mA. A [James] 4) Is resistance futile? LetÕs try all 6 possibilities: a) R r 13kΩ 1V r 5 . What is I1? 1kΩ A1 9V A2 9V 9V 12V Be careful about the polarity of the 12V source! So what is I1? The normal voltage/current laws do not help you.5 mA. 1kΩ c) This is known as a full-wave rectifier and can be used to chance AC voltage into DC voltage (with an extra smoothing filter) 1kΩ A V1 AC V2 d) Set I=47. but wireyÉ a) Set I=2mA. The only answer that I can argue would be using symmetry. handed in by a few students. total: 618 resistors 13kΩ 13kΩ 13kΩ I had a more complicated answer but this one.3) Small. is more straightforward.

b) r R r c) R r r d) R r r e) r r R f) r R r From a) we get: R = R + 2r. which is again impossible From c) we get: r = r + 2R Ð impossible. using (d) or (e). But note that both the solutions (d) and (e) in question 4 are irrational Ñ if our arbitrary r is rational then 6 . A sophisticated aside for question 4: Note that we have a way of making resistances r that are rational. So it is possible. which is impossible (r > 0) From b) we get: R = r/2 + R. 1+ 5 From d) we get: R = r   2   −1 + 5  From e) we get: R = r  2   From f) we get: 2r = 2r + R Ð impossible.

LetÕs recall what kinds of circuits we can make using resistors: We could have resistors in parallel and series. For in experiments we can only measure things to a finite precision. Experimentally. there are no irrational values Ð since we only measure a certain amount (say 10) digits. But the equivalence formulas involve additions (series).e. and multiplying and/or dividing numbers Ð once again there is no way to obtain an irrational number. In the general case. Solving such a system involves adding / subtracting rows. or divisions (parallel).it follows that R is irrational. we can express it as a rational number Ð i. the other resistor (call it R) can only be measured to a finite number of digits. which are linear and create linear systems of equations. To create a circuit to express p/q we build the following circuit Ð we connect in series p groups of q groups containing 1 Ω resistors in parallel. we need to solve KirchoffÕs Laws. [Peter] 5) ÔE pluribus unumÕ Within experimental error. But to make R we only used rÕs in some combinations Ð we only used rational numbers. Given any such number. on the other hand it would be possible. every number is finite and hence rational. Thus. so there is no way to obtain a rational number. And hence we could achieve the circuits from either (d) or (e). in the form p/q where both p and q are integers. unless perhaps we could make R from an infinite number of resistors r.. And thus we must conclude that theoretically it is not possible to make the circuit from question 4. q resistors p groups [solution from a Polish Olympiad book ÒOlimpiady Fizyczne XXI I XXIIÓ] [Peter] 7 .

currents as shown at left flow S round the circuit.6) Inductive reasoning When the switch is closed. which would induce a very I I high voltage in the coil.) A very short time after turning the switch off the current flowing in the coils is practically unchanged. (The value of the current is determined by the C C voltage of the battery and the I L L L I I resistances of the lamps. I I This means that the lamp closest to the switch suddenly flashes and the brightness of the two other lamps does not change. and these determine the currents L L L flowing through the lamps 2I I I (figure at right). (If this were not the case.) S Currents of 2I and I continue to C C flow therefore in the coils. (This is only true for a short time.) [Gnädig/Honyek] 8 . there would be a rapid change in the magnetic flux. later all three lamps fade and go out.

c) Mweight/Mpumpkin = 450/1000 thus.1kg) (2/3) Therefore. Joe is going to need 4. So. /(Msmall) (2/3) = Abig/Asmall = (1000kg/0.so we can say that the fraction of power heating one cube is 1/24. (Mbig) (2/3) (3/2) 2 2 . for the same relative strength we need a cross sectional area 10000 times larger than the poles in the small model.1999-2000 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 1: General 1) Pumpkin paradox a) Mbig = 10000*Msmall Therefore.64 L of paint. [Carrie] . b) Mass is proportional to volume which in turn is proportional to area (3/2) Thus. mass is proportional to area . Abig = 464 Asmall Since the big pumpkin surface area is 464 times greater than the small. Abig = 10000 Asmall (1/4) π (Dbig) = 10000 (1/4) π (Dsmall) or Dbig = 100 Dsmall So Farmer Joe is going to need poles that are 100 times thicker. Rweight = (20 Rpumpkin)/9 2) Cubic quandry a) There are 6×4 = 24 equal cubes that can perfectly surround the lamp. Rweight Mweight g – Rpumpkin Mpumpkin g = 0 Therefore. Mweight = 9/20 The sum of the moments is zero when balanced. So. thus.

3014 = (300 + 1)4 = 300 4 (1+ 1 4 1 ) ≅ 300 4 (1+ 4 ⋅ ) 300 300 To a good approximation. meaning that it is actually the South pole (since opposites attract).6L2 σ T 4 = 1 Q 24 1 4  Q  ⇒T =  2  144σL  3) Poles apart. will affect the emission rate and the time needed to increase the temperature accordingly. so our cube is emitting 6L σ T J/s by the assumption that our cube is in thermal equilibrium each time. so long as you’re clear what a North pole of a magnet means to you). we are looking at changing the temperature by 1K at room temperature.e. from 300K to 301K. i. and the change in T is about 4 × (1/300). the N pole is actually the North-seeking pole. the emission rate and heating rate are equal. 1 Q t = mc ∆θ 24 Q  ⇒ t = {mc}/  . emits energy by the 4 2 4 power of σT Watts. Consider our case that any small change in T. After this lengthy introduction. in this case. as the field .6L2 σ T 4 t + c) In thermal equilibrium. But. let us get right to the point. The magnetic field of the magnet will bend the electron orbits into circles. telling [Amir] First of all let us note that the North-South (N-S) designations on magnets are a little messed up. The relative 4 change is on the order of 1/300.. we can ignore the changes in dT/dt due to a small change in T. We will follow these conventions in this document (it doesn’t matter how you approach this. so we have : . and we can substitute the room temperature instead. We assume here that the field is uniform throughout the face of the monitor (clearly not true.6L2 σ T 4   24  .1 Qt = mc∆θ 24 24mc [seconds] ? t= Q b) A unit area of a blackbody radiator in temperature T. You see.

where V = 15 kV. this solution is thus only valid for electron trajectories not far from the magnet). We also have mv 2 = e vB . whereby the force acts over a larger distance and deflects the electrons more. where R is the radius of rotation of the electron. each electron will actually only be deflected when it’s in the field of the magnet. We have: .41 cm. 1 ii) From the voltage we can find the speed of each electron Energy = eV = 2 mv 2 . (we assume that the magnetic field drops off really quickly at the sides of the magnet). which we cleverly enough didn’t tell you. but I would expect something bigger.1 mm.1 mm. and the vertical distance traveled is clearly 4. The electrons will be bent according to F = − ev × B (e is the size of the electron’s charge). electrons will turn by 90 degrees.gets smaller with distance. R We find R = 0. Bonus marks will be given to people who realize this). v is out of the screen. this would be roughly the size of the magnet. Now. the magnet really can’t be bigger. From this we see that the direction of deflection will r r be “DOWN” (looking directly at the monitor. v = 7. Seeing that the turning radius is only 4. Let’s assume that the width of the magnet is indeed 4.1 mm. as the correction is small. From this. B is from left to right). In this case. Then. i) Suppose we put the N-pole (really the South pole) of the magnet on the right r r r side of the screen. y x In the general case. This is mostly due to the fact that the magnetic field actually decays slowly with distance (and doesn’t become abruptly zero). y (down the screen).3× 10 7 m/s (Note that this is actually relativistic… we will ignore this. or there would be no picture whatsoever (all electrons would turn back). DISCUSSION: This somewhat makes sense. we can resolve the motion into 2 directions: x (towards the screen).

96 × 10 V = 6. (iii) the upward buoyant force = p V g (V = volume of fluid displaced) Summing the forces we get. [Peter] 4) Physics Rocks! a) To determine the critical height one must consider the equation of motion of the stone in the water.6 m/s (of the stone in water). [Carrie] 2 –3 2 m m 2 –5 3 . Thus if the stone is dropped in air with Vo = 0 m/s then under the acceleration of gravity the distance it travels before reaching a velocity of 1.6 m/s) = 9.5 b p A v 2 (b = drag coefficient. 6*(1. Given that the diameter of the stone is 5 cm and that the density of 3 quartz is 2600 kg/m it is easy to find the following.54 × 10 m = 0. b) At terminal velocity the water-drag problem is trivial! After 6 seconds the rock has fallen.13 m So the stone should be dropped from a height of 0. (i) the downward force of gravity = –m*g (ii) the upward drag on the stone = 0.6 m/s is.17 kg Plugging in the values yields a terminal velocity of 1. when the velocity is the terminal velocity.6 m.5 b p A v – m*g = 0 The sum of the forces is zero at equilibrium.x (t ) = − R sin(ϖt ) y (t ) = R cos(ϖt ) where v = ϖR . p = density of water) and from Archimedes' principle. and calculate what the deflection y(τ) will be. We want to find a time τ when the electron reaches the screen (solid line) so –x(τ) = width of magnet. D = Vt /(2 g) = 0. p V g + 0.13 m above the surface of the water. The forces acting on the stone in water are. A = 1.

5) Light diversions Consider a ray of light reflected from one of the mirrors. The reflected ray is a mirror image of the continuation of the incident ray. Therefore, an easy way to trace the ray path is to make another square beside it and follow the continuation of the incident ray in that square. For more than one reflection , more squares should be drawn as shown. It is observed from the figure that as the continuation of the initial ray pass through any corners, it means that the light have gone out from the square. Therefore, the necessary condition would be tan(θ) = m /n which m and n are two arbitrary integers. Doing the first part, makes solving this part much easier. We have to build up some triangles which are image of one another. Since the cone angle is 30°, last triangle fir exactly the first one. Two regular polygons with 12 sides is produced. Analogous to condition that the rays leave through the upper hole after many reflections is that the continuation of the incident ray pass through the smaller polygon. After some simple mathematics, we figure out that D must be smaller than the width of the polygon which is d / tan 15°. [Yaser]

6) Physicists’ pipe dreams a) The water column will get narrower and narrower because the flow is constant and the speed is increasing, therefore the surface area of the water will decrease until it breaks up into droplets. b) If we consider low viscosity for water, molecules of water are freely falling down.
v 2 - v 0 = 2gh vπr 2 = v 0 πR 2 r=R ν ν
2 2 1 4 2

r = R { v 0 /( v 0 + 2gh ) }

c) The stream will break up into droplets. It cannot get arbitrarily skinny, the way the formula gives, because: 1 . The radius can’t be less than the radius of a water molecule! 2 . Before you reach the limit (1) above, surface tension of water won't let you make it as skinny as possible. In fact, surface tension could affect the result which we obtained , but we are neglecting that! Consider the droplets have radius a . What is the height of a same-volume cylinder of radius r? The energy of surface tension for these two area ( as you could see in many books & specially at the end off this problem set :)
4 π a 3 = πr 2 ∆x 3 4 ? ∆x = a 3 /r 2 3

The surface-tension energy of these two states ( water tube & droplet ) are :

σ 2 π r ∆x

and σ 4 π a 2

substituting delta-x, we have and comparing them:
a3 σ 8π 3r a 3 3r and σ 8π 〈 3r 2a

it means that, if 3r/2a is less than 1 , then the surface energy of droplets is less than that of a water cylinder, so it’s energetically favourable for the water to break into droplets instead of staying in a cylindrical shape. What does determine the actual radius of a droplet? Several factors may affect that — for example the circular motion of water flow. But the most important one is density of water. It will break into droplets when the weight of the droplet has the same order of magnitude as the surface tension. It means:
ρ = 4πa 3 / 3 g = 2πrσ

using previous result, we will get:

r=

4σ = 2↔ 10 −3 m = 2 mm 4ρg

and then the height at which we reach this redious is:
2 h = v0 / 2gr 4

(R 4 − r 4 )

d) For the experimental part, I just used a tap with diameter of 6 mm and tried to see at what height the water breaks up. After that, I fixed the height and measured the volume of the poured water and the time interval. Here are my results:

Height of break up Volume (cm) (ml) 5-6 cm 7-10 cm 16-20 cm 26-30 cm 100 ml 100 ml 200 ml 300 ml

Time needed (s) 78 62 50 61

v 0 = V /( πR 2 0 T)

4.5 cm/s 5.7 cm/s 14.7 cm/s 17.4 cm/s

Due to large error I have, the experimental behaviour is not exactly the same as our expectation, but `h’ is still proportional to v 2 . [Amir] 0

— University of Toronto — Problem Set 2: Mechanics Due December 17, 1999 (revised date)
1) Going for a spin Cally is playing on the whirly-ride (like a merry-go-round, but non-motorised) in her neighbourhood park. To make it go faster she pushes against the ground using one of her feet. a) If she accelerates the whirly-ride from rest to a speed of 15 r.p.m. in 3 seconds, what is the corresponding angular acceleration? b) By what fraction does the angular velocity change when her 20 kg kid brother Matt leaps radially onto the edge of the whirly-ride? Assume the initial moment of inertia 2 (just Cally and the whirly-ride) is 2000 kg m and that the whirly-ride has diameter 5 m. c) Since one of her all-time-favorite past times is tormenting her little brother, Cally decides to speed up the merry-go-round in an effort to fling her little bother from the ride. Assume that Matt is sitting at a radius of 4.5 m, that the coefficient of static friction between him and the floor of the whirly-ride is 0.7 and that he is naively not holding on! At what speed will Cally’s little brother start to slip? . [Carrie] 2) Bubble bonanza a) What is the presure inside a soap bubble of radius ‘r’ if the surface tension of the soap solution is σ? b) What will happen if two bubbles are brought to touch each other? (assume that one of them is bigger than the other, and there is still a bubble-film between them c) What will be the end result if the wall between the the two touching bubbles breaks, and the two bubbles merge? d) What if those two bubbles were attached to opposite ends of a tube (e.g., a drinking straw) like a weightlifter’s dumbell? [Amir] 3) Siphoning cellar My outside water faucets in my new house don’t work, and I’m reduced to running a hose from the laundry tubs out my basement window to fill my above-ground swimming pool. If I forget and leave the hose-end in the pool, then when I disconnect 1

my hose from the tap, water from the pool will siphon back into my basement. The setup looks like this:

1.75 m

1.5 m

1.0 m

10 m

Water in a 2 cm-diameter hose flows with a drag force Fdrag on the hose which is proportional to the length of the hose and to the speed of water flow. This drag results in a pressure drop along the hose. This pressure drop, per unit length, is proportional to v by the formula: ∇p = ∆p 32 Uη = ∆x d2

which is described more fully in INFOBITS™ below. a) If I forget the hose when I leave for work, and it siphons for 12 hours while I’m gone, how much will the water level in the pool drop? Estimate, or calculate exactly. b) When the last of the water drains out of the pool, then the water in the hose becomes of shorter and shorter length. This changes the drag on the water. See if you can approximately calculate the flow rate of water out of the hose as it empties. [Robin] 4) Gimme a brake... The Bumble Bee ride at Super Fun Fun World consists of carts (painted yellow and black of course), which seat 4 people, that traverse a windy, hilly track. The figure below illustrates one section of the ride. On a particularly unusual Tuesday there is a massive power Aieeee! failure at Super Fun Fun World (which consequently isn’t so fun fun). The power fails just as 6m one of the carts 4m nears point A with a velocity of 0.5 m/s.
Point A 5m Point B

2

a) If no emergency brakes are applied with what speed will the cart hit the bumper at point B? Take it that you have drum brakes, which press on a hub which is half the wheel diameter. Each drum presses onto a 30° arc of the hub. The thickness of the hub is the same as the wheel. For steel wheels on steel rails, the 30° coefficient of static friction is 0.78, 30° and the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.42. You can assume that only about 3 mm of the rail is in contact with the wheel. b) At the bottom of the first hill the emergency brakes are applied radially to either side of the wheels. If the brake pads have a static coefficient of friction 0.85 and kinetic coefficient 0.65, what is the optimum force to apply to the brake pads such that the braking force is a maximum? c) With the brakes applied (assume with optimal constant force) how far up the second hill will the cart go? d) With the brakes held on, will the cart go back down the hill? 5) It’s a ball? What a gas! This question is the beginning of a kinetic model for an ideal gas. It can lead you to figure out the ideal gas law PV = nRT. a) A ball with mass m and velocity v collides with a stationary wall. If friction is negligible, and bouncing is perfectly elastic, the ball bounces back with the same speed. But what happens if the wall, itself, moves toward the ball with velocity u? Consider all velocities be in the same direction, perpendicular to the wall. b) Going through (a) you can find out that the momentum has been changed. This means that the wall did some work on the ball. Can you show explicity that the difference in kinetic energy of the ball is exactly the same as the work done by the wall? BONUS: Can you use this model to show how much the temperature of a gas of atoms behaving like such elastic balls goes up as it is compressed — as long as no heat is allowed in or out? [Yaser] [Carrie]

3

6) Dimensional thinking A cylindrical vessel of water is leaking via a small hole of radius ‘r’. We want to keep the height of the water constant. The best way is to add water at some rate R (kg per second). a) Can you guess what should be R in terms of ρ (the density of water), H (height of the water level in the vessel), r (radius of the hole), g (acceleration due to gravity) and A (the cross-sectional area of the vessel). [HINT: Use your intuition, or common sense, and –2 watch that you keep the correct units in each stage (i.e., acceleration has units L T , where L is distance and T is time)] b) Can you prove your formula with physics theorems?. [Amir]

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INFOBITS™ — Useful Bits of POPTOR Information Coefficient of resistance for pipe flow: There is a drag on the inside of a pipe, for a liquid flow through it. This drag means that there’s a pressure drop as you go along the pipe — it is why small plumping-pipes lead to poor ‘water pressure’ for a shower or similar. The pressure gradient (change in pressure per unit length) is: ∆p λ 1 = ρU 2 ∆x d 2 where p is pressure, ρ is fluid density, d is pipe diameter, U the average speed of liquid flow, and λ is a dimensionless constant which is equal to: ∇p = λ= 64 Re for laminar (smooth) flow

Re is called the Reynold’s number. (usually a value of a few 1,000 for laminar flow) The Reynolds number for a pipe can be found from: Re = ρUd η ∆p 32 Uη = ∆x d2

putting all this together, we see that: ∇p =

C HECK THE POPTOR WEB PAGE for other hints, and any corrections we might post: www.physics.utoronto.ca/~poptor

5

— University of Toronto — Solution Set 2: Mechanics
1) Going for a spin α= ∆ω 15 ⋅ 2 ⋅ π / 60 = = 0.5rad / s 2 ∆t 3

Angular momentum is conserved (but energy is not!!) I oω o = ( I o + mr 2 ) ω ω 2000 = = 0.9% ω o 2000 + 20(2.5)2 Ignoring the fact that Matt is sitting off the whirly-ride, what happens is that the force of friction is providing the centripetal acceleration necessary to keep him on the ride. The force is ≤ µmg = 137.2 N . Thus, at maximum, v v2 = 1 rad s ±1 = 0.7 ⋅ 9.8 , v = 6 m s ±1 and ω = 4.5 4.5 2) Bubble bonanza a) Consider 2 hemispheres of a bubble of radius r. They are repelled by a force of F = ∆PA = ∆Pπr 2 , where A is the area of the projection of half a sphere and ∆P = Po − P (difference between outer (atmospheric) and inner pressure). The hemispheres are pulled together by surface tension (which is given as force per unit length); moreover, there are 2 surfaces to a bubble, so the total force here is F = 2(2πrσ ) . Solving yields P = Po + 4σ r [Carrie]

b) Note that pressure is inversely proportional to the radius. Thus, the smaller bubble will actually have a higher pressure inside! This means that the film between the 2 bubbles will be pushed into the larger bubble.

1

If the film breaks, the bubbles will either break (but that’s so boring), or merge. Using the fact that the numbers of moles inside the bubble stays constant, assuming that temperature stays constant and using the ideal gas law, one gets PV = PV 1 1+P 2 V2  4σ + P  r 3 =  4σ + P  r 3 +  4σ + P  r 3   o o 1 o 2  r   r1   r2  (P, V, r refer to the final bubble, the remaining variables refer to the 2 initial bubbles) The equation could in theory be solved; note that for Po = 0, the final bubble will be bigger than either of the 2 initial bubbles… The system is obviously not in equilibrium. Since the smaller bubble is at a higher pressure, it will in fact contract and force air into the bigger bubble. Thus, we will end up with a membrane at one end and a big bubble at the other. [Peter, Amir]

3) Siphoning cellar Solutions for this problem will be provided with Set #3 4) Gimme a break... First I have to comment that this question was so hard that nobody got it right, including some of us here at POPTOR… a) Ok, that was easy. Conserving energy yields
1 2 2 mv 2 = 1 2 m( 0.5) + mg(6 − 4 )

[Robin]

From this, v = 6 m/s. b) This is where things get difficult. Clearly we want to stop the cart using static friction, as these coefficients are higher than those for kinetic friction, and thus the force will also be larger. Something has to slip, however (you can’t just stop the cart dead) – since the coefficient of kinetic friction between the wheels and the rail is lower than that between the brakes and the wheel, we want to avoid letting the wheels slip (it will yield the lowest force). Now, if we have an object of mass m lying on a level plane, where the coefficient of static friction is µ it certainly is true that the maximum force we can apply so that the object doesn’t start moving (and kinetic friction doesn’t kick in) is FMAX = Ffriction = µmg . But a rolling object is different!! For one, it is not stationary, it is already moving. So what force can we apply? Well, we have to ensure that the cart keeps on rolling, i.e. V(t) = ω(t)R, and not slipping…

2

I am also going to assume that there are 2 forces acting on the wheel – each of magnitude F/2 - pointing in different directions. We have to analyze the linear and F/2 rolling motions (about the axle) while F/2 the brakes are applied, knowing we Friction start with the cart rolling (m is the mass of the cart, M the mass of the wheel, I the moment of inertia of, F the applied force, R the radius of the wheel and µ the coefficient of static friction between the wheel and the track). ma = −µmg Iα = µmgR − FR V From this we find v(t) = vo + at = vo − µgt ω(t) = ω o + αt = ω o − F / 2 ⋅ Rt µmgRt + I I

We have that vo = ω o R at t=0, but to ensure that this is true at later times, we clearly need that µg =  F /2 ⋅ R µmgR  − R  I I 

The moment of inertia is that of the wheel, i.e., of 2 cylinders, one of radius R and the R 2 5  2 1 1 other of radius R/2. Thus, I = 2 MR + 2 M = MR2 (I’ve assumed for simplicity  2 8 that both sections of the wheel weigh the same amount; it would probably make more sense to assume that their densities are the same, but oh well…) F/2 = 5 8 8 µMg + µmg ≈ (0.78)mg 8 5 5

(assuming the wheels are not very heavy) This is the force felt by the wheel; the actual applied force is F = Fa (0.65) Fa = 2 ⋅ 18.8m = 38m NOTE: most people put that F = 2 µmg , which is less than the above. Plugging this into the equations above we can see that V (t) ≠ ω(t)R , and so it seems that the cart slips… but you can do some experiments at home to convince yourself otherwise. What’s going 3 (the brakes have to be slipping)

Solving for the applied force gives

Notice that only _ of all atoms (balls) are moving toward the wall – we do not want to average over them. Thus. and thus the cart will probably fall… [Peter] 5) It’s a ball? What a gas! a) Doing the question in the reference frame of the wall really simplifies things. V gives.78mg cosθ . a bigger force and it’s all over… c) The above force does work ( W = Fa d ) to slow the cart down. same as the change in kinetic energy above… BONUS: (solution based on Feynman’s). Assume the compression is slow (so the gas stays in equilibrium). Then. we need it to be in static equilibrium.6 m. From the above diagram we see that this amounts to mg sin θ ≤ 0. “< >” denotes an averaging Let us work in 1D (results in 3D are very similar). In this system. v. let ρ be the density (#) of atoms per unit volume. d turns out to be 1. as they do not contribute to the force on the wall. the cart never even makes it to the hill… d) If the cart was on the hill.5) + mg6 . Eyeballing the diagram. PV = N < mv 2 > 4 .on here? Well. or θ ≤ 38o . b) The change in kinetic energy = The work done by the wall = Fx But F = ∆p m(v + 2u − ( − v)) 2m(u + v) = = . the wall is practically stationary. the force of friction is actually Ffriction ≤ µmg . here. This velocity is v + 2u in reference to the laboratory. In the rest frame of the wall. x = ut ∆t t t 1 2 1 m(v + 2u)2 − 2 mv 2 = 2mu(u + v) Therefore work = Fx = 2 mu(u + v) . The force exerted by the wall = change in momentum / ∆t is F = 2ρmv 2 A We want to average this over all the speeds. So the ball bounces back with v + u in reference to the wall. the ball velocity is the same before and after the collision but opposite in the direction. this seems to be false. and what will in fact happen is that it will adjust itself to a lower value so that the cart doesn’t slip… The above force is the maximum that can be applied so that the cart doesn’t slip. It starts with an energy 2 1 2 m( 0. This yields P = F / A = ρ < mv 2 > Multiplying by the volume. After a distance d it will stop. the ball’s initial velocity is v + u.

[Peter. the only logical choice is to set z=2 and H=1/2. There a couple of ways to do this. the U term is negligible. this is indeed equivalent to a). i. Solving gives R = ρπr 2 2 gH  πr  1−    A  2 2 . b) Using Bernoulli’s Law to find the flow rate of the water leaving the vessel leads one to 1 2 1 ρv 2 = ρgH + 2 ρU 2 Here. Amir] 6) Dimensional thinking a) First of all. Since the flow is steady. Now. v is the speed of flow in the pipe and U is the speed of water flow in the tank. The rate R is R = ρvπr 2 . r2 . but dimensional analysis is perhaps the most instructive. where C is some constant. since the hole is small. the amount of water flowing out in a short time will change the volume in the vessel by very little. figuring out how much water to add is equivalent to figuring how much water is actually leaving. We now assume that the formula is of the form R = Cρx H y r z g w The units must combine to [kg/s].1 1 In 1D we have that 2 kT = 2 < mv 2 > and thus PV = NkT If you want to know how temperature changes with volume. we need to combine the remaining variables into a flow rate R that has units [kg/s]. For a large area A (compared to the area of the hole). First. It’s pretty easy to see that x=1 and w=1/2. (for A >> πr 2 . thus. we don’t have to make this assumption. Thus. the area A is irrelevant. However. Since the flow also grows as H to some power (not as inverse of H).e. you can note that this is an adiabatic process and look up the formula in any book (or derive it using the above).. the continuity equation applies and we have UA = vπr 2 . Yaser] 5 . Now. it would seem logical that the flow is proportional to the area of the hole. R = Cρr 2 gH . if C = π 2 ) [Peter.

V1. T2. The pressure. Try to find another reason. the current has doubled. like a vacuum flask. The entire system remains the same. which has been overclocked as described above. what temperature will the new system heat up to? [Peter] 2) Literally linear Consider a rod with the linear coefficient of expansion λ and initial length of L. V2. divided by an insulating wall. It starts out at temperature T 1 . in effect. again and again for n times. V1. What is the length of the rod now? Does your answer seem strange? (say ‘yes!’) Can you explain (or guess!) what has made the answer weird? You may think that this happens because we assumed that the linear heat expansion is the same in all temperatures. volume and temperature of gas in each part are : P1. 2000 1) Clocks a’ Rockin’ A friend of mine knows someone who overclocked his computer. T2 1 . placed in surroundings with room temperature 20 °C. T1 P2. V2. This is not the issue we’re looking for. except now twice as much data is transferred per unit time. he made it run faster than it was originally designed to. that the cooling system’s temperature has to be around freezing. Consider a resistor R. If the original system causes a temperature rise of 13 °C. contains a single species of ideal gas in two separate compartments. b) Do this heating and cooling. V and T of the system. or use common sense.1999-2000 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 3: Thermodynamics Due January 14. that is. if we remove or break the separating wall? [Amir] P1. What is the final P. a) Heat the rod to a temperature T2 — what is its new length? Then cool it back to its initial temperature T1 . as before.— what is the length of the rod after this cycle. [Yaser] 3) We will break dividing walls A thermally insulated cylinder. T1 and P2. assuming the usual formula for linear expansion and contraction? Go through the calculation in a little detail — don’t just guess. My friend claims that the new system is so hot. Thus.

and are termed anisotropic . he started writing down the liquid temperature as it was cooling . while turning the black side outward to –2 absorb heat when the room is too cold? Take it that sunlight is 1kW m . The initial temperature of the liquid is 20 °C. What is the linear heat expansion of this rod along its length? (Ignore the third dimension) Does this rod expand properly. Berto wrote down its temperature in different times. with vacuum in between (so air and its convection has no effect in this question). x and y. so as to reflect the light. Then. b) Is there any change you can see that would improve the blinds’ function to control radiation of heat into the room? [Robin] 6) Tea? For who? Berto used an electrical heater to heat 3 kg of an unknown liquid in a container (don’t ever try heating any unknown liquids at home. As the liquid warmed up. Such crystals do exist. find the specific heat of the liquid. with the rod’s longitudinal axis making an angle of 30° with the x axis. Using these data. or pshaw? Here’s an idea: venetian blinds which are painted black on one side and silver on the other. below. a) How well does it work to turn the silver side of the blinds outward when the room is already too hot. the liquid temperature for some different times. or does it somehow bend? [Yaser] 5) Patent. Consider a square-sided rod cut from a block of y such a crystal. b) Berto turned off the electrical heater when its temperature reached 60 °C. You can see in the table. Say that the coefficients have values Le 1 and Le 2 in the directions x and y. The heater delivers 1000 watts of power. whereas that of the black side is 10%. and assume that the reflectivity of the silver side is 90%. though!). a) Neglecting the heat capacity of the container. some of the data collected by him are shown. In Tables 1 & 2 below. Assume that the blinds are installed between two panes of glass. and find the steady-state temperatures due just to thermal radiation (Stefan-Boltzmann law).4) The nonaligned axis There are special crystals which have different coefficients of linear heat expansion along two different directions. 3 0° x 2 . try to find the heat capacity of the liquid to a better approximation.

2 13 45.1 4 38.Hint: You should consider the loss which is the heat transfer between liquid and room in your calculation in part (a).8 26 35. in the 17th century. showed that objects cool at a rate proportional to the difference between their temperature and the ambient temperature.ca/~poptor Specific heat of water: 4. such as room temperature. Try to find the proportionality constant for (b).353 kW m .2 Table 2: Liquid temperature during cooling time(min) temperature (°C) 0 60 8 50. at surface of the earth.physics.7 × 10 W m K –2 –2 Solar constant = 1. Table 1: Liquid temperature during heating time(min) temperature (°C) 0 20 3 34.2 [Yaser & Carolyn] INFOBITS™ — Useful Bits of POPTOR Information Remember to check the POPTOR web-page for hints and any necessary corrections! www.5 5 42. about 1 kW m 3 . c) Sir Isaac Newton.1 19 39.9 6 47.2 kJ kg –1 K–1 –8 –2 –4 Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ = 5.utoronto.

. This isn’t hard to do. and I will assume this to be the case here as well … Running at input power P. P ′ = 4 ⋅ P = σ{(T ′)4 − (T o )4 } thus. So the power balance is: P = σ{(T )4 − (T o )4 } When the resistor is "overloaded". so we know: T’ – T = 13 K therefore. with a computer. P = I2R. The new temperature T’ will radiate more power to balance this.e. where R is constant). (T + 13)4 − (293)4 =4 (T )4 − (293)4 One way to solve this is to do it graphically. I have to say that this was not an easy question — probably way too hard for #1. plotting the left and right side of: (T + 13)4 − (293)4 = 4 (T )4 − (293)4 { } and seeing where they cross. Or you can use a spreadsheet program to try a whole lot of guesses. 1 . the resistor also absorbs a little bit of thermal radiation from the room-temperature surroundings at To = 20° C or 293 K. Most radiating objects behave more or less like black bodies. The key is to realize that the resistor is radiating energy with a temperature T.1999-2000 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 3: Thermodynamics 1) Clocks a’ Rockin’ First. Since all objects radiate thermally (unless they’re at zero temperature). with a background temperature 20°C. dividing these equations: (T ′)4 − (T o )4 =4 (T )4 − (T o )4 The question tells us that the temperature rises by 13° C. the power (P’) goes up by a factor of I2 = 4 (i. the computer’s resistor reaches a steady state temperature T at which the input power is balanced by thermal radiation power (from the StefanBoltzmann law).

the temperature is therefore about 18° C above room temperature. Literally linear a) Let T2 − T1 = ∆T > 0 (1st) heating: 2 .0 320. With the overclocking. 2. or normally about 5° C above room temperature.To 4 ) function values 5 10 9 0 10 0 -5 109 -1 101 0 280. If we wish to cool the system down to ∼ 20°C (room temperature). though …). the cooling system all by itself has to be at Tc ~ 0°C.0 290.0 Temperature The solution is T = 297. or 38° C.0 300.0 310. In case you are curious. this is a true story — you may even verify it yourself (I would suggest using someone else's computer. and our cooling system is the same size as the resistor.2 10 10 ( T + 1 3 )4 -T o 4 1 10 10 4 ( T4 .8 K. for then 0 + 38 ≈ 20o C 2 so the cooling system is indeed at 0 ° C when the resistor (actually the processor) is off.

∆T2) should be ignored. ∆ L and ∆T) are important — 2nd order (∆ L2. and hence: n→∞ lim (L 2n ) = 0 This clearly isn't right . Hence. (otherwise "L" in the equation is not actually constant). 1 – λ2∆T2 ≈ 1 and there is no problem. Because of this. If λ were constant. if you like) λ∆T better be less than 1 (otherwise the length of the rod becomes negative). λ varies with T (among other things).e.. only 1st order terms (i. and this is not really true … 3 . one could write: dL = Lλ dT and solve this: dL = λ dT L dL ∫ L = ∫ λdT ln(L) = λ (∆T) + C L = Lo e λ∆T (you can check for yourselves that the length of the rod is indeed conserved after a cycle when using this formula) Expanding this yields: L ≈ Lo (1 + λ∆T + (λ∆T)2 + …) and ignoring 2nd order terms and higher gives: L ≈ Lo (1 + λ∆T) Unfortunately.L1 = L(1 + λ∆T) (2nd ) cooling: L 2 = [L(1 + λ∆T)][1 − λ∆T] = L(1 − λ2 ∆T 2 ) Every cycle (heating and then cooling the length of the rod is multiplied by (1 – λ 2∆T2) ∴ after n cycles L2n = L(1 – λ 2∆ T2)n (this can be proved by induction.whatever happened to conservation of mass??? The explanation is that this is actually a differential statement ( dL = L ⋅ λ ⋅ dT ) valid only for tiny ∆L and ∆T.

4) The nonaligned axis The x and y directions expand independently. we get from (3): PV = P1V1 + P 2V2 and P = using 2 yields: PV P1V1 P2 V2 = + T T1 T2 (P1V1 + P2 V2 ) =T P1V1 P2 V2 + T1 T2 P1V1 + P2 V2 V1 + V2 (3) (1) ("conservation of volume") (2) ("conservation of mass") The vessel is insulated. and hence energy has to be conserved. 4 .3) We will break dividing walls Clearly. V = V1 + V2 and n = n1 + n2 E = α nkT = E1 + E2 = αn1kT1 + αn2kT2 ⇒ nT = n 1T1 + n2T2 since PV = nRT.

The blinds absorb the sunlight. or pshaw? Here's the situation: In steady state. and thus the rod must bend to compensate. 5 . and also radiated energy from outdoors — because neither has zero temperature! So all of these go into the absorbed power.x ′ = x(1 + Le1∆T) y ′ = y(1 + Le 2 ∆T) x = L cos(30°) y = L sin(30°) Assuming straight: L’ – L = L α∆T and (L’ – L)2 = (x’ – x)2 + (y’ – y)2 ∴ (L’ – L)2 = L 2 (Le12 cos2(30) + Le22 sin 2(30)) (∆T) And hence α2 = Le12 cos2(30) + Le22 sin 2(30) In fact. So the net power being absorbed as radiated heat must equal the power being emitted as radiated heat (we’re ignoring convection and conduction here). More subtly. nothing is either heating up or cooling down. certainly. keeping track of what the absorption coefficient is on each face. Dx L x y the rod expands DL = Sqrt ( Dx^2 + Dy^2) Dy= Y*H2*(T2-T1) Dx = X*H1*(T2-T1) Y= LSin 30 30 X = LCos 30 Dy Tan Theta = Dy /Dx = Tan 30 * (H2 / H1) 5) Patent. from the diagram we can see that the expanded part of the rod is at a different angle to the horizontal. though. there is radiated energy from the roomtemperature room inside.

These two powers must balance: 1000 (1–R) W cm –2 4 4 4 4 –2 4 4 • A + (1–R) σ Tout • A + (1–r) σ Tin • A = (1–R) σ Tblinds • A + (1–r) σ Tblinds • A 4 4 4 4 and we solve for the temperature of the blinds (when they’re hotter. R = 0.1.5° C black side out: Tblinds = 354.r)   1/ 4 Then when we have the black side outward R = 0.Let the ‘outside reflectivity’ be written as R. outside reflectivity = R outside temperature = Tout inside reflectivity = r inside temperature = Tin –2 incident sun power = 1000 W cm area of each side of blinds = A Absorbed power = absorbed sunlight + absorbed outdoor radiation + absorbed indoor radiation = 1000 (1–R) W cm • A + (1–R) σ Tout • A + (1–r) σ Tin • A Radiated power = eout σ Tblinds • A + ein σ Tblinds • A = (1–R) σ Tblinds • A + (1–r) σ Tblinds • A where e is the emissivity of the object.R . Both sides of the blind radiate.3° C 6 .25 — 25% hotter (Kelvin) with black out. we get the answers we’d have if both were zero — the answers we’d have basically in deep space! silver side out: Tblinds = 204. Likewise. of course). let the ‘inside reflectivity’ be r. regardless of whether it’s the silver or black side.9. they’re sending more heat to the room. The absorption is then (1–R) or (1–r).9° C The ratio of absolute temperatures is 1. If we take the indoor temperature to be 20° C.4° C black side out: Tblinds = 383.1.5 K or 81. and r = 0.9. if we ignore the room and outside temperature. when the silver side is outward. and r = 0. of course. we find: silver side out: Tblinds = 307. Tblinds 4 4  1000 (1 − R)/ σ + (1 − R) Tout + (1 − r ) Tin =  (2 . and equals the absorption a ( = 1– R or 1– r ). and outdoors to be 0° C.7 K or –68.0 K or 109. regardless.5 K or 34. Interestingly. So we get two different temperatures for the blinds.

neither side outwards?) You could also use a fan. the effect would be even greater (can you calculate this? What then do you do when you put the outside black blinds outwards? Do you do the same with the inside blinds or do you leave them open. The emissivity factor.9• 5. a) Assume no power loss.7 × 10 –8 2 –2 –4 4 –2 Wm K • (307.1) σTblinds = 0. really. Instead. so you could convectively cool the blinds when they are black side out.9) σTblinds = 0. Then. This isn’t the whole story. Note that the line has to pass through (0. you could use another set of blinds set up parallel.7 × 10 = (1–0. and put the heat into the room more efficiently. Lots of answers are possible… [Robin] 6) Tea? For who? The best way to analyze data is to plot it.25 leads to an increase of 4 2.7 — 70% hotter (Kelvin) with black out. as when t=0 we know T(t) is exactly 20°C! Power = Many commercial packages (e. though! Even if the blinds are hotter with the black side outwards.g. Excel) can fit data.0 K) = 122 W m –2 Though the temperature is higher. Plotting T(t)-20 versus t (the time in seconds) should yield a straight line with slope 1000/(mc). and then fit the 7 .. too — with both silver sides facing outwards.9° C –8 Wm –2 K –4 • (383. 1000t = mc(T (t ) − 20) . However. but they will not give you an errorestimate on the slope. it’s best to plot the data yourself. the silver side out leads to more power radiated into the room! This offers plenty of control over the temperature – so the patent is indeed working.5 K) = 459 W m 4 black side out (silver side in): Tblinds = 383. dQ dT = 1000 = mc dt dt Solving.0 K or 109. the temperature is actually much lower in this case.The ratio of absolute temperatures is 1. whenever possible. just not the way I thought it might! b) To make them work even better: you could see what happens when you make the black even blacker and the silver more reflective. So. how efficient are the blinds at radiating into the room from the silver side of them? silver side out (black side in): power/m into room: = (1–0. however. is 1/9th — more important than the temperature. the temperature factor of 1. just because the blinds are sitting in ‘deep space at zero degrees’.1• 5.44 in T . 0).

as we assumed that the liquid absorbed all 1000 W of power. We have used mc ∆c 0. when it in fact did not. I’ve done this in Excel.077 1 significant figure.001) t We thus have 1000 = (0. and all results are rounded off to the same decimal place as their errors. but we won’t worry about this here.001) and hence c = ( 4330 ± 60) J /(kg oC ) .0171x 2 R = 0. This means that our value for c is too high. Our equations become (1000 − L)t = mc(T (t) − 20) and − Lt = mc(T ′(t) − 60) .9757 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Series1 Linear (Series1) 8 . where T’(t) is the temperature during cooling. and the error is the slopes of the steepest line minus the average slope.001 the fact that = where ∆c is the error in c. Let’s assume that the system loses power at a steady rate.0. Plotting this data shows that it is not in fact a straight line (so L is not a constant). Note that all errors are rounded off to c 0. Plotting and fitting the data as in a) yields 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 y=0 . b) The system clearly loses power. see below 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 100 200 300 400 Series1 Series2 Series3 y=(0.steepest and shallowest lines that still fit the data.077 +/.077 ± 0. The best fit is then the average of the two slopes.

This value could be used again to obtain a revised value for c. hence. Doing this gives k ≈ 5 ⋅ 10 −4 1 / s . This may be solved. but calculus is required. This yields a value c of (3600 ± 100) J /(kg oC) c) We have that ∆T = − k(T ′(t) − 20) .g. by taking ln() of both sides – plotting ln(T-20) versus t yields a straight line with slope 0. it will not be much different from the current value. let us solve the above equation. find a bunch of k’s (4. therefore we conclude that this value is a minimum for the required power. however. in fact) and then average them.(I have only plotted the average slope above). For completeness. dt dt dt x = 40° C at t = 0. dT dx dx = and our equation reads = − kx .0006 1/s… Since the Carnot refrigerator is the most efficient. The ∆t easiest way to proceed is probably to plug in all values for T’(t). Rewriting the above and integrating both sides gives ∫ dx = − k ∫ dt or ln( x ) = − kt + C x To make C fit our initial condition we finally arrive at T − 20 = 40 exp( − kt ) This can be fitted e. [Peter & Yaser] 9 . We also know that Let x = T − 20 .

This is called a linear restoring force and the force is represented F = –k x.1999-2000 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 4: Optics and Waves Due February 25. producing two different images. Moving a lens between them. b) You can do pretty simple derivatives. is a mass resting on a frictionless table and attached to a spring. a) What is the focal length of the lens? b) Which image is the brighter one? Determine the ratio of the brightness of these two images. and forever after that on into graduate school and beyond. For that to work. Suppose that sin(ω t) is a solution of this particular differential equation. so have a look here at the basics. what is the rate of oscillation of a 100g mass on a spring that has a spring –1 constant of 80 N m ? [Robin] 2) Keeping up an image The distance between a screen and a light source lined up on a table is 120 cm. what must be necessary? c) So. We want to use some basic principles of the harmonic oscillator in later POPTOR questions. The ‘generic’ harmonic oscillator that you’ll see in university. 2000 (revised date) 1) Bob-bob-bobbin’ along A terrifically important concept in waves and oscillations is that of the harmonic oscillator. this actually is a ‘second-order linear differential equation’. Since acceleration is the time-derivative of velocity. a) Write the force equation for such a mass-on-a-spring (inertial force and restoring force). sharp images can be obtained at two different positions. The ratio of sizes of these two images is 1:9. for small stretches or compressions. [Gnädig/Honyek] 3) Shifty radar Officer Smith and Officer Wesson are on patrol monitoring speeding along Hwy 401. and velocity in turn the time-derivative of position. is that the force exerted by the spring is proportional to the amount of stretch. A property of springs. because the force tends always to restore the position of the mass to its original neutral position (unstretched spring). They are using a hand-held radar gun which is set to detect the speed of approaching 1 .

"Well now. b) Find the index of refraction of the glass. are you familiar with the Doppler effect?" a) Finish Smith's explanation. [Amir] ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? a) How will the lines appear as viewed through the glass rod? Make a sketch. and that height from (b) is the equilibrium height of piston and the piston will oscillate around that equilibrium point. how fast is the milk truck going? [Carrie] 4) To air is human A cylinder of radius r contains n moles of a monatomic ideal gas. After several hours of speed monitoring Wesson turns to Smith and asks. c) Each oscillator can be modelled by a system of mass and spring. [Amir] 2 . using details from what you see in part (a). Set the rod down on the paper. "How does this thing work anyway?" To which Smith replies. b) If the piston’s oscillations damp out (e. Suddenly the two officers are distracted from the conversation. coffee and donuts by the sounds of tires screeching and horns honking. it'll start to oscillate. They look up to see a milk truck racing down the 401. Consider that the cylinder is really well thermally insulated. a) What is the new resting height h (height of the piston from the base of cylinder)? Now. we attach or add a small mass m to the piston at rest. The room temperature is T .. at some angle θ such that 0 < θ <π/2.cars. sealing it. A tight-fitting piston of total mass M is fitted into the cylinder. Smith gives Wesson the eye and Wesson fires the radar gun. so all changes are ‘adiabatic’. sending out waves at a frequency of 1000 MHz. Consider also a polished cylindrical rod made of some unknown glass (for which we want to find the index of refraction). 5) Bending the truth Here’s an actual test used to find the index of refraction of a material: Consider a piece of paper with a drawing of a group of parallel lines. What is the corresponding mass and spring coefficient for this example? d) Find the minimum amount of h in this oscillation. b) If the observed frequency difference is 330 Hz. As you may guess. due to friction) what would the final h be? Suppose the motion is not damped..g.

4877 1.4836 1. to make one new lens. in reality. What should be the focal lengths of the two Light and Heavy Crown glass lenses so as to minimize the chromatic aberration? Index of refraction of two kinds of glass in terms of wavelength Wavelength (nanometer) Light Crown Glass Heavy Crown Glass 488 1.5634 Hint : Lens-maker formula 1/f = ( n–1) * ( 1/R1 + 1/R2) f : focal length of the lens n : index of refraction of the lens material R1 & R2 : The radii of curvature of the two sides of the lens [Yaser] Remember to check the POPTOR web-page for hints and any possible corrections! www.4813 1.5704 694 1. But. Below is a table showing the index of refraction vs. the visible beam of light consists of different wavelengths from violet to red.physics. Since the index of refraction of the lens depends on the wavelength we are faced with a defect called chromatic aberration — different wavelengths will focus at different places (see figure at right).5766 568 1. Chromatic Abberation NOT TO SCALE white Light Red light blue light a) Using the lens-maker’s formula. find a formula that gives the change in the focal distance of a lens due to a small change in the index of refraction. Suppose one part is made of Light Crown Glass and the other from Heavy Crown Glass.4859 1. We are looking for a lens with f = 10 cm.4796 1.5735 632 1.utoronto. wavelength for these two different kinds of glass.5681 890 1. b) One way to minimize the chromatic aberration is to put two lenses of different materials together.4758 1. We expect all the parallel rays to converge at a focal point.ca/~poptor 3 .6) Cool abrrrrations! Consider a beam of light incident on a convex lens.5793 520 1.

1999-2000 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 4: Optics and Waves 1) Bob-bob-bobbin’ along This question was a sneaky way to get you solve a second order differential equation quite painlessly. or 4. d2x = − ω 2 sin (ωt) 2 dt Plugging this expression for the acceleration into our force equation.1 [Carrie] 1 . gives us a value ω= 80 = 28 /sec. –kx and the inertial force.  d2x  m  2  = − kx  dt  Which is a second-order ordinary differential equation.5 Hz 0. So we find that the frequency of oscillation depends this way on both the spring constant of the spring (its strength) and the mass of the bob attached. m So this oscillation x = sin( ωt) isn’t always a solution — only for a certain ω will there be a solution. a) The forces involved included the restoring force. dx = ω cos (ωt) dt Differentiating again with respect to time yields. ma. c) Putting the values k = 80 N/m and m = 100 g into our equation for ω. along with x=sin(ωt) yields m −ω 2 sin (ωt) = − kx = − k sin (ωt) 2 Therefore. Taking the first time derivative we obtain. solving for ω we get ω = ( ) k . Thus the force dt equation for our system is. These two balance each other (the net force is zero). d2x where a = 2 . b) We are given x = sin(ω t) as a solution to our force equation.

If waves are reflected from a moving car the reflected frequency. However. is that of the a source moving with twice the car velocity. which have relatively small source velocities. F = fR . c the speed of light. the object distance is 30 cm (or 90 cm) and the new image distance is 90 cm (or 30 cm). The focal length can be calculated from the lens law: ƒ = 22. So. It can be shown in general that in such cases the small image is as many times brighter than the large one as the large one is larger. b) Plugging in the numbers to our velocity equation we get. fR ≈ (1 + 2v/c)f S. yielding a frequency difference given by. fR. therefore the small image is only nine times brighter that the large one. the lens placed at a greater distance receives only one ninth of the light reaching the nearby lens. [Gnädig/Honyek] 3) Shifty radar a) The radar gun uses the Doppler shift to detect the speed of cars.fS ≈ 2vfS/c Solving for the velocity of the car we get. then ν / u = 3 (or 1 / 3) . we skip those. v is the velocity of the source. as the smaller image occupies a surface 81 times smaller on the screen than the larger one. For cars. v ≈ Fc/2fS. Thus we have for the officers viewing at rest. and fS the source frequency (1000 MHz in this case). v = [(330 Hz)(3 × 108 m/s) / (2 ( 109 Hz))](1 km/1000m)(3600 s /1 hr) = 178 km /hr !!!! Book him. The waves which are reflected from the moving cars are beat against the transmitted waves. If the same amount of light passed through the lens in both cases then the 9 times smaller image would be 81 times brighter.2) Keeping up an image Since the object distance u and the image distance v can be exchanged in the lens law 2 and their ratio shows the magnification to be (v/u) = 9 (or 1/9). Thus. Dano! [Carrie] 2 .5 cm. For light the correct doppler effect involves relativistic considerations. fL ≈ (1 + v/c)f S Where fL is the frequency perceived by the officers (or listeners at rest).

Consider that we change the equilibrium state by moving the piston x away from equilibrium. The force acting on the piston to push it back will be: F = P0 A – PA + (M + m) g Since P(h2 + x)γ = P2h2γ = P1h1γ = P0h0γ P = P2 (h 2 + x) γ −γ h2 γ and since x is quite small compared to h2.  x P = P2  1 +  h2    γ x ≈ P2  1 −  h2    γ x ⇒ F = P0 A + (M + m) g − P2 A  1 −  h2   ⇒ F = γ P2 A x= kx h2 3 .4) To air is human a) We know that in an adiabatic process PVγ is constant. P0 = nRT0 nRT0 = V0 Ah 0 Mg A γ P1 = P0 + γ P1V1 = P0 V0 ⇒ P1 h1 = P0 h 0 1/ γ γ γ 1/ γ P  ⇒ h1 = h 0  0   P1   P0 A  = h0    P0 A + M g  1/ γ nRT0  P0 A  h1 =  P0 A  P0 A + Mg   b) Exactly the same as part (a) you can see that:  nRT0  P0 A h2 =  P0 A  P0 A + (M + m)g   P2 = P0 + (M + m)g A 1/ γ c) The force acting in a mass-spring system is –k ∆ x.

but we are concerned about the beam that will go out vertically. The point A is emitting light in all directions.the spring coefficient of the system will be (M + m). the lower level will be h2 – h1 under the equilibrium. The point A will be seen as A’ and we can AH′ find the ratio of by trigonometry. γ P2 A and the corresponding mass will be h2 d) Since the harmonic oscillator goes up and down with the same distance. and leaves the other direction unchanged. or at large angles from the axis sin θ ≅ θ . The beams are sketched at right. and won't change in the direction of parallel to the rod. In this case. the outgoing beams (going to your eyes) are parallel. so the line will be magnified in the direction perpendicular to the rod. h min = h1 − (h 2 − h1 ) = 2h1 − h 2 5) Bending the truth a) A rod is a cylindrical lens which basically magnifies in one direction only. and the upper level of this oscillator is (h 2 – h1) above the equilibrium. First AH we assume that AH is approximately equal to the BH' line: HA = BH′ = R sin(θ − (ϕ − θ)) = R sin(2θ − ϕ) HA ′ = R sin ϕ Magnification = HA ′ sin ϕ = HA sin(2θ − ϕ) We neglect rays which pass either far from the centre. (the paraxial approximation). θ and ϕ are small and  sin ϕ ≅ ϕ  sin ϕ= n sin θ ⇒ ϕ = nθ nθ n = 2θ − nθ 2−n 4 ⇒ Magnification = . b) Since we are looking far from the rod.

5793 − 1.4877 − 1. So ∆ =>  1 =0  f 1 ∆(n1 ) 1 ∆(n2 ) + • =0 • f1 n1 − 1 f2 n2 − 1 ∆(n1 ) = 1. The point A will be seen as A′ . One can find n by measuring α and β. HA ′ = m (Magnification) HA HA ′ = OH tan(α + β) HA = OH tan(α) HA ′ tan(α + β) n = = tan(α) 2−n HA 2 tan(α + β) tan(α) + tan(α + β) ⇒ ⇒ n= Where α is the angle between rod and parallel lines and β is the angle between bent lines and parallel lines. their inverse focal lengths add up: 1 1 1 = + f f1 f2 We want the aberration to be minimum.5634 = 0. two unknowns 5 .4758 = 0.0159 Consider two wavelength 488 nm and 890 nm (nanometers).In practice: The rod is magnifying in the direction of the line perpendicular to the axis of rod. [Amir] 6) Cool abrrrrations! a)  1 1 1 = (n − 1) •  +  f  R1 R2  ∆  1 1  1 = ∆(n) •  +   f  R1 R2  =  1 ∆(n) •  f  (n − 1) b) When two different lenses are placed together. Now we have two equations.0119 ∆(n2 ) = 1.

3 cm [Yaser] 6 .57 .1 1 1 1 + = = f1 f2 f 10 1 0.1) f2 (1.0159 • + • =0 f1 (1.5 cm f2 = – 3.0119 1 0.48 .1) Therefore f1 = 2.

with sides of 9 cm. Find its value. There is no dielectric between the plates. He has a copper sphere of mass 2 g. there is no current in the circuit. Vile requires a copper sphere with a charge of exactly +3 µC. Now. b) What will be the new energy of the system? 1 . [Yaser] 3) Dielectric City Consider two parallel-plate capacitors C1 and C2 which carry corresponding charges Q1 and Q2. there must be some current in the circuit. a) What is the total energy of the two capacitors. Connect the two capacitors by two wires so as to make a circuit. At this time. evil scientist Dr.1999-2000 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 5: Electricity and Magnetism Due March 17. taken as a system? Now. b) What is the resultant force (and its direction) on the 3 µC copper sphere? [Carrie] 2) Capacity for thought Two parallel-plate capacitors with equal capacitance C are charged to voltage V. 2000 (revised date) 1) Vile away the hours To complete his giant. Vile places the 3 µC copper sphere near two other spheres of charges +7 µC and +5 µC. The distance between the plates is d and their area is A . super-evil-destructor ray gun the great. Obviously. we connect the two positive plates to each other and two negative plates to each other. imagine that the plates of one capacitor move apart with velocity v and the plates of the other capacitor move toward each other with the same velocity v . The three spheres are arranged in an equilateral triangle formation. a) What fraction of the electrons must be removed from his copper sphere to give it a charge of 3 µC ? Having removed the correct number of electrons Dr.

[Amir] 4) Super loopy Two identical superconducting circular loops are positioned coaxially (a line passes through both their centres. if each carry the same charge? e) What will happen if I put a charged-up capacitor on the surface of water.c) What happened to the energy of the system when the plates were connected? d) What is the energy difference between an empty capacitor and a capacitor full of water.. Now. produces a charge current I .. a) What is the current in each loop? b) Find the difference between initial and final energy of the system? [Yaser] 5) Keeping it together. Equal currents I are passing through each of these loops in the same direction. as shown in the figure? Why? How high will the column of water be when it rises into the space between capacitor plates?... A narrow beam of electrons. bring the loops together.. The loops have self-inductance L. can you find the speed for which the force due to B-field entirely cancels the force due to E-field? Hint: think ‘frame of reference’] [Amir] 2 . after the beam has traveled a longitudinal distance 100 times r? d) What is the diverging angle for I = 1 mA and r = 1 cm and v = 1000 m/s? [BONUS: Since the B field depends on electron speed. perpendicular to each) and far apart.. We assume that the beam has cylindrical symmetry. a) What is the electric field at the edge of the beam? b) What is the magnetic field at the edge of the beam? c) What is the radial (diverging) velocity of electrons at the border of the beam. of radius r and all moving at the same velocity v much less than speed of light (c).

] INFOBITS™ — Useful Bits of POPTOR Information Remember to check the POPTOR web-page for hints and any necessary corrections! www. and perpendicular to it. the field z-component is changing as dBz/dz.. The centre of the loop as it falls is exactly aligned with the axis of the cylindrically symmetric field.ca/~poptor 3 .physics. b) Write the equation of motion governing the fall of the loop. as E-fields do. show that for a cylindrically symmetric B-field: Br = r dB 2 dz A loop with electrical resistance R is falling in a cylindrically symmetric magnetic field.. This field must have a radial component! By choosing a short cylinder. Along this axis. and sketch the graph of its velocity vs. The radius of the loop is r and its mass is m.utoronto. c) What is the terminal velocity of the loop? [Yaser] [Hint: you may want to use the fact that magnetic field lines are always closed loops — they cannot start or end at a point.6) A feel for fields a) Prove that it’s impossible to have a magnetic field which increases along the z-axis but which has only a z-component. time.

The net force on q3 is the vector sum of the repulsive forces F 1 and F2 .0 g sphere contains 1. 1 .6 × 10 C.3 N + 16.09 m)2 = 23. q2 = 5 µC and q3 = 3 µC.25 × 10 23 –11 b) The figure at right illustrates the configuration of the charged spheres with q1 = 7 µC.1999-2000 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 5: Electricity and Magnetism 1) Vile away the hours i) The 2.99 × 10 atoms.7 N • cos(60°) = 31.7 N r r r The vector sum F = F1 + F2 has components along x and along y.6 × 10 C per 13 electron) = 1. In the x direction: Fx = F1x + F2 x = 23. The charge on the nucleus of each atom 22 23 is 29 e. So the fraction of electrons removed is (1. Thus the sphere contains (1.77 × 10 ) = 3. Let the positive x direction be as shown.99 × 10 )•29 = 5.875 × 10 electrons.875 × 10 13 22 ) / ( 5.7 N and in the y direction.3 N Similarly F2 is: F2 = k q2 q3 r2 9 × 10 9 N m2 C −2 ) • 5 × 10 −6 C • 3 × 10 −6 C ( = (0.09 m)2 = 16. One electron –19 –6 –19 has a charge of 1.77 × 10 electrons. and the y direction perpendicular to it. The electrons removed = (3 × 10 C)/(1. The magnitude of F1 is given by: F1 = k q1 q3 r2 9 × 10 9 N m2 C −2 ) • 7 × 10 −6 C • 3 × 10 −6 C ( = (0. towards the upper left.

q1 = Substitute the value of q2 = 2Q − q1 in the above formula we have q1 = Q d − vt d and q1 = Q The current in the circuit is the rate of change of charge.9 N The direction is at an angle arctan(14. we have d1 = d + vt Therefore d2 = d − vt C1 d2 d − vt = = C2 d1 d + vt C1 d − vt q2 = q2 . Therefore C1d1 = C2 d2 .5 N Thus the magnitude of the resultant force is: F= (31.Fy = F1y + F2 y = 0 N + 16. When the capacitors are connected to each other and the separation between the plates change. We know that the capacitance is inversely proportional to the C1 C2 separation of the plates. the total charge is still conserved so 2Q=q1+q2 . dt dt d [Yaser] 3) Dielectric City a) The energy stored in a capacitor with capacitance C and charge Q is TOTAL energy of a system consist of two capacitors is: E1 = 2 Q1 Q2 + 2 2C1 2C2 Q2 .5 N )2 = 34. 2) Capacity for thought The charge of each capacitor is Q=CV. Since the plates are moving together or apart by speed v for the two capacitors. Since the capacitors are parallel to each other.7) = 25° from the x axis.7 N )2 + (14. So the 2C 2 .5/31. the voltage across them is q q equal to V = 1 = 2 . C2 d + vt d + vt d [Carrie] On the other hand. which is equal to I= dq2 dq Qv =− 1 = .7 N • sin(60°) = 14.

(Q1 + Q2 ) 2 Qtotal 2 E2 = = 2Cequivalent 2(C1 + C2 ) c) One may find the difference between E2 and E1 as: 2 2 (Q1 + Q2 ) 2 Q1 Q2 E1 − E2 = + − 2C1 2C2 2(C1 + C2 ) = 2 2 2 2 C2 (C1 + C2 )Q1 + C1(C1 + C2 )Q2 − C1C2 (Q1 + Q2 + 2Q1Q2 ) 2C1C2 (C1 + C2 ) 2 2 2 2 C2 Q1 + C1 Q2 − 2(C1Q2 )(C2Q1 ) = 2C1C2 (C1 + C2 ) = (C2Q1 − C1Q2 ) 2 >0 2C1C2 (C1 + C2 ) which is always equal or larger than zero. this energy could have been changed 3 . When you connect the first two wires (say negative plates) nothing will happen and you will just have one ground to measure voltage on each part of the two circuits. Connecting the other two wires will create a large electric field between two wires (when they are separated by a small distance) and then the electrons will be accelerated. Those two capacitors are connected as parallel capacitors and the total charge on the right-hand-side plates is conserved (there is no external current) we have q 1 + q2 = Q1 + Q 2 (or similarly for the left plates: (–q1 ) + (–q2 ) = (–Q 1 ) + (–Q 2 )) Cequivalent = C1 + C2 Qtotal = Q1 + Q2 Now I can find the new energy of the system of one equivalent capacitor. You can then calculate the voltage difference of two positive plates. The energy loss is because of the emission of accelerated particles due to connection of two wires with different voltages.b) At first. If we could put a resistor between two capacitors. I’ll find the equivalent capacitor and the total charge on it.

d) Capacitance of a capacitor full of water is ε times capacitance of an empty capacitor. the energy loss can be found in the form of electromagnetic waves in visual range (you’ll see it as a spark!).into heat. where ε is susceptibility of water. A (Recall the formula for capacitance C = ε ε o . gravitational energy of water is: Eg = mg × h h ρw d g 2 = ρgwhd × = h 2 2 2 ρw d g 2 Q 2d + h 2 ε o w(H + ( ε − 1)h) 2 And total energy of the system is: Etotal = Ec + Eg = Since the energy tends to be minimized in physics world (and defines the equilibrium state): 4 . Often. Ce = ε ε o 2 d d (total charge)2 2(equivalent capacitance) Ecapacitor = in which I've assumed that an equivalent capacitor have the total charge (initial charge).) c Energy of full and empty capacitor can be found by using that formula: Eempty = E full = Q2 2Cempty Q2 Q2 = 2C full 2 ε Cempty and the energy difference is: ∆E = Eempty − E full Cf = ε εo Q2 1 = ( 1− ) Ce ε A1 A . ⇒E= 2 ε0 ( ε A1 + A2 ) d Q2 Since A1 = wh and A2 = w(H-h) we can write: Q 2d Ec = 2 ε 0 w( ε h + H − h) On the other hand.

but if one could find a medium with ε <1. H The condition that capacitor is completely filled with water is: 1+ 2 1 Q2 + − ≥0 ε − 1 (ε − 1)2 2ε 0 (ε − 1)ρw 2 gH 3 [Amir] 4) Super loopy The main point of this question is that the loops are superconductors. When the loops are far apart the flux passing through each loop is equal to Φ i = LIi which is because of the self-inductance of each loop. the currents in the loops change so as to keep the flux fixed. Therefore. which would cause an infinite current! To avoid infinite current. One is from the self-inductance and the other is from the mutual inductance. when the loops are brought together. (in our equation this will H h could be negative). When the two loops are brought close together. here. Therefore Φ f = LI f + LI f = 2LI f To avoid infinite current. The flux passing through each loop is combined in equal parts. Φi = Φ f ⇒ I f = Ii 2 The energy of an inductance is equal to 5 . the mutual inductance is equal to the self-inductance.−Q 2d(ε − 1) dEtotal =0⇒ + ρw d g h = 0 dh 2ε o w(H + (ε − 1)h)2 ⇒ Q 2 (ε − 1) = 2ε oρw 2 gh(H + (ε − 1)h)2 Q2 2  h 1  h  h ⇒ + + − =0  H ε − 1 H (ε − 1)2  H  2ε o (ε − 1) ρ w 2 g H 3 *Imaginary-valued solutions have no physical meaning. which passes through each of them. must not change. the magnetic flux. Otherwise there would be a voltage across each loop. H 3 2 h < 0 mean that the water won't rise at all. *Answers with *Answers with h > 1 mean that the capacitor will be completely filled. not happen. Superconductors have no resistance.

Here the work is negative because the loops attract each other.U= 1 2 LI 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 LI f + LI f − LIi − LIi = − LIi2 2 2 2 2 4 Therefore the difference in the energies of the system is equal to ∆U = U f − U i = It can be shown that this is equal to the work needed to bring the loops together. I = ρv (πr 2 ) ⇒ ρ = −I π r 2v The electric field at the edge of beam can be found by using Gauss’s law. [Yaser] 5) Keeping it together. I can find B: B= The radial force on electrons on the edge is F = − e(E + v × B)  µ I v I ⇒ F = e − o ^ r 2πr   2πε o r v ⇒F= Ie (1 − µ o ε o v 2 ) 2πε o r v 1 where c is the speed of light. i) I'll find the density of electrons inside the beam. c2 as you may know. E= ρ ⋅ π r2 ρr λ −I ^ = = = r 2πrε o 2πε o r 2ε o 2π ε o r v µo I 2πr Using Ampere's law. the quantity µ o ε o = ⇒F= Ie Ie v2 (1 − 2 ) ≈ 2πr ε o v 2πr ε o v c The change in radial momentum can be found by using 6 ....

3 v ⇒ ϑ = 0. B z (z+∆z ) r The flux from the top and bottom surfaces is Φ1 = πr 2 (B( z + ∆z) − B( z) = πr 2 The flux from the sides is 7 dBz ∆z dz Br ∆z B z (z) .85 × 10 −12 • 9.000 km/s. The magnetic field lines that enter a cylinder must go out so as to make a closed loop.3 radians ≈ 17° (The speed in the problem set was wrongly written as 1000 m/s.∆Pr = Fr ∆t = ∆Pr = ∆vr = Ie 100 r • 2πε o r v v 100 I e 2πε o v 2 100 I e ∆Pr me 2πε o me v 2 in which I've assumed that Fr . The field lines must bend. r and v won't change too much during this process. It is 10. BONUS : In part (c) we found that the force acting on electrons at the border is F= Ie 2πε o v r  v2  1 −   c2   putting this force to be zero will result: 1− v2 =0 ⇒ v=c c2 [Amir] 6) A feel for fields a) Try to draw field lines. Use Gauss’s Law for this part. Sorry!).1 × 10 −31 • (107 ) 3 ∆v tanϑ = r ≈ 0. One may find the ratio: 100 • 10 −3 • 1.6 × 10 −19 ∆vr 100 I e = = v 2πε o me v 3 2π • 8. which shows the presence of a radial component. which have to be denser as the z changes.

the velocity increases but reaches a terminal velocity which is when the acceleration is zero. The magnetic force is proportional to v and negative. The rate of change of the magnetic flux respect to time is dΦ πr 2 dBz 2 dBz = πr = dt dt v dz where v is the velocity of the loop falling down. gravitational force and the magnetic force. mgR d2v = 0 ⇒ vf = 2 4 2 π r (dBz / dz)2 dt The velocity of the loop versus time is plotted.Φ 2 = 2πr∆zBr For the total flux to be zero we should have Φ1 = Φ 2 ⇒ Br = r dBz 2 dz b) There are two forces acting on the loop. [Yaser] vf v t 8 . is equal to F = i l Br = i (2πr) Br Substitute the value of current and magnetic field we already derived we have F= π 2 r 4  dBz  v R  dz  2 2 Therefore the equation of the motion of the loop is d2v π 2 r 4  dBz  m 2 = mg − v R  dz  dt The magnetic force is negative because of Lenz’s law. causes damping. Initially. For the current in the loop we have V dΦ / dt πr 2 v dBz i= = = R R R dt The force exerted by the magnetic field. which is due to radial component of the magnetic field and upward.

between pairs of 1 . If the input is a current turned on. as graphed. C). what should be the value if r is added in parallel with R? [Robin] 2) A current affair There are two circuits shown below. time? R r I I R C Vo t I C R Vo [Yaser] 3) Pandora’s box o’ electronics Consider a black box with 3 terminals (A. B. with the bottom part of the diagram held at ground. what is the output voltage vs. which starts with a battery of voltage V and a resistor R across the battery. then off.1999-2000 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 6: AC Circuits and Electronics Due April 3. 2000 1) Ohm my! You are given the circuit shown. what should be the value of r so that the power dissipated across it should be a minimum? Similarly. Given these measurements below (taken with a multimeter. Only batteries & resistors are present inside. If I add another resistor r in series with R.

since they are experimental. at right. what is inside? Draw a circuit diagram. The response of the NOT A C gate can be summarized in the following 1 0 truth table. have an error-bar in the last digit] [HINT 2: measuring resistance across a battery will result in an error] [Peter] B 99 Ohms C nonsense (< 0) nonsense (< 0) 4) Only logical Logic gates are used to electronically perform Boolean or Logical operations on input signals. … [Carrie] B 1 0 1 0 C 1 0 0 0 2 . a) What do you suppose is the truth table for this gate? b) Build an OR gate using NOT and AND gates. The simplest is the NOT gate which is symbolised by the diagram at left. So if the input signal (A) is true or 1 the NOT gate response (C) is 0 1 false or 0 (and vice versa).031 A B 0V C 1. [HINT: the above values. c) Build an AND gate from NOT and OR gates. and specify the values of components. Another type of logic gate is the AND gate with symbol shown at left and truth table at right. BONUS d) Build an EXCLUSIVE OR gate (where C is true if one of A or B is true but not both). Thus the output C is true only when both A and B are true.6 V 1. OR and NOT gates. otherwise C is false.015 A 0. using AND.6 V Resistance: A A B C terminals).Voltage: A A B C Current: A A B C B 0A C 0. A 1 1 0 0 The OR gate has symbol shown at left.

Now what is the equivalent resistance across any arm? iv) Consider a network of regular polygons in which.5) Net worth i) Consider an infinite square array of resistors r.ca/~poptor 3 . What is the equivalent resistance across any arm? iii) Consider an array of hexagons (arranged so that at any junction there are 3 resistors r coming off).utoronto. N resistors r are coming off. What is the equivalent resistance? [BONUS: can you draw such a figure in 2 dimensions for N = 5 ?] [Peter] 6) My current analysis. NOTE: 1 1 = α2 ≠ = β2 L1C1 L2C2 [BONUS: find the impedance as a function of frequency exactly] [Peter] Remember to check the POPTOR web-page for hints and any necessary corrections! www. at right. Show why. A qualitative description will do. at any point. sketched conceptually at left. as a function of the frequency ω of the sinusoidal driving source (the circle with the squiggly bit). ii) Consider now an array of equilateral triangles (arranged so that at any junction there are 6 resistors r coming off)... Consider any 2 neighbouring points (separated by a resistance r) — the equivalent resistance is r /2. Roughly sketch the impedance of this circuit.physics.

it must be a maximum. The minima you’re asked for correspond to r = 0 and r = ∞. current I through resistors) (power P dissipated in r. In the series circuit V = I (R + r) P = I • Vr = I r V  = r  R + r For an extremum: 0= dP  V   2r  = 1− dr  R + r   R + r 2 2 2 (voltage V across resistors in series. This is easy to see by graphing it. However.1999-2000 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 6: AC Circuits and Electronics 1) Ohm my! You might be able to do this one by inspection: if r Æ ∞ then no current flows in the circuit. current I through r same as R) which happens at r = R. [Robin] 2 1 . So a few equations are in order. or by simply noting: 2 lim   V    r = 0    r→0  R+r   2   V  2   lim  lim  r lim  1   r = V = V2 =0     2   r → ∞  (R + r)  2 r→∞ R + r r R r → ∞ + ( )       …so if it is zero at the origin and at infinity. and cannot be negativevalued. as r Æ ∞ power dissipation increases for a constant current. How about in parallel? It’s even easier to see: Pr = Vr I r = (Vr ) /r. by finding the second derivative. On the other hand. has one extremum. not a minimum. The voltage Vr = Vo the battery voltage. Clearly this power decreases monotonically as r increases — the miminum is at r = ∞. this is a maximum. so no power is dissipated through r.

and this will make the current through the resistor increase — a bigger share of the current flows through the resistor. For the first case. according to V = IR. After time τ no current flows. the current Io is divided through both of them. this the source voltage will have to increase to match the capacitor voltage. unfortunately.”) 2 . the capacitor charge goes up linearly respect to time. Initially most of the current will pass into the capacitor and increase the capacitor voltage as it charges up (since we’ve assumed a constant current flow. I(t) I0 τ V I0 τ /C τ t t For the case where the capacitor and resistor are connected in parallel. all the current must go through the resistor. Then the circuit will reach ‘steady state’. Even if the current were constant for all time. to keep current constant). the current through the resistor in parallel also will increase. and the q I t voltage across it would be V = = 0 . and the capacitor will not take any of the current.2) A current affair Usually questions like this one are given with a specified voltage applied — which would be easier! Here it is a current that is specified (without telling you how they made sure such a current was produced. at whatever voltage needed). Leakage can happen through moisture in the air. so the charge C C remains on the the capacitor (except perhaps for leakage due to some large resistance through the capacitor which ideally should be infinite. This helps us figure out how to solve the following equation which describes the circuit (a famous physicist once said: “Never write down an equation until you’ve figured out what the answer should be. the capacitor cannot charge up forever: at some voltage the current drain through the resistor would be equal to the whole current supply. too). Therefore. As this voltage increases. This makes some parts tricky. and onward to charge the capacitor.

and here’s a possible solution. then maybe it should have the form: V(t) = Vo 1 − e αt ( ) Try it in the differential equation: it works. If the voltage approaches this value asymptotically. We try a solution which has exponentials in it (because the derivative of the exponential is again an exponential.). Trial and error always works. when a I0 R τ t 3 .e. above. so we can solve this equation either systematically or by guessing from what we figured out about voltages. as we’re going across the battery [an aside: the way a multimeter measures resistance is to send a small current across the circuit.I o = I capacitor + I resistor dQ V + dt R dV 1 =C + V dt R = Where V is the voltage across both the capacitor and the resistor (in parallel). measure the potential difference created and find the resistance from Ohm’s Law. resistance at B is 25 Ω and the resistance at C is also 25 Ω. In fact what happens is that the voltage follows this curve V(t) until the current is turned off.. because if R Æ 0 (short circuit) or C Æ 0 (no capacitor). measuring resistance from A to C or B to C yields an error. Using these values we first of all see that the resistance from B to C is 100 Ω (within error of the 99 Ω given). The battery has a value of 1.5V. exponentially with the same time-constant α = 1/ RC. which maybe would cancel with the original). However. so finally V(t Æ∞ ) = Vo = Io R. etc. as long as α = –1/ RC. resistance at A is 75 Ω . In steady-state. The current Io is constant. then it V takes no time at all to reach the final state. a 100 Ω resistor could also be drawn as two 50 Ω resistors. Sounds OK. the dV/dt term will be zero (i. Then the charge on the capacitor leaks away through the resistor until it goes back to zero. and Q is the charge on the capacitor. [Yaser & Robin] 3) Pandora’s box o’ electronics There is no unique solution to this problem (for example. nothing is changing).

it is pretty clear that there has to be at least 1 battery between A-C and B-C. in the 1st diagram).030 A.5 / 0.5 V (within error of 1. it may be shown that such an ‘outer’ triangle is equivalent to an ‘inner’ triangle. The current from A to C (remember that the resistance of the multimeter is very small when measuring current) is 1. as below: R A + R B = 100 R A + R C = 1.6V). Now. try this: • First. So. just as I’ve drawn before. b) Using NOT and AND gates the following OR gate can be constructed: A 1 1 0 0 B 1 0 1 0 C 1 1 1 0 4 . And this indeed does it… [Peter] 4) Only logical The truth table for the OR gate is shown at right: If either A or B is true (1) then the output is true (1). I’m only doing it so that this solution is the same as the one above). the most complex circuit possible is when all terminals are interconnected. adding more complicated ones later). we re-draw the diagram to the one I had first (this is not necessary. which will yield in very strange values shown by the multimeter].5 / 100 = 0..5 / 50 = 0.015 A and the current from B to C will be 1. • As to the remaining resistors.e. • Next. again within error of the given values. Now. and perhaps even reverse it. you can either guess the values or solve 3 equations and 3 unknowns. respectively. The current from A to B is 0. B and C.030 = 50 (RA. If you like a more systematic approach. start with the simplest components. try to keep things as simple as possible (i. RB and RC are the resistances in the arms A. like resistors and batteries. as given [the internal resistance of the multimeter is extremely high when measuring voltage].015 = 100 RB + R C = 1. The easiest way to satisfy this is to put one at C.battery is in the way it will change the current. and the voltages from A to C and B to C will be 1.5 / 0.

Because the whole system is Nsymmetric. homogenous grid where at any junction N resistors are connected together. the current will split evenly and I/N will flow into every resistor. Consider an infinite. OR and NOT gates: [Carrie] 5) Net worth iv) Let me do the general problem first. above left. Again. Note that a voltage source is really equivalent to a current source. i. something which injects & draws current. See the example. We 5 . Consider injecting a current I into the junction. . Consider now drawing a current I from a junction. offset by 1 arm (see right). a current I/N will be drawn from every resistor.c) Using NOT and OR gates the following AND gate can be constructed: BONUS d) One possible EXCLUSIVE OR gate built out of AND. Now superimpose the 2 current flows.e.

[Peter] 6) My current analysis. the current is almost steady (DC). Thus. in 2 dimensions. we ‘guesstimate’ the curve on the following page (note that I have arbitrarily assumed a < b). Also. The capacitor.m. the opposite is true: the capacitor lets current through but the inductor doesn’t (the e.will have a current I coming in. the impedance of the R. cos( ωt) ) can be conveniently represented 6 . and the impedance is minimum.. as the two resonant frequencies are not equal ( α ≠ β ). the impedance will never quite reach zero. the only possible figures are those for which N = 3. you don’t have to be able to draw this figure for part (iv) to hold…). on the other hand. the voltage drop is 2Ir/N which must also equal RI. From all this. with zero resistance. 1 . The current in the given arm will be I/N + I/N = 2I/N. that builds up inside is very large) iii) an LC or RLC circuit will resonate at a frequency of ω 2 = power dissipated is maxi-mum. doesn’t let any current through and behaves like a break in the circuit. L2 .g. C2 circuit will be higher than that of the other circuit. This also solves the remainder of the questions… This question is inspired by a Polish Olympiad question. The resistance is r. the circuit in question contains 2 circuits (the R. To convince yourself of this you can note that at each junction the sum of all the internal angles has to be 360 degrees (of course. 4 or 6. each with their own resonant frequencies. due to the resistor R.. Here’s what you have to know: i) when the driving frequency ω is small. from way back when… Answers: i) r/2 ii) r/3 iii) 2r/3 iv) 2r/N BONUS: it is not possible to draw such a figure in 2D. What happens here is that a sinusoidal driving source (e. At this point the LC Now.f. ii) when ω is very large. C 2 circuit and the C1 .. L1 circuit). L 2 . From this we see that R = 2r/N. where R is the equivalent resistance. In fact. We can thus expect that the overall impedance will have minima near the resonant frequencies. The inductor behaves like a piece of wire. For an analytical treatment I will employ the complex number technique. and a current I coming out one arm away — equivalent to a battery.

is useful to solve the differential equations present when dealing with capacitors and/or inductors.. what we really want to plot is the magnitude of this thing. The gist of all this is the fact that the resistor. let’s apply this to our circuit. |Z|. The values turn out to be: Resistor R: Z = R Capacitor C: Z = 1 iωC Inductor L: Z = iωL 2 (Z is the impedance. in a circuit driven by a sinusoidal source. the phase is represented by the angle the impedance makes with the real axis in the complex plane). behave as resistors whose generalized ‘resistance’ (called impedance) is a complex number (the number has to be complex because capacitors and inductors change the phase of the current. in the end.e. After this crash course.as a complex number (cos(ω t) = Re(exp(iωt)). where Re denotes the real part). and not much can be done so simplify them. they’re added when in series and the reciprocals of the sum of their reciprocals is taken in parallel). i = –1) Finally. 7 . the standard Kirchoff rules apply to impedances (i. This yields some pretty ugly expressions. capacitor and inductor. This is useful as derivatives of the exponential are really easy to calculate. The total impedance will be  1  Z = (iωL1 ) +  +  iωC1  1     1 1  +  1   R   iωL2 + iωC2   1 1  β2  iωL2  1 − 2  ω    α2  = iωL1  1 − 2  + ω  1+  R Real nasty… now. This.

more of an inflection point. [Peter] 8 . but it’s close enough for this rough analysis. the second minimum isn’t really a minimum.You can take my word for the fact that this yields very similar results to the graph above.

Once you have collected the data you can determine the approximate pressure — this is the empirical approach.e.. [Sal] 1 . If a person could make a partial vacuum in their mouth equal to 50% of atmospheric pressure.. even if you short-circuit them with a wire you still have 2 ohms appearing in such a circuit). for example) – a measuring tape [Yaser] The plan — If you suck up water from the bucket up the tube. by inhaling? What else is at work? c) Does the size of the straw (its diameter) have any effect on the maximum height? To answer parts b) and c) it is suggested that you test the effects on height using different-sized straws.. at some point you can no longer raise the water level within the tubing. Try it also by inhaling. Record your result and repeat the experiment for tubes of different diameter. like a long straw.2000-2001 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 1: General Due October 30. and compare that to the best overall partial vacuum you are able to produce otherwise.. Materials: – a bucket or pitcher of water – a few ~1.. 2000 1) The path of least resistance (.. you create a partial vacuum in your mouth. a) When you suck on a straw. Once you have collected the data you can determine the approximate vacuum pressure your lungs can achieve by themselves. How can you connect all these batteries together so as to get highest possible current through a 4-ohm resistor? [HINT: Think of the batteries set up in n rows and m columns. what’s the farthest possible vertical distance above their drink of water? b) Is it reasonable that your lungs might produce a vacuum 50% that of the atmosphere.. each of which has an internal resistance 2 ohms (i.] 2) The last straw.5 m lengths of plastic tubing of different diameters (Canadian Tire stores sell this. to draw up the water. instead of sucking. Measure the height of the water level within the tubing above the water level in the bucket.and highest voltage) You are given 32 identical 3-volt batteries.

it takes just a bit of physics — the Magnus effect. like Post-It™ brand We want to drop the tube through the air while it is spinning. When a ball is moving through the air and also spinning. You need: a cardboard tube of the type that is found at the centre of a roll of paper towels a skinny elastic band. spread evenly over the surface.. So it isn’t strange that the force on one side of a spinning ball can be greater than on the other. cut the skinny elastic band so that it’s now just an elastic string. at least 5 cm long a sticky note. Eventually. c) Calculate the change in temperature of the Ar gas in the cylinder due to the bullet’s motion before impact. you can do this. a) How long does it take for the bullet to reach the opposite end of the cylinder? b) Calculate the bullet’s velocity just before hitting the cylinder wall. neither inside nor outside? The right answer is a kind of averaging. To do this. [Brian] 5) Bubbling ideas Suppose we have a perfectly round soap bubble of initial radius Ro. and the ball can be pushed sideways — curve in its path. and external air pressure po. with internal air pressure p. b) What is the new radius of the bubble after charging it up? [HINT: perhaps you know or can find the field outside a spherical charge distribution. the airspeed on one side of the ball is greater than on the other. if you get stuck. the bullet hits the opposite end of the cylinder and stops. The drag force on a ball depends on how quickly it is moving through the air. [HINT: If you can integrate. and assume ideal gas behaviour. check the POPTOR webpage for ways to solve the quite simple differential equation you will get].Ignore gravity. [Peter] 6) Magnus matters What does it take to pitch a curveball in baseball? Besides some talent. Here’s a simple experiment to find out about this. Attach one end of the elastic to the 3 . a) What is the change of pressure inside the bubble if the bubble size is increased by a small amount? Now put a charge Q on the bubble. and figure out the field inside too.. But what about the field right on the bubble wall.

. Then stick the sticky note onto the cardboard tube right in the middle (as a kind of anchor) and wind the elastic around the tube. a) What happens to the tube as it falls? Does it make a difference which way the tube is spinning as you drop it? How does this compare to the way the tube falls if it isn’t spinning at all? How do you explain the effect? How do you imagine the spinning motion changes the forces on the tube? b) Measure how far the tube falls. at which the spinning tube should fall? [Robin] 4 . If you can figure out the error in your measurement. relative to the vertical. Let go of the tube while keeping hold of the elastic — before it really falls. when the air drag-forces exactly match the force of gravity (for a parachutist in free-fall this is roughly 200 km per hour!). the coefficient of drag is ε = 1. At what speed does the cylinder fall? Can you use this to figure out roughly how quickly the tube moves sideways? d) Theory — this just takes some algebra. though it looks a little hairy. the elastic will pull on the tube and spin it up. Bonus points! Use the Fdrag formula from question 4. What must be the sideways force. and how much it moves sideways. and the sticky-note will peel off at the last. Can you use this to predict the terminal velocity of the falling spinning cylinder (you may also have to weigh your tube)? How does this compare to what you measured? You can likewise look at the sideways-motion terminal velocity. relative to the vertical. c) Use the results from (b) to figure out what the angle of descent is for the tube. using tape (duct tape works well for me). for anything shaped like a cylinder. can you roughly predict the angle. to give the sideways terminal velocity you found above? e) BIG BONUS: For a given cylinder and spin-rate.0.sticky-note. You may need to make several trials. and average your answers together to get a reliable result. Can you tell what path or trajectory the tube takes as it falls — curved or straight? You might want to use a video camera and then look at the tape frame-byframe to analyse things. It works best if you can release it over a balcony or from a ladder. Now hold the tube horizontally while holding the free end of the elastic. You should probably find that the falling tube pretty quickly reaches terminal velocity . that’s worth extra points. measuring each time.

0 C v (Ar) = 12.5 εcylinder = 1.2928 g L–1 5 . per mole.5 J mole –1 K –1 (heat capacity at constant volume) (density of argon.POPBits™ — Useful bits of information Drag force: Fdrag = ε ρ A v where 2 ε = coefficient of drag (a constant) ρ = density of fluid A = cross-sectional area (area of an object’s shadow) v = speed εsphere = 0.948 g mole –1 ρair = 1. molar density) Mm (Ar) = 39.

The optimum case is to set the batteries in n rows and m columns.. atmospheric pressure forces the liquid up the straw. Then the current that passes through a resistor R is equal to I= mV V = mr R r + R+ m n n We have to maximize the above equation with the condition N=nm.01 x 104 Pa) / {(1000 kg/m3 )(9.05 x 104Pa Patm = P + ρ gh h = (P atm –P) / ρ g = (1. Rr/N.8 m/s2 )} 1 [Yaser] . We could reduce the resistance by connecting all in parallel but then the total voltage is small. We know that the sum of two numbers which have a constant product is minimized when they are equal.and highest voltage) If two identical batteries are connected to each other in series.. we could get a high voltage but at the same time the total resistance is big and lowers the current. a) By creating a partial vacuum in your mouth.. When they are connected in parallel..5Patm = 5. equivalently. The voltage across them would also be the sum of the individual electromotive forces. The difference in pressures will work only to a certain height h until the weight of the water in the straw will balance the differential-pressure force: P/Patm = 0. P = 0.5. Therefore R/m = r/n. It means mn= 32 and m/n =2. So m=8 and n=4. 2) The last straw. the total resistance is half the individual resistance and the voltage would be the same as individual voltages.2000-2001 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 1: General 1) The path of least resistance (. Therefore we should minimize the denominator.01 x 105 Pa – 5. which is the sum of two terms having the product of Rr/mn or. So we have n equivalent batteries each having voltage mV and internal resistance mr . Therefore the total votage is mV and the total resistance is mr/n. If the voltage of each battery is V and its resistance is r then the voltage in each row is mV and the resistance is mr. the equivalent resistance is the sum of their individual resistances. If we connect all the batteries in series.

The heights of water within a tube achieved by inhaling on differentsized tubing. Diameter of tubing (cm): 1.54 cm. The other end was brought to my mouth. then continuing to suck. 2.h = 5.90 cm. I did the experiment both ways.58 1.54 Attempt 1 Attempt 2 Attempt 3 Attempt 4 Attempt 5 Average 112 105 112 106 100 107 ± 2 99 114 115 108 109 109 ± 3 106 105 111 117 103 108 ± 2 Table 1.15 m Experimental Results Note: Inhaling is different than sucking By sucking.58 cm. where getting tired after a few attempts so I rested every 3 to 4 attempts. The tubing was taped along side my washing machine so as to get the tubing as straight as possible. As the water level rose in the tubing. One end of the tubing was submerged in a bucket of water . Once the water level stopped rising I quickly plugged the hole of the tubing with my tongue. and then I inhaled as much as possible. 1. My lungs. I felt. it became more and more difficult to breathe in . This was not the result of me running out of lung capacity. because I was able to continue breathing in if I took my mouth away from the tubing. 5 attempts for each tube were performed. resting. Experiment by inhalation At the hardware store I picked up 3 1. your tongue acting as a piston can produce a vacuum effect capable of raising the liquid in the tubing higher than a height your lungs are capable of sustaining.9 2. b) This result would suggest that the you could not raise the water level within the tubing to 5m simply by inhalation.5 meter tubes with diameters 1. 2 . I exhaled. Below are the results. The level of the water in the tubing was then recorded.

I then began to suck on the tubing. This is the height that determines the vacuum capabilities of 3 . as one expects. With a bucket of water on the ground floor I placed the tubing in the bucket and walked up a few flights of stairs. in a stairwell this time.2 The results are close to those calculated earlier! With each suck I was able to draw the water higher and higher.895 atmospheres — 0.5 4. There finally reached a point where the partial vacuum. These results suggest that your lungs are only capable of producing a partial vacuum of 0.5 meter.The results above show that the different average heights for each tube-diameter are within each other’s error. C = 0. By placing my thumb over the opening of the tubing I maintained the water level in the tubing while resting. Force/Area. could no longer raise the water level beyond the 4. The diameter of the tube had no bearing on the height attainable.01 x 105 Pa (1 – C) / {(1000kg/m3)(9. The weight of the water within a larger tube will exert greater force against the atmosphere.8m/s2 )} solving for C. 1. (Unfortunately we initially misguided you by suggesting a short length of the tubing to use — sorry about that!) What I did was I found a tube longer than 5 m and repeated the experiment. is therefore not affected. but this force is distributed over a greater surface area due to the increased tube diameter. created in my mouth.08 = (P – Patm) / ρg = (1. pausing occasionally to catch my breath. I continued this pattern of sucking and resting until I could no longer raise the water level.895 Why does this differ from our earlier calculations? Because experiment shows that a typical person’s lungs cannot deliver 0. Measurements are shown below. Not being restricted to one breath I was able to take advantage of the mechanisms my tongue is responsible for. As mentioned earlier your tongue acting as a piston may be able to produce a greater partial vacuum in your mouth.5 atmospheres of partial vacuum! Experiment by sucking on tube It would seem that the vacuum your mouth is capable of producing relies on another mechanism besides lungs capabilities. The resulting pressure exerted by the weight of the water.3 cm diameter tubing Attempt 1 Attempt 2 Height in meters 4. To test this idea we repeated the experiment by sucking.105 ATM below atmospheric: 1.

so that’s 2. I take my sneakers off at home. and about 500 m at the other end – 2. 300 days per year because I don’t always wear sneakers. Since F = ma and the mass of the bullet is constant. I walk for about 1 hour net. I figure I take about 1 step per second (very roughly). between classes and offices. and another 20 minutes at lunch. during the day while I’m at work. as Sherlock Holmes might once have said. My steps are about 1 m per pace (I’m tall).800 steps. how many steps in a year? Hmmm. well I walk about 600 m to the streetcar from home. So a little over 3 million steps in 18 months to 22 remove about 20 moles (20 x 6 x 10 ) of atoms. The important thing is the reasoning. So with each step I must be leaving behind roughly 4 x 10 atoms! Yikes. roughly.And for one step? Well. only the following fundamental definitions apply: dx v= dt dv a= dt F = ma (6) (7) (8) 7 .000 sneaker-steps each day. So I walk about 7. the acceleration has to be a function of velocity. Therefore.200 steps then. so that’s 1 1/3 hours x 3600 seconds/hour x 1 step/second = 4. [Robin] 4) Number four with a bullet The Physics – The key to this problem is realizing that the acceleration of the bullet is not constant while traveling though the cylinder of gas: From the drag equation 1 ερAv 2 we know that bullet experiences a force that is a function of its Fdrag = − 2 velocity. the following constant acceleration equations cannot be used: 1 at 2 x(t) = x(0) + v(0)t + 2 (1) v(t) = v(0) + at (2) 17 including the variations on equations (1) and (2): v(t)2 = v(0)2 + 2 a( x(t) − x(0)) 1 ( v(t) + v(0)) x(t) = x(0) + 2 1 at 2 x(t) = x(0) + v(t)t − 2 (3) (4) (5) In this question. one day people ought to be able to figure out where I walked! They just need to make a combination upright vacuum cleaner and mass spectrometer! REMINDER: all these values are very rough – within a factor of 2 or 3 either way is reasonable.2 km just getting to work.

50 × 10 -3 )2 = 6.78) = 382.The Solution – Given quantities converted to SI units where appropriate: Variable Name v(0) m r L R T P ε Mm C Variable Name v(t) t V A ∆T M • • • Definition Initial velocity of bullet Mass of Bullet Radius of bullet Length of cylinder Radius of cylinder Initial temperature of gas Pressure of argon gas in cylinder Drag coefficient for a sphere Molar mass of argon gas Specific heat of argon gas Value 250 m/s 2.500 x 10-3 m 15.78 m 3 Calculate density of argon gas in cylinder: n P = V RT n PMm (2.246 × 10 4 g/m 3 = 32.00 x 10-3 kg 4.362 × 10 -5 m/s Calculate cylinder volume: V = π LR 2 = π (15.5 J/kg/K Quantities to be calculated: Definition Final velocity of bullet after traversing the cylinder Time it takes for the bullet to traverse the cylinder Volume of cylinder Maximum cross-sectional area of bullet Change in gas temperature Mass of argon gas in cylinder Calculate maximum cross-sectional area of bullet: A = π r 2 = π (4.948) ρ = Mm = = = 3.4 kg PV = nRT (Ideal Gas Law) ⇒ • Part A • Calculate the time it takes for the bullet to transverse the cylinder: 1 ma = Fdrag = − ερAv 2 2 dv since a = .46)(11.500 39.46 kg/m 3 V RT (8. then dt 8 .948 g/mol 312.0)(0.500)2 = 11.500 m 300 K 2.027 x 106 Pa 0.31451)(300) Calculate the mass of argon gas in the cylinder: M = ρ V = ( 32.027 × 106 )(39.0 m 0.

we do know what the distance is so use the definition for velocity: since v = dx . However.m dv 1 = − ερAv 2 dt 2 this is a differential equation – what function v(t) can be differentiated once to equal itself-squared.362 × 10 −5 ) = = 0. then dt this is another differential equation dx v(0) = dt v(0) β t + 1 (again see A Guide to Solving Simple Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE’s) ) dx = v(t)dt = L 0 t v(0) dt v(0) β t + 1 1 ∫ dx = v(0)∫ v(0)β t + 1 dt 0 L= v(0) 1 ln(v(0)β t + 1) = ln(v(0)β t + 1) v(0)β β ln( v(0)β t + 1) = Lβ 9 .2581 m -1 − 3 2m 2(2. for this problem set to understand the following steps) dv v2 v( t ) = − β dt dv t ∫ 2 = −β ∫ dt v( 0 ) v 0 1 1 − = βt v(t) v(0) v(0) β t + 1 1 1 = βt + = v(t) v(0) v(0) v(t) = v(0) v(0) β t + 1 equation for the velocity of the bullet as a function of time We can’t solve for time t since we don’t know what v(t) is.00 × 10 ) (see A Guide to Solving Simple Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE’s) on the POPTOR webpage for hints etc.46)(6.5)(32. multiplied by a constant – β ? dv ερA 2 =− v = −β v2 dt 2m where β = ε ρ A (0.

v(0)β t + 1 = e Lβ t= e Lβ − 1 v(0)β equation for the time it takes the bullet to transverse the cylinder substitute in the numbers: t= e(0. where V is the volume of the bubble.0) − 1 = 0.23 m/s ∆T= 5.23)2 ) ∆T = = 5.23 × 10 −4 K 2(382.2581)(15.23 × 10 K –4 . So if the volume changes by a small amount ∆V then (using the product rule) we have 10 Answer t = 0.2581) Part B Using the equation for velocity and the value for time found in Part A: v(t) = v(0) (250) = = 5. Therefore.23 m/s v(0)β t + 1 (250)(0.5) FINAL ANSWERS Question Part A Part B Part C [Brian] 5) Bubbling ideas a) The temperature of the air inside the bubble is always the ambient temperature.00 × 10 −3 )((250)2 − ( 5.2581)(0.726 s (250)(0.726 s v(t) = 5. pV = constant.4)(312.726) + 1 Part C the change in the bullet’s kinetic energy is converted to heat in the gas: ∆EK = ∆Q 1 1 1 m v(t)2 − m v(0)2 = m v(t)2 − v(0)2 = MC∆T 2 2 2 ∆T = m v(t)2 − v(0)2 2 MC ( ) ( ) equation for change in temperature of argon gas substitute in the numbers: (2.

This means the air is slower on the side of the tube that rotates against the flow. it scoots out to one side or the other. following its change in size PE = − ∆p → ∆V = V Q Q → ∆R = 2 4 3 P 32επ R0 P 96επ 2 R0 [Peter & Yaser] 6) Magnus matters a) If the tube is not spinning. depending on which way it was spinning. A full-theory calculation gives exactly this answer. it just falls straight down. The side of the tube rotating forward against the oncoming air will actually slow the air slightly. Therefore. It also means that when the tube rotates. The field inside is zero. the air is very slightly viscous — as syrup is more viscous than water. If the tube is spinning so one side moves backwards with the passing air.∆( pV ) = ∆p ⋅ V + p ⋅ ∆V = 0 ⇒ ∆p = − p ∆V V b) If we put a charge on the bubble. That means that as the tube moves. and the other side moves forwards against the passing air. Imagine the tube holding still. the bubble size increases as each part of the bubble is repelled from every other part. it carries the air with it then. E is the electric field on the bubble and ∆A is the area of a small piece on the bubble. and water is more viscous than alcohol. close to its surface. This will reduce the internal pressure. and faster on the other side. We could say that the field exactly on the bubble is 2 the average of these two fields Q (8πεR0 ) . Now. the flow around the tube is pretty well-behaved — no very serious turbulence (which would make the problem tougher). which means it flows in smooth layers. We call the flow laminar. then it doesn’t fall straight. and the air rushing past (as in a wind tunnel). If it is spinning. it carries a layer of air along with it. 2 The electric field outside the bubble at the surface is Q ( 4πεR0 ) where R0 is the radius of the bubble. as it does for us. Bernouilli’s principle (which really is just a conservation of energy formula for fluids!) means that the air pressure will be higher on the side moving against the 11 . When the tube falls relatively slowly. the side of the tube rotation with the oncoming air will carry the airflow a little faster. the tube swings away from the side that moves forward against the passing air (greatest relative speed). This pressure should be equal to the change in the internal gas pressure. the electrostatic pressure is PE = Eσ∆A Q Q Q = = 2 2 ∆A 8πεR0 4πR0 32επ 2 R04 where σ is the surface charge density.

in the stream past the object. If you use a video camera. you can measure from the TV screen. measured from where you let it go. You might want to use a dry-erase felt pen (but remember to erase it afterwards!). but becomes turbulent and begins to detach from the flow around the tube. (Look for a streaming-video description of this on the archive of the Science of Baseball website. and using a stopwatch to time it.nih. The result is that the air flowing past a spinning body is tilted. When the relative airspeed is higher. will rise as you blow air across the top surface. The net pressure difference is a force. but be careful about using any markers at all on a 12 .gov/nih-image].ca)] b) I recorded this on my computer. Here are a few frames in the sequence: You don’t have to do this. it isn’t any more exactly the Bernouilli effect. and less on the other side.airflow. [EXTRAS: When the object moves very quickly (like a fast baseball. from a show on the Discovery Canada: www. though — you can get very nearly as much by finding where it hits the ground. Bernouilli’s principle is a big part of how an airplane wing generates lift out of the forward thrust of the engines. The momentum change of that air results in the force pulshing sideways. but a bit more complicated. the flow detaches earlier in the stream around an object. which can put a timestamp on each frame to help analyse motion. or many real airplane wings). using a cheap CCD web-camera and shareware NIH Image 1. What happens there has to do with the transition that airflow makes when it isn’t smooth. It’s also the reason why a strip of paper. b) I measured from the video frames on my computer. held below your lower lip. So the air in the wake of the spinning tube actually kicks over to one side.info. it delays this boundary-layer separation . which pushes the tube sideways — the Magnus Force. where the surface moves back with the airflow.62 [http://rsb.exn.

8 m s measured above (this -1. I think.5 -2 = 1. so check the manual for your display for warnings!) In the graph on this page.025 kg • 9. and the final terminal velocity is the resultant.1 second apart). d) At terminal velocity. because of the elastic band I used to spin it. Then it drops. c) The angle of descent was about 45°. and therefore setting ma = F drag at terminal velocity. so the x-component of velocity is about the same as this value. when it hits the floor. at terminal velocity. The path is curved: it starts off going to the right.5 worked unusually well for such a formula).5 sails.0125 m • vterminal Thus vterminal = 3.8 m s –2 –1 2 -1 y (m) -1.2928 g L 2 2 • 0.5 3 –3 as compared to 3. but as it gains speed it begins to push to the left. Balancing forces.0 0. each marker on the trajectory is a measurement at a different time (the blue ones are a little more than 0. about √2 times larger.5 0. at the end of question-set #1: Fdrag = ε ρ A v 2 0 -0. you probably did better than I did. If you used a balcony in your school. we can solve simply for vterminal: m a = ε ρ A vterminal 0. People have patented ‘sail’-steamships with tall rotating cylinders for 0.5 -1. Then the 45° trajectory indicates that the net force is at 45° down and to the left. x (m) The sideways Magnus force is comparable to the force of gravity.0 -0.computer monitor. It almost reaches a constant speed (terminal velocity) after 1 second. I was able to –1 extrapolate that the terminal velocity would be around 3. but doesn’t quite get there. there is no acceleration — all forces balance. since they are sometimes anti-reflection coated with a material that dissolves (they used to often dissolve with ammonia-based cleaners like Windex too! I’m not sure this still is true. so the tube moves at the same speeds in the downwards direction and the sideways direction. From POPBits™.9 m s –1 –1 • (10 L m ) -2. so in this case the Magnus force is about the same as gravity. and 2 its cross-sectional area was 125 cm (see comments below).0 • 1.8 m s . they could use wind-power to make the ship tack into the wind at 45° this way. -3 13 .5 The mass of my cardboard tube was 25 g.

any error is by a constant factor: the formula shows the appropriate dependence on speed v and spin-rate f. Fdrag = FMagnus so we can figure out the spinning frequency f: (8π r v f ) = v 2 –1 which we solve to find f = 6. Comments on my own setup Cardboard tube: circumference 14 cm --> diameter d = 4. this hand-waving argument fudged a little on the appropriate use of areas and direction of airflow. in fact.3 rev s I do think the elastic band setup I used could provide this spin-rate. Then FMagnus = ∆Pleft-right A = ε ρ A (vright – vleft ) now.e) B IG B ONUS : You can come fairly close to the right answer with this slightly handwaving reasoning (you can also have a look in The Physics of Baseball (2nd Ed. Substituting: (vright – vleft ) = (v + 2πr • f) – (v – 2π r • f) = 8π r v f so FMagnus = ε ρ A (8π r v f ) For our case at 45° falling angle. vright = v + 2πr • f vleft 2 2 2 = v – 2πr • f 2 2 2 where f is the rotation frequency (revolutions per second) of the object. if an object spins there will be a difference in the force from side-to-side across the ball. Since this pressure-differential depends on the relative speed. Adair. Harper Collins. Even so.5 cm length 28 cm 2 cross-sectional area presented to wind (rectangle) A = 125 cm mass 25 g 14 . NY. 1994. The drag force is: Fdrag = ε ρ A v 2 which can be described as a pressure-differential ∆P (front – rear) multiplied by the area presented to the wind or rushing air. ISBN 0-06—95047-1). Robert K. But.).

The rod had a piece of string tied around the middle to suspend the whole thing to tilt freely.) [Robin] 15 . a handle from a cat-toy. which tipped the balance over. so I took a 25 cm rod. Then I taped the cardboard tube to the loose string.(I didn’t have a weigh-scale at home. which weighs 25 g. and just a piece of string on the other. I then dripped water drop-by-drop into the plastic bag until it balanced the cardboard tube again — it took 25 ml. I slid the string along the middle of the rod until the grocery bag and loose string balanced each other evenly. and hung a plastic grocery bag tied to a string on one end.

3 meters in diameter. an Olympic biathalon competitor-in-training (who hopes to use her keen grasp of kinematics to win gold). Where. Unfortunately. Evangeline skis up to a point 5 meters away from the base of the tower.5 kg. each with the same area A at its base. the pipes to the drinking fountain below have frozen solid. and with her last round she uses her target rifle to shoot a small hole in the wall of the water drum. The first one is a cylinder. when the police get there? [Yaser] 3) Huh? Hmmm… Consider three containers. Water gushes straight upward at a rate of 150 kg s . precisely. The area of the tops of the other two vessels are 2A and A/2.2000–2001 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 2: Mechanics Due November 27. and the garbage can weighs 2. keeps a water supply on her training course: on top of a 10 meter-high water tower platform sits a 10 meter-tall cylindrical drum of water. what is the height that he’s waving to his friends from. but finds himself and the can lofted into the air on the water flow. and broken it off –1 at ground level (oops!). Suku tries to fix things by holding a nearby garbage can over the flow. and each with height H. what's the water pressure at the bottom of each? What total force does this then exert over the whole bottom plate of the container? b) If the containers of water are 1 . If Suku weighs 60 kg. a) If all three containers are filled with water. and the other two are tapered. and with a –1 speed of 20 m s . on the drum should the hole be so that she can have a drink without moving from the place where she stands? [Sal] 2) The fountain of (misspent) youth Sukumar has accidentally backed his pickup truck into a fire hydrant. as illustrated at right. 2000 1) Take your best shot Evangeline.

Is this a value for the whole train. [Yaser] 4) All aboard! a) A freight train traveling with an initial speed of 65 m s .000 kg. we at POPTOR suggested they have it evaluated by Deepee-Deetee Consultants Inc . http://www. The mug is 20 cm tall. As the hopper-car moves along the track it passes under a grain dispenser that pours grain into –1 the car..0-m-long hopper-loader car at a constant speed –1 of 1. So when the makers of the Java Jumpstart Commuter Mug* recently came out with a new model. who evaluated the mug’s stability on the dashboard of a moving car.darwinawards. The mass of the locomotive and empty car is about 75. How much work does the locomotive do while the hopper-car is being filled? Assume that the coefficient of rolling friction is the same as calculated in part (a). or for each railroad car? b) A locomotive is pulling an empty 15. If you find the first true storey unlikely. cuts its engine and coasts 8 kilometers along a flat track before finally coming to a stop. and weighs 200 grams (1/4 of which is the weight contribution of the bottom of the mug) [Sal] [*a fictitious company. so why is the measured weight different from the force found as area × pressure you calculated in part (a) ? Remember that balance shows the force which is exerted on it. and since then their coffee cups include a printed warning on them that the presumably hot coffee inside is really hot. at a rate of 1000 kg s . has a radius of 6 cm. [Brian] 5) Java jump-up (eeyow!) A few years ago McDonald’s™ was sued by a woman who was badly scalded when the cup of hot coffee she was holding between her thighs — while driving — spilled. Find the height or coffee level in the mug for which the mug of coffee is least likely to tip when the car accelerates. and essentially massless. a group of OAC Physics students. The woman won the suit.00 m s .com] –1 2 . Calculate the train's coefficient of rolling friction. The physics-consultants found that the mug's stability depends significantly on how much coffee is inside. Only the bottom plate touches the weigh-scale. compare with other true stories of human fallibility at the irreverant Darwin Awards homepage. what weight will the scale show for each? Treat the containers as being very thin-walled. individually. The grain dispenser only operates when the car is beneath it.each put on a weigh-scale.

The frictionless pulley can be nearly any small lightweight wheel (no inertia!). one weight is set on a frictionless table. If the second weight is dropped. to find the true answer. either experiment or theory can lead the way in discovery. to approximate these ideal conditions. [Yaser.physics.ca/~poptor 3 . Or you might be able to use an air-rail at school for the table and tie together two identical air-rail cars for the weights. and then a smooth round edge on the table to slide over with little friction. Try whatever you like to make things practically frictionless as given — but tell us what you did in your experiment. But it pretty much isn’t finished science until both experiment and theory come together. which happens first: • does the first weight slide along until it hits the pulley. or perhaps teflon tubing rotating on a nail — or you might use teflon-coated electronics wire to connect the weights. HINTS: To make the first weight practically frictionless on the table. you might try two child’s wooden cars with wheels. pulley Two identical weights are connected by a 1 m string. and any corrections we might post: www. and then carefully describe what you measured.6) Weight! Bob! In science. and then see how well you can explain it by theory. To begin. Robin] C HECK THE POPTOR WEB PAGE for other hints. Here’s one example where a simple experiment can tell you the answer you might not be able to guess theoretically — string and steer you in the right way to think. and the second is held as in the picture. in order to understand.utoronto. Or perhaps a dryice puck on the table would be practically frictionless. or • does the second one swing around until it hits the side of the table? Try this in an experiment. and you could tie it to an equal weight to drop at the side. with the midpoint of the string between them draped over a massless frictionless pulley.

Let h be the height above the hole to the top of the tank. As water flows out through the bullethole. In a time ∆t. the kinetic energy put into the squirting water simply equals the potential energy of lowering all the water in the tank from the hole up. the volume of water flowing through the bullet-hole is: Aflow × distance-flowed = Aflow (vflow × ∆t) where Aflow is the area of the hole. Let the hole the rifle makes in the tank be the origin of a vertical axis which we will set to zero. water squirts out horizontally from the bullet hole at some speed.2000–2001 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 2: Mechanics 1) Take your best shot Due to water pressure in the tank. The water then falls a certain vertical distance. and vflow is the flow-speed of water at the hole. the height of the water in the tank must drop. The horizontal distance the water reaches depends on the squirt-speed and the time it takes the water to fall — a time that only depends on height above the ground. In a small time ∆t this is: 1⁄2 Mflow vflow 2 = Μtank g h 1 . we get: vtank = vflow × (Aflow /Atank ) As the water drains from the tank due to the bullet hole. depending on the ‘head’ or height of water above where the hole is made. Likewise the water in the tank will drop by a volume: Atank × distance-dropped = Atank (vtank × ∆t) Equating these.

5) • 9. We can cancel terms. to get: vflow 2 2 =2gh This is the initial horizontal speed. Both ∆ m and ∆ t are supposed to be infinitessimals (vanishingly small numbers) but their ratio is actually equal to the rate of the water flow. This force is equal to the weight of the garbage can plus Suku. since the collision between a liquid and any surface is always inelastic. The speed of the water at this height. [Sal] 2) The fountain of (misspent) youth Assume that Suku is at height H.8 • H [Yaser] –1 2 2 2 2 . the water stops its motion. Yikes! 400 . which is 150 kg/s. This force is equal to: F= ∆m * (v – 0)/∆t = 150 (kg/s) * v where ∆ m is the mass of the water which has a collision at a certain time. The initial vertical speed is zero. at constant speed vflow .1⁄2 (ρ Aflow (vflow ∆t)) vflow = (ρ Atank h) g (vtank ∆t) Where ρ is the density of water. The change in momentum of the water during the collision acts provides the a force and compensates for gravity in order to hold the garbage can and Suku up. is v = vo – 2 g H where vo = 20 m s is the initial speed.5 m. F = (60 + 2. before hitting the ground. 4 h (20 – h) = 25 Solving for h we get the result that in order for the water to reach the athlete 5 m away from the base of the tank.2 • 9.8 = 150 v = 150 • From which we can find H = 19. vflow t = 5 m therefore. After the collision. The time of flight for the water leaving the tank before it hits the ground 5 meters away from the base of the tank is given by: t = 2 (20 – h) ⁄ g This time needs to be exactly the value that lets the water squirt 5 m sideways. before the collision with the garbage can. ∆ t is the collision time. she must shoot a hole approximately 32 cm down from the top of the tank. and use vtank we found above.

This isn’t true for the other containers. and therefore the total force is less than than the product of the pressure and the area. gives an outward force everywhere. not only water pressure exerts a force over the bottom plate: the rigid walls of the container also exert force. by this pressure. and these side-wall forces add up to exactly the weight of the water which lies above the sloped walls (i. the radius r of the vessel as a function of vertical position z from the base is: r = ro + z ⋅ tan θ It’s easy to find dr then (as the differential of r): dr = dz ⋅ tan θ The area of the annulus is then: A = 2πr ⋅ dr = 2πr ⋅ dz ⋅ tan θ = 2π(ro + z tan θ) ⋅ dz ⋅ tan θ The downward force on this small annulus is then: 3 . Pressure on the vertical part. For the tapered containers. b) The weigh-balance shows three different values for the containers full of water. For the cylindrical container. which is a tiny cylinder. this value is not equal to the product of the water pressure and the bottom-surface area. For the other container. Each horizontal step is actually an annulus — a flat ring lying between two circles of radius r and r + dr. Each step has a vertical part and a horizontal part. Pressure on the horizontal part. and then take the limit of the steps becoming vanishingly tiny. For the non-cylindrical containers. is equal to the product of the pressure and area of the plate and is the same for all. For the one in which the area of the top is bigger.3) Huh? Hmmm… a) The water pressure at the bottom of all the containers is the same and equal to (ρ*g* H) where ρ is the density of the water.e.. outside the cylinder lying above the circular base). gives a net downward force. and contributes nothing to the weight. in which the area of the top is smaller. this force is upward. The total force which is exerted by the water on the bottom plate. this force is downward and therefore the total force on the bottom plate is more than the product of pressure and area. these radial forces add up to zero net force. The easiest way to find the right answer is to imagine the sloped wall in a series of stairsteps. the water pressure on the side walls is everywhere sideways. like a shelf around the bottom of the little cylinder. The pressure is dependent on the height of the water and not on the amount of the water. The net force can be found by adding all the contributions. For a wall sloped at an angle θ from the vertical.

[Yaser & Robin] 4 . all we have done is simply to add the weight of the water lying above every little horizontal annular step. actually): z= H Fy = z=0 z= H ∫ dF z=0 y = ∫ ρg(H − z) ⋅ 2π(r + z tan θ) ⋅ dz ⋅ tan θ o z= H z=0 z= H = 2πρg tan θ ∫ (H − z) ⋅ (r + z tan θ) ⋅ dz o = 2πρg tan θ z=0 ∫ {Hr + (H tan θ − r ) ⋅ z − tan θ ⋅ z } ⋅ dz o o 2 1 2 H = 2πρg tan θ Hro z 0 +  = 2πρg tan θ { ( H tan θ − ro ) ⋅ z 2 0 H 1 −3 tan θ ⋅ z 3 H 0 1 2 1 3 H 2 ro + 6 H tan θ ⋅ }   Naturally. It is obvious that this down-force on the sidewalls is the same as the weight of the water in the ‘extra’ region outside the cylinder — going back to the term for pressure. we’ve considered the whole volume of water in the extra region.dFy = p( z) ⋅ A where p(z) is the pressure. this vertical wall-force contribution goes to zero. as θ goes to zero (as for a cylinder). The pressure is simply the weight per unit area of all the water lying above. and so p( z) = ρg( H − z) Thus dFy = p( z) ⋅ A = ρg( H − z) ⋅ 2π(ro + z tan θ) ⋅ dz ⋅ tan θ The total force down on the side walls is then the sum of all these tiny contributions. Since we considered every little horizontal step. This is just the integral (siimpler than it seems — the integrand is only a polynomial. for all values of z from z=0 to z=H. which is a function of z because z gives the depth.

00 m/s the train experiences a rolling frictional force (proportional to its normal force) that is opposite to its direction of motion: F = −µmg F = ma ma = −µmg µ=− a g 1 2 at 2 (1) constant acceleration displacement equation: X(t) = X(0) + V(0)t + since X(0) = 0.00 m.00 m 8000 m 65.0 m/s 0.00 m/s. Known quantities converted to SI units where appropriate: Variable Symbol X(0) X(t) V(0) V(t) Unknown quantities: Variable Symbol µ Description Coefficient of rolling friction Description Initial displacement of train Final displacement of train Initial velocity of train Final velocity of train Numerical Value 0. then X(t) = V(0)t + 1 2 at 2 (2) constant acceleration velocity equation: V(t) = V(0) + at since v(t) = 0.4) All aboard! a) Assume the train experiences constant acceleration (deceleration). then V(0) + at = 0 t= −V(0) a (3) 5 .

0269 Unknown quantities: Variable Symbol m(t) m(x) W Description Mass of train and hopper car as a function of time Mass of train and hopper car as a function of displacement Work done by the train 6 .0269 SOLUTION FOR PART (B): Note that although the rolling frictional acceleration µg is constant. since F = µgm.substitute equation (3) into equation (2) to find the train’s constant acceleration: X(t) = − V(0)2 V(0)2 + a 2a 2 aX(t) = V(0)2 − 2V(0)2 a=− V(0)2 2X(t) (4) substitute equation (4) into equation (1) to find the coefficient of rolling friction: V ( 0) 2 (65.0 m 1000 kg/s 0.0)2 µ= = 2 gX(t) 2(9.00 m/s 75000 kg 15. the rolling frictional force will not be constant if the train’s mass is changing – that is: F(t) = µgm(t). Known quantities: Variable Symbol V m l r µ Description Constant velocity of train Initial mass of train and hopper car Length of hopper car Mass transfer rate of grain Coefficient of rolling friction Numerical Value 1.81)(8000) µ = 0.

) ( ) 0 0269 9 81 75000 15 0 1000 W = µg ml + r = +  2V  2(1. 2  3 MH 2h   4 2 + ρπR 2    l [Brian] yc.27 × 10 5 J 5) Java jump-up (eeyow!) Given that the weight of the mug is M and that the weight of the bottom of the mug is M –3 the height of the centre of mass (yc.00)      W = 3.0)2  l2  ( . ) ( )( .m.mass of train and hopper car as a function of time: m(t) = m + r t convert m(t) to m(x) using the fact that t = m(x) = m + r x V x : V in order to maintain a constant velocity the train must exert a force that balances the rolling frictional force: ∑ F = Ffriction + Ftrain = 0 Ftrain = − Ffriction = −(−µ mg) = µ mg since m is a function of displacement: x  F(x) = Ftrain = µ g m(x) = µ g m + r  V the definition of work is: W = ∫ F(x)dx 0 l l x  W = µg ∫ m(x)dx = µg ∫ m + r dx  V 0 0 l  x2  W = µg mx + r 2V   0   (15. )( . = ( M + ρπR 2 h) Define a constant a = ρπR 2 such that the mass of the coffee contained is m = ρπR 2 h ≡ a h 7 .) of the mug with coffee of density ρ (~1 g cm ) 4 filled to height h is given by.m.

6 cm The mug is most stable with coffee filled to a level h = 3. To find the minimum of yc. we need d( yc.m.m. 1  3   2 h=  −200 +  40000 + (200)(20)(36π)   36π  4 h = 3. ) = dh ∴ h( M + ah) = 3 ah 2  a h( M + a h) − ( a) MH + 2  8  ( M + ah)2 =0 3 ah 2 MH + 8 2 3 ah 2 + Mh − MH = 0 8 Solving for h we get 1  1  2 3  2 h= − M ± M + MHa    4 a   the negative solution can be ignored. Solving for h we get. 1  1  2 3  2 h= − M + M + MHa    4 a   Given: M = 200 g.m. 3 ah 2  MH + 8 2    = ( M + a h) The maximum stability of the mug of coffee is achieved for the lowest centre of mass. [Sal] 1 H = 20 cm a = ρπ R 2 = 36π g / cm 8 .6 cm.∴ yc.

Once it does begin to move. the table-based weight hits the pulley before the free one smacks into the side of the table. θ: the angle the string makes with the horizontal • Before the right-hand block falls. so the forces on the block are equal in magnitude. though they may change in time • The difference is that the force on the left-hand block is always directed along the string. so aright < aleft • The left-hand block is always accelerated to its collision with the pulley faster than the right hand block to its collision with the wall. but this vector changes as the angle of the string changes. How to explain this? • It’s easiest to analyse the forces in x (horizontal) and y (vertical) components. and T is the tension in the string • The right-hand block moves horizontally towards the wall with an acceleration: aright = T cos(θ) /m where m: mass of the block. towards the pulley. • The left-hand block moves horizontally towards the pulley with an acceleration: aleft = T/m where m is the mass of the block. there is no tension in the string. • The force on either block comes from tension in the string • There’s only one tension. Robin] string pulley 9 . [Yaser. T: tension in the string. The force on the right-hand block is also always directed along the string. The left-hand block hits first.6) Weight! Bob! In an experiment. then it makes an angle θ >0.

. metallic bar! Mechanical thermostats for home heating. and the same length l. affecting their velocity.g. –1 –1 –1 Oxygen has a molar mass M = 0. though — if we heat them both to a higher temperature. T is the absolute temperature of the gas and R is a constant. maybe air molecules in your lungs? The atmosphere we breathe is composed of particles of different gases. side by side. a) Calculate the most probable velocity for molecules of oxygen at T = 300 Kelvin. and they bend. b) Now graph the Maxwell Distribution . [Sal] 1 . What we can speak of though is a probability distribution of velocities — how likely it is to have one velocity or another. If the change in temperature is ∆T and the linear thermal-expansion coefficients are λFe and λ Cu. The distribution gives the probability (maximum 1. are bonded together. A result known as Maxwell's Distribution describes how particles are distributed over different speed-ranges:  M  P(v) = 4π    2π RT  3/2 v2 e−M v 2 /2RT where M is the molar mass of the gas. R = 8.2000-2001 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 3: Thermodynamics Due January 15. where dv is an incremental. 2001 1) Bye. Young’s modulus). the kinetic energy of these particles being related to their thermal motion.0 = 100%) that a particle in the gas will have a velocity that falls between v and v+dv. These gas particles collide with one another constantly. To speak of the velocity of a particle is therefore not very practical. one expands more than the other. and diameter d . and flasher units for car turn-signals (and Christmas tree lights!) often use this principle: Two strips. They don't have the same linear thermalexpansion coefficient. find the angle of deflection. copper and iron.31 J mL K . [Yaser] 2) Maxing Maxwell Have you ever wondered how fast molecules are flying about.0320 kg mole . They share the same elastic properties (e.

4508 mm.3) A pressing concern There is cylinder filled by a gas. a) Not only the gas. What is the volume of the container at this temperature? The equation for thermal expansion in one dimension is: –1 –1 –1 [Sal] ∆x = α x ∆T In this equation ∆x is the amount of expansion. is 25. [Yaser] 4) Ringing the sphere An aluminum sphere is heated to 100 °C. at this temperature. only conduction between the sphere and ring. but the container too. there is piston with mass m on top which makes the height of the piston from the bottom of the cylinder a distance h.2 nm K Specific Heats Cu = 386 J kg K –1 –1 Al = 900 J kg K 5) Reality Check A 1-liter thin-walled stainless steel container is filled with helium gas at standard temperature and pressure. so the sphere cannot pass through the hole. The diameter of the sphere. The sphere rests on top of a 20 g copper ring which has been cooled to 0 °C. and the temperature at which it occurs. Assuming there’s no loss of heat to the surroundings. x is the initial length and ∆T is the change in temperature. with area A. The container sits on a hotplate so that temperature of the container and gas can be controlled. In the cylinder. At this temperature the inside diameter of the ring is 25.4 mm. when the system reaches equilibrium (when the temperature of the sphere and ring are equal). Linear coefficients of expansion Cu = 431.1x10 K –5 -1 2 . the aluminum sphere is barely able to slip through the copper ring. A long time later. How much weight should we add onto the piston to reduce the height to half of its initial value? Assume the air pressure to be Po and the temperature of the gas is always room temperature.8 nm K –1 Al = 584. will expand when heated! Calculate the maximum pressure of the gas in the container. assuming ideal gas behaviour and linear thermal expansion of steel. α is the expansion coefficient. calculate the mass of the aluminum sphere. α (steel) = 1.

so that heat energy is conserved. a) Calculate the volume of water Sam needs to freeze in order to make ice enough to lower the temperature of a litre of room-temperature lemonade by 10 ° C. explain possible reasons why not. Assume the lemonade is initially at room temperature (20 °C). Comment on your results. Thermos™ bottle) to do this experiment. [Brian] 6) Chillin’ Sam likes to enjoy a tall glass of cold lemonade on a hot summer day. and that all the ice has melted before the temperature of the lemonade is measured. measure the change in temperature of a litre of water caused by a small ice cube.g.. density ρ (water) = 998 kg m ρ (ice) = 917 kg m –3 –3 specific heat C(water) = 4190 J kg C(ice) = 2220 J kg latent heat –1 –1 K –1 K –1 Hf(ice) = 333000 J kg –1 [Brian] Remember to check the POPTOR web-page for hints and any necessary corrections! www. You may want to use a vacuum flask (e. He would like to know in advance how much ice he’ll need to put into a pitcher of lemonade in order to lower its temperature by the desired amount. using the equations from part (a). Compare your measurements to theory. and is basically water. b) Now try it! As an experiment.ca/~poptor 3 .utoronto.b) Do the values you calculated in part (a) make sense? If not. The temperature of the freezer Sam uses to make the ice is –10 °C.physics.

To find the maximum of this distribution we find the local maximum: take its derivative with respect to velocity and set that equal to 0. and eliminating R from them.0320 kg mol has a most probable velocity of. measured to the midpoint between the two strips. would be α/2.2000-2001 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 3: Thermodynamics 1) Bye. the angle of deflection from a straight line. they have to bend in order to have different length. measured at either end. If they are assumed as an arc in which has a (subtended) angle of α . metallic bar! 1) If the change in temperature is ∆T then the final lengths of the two strips are lFe = l(1 + λ Fe ∆T ) lCu = l(1 + λ Cu ∆T ) Since they are bonded together. is R then we have (α in radians): d  lFe = R + α  2 d  lCu = R − α  2 Combining all the formulas above. Solving for the velocity we get. we obtain the angle of deflection in radians to be α /2 = l∆T (λ Fe − λ Cu ) 2d [Yaser] 2) Maxing Maxwell The most probable velocity is the one for which there is a peak in the velocity distribution curve. If the radius of the curvature. v = (2RT/M) 1/2 Oxygen gas at a temperature of T = 300 Kelvin –1 with a molar mass of 0. v ~ 395 m s –1 1 .

[Sal] 3) A pressing concern If the initial pressure inside the cylinder is P i. will reach equilibrium with the aluminum sphere at some mutual temperature Teq. ⇒ Pf = 2 Pi Substituting Pf in above formulas we get the weight needed to be [Yaser] 2 . the product PV of pressure and volume must finally turn out the same before and after putting the weight. DCu = DAl Therefore.A plot of the velocity distribution of oxygen at a temperature T = 300 Kelvin is shown above. Knowing that the height is reduced to half its initial value. DCu(initial) + ∆DCu = DAl (initial) + ∆DAl Solving for the shared temperature Tf. The changes in temperature for each will result in changes ∆D in diameter D: ∆D = (Tf –Ti) D α where Tf and Ti are the final and initial temperatures of the copper ring or aluminum sphere. we must have a balance of forces: Po A + mg = Pi A When we put an additional mass M on top of the piston then we have Po A + (m + M ) g = Pf A where Pf is the final pressure. and the piston is at its equilibrium position. After some time the copper ring. we get h PV = Pi ⋅ h A = Pf ⋅ A 2 Mg = Po A + mg 4) Ringing the sphere The relative change (per degree Celsius) in the diameter of the copper ring and aluminum sphere is associated with their respective linear coefficients of expansion. α is the linear coefficient of expansion of each metal.38 °C. we find that the system reaches equilibrium at a temperature Tf = 50. We are told that when the system reaches equilibrium the diameter of the Al sphere equals the inner diameter of the Cu ring. initially at a temperature of 0 °C. Since the temperature inside the cylinder is constant and equal to room temperature.

10 × 10 −5 K-1 α Unknown quantities: Variable Name T P n Variable Definition Temperature of gas at maximum pressure Maximum pressure of gas Number of moles of gas in the container 3 . MAl are the specific heats and masses of the two metals. but not always correct ones – in fact. We can therefore solve the equation above for the mass -3 of the aluminum sphere: MAl = 8. Sometimes students are tempted to use the “equation hunting” method when solving problems.71 x 10 kg. CCu MCu (∆TCu) = CAl MAl (∆TAl) Where CCu . We are given the mass of the copper ring. Therefore. Known quantities converted to SI units where appropriate: Variable Name To Po Vo Variable Definition Initial temperature of gas Initial pressure of gas Initial volume of gas Linear expansion coefficient for steel Variable Value 300 K 101325 Pa 1. and the changes in temperature of both metals were calculated above.We are also given that the system reaches equilibrium with no loss of energy to the surroundings. CAl and Mcu . This means that heat is only transferred between the metals — the heat lost by the aluminum sphere as it cools is absorbed by the copper ring as it warms. This is a very dangerous practice since many of the equations we use (such as those found in textbooks) can be: (1) (2) (3) (4) A limited case of a more general equation An approximation to a more complicated expression Derived under certain assumptions All of the above The “equation hunting” method always generates interesting solutions. [Sal] 5) Reality Check It is very important to fully understand where the equations we use come from. some pretty crazy answers can result as you will soon find out! Always ask yourself if the answers you calculate make sense.00 × 10 −3 m 3 1.

• Generate an expression for the volume of the container as a function of temperature: change of length in one dimension as a function of the change in temperature ∆x = α xo ∆T total length in one dimension as a function of the change in temperature x = xo + ∆x = xo (1 + α∆T ) = xo 1 + α (T − T0 ) definition of volume V = x3 substitute (1) into (2): 3 V = x 3 = xo 1 + α(T − To ) [ ] (1) (2) [ ] 3 = Vo[1 + α(T − To )] 3 (3) where 3 Vo = xo • Generate an expression for the pressure inside the container as a function of temperature: ideal gas law P= nRT V nRT Vo 1 + α (T − To ) (4) substitute (3) into (4) P= • [ ] 3 (5) Solve for the temperature of the gas at maximum pressure: at maximum pressure dP =0 dT nR 1 − α (2T + To ) dP nR 3αnRT = − = 3 4 4 dT V 1 + α (T − T ) Vo 1 + α (T − To ) Vo 1 + α (T − To ) o o [ ] [ ] [ [ ] ] solve for T: nR 1 − α (2T + To ) [ ]=0 4 Vo [1 + α (T − To )] 4 .In this question we will assume ideal gas behavior (the “ideal” in ideal gas should raise some red flags here) and linear thermal expansion of an object in one dimension.

Crystallization energy is the bond energy required to take apart a crystalline solid molecule by molecule or atom by atom – in this case. too. There are two types of energy involved in solving this problem: (1) thermal-motion energy and (2) crystallization energy.31451)(4.31451)(300) • Calculate the maximum pressure – substitute (6) into (5): P= nRT Vo 1 + α(T − To ) [ ] = 3 (0. 5 . Note.00 × 10−3 )[1 + (1. that for large changes in temperature.00 × 10 −3 ) n= o o = = 0.10 × 10−5 )(4.53 × 10 4 ) (1.53 × 104 − 300)] 3 V = 0. Crystalline energy is also called latent heat of melting. [Brian] 6) Chillin’ The physics: the ice absorbs heat (thermal energy) from the lemonade until the temperatures of the ice and lemonade become equal.00334 m 3 = 3. it is the energy required to convert ice (a solid) to water at constant temperature.10 × 10 ) 2 α  (6) Calculate the number of moles of gas in the container (this is a constant): PV (101325)(1. Note that the melting point of steel is about 2. solids and gases.T= •  1 1 1  1 − To =  − 300 = 4. it is usually incorrect to assume a linear change in length.00 × 10 −3 ) 1 + (1. The first is the kinetic energy associated with the movement of molecules or atoms in liquids.2 atm • Calculate the volume at maximum pressure – from (3) V = Vo 1 + α (T − To ) [ ] 3 = (1.0406)(8.000K. Clearly the container would either melt or rupture before reaching the temperature.58 × 106 Pa = 45.53 × 10 4 − 300 [ ( )] 3 P = 4.000K.0406 mol RTo (8.10 × 10 −5 ) 4. pressure and volume calculated above.34 L So the temperature of the gas and container would be roughly 40.53 × 10 4 K − 5  2  (1. pressure is around 40 atmospheres and the volume of the container has tripled.

If we consider the ice and lemonade as a closed system (that is.998 kg • Calculate mass of ice: As with all thermodynamic problems we need to begin our solution with a conservation of energy equation (energy cannot be created or destroyed). then the change in internal energy of the ice plus the change in internal energy of the lemonade must equal zero: ∆E(water ) + ∆E(ice ) = 0 • (1) The heat absorbed by the ice from the lemonade takes place in three steps: 6 .Known quantities converted to SI units where appropriate: Variable Name C(water ) C(ice) H f ( H 2 0) V (water ) Variable Definition Specific heat of water Specific heat of ice Heat of formation for H20 Volume of lemonade Density of water Initial temperature of lemonade Initial temperature of ice Final temperature lemonade and “ice” of Variable Value 4190 J/kg/K 2220 J/kg/K 333000 J/kg 1.00 × 10 −3 ) = 0. no heat can get in or out of the container holding the lemonade and ice).00 × 10 −3 m 3 998 kg/m3 293 K 263 K 283 K ρ(water ) T (water ) T (ice) Tf Unknown quantities: Variable Name m(water ) m(ice) V Variable Definition Mass of lemonade Mass of ice Volume of water needed to freeze in order to make ice Solution: • Calculate mass of lemonade: m(water ) = ρ(water )V (water ) = (998)(1.

105 kg (2220)(263 − 273) − ( 333000) + ( 4190)(273 − 283) ( m(ice) = • Calculate the volume of water Sam needs to freeze in order to make enough ice to lower the temperature of the lemonade by 10 degrees: V= m(ice) ρ(water ) [Brian] V= (0.05 × 10 −4 m 3 = 0.(1) (2) (3) Heat is absorbed to take the ice from its initial temperature up to 0 °C (273 K) Heat is absorbed to convert the ice to water at constant temperature 0 °C (this is the crystalline energy) Heat is absorbed to raise the resulting icewater at 0 °C to its final temperature from equation (1)   m(ice)C(ice)(273 − T (ice)) +  =0 m(water )C(water ) Tf − T (water ) + m(ice)H f ( H 2 0) +      m(ice)C(water ) Tf − 273   ( ) ( ) solving for m(ice): m(ice) = ) C(ice)(T (ice) − 273) − H f ( H 2 0) − C(water )(273 − Tf ) m(water )C(water ) Tf − T (water ) (0. (998) 7 .105) = 1.998)( 4190)(283 − 293) = 0.105 L .

With you in it. since. because they look directly at the sun. or even are blinded. when the sun is blocked. It isn’t even necessarily safe at maximum. but some you might think are good aren’t actually enough. b) As you look out. in the sun. When you think about using a magnifying glass. the sub is at a height H from the bottom of the sea. 2001 (revised date) 1) Sub hubbub In our deep-sea research submarine POPSub there is a frosted (not clear) light bulb of radius R. To be safe.g. e. examining life on the ocean floor. to burn wood or set fire to paper. at the earth — how about calculating the intensity of light focussed from the sun using a lens? Your eyeball is roughly the size of the circle you make with thumb and forefinger placed tip-to-tip. Direct sunlight is about 1 –2 kW m . The light bulb is at a height h from the square (L × L) window which is d thick and made of a glass with index of refraction n. invisible infrared or ultraviolet may pass through and cause damage . out damned spot!” Each time there’s a solar eclipse. a certain number of people suffer eye damage. Make a guess.. whose torches can be very very bright. and let’s figure the numbers: a) Estimate the size of your eye’s pupil when it’s at its smallest. of roughly what the focal length is of the lens-system of your eye. how big does the spot look? 2) “Out. it really isn’t very surprising your eyes are in danger.2000-2001 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 4: Optics and Waves Due February 16. and figure out the power in watts that would shine through if you looked straight at the sun (don’t do this 1 [Yaser] h d H L . from that. as when you make an ‘OK’ sign. one needs to use the sort of goggles that prevent the same kind of eye-damage in welders. there are other special filters and glasses. a) Calculate the area at the bottom of the sea which is illuminated.

. optical fiber communications use laser pulses propagating in tiny flexible glass strands. one in either direction. a) If the input pulse is very short-duration. A travelling wave has the form: f ( x . The internet and most telephone communication depends most heavily not on copper wire. Say that light is launched into the fiber through the end. standing in the same place as (a). c) If the peak intensity of a single input pulse is I. They want to know why — can you explain for them? What they see is called a travelling wave. as it simply moves along the wire as if it were sliding. They mentioned to me their experiments with their giant one-string guitar. This is a real issue for communications. b) If the input light is a train (series) of pulses with duration τ.. In fact. what is the duration of the pulse of light coming out at the end of the fiber? Assume the length of the fiber to be L. what they see is two waves that run away from the impact-place. what is its output peak intensity.. what should be the maximum length of the fiber in order that the output pulses are still distinguishable. if all the different wavelengths of sound simply diffracted from the ‘grating’ made of building-ribs? [Robin] 4) A high-tech diet. for signals. Take a glass rod with a circular cross-section of radius r. high in optical fiber. and the lower one is the same shape. The index of refraction of the fiber is n.b) There’s a different ‘picture’ of how this works: that the single bang of a firework ‘bomb’ is a sound with many many different frequencies in it. 3 .. If they hit the cable sharply with a stick.. Rather than electrical pulses in wire. and that all rays lie within a cone of angle θ measured from the axis of the rod. but on optical fiber . and time-separation ∆t. The shape of the wave stays the same. nowadays. What frequency would you expect to hear. as opposed to coloured light.. t) = f ( x − ct) If you look closely. but travelling to the left (decreasing x with time). [Yaser] [check the POPTOR web-site for an example of sound in a tube doing the same thing as this. Think of the following model of a laser pulse propagating in an optical fiber. almost any shape will work. since we need to know the fastest digital signal that can be sent.] 5) Wave goodbye Hong and her brother Liang have a clothesline in their back-yard. t) = f ( x + ct) or f ( x . you’ll see that the top one is a wave with shape f(x) travelling to the right ( increasing x with time). rather than a single note — something like white light.

Assume the speakers are point sources. you don’t have to use much math. Do not assume d<< L.There are some very interesting properties of such travelling waves: 1) if you have a shape that works as a wave.). Give the position(s) P in terms of distance y from the centreline between the speakers. The speed of sound in air is 331 m/s. with distance 2d between the speakers. for instance.. then if you add the two together. b) If L = 5 m. calculate the position in one direction of the first three points of maximum intensity along the opposite wall. If they weren’t true. b) Say that the clothesline is tied firmly at both ends. then the same shape would work as a wave if it were bigger or smaller by any factor a. What happens when a wave travels right to the end of this cable? [Sal/Robin] 6) Ten yards for interference… Many people have home theatres these days and although technology makes having a home theatre relatively simple. How do you figure out the two waves that run away in either direction? Look for a trick or idea that uses properties (1) and (2) above to help prove what happens. d = 3 m and both speakers are producing an in-phase 320 Hz sound wave. a) Find a general expression giving the position(s) P of maximum intensity along the opposite wall as a function of speaker spacing d and room length L. 2) if you have two different shapes that work as travelling waves. and a distance L from the speakers to the opposite wall of the room. Consider a basic home theatre setup. These are properties of what we call a linear system. or a test of the Emergency Measures Systems…) and that the walls do not reflect any sound.. 4 . the sum will also work as a wave.. Then the position of the cable at the end cannot move. in order to get the maximum effect one still has to take into account the geometry of the setup. c) Say that at one end the clothesline is tied to a ring that slides up and down an upright pole. we couldn’t listen to music (think about that. as measured from the centreline between the speakers. They’re true. This is a different boundary condition. for sound waves in air (except for explosions and such). and the ring has negligible mass. say that this slides perfectly without friction. that each puts out exactly the same single-frequency pure sine wave (this must be a pretty boring movie. a) Say that Hong and Liang suddenly put a ‘dent’ f(x) in the shape of the clothesline by quickly striking with the stick. What happens when a wave travels right to the end of the cable? Try the same kind of ideas that work for (a).

The partial derviative with respect to x means that you take the derivative with respect to the x-variable (totally ignoring the t-variable). t) ∂x 2 1 ∂ 2 f ( x . t) − 2 =0 ∂t 2 c It is actually a very simple equation — you just need to take the derivative twice. Waves satisfy a differential equation (an equation of derivatives) called the wave equation : ∂ 2 f ( x . for instance. and then looking for roots. [Brian] INFOBITS™ — Useful Bits of POPTOR Information You don’t need this to solve question 5. A travelling wave can always be described by f(x. or get a computer to solve the equation numerically. So. but more like 0 = f(y) + g(y) . It gives the shape f(x) in space. The unusual notation is because these are partial derivatives. travelling in the direction of increasing x for f(x – ct) and decreasing x for f(x + ct).physics. You’re welcome to solve the equations graphically — plotting.t) = f(x ± ct).HINT: This question involves solutions to an equation that can’t easily be written as a tidy equation y = f(x). You’re also allowed to solve by hand iteratively. if f is any function that can be differentiated properly. Remember to check the POPTOR web-page for hints and any possible corrections! www. ∂ sin( x + 3t) = cos( x + 3t) ∂x but ∂ sin( x + 3t) = 3 cos( x + 3t) ∂t (using the chain rule) You just pretend the other variable doesn’t even exist. but it’s interesting.utoronto.ca/~poptor 5 .

If you want to consider the size of the window and the light bulb. you’ll find the geometry a bit fussy without teaching very much. but let’s take the window to be thin compared to other distances. is square in shape. like the distance from window and therefore its size should be neglected. The reasonable approximation is that the light bulb is tiny compared to other sizes. A thick window also can be solved as we do below (with an extra refraction surface).2000-2001 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Solution Set 4: Optics and Waves 1) Sub hubbub This question is supposed to be the easiest one in the set. From the geometry of the system we have sin α = L L2 + 4 h 2 L 2 2 2 (nw − 1)L2 + 4nw h ⇒ tan γ = 1 . X is equal to X = L + 2( H + d)tan γ From Snell’s law sin γ = sin α nw sin α 2 nw − sin 2 α ⇒ tan γ = where nw is the index of refraction of the water. X. like h and the height H from the bottom of the sea. These ray which hit the edge of the window determine the size of the illuminated area at the bottom of the sea. each side is equal to an unknown. The angles that the rays traveling in the sub and sea makes with the normal are α and γ. The area at the bottom of the sea which is illuminated.

which is in the sub. Makes little difference for this question.   2( H + d) X = L 1 +   2 2 2 (nw − 1)L2 + 4nw h   If you were in the sub you would see the illuminated area formed by the continuation of the ray. the length of any side of the square is X ′ = 2( H + d + h)tan α = L( H + d + h) h [Yaser] 2) “Out. Therefore. Hi = (Ho • f) / x ≅ 10 m The area of the image on the focal plane is therefore. and the lens of the eye mostly ‘touches up’ the focussing. 8 height of the object (radius of Sun ≅ 7 x 10 m) focal length of the lens 11 distance of the object (distance Sun-Earth ≅ 1. approximately 2 mm in diameter under bright conditions will allow into the eye approximately. actually): Hi / Ho = f / x Where: Hi Ho f x height of the image. out damned spot!” Most of the focussing comes from the curved shape of your eyeball at the cornea . A ≅ π • 10 –8 m 2 The pupil of the eye. Approximating the eye size of focal length of sun lens as a “thin lens” eye (3 cm) we can use Newton’s size of distance to sun image form of the thin lens equation (a similartriangles law. a) The focal plane of the eye is located approximately 22 mm behind the cornea or front of the eye. The iris controls the size of the pupil and on a bright day a typical pupil size is 2 mm in diameter. P ≅ ( 3 • 10 W/m ) • (π • 10 3 2 –8 m ) ≅ 3 • 10 W 2 –3 2 .Thus.5 x 10 m) –4 The size of the image on the focal plane of the eye is.

so ∆k can be zero — you know exactly where the wave is going (but not at all any special place where it is). for an average intensity of 3. so what happens is the direction of k spreads out — the wave propagates not just in a straight line. then d = 42 µm. but it diffracts from the aperture. this can be much higher — more like 1000 kW m . tanθ = (a/2)/f where θ is the half-angle of the spreading out of the light. The resulting intensity in the focus on the retina of the eye is: I ≅ P/A ≅ 3 • 10 W/m 5 2 About 300 times concentrated from direct sunlight. The same thing applies for the focal spot. or the pupil of your eye. When a plane wave passes through a slit. The formula for this is: d=2λf/a where d is the focal spot diameter. going through the hole. The wave doesn’t lose any momentum. If your pupil has not closed down –2 fast enough.6 × 10 W m . related to the momentum. λ is the wavelength. and a is the beam diameter at the lens. f is the focal length. Often the quantity (f/a) is called the f-number. ∆x is infinite. For a plane wave. if you trace backwards: light from a tiny focal spot spreads out faster than from a big focal spot. the focus should be essentially a point.] [Sal & Robin] 3 . b) In the problem above. f = 3 cm.This is about the power of a high-school HeNe laser. and ∆ k is the uncertainty in the wavevector. responsible for parallax. the hole size sets a limit on ∆x. λ ~ 700 nm (red light). [EXTRAS : How do you understand this formula for diffraction? Only an infinite plane wave propagates without any change at all — but it extends infinitely! For any real wave. except for the fact that there is diffraction of the light. and so ∆k cannot be zero. The laser power of 5 mW all 6 –2 goes into this spot. the image size was determined by geometry — actually by the angle the sun subtends at your eye. Then the formula for d can be written as d • tanθ ~ 1 It makes sense. there is a general relationship: ∆x ∆k ~ 1 where ∆ x is the uncertainty in the position. For our case. a = 1 mm. it’s direction is the direction of propagation. When you consider a laser with practically parallel light rays. when you realize that d = ∆x (the width) and tanθ = ∆k (the spreading). which makes the final focal spot slightly blurry. So tiny focal spots go together with smaller f-numbers. which is the angular size.

The total extra path-length is ∆l1 + ∆l2 : ∆l1 ∆l 2 = sin θ1 and = sin θ 2 D D ∆l = ∆l1 + ∆l 2 = D ⋅ (sin θ1 + sin θ 2 ) At the speed of sound Cs. This extra pathlength is from two parts: extra distance coming in. like oil on water — you need to examine the pathD differences. if you have a colour version of this). and extra distance coming out from the building-grating. and T is the period of this repetitive signal. all reflections are separated in time by this — the ‘bang’ of the fireworks burst comes to the listener as a series of pulses. The figure at right illustrates the pathlength differences: the straight lines across the path mark where paths are equal.3) Musical buildings a) The question is pretty easy if you let the distances be large. and the solution is much like the way you solve for interference in a thin layer. I draw them as rays here. and the figure at right shows the detail for the outgoing distance. one reflection will be later than the θ1 other by a time T: T= ∆l D = ⋅ (sin θ1 + sin θ 2 ) Cs Cs In fact. The figure at left shows the basic setup of angles for incoming and outgoing sound waves. The frequency is then: ν= 1 Cs = T D ⋅ (sin θ1 + sin θ 2 ) 4 . and the extra distance one ray must travel is marked by the fat line (in red. θ2 θ1 D ∆l2 θ2 ∆l1 D The figure at left shows the details for the incoming. Then the rays are parallel.

it’s easy to find what frequency you’ll hear. The other wavelengths are shorter. with rays coming from a point. the fundamental frequency is: C Cs ν= s = λ D ⋅ (sin θ1 + sin θ 2 ) which is the same formula we found before. like flute vs. with Cs = 300 –1 m s . The time it takes for the straight ray to travel a distance L along the fiber is t1 = nL c [Robin] where c is the speed of light. or longest wavelenth — the fundamental. and θ1 = 22° and θ2 = 45°. It’s just the same wavelength formula as for a diffraction grating: nλ = D ⋅ (sin θ1 + sin θ 2 ) where n is the order of diffraction (check this out on a CD. these higher frequencies are then multiples of the fundamental. the note you hear is usually determined by the lowest frequency. so another way to imagine this same problem is to compare it to white light hitting a diffraction grating and spreading out — like a room light diffracting from a compact disc. in a given place. In terms of sound. The other ray has to travel a longer distance: 5 . oboe. but not as low as the famous 40 Hz organ note in Bach’s Tocatta and Fugue in D-minor which isn’t actually present on many recordings… It isn’t necessary to assume that the distances L1 and L2 are very large. high in optical fiber. That ray of light which moves in a straight line parallel to the axis of the fiber reaches the other end of the fiber earlier that some ray which has an angle θ with respect to the axis..) As a result.For a building with ribs about 2 m apart (roughly the size of a window). called the overtones. These overtones determine the timbre or basic sound-quality of an instrument. The technical term for this is ‘frequency chirp’. and which travels more in a zig-zag pattern to get to the end of the fiber. this gives ν = 140 Hz. like the whistle of a bird may rise or fall. 4) A high-tech diet.. (This is not difficult to show — just re-draw the diagrams above. In that case. and interesting thing happens: not all the periods T between notes are exactly the same. That’s a fairly low note. For the fireworks. but they increase or decrease as the ‘bang’ ripples off all the ribs of the building. If they aren’t. the note that you hear actually shifts a little while you’re listening. b) The fireworks ‘bang’ has many frequencies in it. a) There are many paths light can take down the fiber. and you’ll see several rainbows in the colours from a point-source light).

much smaller than this spreading–out by different rays. In order that we can tell the pulses apart. Therefore. τ d ≤ ∆t 2 ⇒ L ≤ c∆t n(1 cos θ − 1) t c) The energy of a pulse is equal to the integral of the intensity in terms of the time. Otherwise the time-stretching adds to the original pulse duration the way that two sides of a right-angle triangle give the hypotenuse: τ = τp2 + τd2 b) Here we again assume that the initial pulse duration is much smaller than the dispersion broadening. 6 . We assumed in our calculation that the initial duration of the input pulse is much smaller that the output pulse.L cos θ and it gets to the other end at a time t2 = nL c cos θ The duration of the pulse at the output of the fiber is usually measured as the width of the pulse measured halfway down from the peak of the pulse — the full-width at halfmax (FWHM). one needs to know how the input light goes into the different L rays.e.. the duration of the output pulses should be smaller than roughly half of the time separation between them. Therefore. they shouldn’t overlap with each other much. i. This effect is usually called modal dispersion. If the fiber is lossless. but it will be roughly Td half of the time delay between the first rays to arrive and the last rays to arrive: t −t nL  1  −1 τd = 2 1 =  2 2c cos θ  where τ d is the pulse duration. after they broaden. we can approximate the energy of the pulse by the product of the peak intensity and the pulse duration. we expect the energy of the output pulse to be equal to the input pulse. If the pulse looks similar to a Gaussian pulse. To find this exactly.

f1 (x = L1 . each half the size of the original “dent” — one pulse travelling to the left and the other to the right with the same speed. An example of such a “dent. t=0) can be the instantaneous result of the addition of two identically shaped pulses. f2 must be constant at the fixed ends. For any wave f 2 .” frozen in time. t=0). t ) = 0 [1] [2] where L 1 and –L2 are the positions of the fixed ends relative to the position of impact. always a solution: the dent created instantaneously immediately decomposes into these two travelling waves after the line is struck. t ) = 0 f2 (x = –L2 . t= 0) and f2(x. We assume that the length of the fiber is the maximum length such that the output pulses are distinguishable. t =0) = f(x. For all times t. The following trick can satisfy conditions (1) and (2) while revealing something familiar from experience. [Yaser] 5) Wave goodbye a) Let us assume that the shape of the “dent” after the stick strikes the clothesline is given by f(x. after impact. t ) = f1(x +vt) f2 (x. imagine a matching wave which is a negative version. This explains the two waves you will see emerge. is shown in the figure above. t ) = f2(x –vt) Once a solution. From the properties of waves given in the question. such a f(x. t=0) = 1/2 f1 (x)+ 1/2 f2 (x) where f1 (x. t =0) = f(x. b) The fixed ends of the clothesline impose some conditions on the evolution of the waves. the actual wave functions f1 . f(x. travelling in opposite directions. and travelling in 7 . t= 0) and f1(x.Iτ in out out I peak τ = I peak τ d ⇒ I peak = ∆t in out where I peak = I and I peak is the peak intensity of the input and output pulses.

they’re replaced by the condition that there can be no vertical forces — only horizontal ones (or the massless ring would immediately move in response and the vertical force would vanish). Since the point in the middle never moved. the tension in the string. must give a horizontal force: so the string itself must be horizontal.the opposite direction toward the fixed end in some imaginary extension of the wire (see the figure below). just the solution you’d have from the doppleganger. [Sal] 8 . as they add. we could have nailed it down — it’s our fixed end. this is true for any smooth wave adding with its mirror image. the tangent to the string at the place of the pole is always horizontal. This will ‘explain’ or model for us reflections at a sliding ring on a pole. and then the wave coming back will be identical to the one going in. With only a horizontal force possible. and therefore symmetric. So the ring at the pole rises to twice the height of the wave that travels to it. That’s fine — our doppleganger wave now is always a mirror image of the real one. When these two add. c) Using a similar trick as in part (b). we consider superimposing a waves f2 with a positive clone coming the other way. There is no fixed point in this picture. the resulting wave is the negative wave coming back from the fixed point. So when a real wave goes into a fixed end. rise to a height of twice the amplitude of each. No longer do we have restrictions (1) and (2): at the sliding ring. for the right solution. The waves. the waves will always add up to zero — satisfying the condition for the fixed point! What you observe mathematically is the two waves passing each other and leaving the tiedpoint fixed. As the wave and its negative counterpart approach the spot which ought to be fixed.

1. n=2 means they interfere by being two waves out of phase.6) Ten yards for interference… The Physics: In this question.K . v is the speed of sound the medium and λ is the wavelength of sound in the medium. we do not assume the spacing 2d between the speakers is very small when compared to the sound wave paths distance L from the speakers to the back wall. v = 331 m/s: y ≥ 0: y ≤ 0: 331 320 331 (y − 3)2 + 52 − (y + 3)2 + 52 = m 320 (y + 3)2 + 52 − (y − 3)2 + 52 =m 9 . d = 3 m. If the difference in path length speaker 1 from speaker 1 to point P and speaker 2 y to point P is an integral multiple of the d sound wavelength. the difference in path length must be an integral multiple of the wavelength (δ = mλ ): y ≥ 0: y ≤ 0: (y + d)2 + L2 − (y − d)2 + L2 (y − d)2 + L2 − (y + d)2 + L2 = mλ = m = mλ = m (1) (2) where m = (0. there will be big center of constructive interference.e.2. the difference in path length is: (y + d)2 + L2 − (y − d)2 + L2 (y − d)2 + L2 − (y + d)2 + L2 v f v f For constructive interference. f = 320 Hz. d screen TV L room back wall speaker 2 a) Path lengths from speaker 1 to point P and speaker 2 to point P can be determined using the Pythagorean theorem: Speaker 1 to point P: Speaker 2 to point P: y ≥ 0: y ≤ 0: δ = d2 − d1 = δ = d1 − d2 = d1 = d2 = (y − d)2 + L2 (y + d)2 + L2 Therefore. ∞ ) In equations (1) and (2). f is the frequency of the sound wave.. b) We need to solve for y using equations (1) and (2) when L = 5 m. m is the order of the interference (i.

both equation yield y = 0 at the first maximum.02 m. the three points of maximum intensity closest to the centerline are: y = {–1. however. a number of easy ways to solve these equations: • • • plug in values for y in the equation and iteratively converge to zero in on a solution graph the left hand side and right hand side the equation to see where the curves intersect use a math program to solve the equation numerically.02 m y = –1. The answers I got are: y ≥ 0: y ≤ 0: y = 1. I have solved equation (3) and equation (4) numerically using a math program called Maple. 0 m. There are. 1.02 m} 10 . The second and third maximum occur when m = 1: y ≥ 0: y ≤ 0: 331 331 (y + 3)2 + 52 − (y − 3)2 + 52 = (1) 320 = 320 331 331 (y − 3)2 + 52 − (y + 3)2 + 52 = (1) 320 = 320 (3) (4) Not everyone will find it easy to determine a regular closed form solution for y in equation (3) and equation (4) (some did!).02 m [Brian] Therefore.The first maximum occurs when m = 0 : y ≥ 0: y ≤ 0: 331 (y + 3)2 + 52 − (y − 3)2 + 52 = (0) 320 = 0 331 (y − 3)2 + 52 − (y + 3)2 + 52 = (0) 320 = 0 by inspection.

all circuit elements lie on the edges of a cube. Figure out what charge is produced on the capacitor next to B. Using a battery. A. 2001 (revised date) 1) Bridging the gaps Consider an insulated wire of length L wound on a metal cylinder. for light: a prism spreads a beam of white light 1 . an ammeter and two variable resistors.2000-2001 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 5: Electricity and Magnetism Due March 9. The insulation breaks at some hidden place. This magnetic field changes at the rate dB/dt. and the wire inside touches the cylinder. C. [Yaser] 4) Use the Force. B. and D. [Peter] 2) Roadkill this question In the circuit drawn at right. What is the induced electromotive force in the wire? Find the answer in terms of the area of each section. A uniform magnetic field B is oriented perpendicular to this plane — sticking directly out of the page. figure out where along the wire is the break. All resistors have identical resistance R . Luke! A mass spectrometer is a device that measures the mass of charged particles (called ions) by steering particles with the same mass to the same point in space. Mass spectrometers are analogous to prisms. [Yaser] B A 3) Loopy circuits A B D C A wire loop is laid out on a plane to make the closed circuit shown at right. The voltage between points A and B is V. all capacitors have identical capacitance C .

c) If B = 2 Tesla. Assume non-relativistic energies. what is the minimum measurable mass for a ion with charge q = +1 e (where e is the magnitude of charge on an electron). it experiences a centripetal force that causes its path to curve along a circle. why? Note: an electron volt (eV) is another unit for energy. it enters a region containing a uniform magnetic field that is perpendicular to its direction of motion. There are many uses for mass y spectrometers such as in radiocarbon accelerator dating. As the ion leaves the accelerator. The figure at right shows the geometry of a simple mass spectrometer: A given ion is accelerated by an electric field to a specific energy — and hence velocity. can determine the intercept of the ion-path and that axis. [Brian] v v v F = q v × B is the force experienced by a charged particle moving through a HINTS: magnetic field. charge and mass of the ion to its location (along the y-axis) on the detector. A detector set along the y-axis. As the ion moves through the magnetic field. In this equation. in a particle detector mass spectrometer a beam of ions with different masses is spread out according to mass. b) What minimum path-radius can this apparatus accommodate. The right-hand rule for cross products may be useful in determining which way the particle curves. v is the velocity of the particle and B is the magnetic field. 2 . a) Derive an expression relating the energy.into its component colors (or B into page wavelengths). in this figure. where mass E spectrometers d measure the ratio of numbers of carbon 13 14 isotopes C and C. accelerated to an energy 25 eV? What is the maximum mass? Do you think there may be any difficulty in trying to detect extremely heavy ions? If so. q is the charge of the particle.

to determine the charge on the Styrofoam spheres. b) Now use the results of your measurements. The suspended charged balls will now hang with some space between them. Charge the spheres up — I rubbed mine against my hair. and part (a) above.physics. [ Brian] INFOBITS™ — Useful Bits of POPTOR Information Remember to check the POPTOR web-page for hints and any necessary corrections! www. but you could rub a balloon against a sweater and then touch it for a few seconds to the styrofoam.ca/~poptor 4 .suspend the whole thing freely — I tied the two ends together and then taped the end to the edge of my bookshelf.utoronto.

D is a diode Transformer 1 . both of which are in parallel with a R2 = 350 Ω resistor and a 90 V battery. a step-down transformer converts 110V AC to 6. The switch is closed for 110 µs and then opened. It can be D used as a rectifier to change alternating current (AC) to direct C current (DC). [Robin & Cambridge Tripos] 3) Rectifying a situation R R In its simplest description. R. 2001 (revised date) 1) Inducting Henry A circuit contains an inductor L 1 = 70 mH in series with a resistor R1 = 50 Ω. What is the value of the current in both resistors at the moment the switch is opened at 110 µs? [Sal] L1 R1 R2 90 V + 2) Inducing Resistance a) Graph the current that would flow from a power supply in the circuit at right (across terminals marked with circles) if the following voltage were applied: 0 V(t) =  Vo t<0 t≥0 C L b) What condition on L.3V AC. and C will make the impedance seen by the power supply one which is purely resistive? (You may want to see the POPTOR Primer™ at the back of this set).2000-2001 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program — University of Toronto — Problem Set 6: AC Circuits and Electronics Due April 6. a diode is an electrical component that permits current to flow in only one direction. RL upply a) In the circuit shown at right.

plot the voltage across R L versus time. so that RLCs infinitely large RLCs = 1/6 sec RLCs = 1/60 s [Yaser] D1 AC Supply Transformer Cs RL 4) Zeners and the art of electronics maintenance A Zener diode maintains a more or less constant voltage across it in the reverse direction independent of current passing through it for a wide range of currents. If Cs is 330 µF. b) In order to get a smoother output voltage.and the load resistor R L is 100 Ω. what is the voltage across it if the voltage of AC supply is varied from 85 volts to 130 volts? C upply Rectifier I 5V 0.7V V Vs IL Rs Iz RL VL b) Assume that the voltage of AC supply is 110 volts. for RL = 100 Ω . Assume that there is a Zener diode. which is shown. plot the voltage across RL for three values of R L. If the frequency of the AC power supply is 60 Hz. This property may be used to stabilize a power supply against variations in input supply voltage and in load current drawn. Transformer gives an output voltage reduced from the AC supply by a factor of 11. Rectifier is used to change the AC voltage to DC. capacitors can be used as shown in the circuit at right. This diode is placed in the circuit. What is the voltage across RL if we vary its resistance from 50 Ω to 150 Ω? [Yaser] 2 . which the I-V curve is as below. a) If Rs is 100 Ω .

This is the basis for circuits such as the Miller Integrator.. answer the following questions. 3 . with infinite effective resistance). derive an expression for Vout as a function of Vin and use this expression to calculate the V ratio out . if you don’t know about impedances very well.5) Active courage a) By replacing an op-amp with its ideal model (see the POPTOR Primer™ below). Vin V b) What is the limit of the equation out you derived in part (a) as the gain A Vin approaches infinity? What effect does the op-amp have on the output signal with respect to the input signal? c) Is the equation in part (b) a good approximation to the equation in part (a) if the gain A is equal to 10. what does the voltage on the negative terminal V 1 become? What happens to the voltage V1 when V2 is non-zero (not grounded)? [The result of this bonus question illustrates the real usefulness of op-amps: op-amps in negative feedback mode allow one to arbitrarily set the voltage of any point in a circuit without sinking current (i.e. For the two filters on the next page. But before getting into solving the actual problem. Here are some examples: Electrical – radio antenna Mechanical – automotive shock absorbers Optical – sunglasses Acoustical – earplugs Data – Net-Nanny This problem will concentrate on understanding how simple first-order electrical filters work.000? (less than 1% is good) d) Why doesn’t the op-amp amplify the input voltage by the op-amp gain A? e) BONUS (Worth an insane number of marks): When the op-amp gain A is very large.] [Brian] 6) Freaky Filters for “Phreaky” Physicists Various types of frequency filter appear in many devices. you’ll need to understand the useful concept of impedance: See the POPTOR Primer™ below. for a briefing.

Use the equations for magnitude developed in part (b) to calculate the crossover frequency for the two filters if R = 10.02 µF.000 Ω and C = 0. If you were building your own two-way speaker. BONUS (Worth a reasonable number of marks): What effect will the phase have on the music played through our two-way speaker? [Brian] Remember to check the POPTOR web-page for hints and any necessary corrections! www. Vin Vout as a Vin b) From part (a) produce expressions for the magnitude and phase of function of frequency. c) What is the magnitude and phase of Vout when ω = 0 and as ω approaches infinity Vin (HINT: you may want to use l’Hôpital’s Rule)? d) Two-way speakers usually have a tweeter for high-frequency sounds and a woofer for low to mid-frequency sounds. The reason why two-way speakers are used is because a single speaker cannot efficiently produce both high and low frequency sounds (FYI: speakers act like filters too!). the tweeter and woofer will have some overlap in the sound frequencies they produce.ca/~poptor 4 .physics. The tweeter and woofer each have a separate filter that filters the incoming signal from the amplifier.R Vout Vin jwC Vout Vin + – jwC + – R Filter A a) Derive expressions for Filter B Vout (these should complex functions of ω). which filter (A or B) would you use on the tweeter and which filter would you use on the woofer? Since the magnitude of the filter responses do not cut off sharply.utoronto.

Circuits V2 containing op-amps can be + analyzed using standard circuit techniques (such as Kirchoff’s Voltage and Current Laws and Ohm’s Law) by replacing all the op-amp symbols with its model. Unlike resistors. the negative feedback V2 occurs through resistor R2 . for a motivating explanation.000. active components like op-amps and transistors have the ability to put energy into a circuit in a controlled manner based on electrical input from the circuit itself! Op-amp stands for “operational amplifier” and is one of the simplest of all the active elements. V + Vout in – in this case. The figure at V 1 – right shows the circuit symbol for an op-amp. capacitors. for most applications it is more than reasonable to represent the op-amp by a simple model.POPTOR Primer™ in AC Electronics Active Circuits For many of you this may be your first encounter with an active circuit element. if we could build a perfect op-amp. R2 The circuit on the right shows an op-amp in a negative feedback R1 configuration. However. In the meantime. negative feedback is used to 5 .000. you will learn more about negative feedback. + If you go on to take electronics courses at university or college. this + A(V2 – V1 ) model would completely describe – its electrical response. The circuit at left shows a model V1 – Vout of an ideal op-amp – that is. An opVout amp is a three-terminal device that amplifies the difference in voltages between the “+” and “–” input V 2 + terminals by a factor A and outputs the result (“A” is called the gain or amplification factor). All negative – feedback means is the output is fed V1 back into the “–” input terminal. Electrical characteristics of a “real-life” op-amp are very complex.000 and 1. inductors and diodes which are passive circuit elements. The gain for a typical op-amp is usually between 10.

the current through the capacitor is 90° out of phase with respect to the applied voltage and increases proportionally with frequency. The great thing about impedances is that the familiar techniques used to analyze DC circuits carry over! When we want to extract a physically meaningful number from the impedance version of Ohm’s Law. However. The impedances of a capacitor and coil can be derived from Maxwell’s equations. 3. L is the inductance and ω is the frequency. the phase of a positive real impedance is 0° and the phase of a negative real impedance is 180°. Complex numbers are only used to simplify the bookkeeping when determining things like magnitude and phase as you will soon find out [2]. Similar experiments show that when a sinusoidal voltage is applied across an inductor (coil). V = IZ. doing so would induce a really bad case of trigonometric diarrhea. 6 . How then can we analyze such circuits? Is there an Ohm’s Law for capacitors & coils? The answer is “yes” – it is the impedance version of Ohm’s Law. 1. the impedance of a capacitor is jϖ C and the impedance of a coil is where C is ϖL the capacitance. we just have to take the magnitude and phase of the complex expression. There are a few things about impedances you need to know about: The phase of a positive imaginary impedance is 90° and the phase of negative imaginary impedance is –90°. instead of using the mathematician’s “i” which can be confused with current. but are based upon empirical results.: the frequency of the applied voltage and current are the same for both the capacitor and coil).eliminate non-linearity in circuit response and increase stability – but you do not need to know this in order to solve this question! AC Impedance Ohm’s Law V = IR relates the voltage V across a resistor R to the current I through the resistor. where Z is called the impedance (boldface denotes a complex number. Don’t get scared of complex-valued impedances. But circuits can include capacitors and coils in addition to resistors. Similarly. here). 2. Without proof (or you can take this to be an experimental result −j [3]). The phase of an impedance with real and complex parts can be anywhere between 0° and 360°. Maxwell’s equations themselves cannot be derived. (N.B. we can solve these problems without complex numbers. However. the current through the coil is –90° out of phase with respect the applied voltage and decreases inversely with frequency. Experiments show that when a sinusoidal (sine-wave) voltage is applied across a capacitor. In circuit analysis the engineer’s “ j” is used to denote √(–1). The impedance Z can be thought of as a complex-valued “resistance” having the form a + jb where a is the “real” part and b is the “imaginary” part [1]. In principle.

what is the maximum length the string can have so that you can still swing the ball in circles around you without the ball touching the ground or the string breaking? (b) If you do swing it around in circles slightly too hard and the string breaks. She got out a black board. but we have translated this into “textbook physics”.) (b) What is the change in the kinetic energy of the ball if its mass is m? (c) Try to show that your answer to part (b) is equal to the work done by the wall on the ball.” (a) Estimate the capacitance of a cow.g. find the force exerted on the ball and its displacement. Estimate the peak power in such a shock. an engineer and a physicist to try to improve matters. (Hints: People and cows have similar resistivity.) (c) When a cow walks across a carpet in winter. What happens if the ball (which is moving with a speed v) hits a “wall” (e. (Hint: The total resistance of a mammal in an electrical circuit is normally dominated by 1 http://www. so he decided to called in an animal psychologist. (Hint: Assuming the duration of the collision is ∆T.ca/ Page 2 of 4 . I’ll point out that a typical run-of-the-mill Holstein1 dairy cow weighs about 700kg and is more or less neutrally buoyant in water. now it came to the turn of the physicist. (What we are actually talking about is a yo-yo that has been left outside until its string starts to rot. Sometimes different approximations are necessary for different parts of a problem.” Farmer Smith was very happy so far. drew a circle and said: “First. and it can get a nasty shock if its nose touches a doorknob. ) (b) Estimate the resistance of a cow. we assume a spherical cow. The animal psychologist went first. for what length string will the ball fly the longest horizontal distance before hitting the ground? [Alex] 4) Cowabunga! First a well known joke: Farmer Smith was not satisfied with the yield of his milk cows.) [Yaser] 3) Don’t break the window! You have a ball of mass m attached to a massless string. (Hint: To help any city-slickers. if the collision is elastic. The maximum tension the string can handle before breaking is T. “If you paint the milking shed green the cows will be happier and happy cows will give more milk. a table tennis paddle) that is moving (with a speed u) toward the ball? (a) What is the velocity of the ball after it bounces back from the wall? (Hint: Think of a frame in which the speed is the same before and after the bounce.” Then came the turn of the engineer. “If you narrow the milking stalls by 10 centimeters you will be able to add an extra stall and thus be able to milk an extra cow in the same time.) (a) If you hold one end of the string at a height h above the ground.2) Ping-Pong! A ball will bounce back from a wall with the same speed it hits. All three inspected the farm and the cows and made their recommendations. it can easily charge itself up to 10KV.holstein.

mariecurie.htm 4 http://www.001 × 109 years 87.000000063)×10-19 J (6.edu/~mmorse/BMES2000.00000013)×10-27 kg (1.000000063)×10-19 C (1.com/Sinclair/fission/LiseMeitner.gov/2000/contents_sports.lbl.html Page 4 of 4 .0 Ω·m 2.lbl.2 astronomical unit (mean earth-sun distance) atomic mass unit: (mass atom)/12 elementary (i.7 Ω·m 160 Ω·m 27 Ω·m 7.80665 m/s2 (5. electron) charge electron volt Newtonian gravitational constant solar luminosity speed of light in vacuum standard acceleration of gravity at the earth’s surface Stephan-Boltzmann radiation constant tropical year (2001) Radioactive half-lives of some isotopes3 14C 12C au u e eV GN LÍ c g 149 597 870 660±20 m (1.5 Ω·m 1 2 http://physics.org/mariecurie 6 http://www.nist.POPBits™ – Possibly useful bits of information Constants and units1.602176462±0.277±0.1 years Resistivity of human tissue4 blood bones fat muscle nerve Great excuse for a party Birthday of Marie Curie5 (1867) and Lise Meitner6 (1878) November 7 1.66053873±0.html 3 http://ie.shtml 5 http://www.000040)×10-8 W/m2/K4 31556925.html http://pdg.008)×1026W 299 792 458 m/s 9.gov/education/isotopes.acusd.e.2 s σ yr (Carbon-14) (Potassium-40) 238Pu (Plutonium-238) 40K 5730±40 years 1.gov/cuu/Constants/index.673±0.010)×10-11 m3/kg/s2 (3.users.846 ± 0.602176462±0.670400±0.7±0.bigpond.

2) Ping-Pong! (a) A table tennis paddle is much heavier than the ping-pong ball. Therefore the work done by the wall on the ball is W = Fu∆T = 2 mu( u + v ) which is equal to the change in the kinetic energy of the ball as we expect. Therefore its velocity relative to the ground is v+2u. the velocity of the ball is the same before and after it hits the wall.(-mv) = 2m(v + u) Therefore if the collision time is ∆T. Therefore. (c) The change in the linear momentum of the ball is ∆P = Pf . in the wall’s frame (or that of a table tennis paddle!). then the force is ∆P 2 m( u + v ) F= = ∆T ∆T The distance that the ball moves during the collision is equal to the distance that the wall moves which is u∆T .Pi = m(v + 2u) . (b) The change in the kinetic energy is 1 1 ∆K = K f − Ki = m(v + 2 u) 2 − mv 2 = 2 mu( u + v ) 2 2 where m is mass of the ball and K is the kinetic energy. Therefore we can assume that it’s mass is infinity compared to the ball. 3) Don’t break the window! r L string h d Page 2 of 12 . but in the opposite direction. The velocity of the ball in this frame is v+u and so it bounces back with v+u relative to the wall.

If the starts to fall at a height. and find the value of L which maximizes s. d→h as ω→∞. The tension in the string is. when FT=T and d=0. in terms of L. and as we intuitively feel. we see that h − d Fg mg g = = ⇒ d=h− 2 2 r Fc mω r ω This is independent of the length of the string. Th ∴ Lmax = mg (b) The distance the ball flies is equal to its horizontal velocity. Looking at the above diagrams. v=rω. d. however. the higher it will go. but the more stress we put on the string. the length of the string F (h − d) L= T mg So L is a maximum when FT is a maximum and d is a minimum.e. FT=T. t.FT Fc Fg The faster you spin the ball around you. then the time it takes to hit the ground is 1 2d d = gt 2 ⇒ t= 2 g What we need to do is express the distance of travel. i. multiplied by the time it takes to fall to the ground. s=vt. and by geometry r 2 = L2 − ( h − d ) 2 and using previous results F T ω2 = T = mL mL we have and d=h− g ω 2 =h− g mgL =h−  FT  T    mL  Page 3 of 12 . proportional to the length of the string: L F F mgL FT = = T = T ⇒ = mω 2 L h − d Fg mg h−d (a) Rearranging the above equation. 2d 2d s = vt = rω = r 2ω 2 g g The maximum distance will occur for the maximum tension.

v ball L θ string h path of ball for part(b) d s • The ball must orbit fast enough so the centrifugal force can overcome gravity at the top of its orbit.2   mgL   T  2( h − mgL T ) 2   s = L − h − h −         T mL g        2   mg hT = 2 L1 −    − L   T   mg    Looking at this we easily see that the maximum distance will be when we maximize   hT L − L   mg This is just a parabola in L with an obvious maximum at hT Lmax = 2 mg For our interest. You can’t actually “swing the ball in circles around you” in a vertical plane. we can now calculate the maximum distance smax = Note h 2 T2 m 2 g2 −1 Some people assumed the motion of the ball was vertical instead of horizontal. The constant total energy of the ball is Page 4 of 12 . it will break at the bottom of the orbit since the tension must be a maximum since gravity and the centrifugal force add together at that point. let’s see what happens if you swing the ball in a vertical plane beside you. but semantics aside. let’s assume you have got the ball going and it is now orbiting with no further energy input from you. • If the string breaks. To figure this out in detail. so the velocity of the ball at the top of the orbit must be such that v2/L>g.

The tension in the string must balance the sum of the centrifugal force plus the component of the gravitational force along the string: v2 − mg cosθ L 2( E tot − mgL cosθ ) − mg cosθ = L 2 E tot = − 3mg cosθ L As expected. so we must have T > 6 mg This is independent of the length of the string. has Lmax>h if swung horizontally.e. so as long as the string is strong enough to support 6mg. The tension at the top (θ=0°) cannot be less than zero or the string will not be taut and the ball will fall. we have Lmax=(T/mg)h=(6mg/mg)h=6h. The velocity of the ball thus depends on where in the orbit it is E − mgL cosθ v 2 = 2 tot m Not surprisingly. Since the tension is maximum at the bottom. the ball will fly horizontally from the bottom of the orbit and the time to hit the ground is t= Again we want to maximize s=vt. to minimize the tension we want Etot to also be a minimum.e. so you can swing a much longer string horizontally instead of vertically. the maximum length of the string is just set by the height you hold the end of the string above the ground. FT = m Finally. 2( h − L) 2d = g g Page 5 of 12 .E tot = E potential + E kinetic 1 = mgL cosθ + mv 2 2 where we have set the gravitational potential energy zero at the height h. let’s check how far the ball will fly if the string breaks when swinging vertically. T>mg. Lmax = h If we take the same string and swing it horizontally. So we want 3 E tot = mgL 2 ∴ FT = 3mg − 3mg cosθ = 3mg(1 − cosθ ) The tension at the bottom must be less than the breaking tension. Even the weakest string that can support the weight of the ball. this shows the tension is a maximum at the bottom of the orbit and a minimum at the top. i. the maximum velocity is at the bottom of the orbit (θ=180°). T. i.

however. the maximum distance is independent of the string strength. The capacitance of an conducting object is the ratio of its electric charge to its electric potential or “voltage”.holstein. Q C= φ By Gauss’s Law and symmetry. it is convenient to assume that the cow is a sphere. the potential at the surface of a conducting sphere with charge Q and radius r is the same as the potential a distance r from of a point charge Q: q φ= 4 πε0 r (Where. http://www. but in the horizontal case the maximum distance increases with the strength of the string without limit (except for mundane factors such as air resistance and the size of the earth). we see that the minimum strength string strong enough to be swung1 vertically (i.) The capacitance of a sphere of radius r is therefore: Q C = = 4 πε0 r φ The radius of a sphere with the same volume. i.ca/ Page 6 of 12 . since that is a shape we know how to deal with and we only want an estimate. as a Holstein2 cow (mass M=700kg. In the vertical case. density ρ=1000kg/m3) is  1 / 3  1 / 3  1 / 3 3  V   M /ρ  700 kg /1000 kg / m   =  =  = 0.e. and the maximum distance the ball will fly in the vertical orbit case is 5 smax = h 2 Comparing this with the horizontal orbit.s = vt = 2 E tot − mgL cos(180°) 2( h − L) m g 3 mgL + mgL  h − L = 42   m  g  = 10 L( h − L) So the maximum value is L=h/2. T>6mg) will fly exactly the same distance if swung horizontally or vertically.e.55 m r = 4  4  4     π  π  π    3   3    3 The cowpacitance is thus 1 2 Try saying “the minimum strength string strong enough to be swung” 5 times fast. 4) Cowabunga! (a) For this question. V=0 at infinity defines the zero potential. V. by convention.

blood vessels. in good agreement with our estimate. parallel resistances add inversely. If the cow is standing in a field. (b) A sphere is not a useful approximation for resistance. 5) Symmetry Cubed! (a) By symmetry.55 m = 60 pF (While writing this problem. a draft pdf version of this problem set was originally posted with 600kg cows at 20KV. The resistance is dominated by the low resistance pathways (e. This is an approximate problem so either set of numbers are equally good. This is because parallel capacitances add. the earth acts as a conducting plane and this increases the capacitance to about 0. we do not always give the values of basic constants available in any appropriate physics textbook.) (c) The peak power is just the initial power. but we don’t care about a factor of 2 in this problem. since it is hard to calculate the resistance of a sphere. so the high resistivity of bones and fat are largely irrelevant. instead of 700kg cows at 10KV as in the print version. (Note: This seems consistent with the 150Ω I get when I hold one probe in each hand and measure my resistance with a multimeter.g. In this case the resistance of the cow is probably dominated by the cow’s nose and is probably an order of magnitude higher than our simple estimate since the cow’s nose is an order of magnitude smaller than the whole cow. the resistance between any two vertices must be the same.88 m This is much cruder than our capacitance estimate. ( ) Page 7 of 12 .g. the blood vessels). since the cow’s voltage drops as it discharges: 2 V peak V2 (10kV ) 2 ~ 10 MW Ppeak = I peakV peak = = initial = 10Ω R R No wonder static hurts! Note: By mistake. The resistance is also sensitive to how the cow is connected in a circuit. but resistivity depends on the internal structure of a cow.88 m  ρ cow  The capacitance of a cow just depends on the cow being a conductor of a certain shape. I discovered that the standard capacitance of an isolated cow – I am not making this up – is 0.854187817 × 10-12 F/m 0. so let’s choose vertices to measure the resistance between A and B. I have not yet tried to measure the resistance of my nose. so any small scale structure (e.2nF. since the resistance of a cube of side length L and resistivity ρ is very simple: L L ρ R=ρ =ρ 2 = L A L For cow-size cube M 1 / 3 cow L =  = 0.1nF. My rough estimate of the average resistivity is based on the values given for people’s insides in the POPBits™ is ρcow~5Ω·m. noses) can have a big effect.) Note that you had to provide the value of ε0.C = 4 πε0 r = 4 π 8. We’ll assume a cube. so the size of the object pretty much determines the total capacitance. So my estimate of the resistance of the cow is just 5Ω / m R= = 6Ω ~ 10Ω 0.

& F are at the same potential and can be treated as the same point. and similarly C. & B will have the same potential and can treated as the same point.e. 1 1 1 1 2 = + + = RAB R 2 R R R R ∴ RAB = 2 (b) First we calculate the resistance between A and D. so it easy to see that G. so the circuit is equivalent to Page 8 of 12 . H.A C B D A C B D By symmetry. i. so that resistor can be ignored and the tetrahedron is equivalent to So the total resistant between A and B can be calculated by adding the 3 paths in parallel. C and D will have the same potential so no current will flow between them. E. A B E G H F C D There is lots of symmetry.

A B E G F H C D So we see that R R R 5R + + = 3 6 3 6 (c) Now we want the resistance between A and C. By symmetry. G. the circuit is not affected by ignoring the resistors connecting points at the same potential. E. & H are all at the same potential. As with part (a). so our equivalent circuit is: RAD = A B E G H F C So D 1 RAC 1   RAEC RAGC  −1 R +  1 + 1  + R  CD   AB  RBFD RBHD    1 1 1 = + +   2R 2R −1   R +  1 + 1  + R    2R 2R    1 1 = + R ( R + R + R) 3 ∴ RAC = R 4 = + + 1 1 Page 9 of 12 . F.

H C A R R/2 R/2 E. H Page 10 of 12 .H R/2 B D A R R/2 R/2 E.(d) Now we want the resistance between A and B. H A R R/2 2R/5 G R/2 B F.G 2R R/2 B F. and F & H are at the same potential and be connected. but there is still some symmetry.G R/2 R C D R/2 F. Our new equivalent circuit is A B E. This is the toughest one yet. G F. and we see that vertices E & G are at the same potential and can be connected without changing the circuit.

6) Is it hot enough for you? (a) The activity A is N τ1 / 2 /ln 2 where N is the number of atoms and τ1/2 is the half-life of the radioactive isotope.33 × 10−11 kg 1 = 2193 / s (5730 yr /ln 2) (14 amu) 1.3 × 10 6 eV 1.66 × 10−27 kg / amu 2. but we thought using symmetry was more fun. ( ( )( )( ) ) (c) In thermal equilibrium you will radiate as much heat. P. of course.3% × 0.7nW. T.60 × 10−19 J / eV = 6.R A 7R/5 ∴ RAB = 7 R 12 B A 5R/12 B Note: You can.8 × 10−11W 2 1 PK 40 = AK 40 1. will be  P 1 / 4 T =   εAσ  Page 11 of 12 .33 × 10−11 kg =13ng mK 40 ~ 70 kg × 0. The number of atoms for each isotope is simply its mass divide by its atomic weight: 15 atomic mass units (amu) for Carbon-14 and 40 amu for Potassium-40. so your temperature.16 × 10 6 eV 1. therefore the power deposited by each isotope is: 1 PC14 = AC14 0.0117% ~ 2.277 × 10 yr /ln 2) ( 40 amu) 1.66 × 10−27 kg / amu ( 1 ) = 6363 / s So the total activity is Atotal=8600 decays per second. For a 70kg person the masses of each isotope are: A= mC14 ~ 70 kg × 19% × 10−12 ~ 1.46 × 10−5 kg Therefore the activities are AC14 ~ AK 40 ~ 1.63 × 10−10 W 2 So the total activity is about Ptotal=0. solve all these systems using Kirchoff’s rules and Ohm’s law to write down systems of linear equations which can be solved by substitution or matrix algebra.60 × 10−19 J / eV = 2.46 × 10−5 kg 9 ( ) (1. as you produce. (b) About half the energy is deposited in the person’s body. This is fine.

uchicago. but it doesn’t matter too much since the temperature only varies as the 4th root.html) is 2. and σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. is less than the black body value of 1.edu/~whu/beginners/introduction. So  1 / 4 0. ( ) Page 12 of 12 . so we’ll assume it is 1. ε.670400 × 10 W/m /K     The cosmic microwave background radiation (http://background.where A is your surface area (about 2m2).3K 2 -8 2 4  2 m 5.7 nW   T ~ = 0.7K so it will keep you warmer than than your internal radiation. Your emissivity.

assume everything takes place on the earth’s surface and gravity points down in all our diagrams. http://www.University of Toronto 2001-2002 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program Problem Set 2: Mechanics Due Monday 17 December 2001 (Note small extension to due date!) Welcome back. but knowledge of mechanics alone may not be enough to solve every problem. do the parts you can do. [Isamu] 1 2 At least “mechanics” as defined by us. They typically require a few common items. • If you can’t do all of a question. but if it reaches a halocline it may float on the boundary. Consider a log washed down a river and out to sea. • Unless otherwise specified. If the log has a uniform density ρL. and in the ocean you will sometimes find a sharp vertical discontinuity in salinity (known as a “halocline”) between fresher water on top and saltier water underneath. This often happens near coasts where fresh water runs into the sea or where glaciers or sea ice are melting. Variations in seawater salinity and temperature drive the circulation of deep ocean waters2 and have a major impact on climate. Often the links are just for fun. 1) Salty log! Salt water is denser than fresh water. but you should look at them early in case you have to find something you don’t immediately have. • This and the next 4 problem sets each concentrate on different areas of physics.htm Page 1 of 4 . • We often provide links to websites. of the log will be above the halocline in the fresher water.oceansonline. what fraction of the volume. and the (assumed) uniform densities of the surface and deep water are ρS and ρD. but the problems do not require any information from these websites. For example. but this does not mean that you do not need to use a broad range of physics. Your Physics teacher may be able to help.com/watermasses. Eventually the log becomes saturated with water and it starts to sink. every question on this problem set requires knowledge of mechanics1. • Each problem set has an experimental question. V.

of the distance (S2) travelled by the ball on its second bounce over the distance (S1) travelled on the first bounce? Hints: Assume the bounces are perfectly elastic. Zed loves science. S2/S1. so the cans roll on the rims without slipping. will the ball hit on its first bounce? (b) What is the ratio. but even he sometimes gets misquoted in the press. Ignore air resistance. The magazine said that full cans always won because they were heavier. and he and his friends used to throw balls down the hill to try to get them into the woods at the bottom with only one bounce. so he has a big supply of empty and full soup cans. Zed likes soup a lot.5) Fun before television! Professor Bailey lived on a steep hill when he was a kid. As reported in the Summer 1996 issue of the popular Canadian children’s magazine “Chickadee”3. He also has cans full of all sorts of other stuff – beans. Zed likes to race empty and full soup cans against each other down a ramp.owlkids. tomato paste. Dr. and both the top and bottom of the empty cans are removed by a traditional can opener that leaves the rims on the can. Dr. (a) how far down the hill. The ramp is not too steep.) S1 S2 If you are standing on top of a smooth linear hill with aθ slope of tanθ and throw a ball out horizontally with an initial velocity v. (Fortunately they had some helpful dogs who thought it was great fun to do the hard part of finding the balls and – usually – bringing them back. Dr. Zed used condensed cream soup so the contents of the full cans are jelly-like and act more or less like a solid as long as they are not subject to too high a stress.com/ Page 3 of 4 . S1. (a) Is it true that full cans roll faster than empty cans? Was the magazine’s explanation correct? Note: The empty and full cans in each race are identical except – Duh! – the empty cans are empty and the full cans are full. pumpkin pie filling – if he wants some variety for his can races or for his dinner. [Alex] 6) Soup’s on! Roll over Galileo! Dr. 3 http://www.

iii) Discuss any differences and give possible qualitative explanations for any discrepancies (larger than your uncertainties) between your experimental data and your theoretical calculation.00025)×1030kg 9.(b) What is the relative acceleration.nobel. (c) What happens if you race a can of condensed Cream of Mushroom (or any other soup which is a non-fluid jelly in the can) against the same size can of chicken or vegetable broth (or consommé or any other soup with a water-like consistency in the can)? i) Which can is first? What is the experimentally observed relative acceleration. Wolfgang Ketterle.lbl. afull/aempty. Don’t forget to tell us any possibly relevant experimental parameters. e.html http://pdg.se/physics/laureates/2001/index.html Page 4 of 4 . [David] POPBits™ – Possibly useful bits of information Constants and units4.009)×1024 kg GN (6.nist. a measurement with an uncertainty is data. acream/abroth.g. (Explain your methods and present your data.98892 ± 0.html 6 Also known as an “error bar”. Many cheap digital wristwatches have stopwatch functions.) ii) Calculate it theoretically.” Great excuse for a party Nobel Prize awards7 (Eric Cornell. For a ramp I just used a shelf propped on some books.80665 m/s2 31556925.gov/2000/contents_sports.010)×10-11 m3/kg/s2 MÍ g yr (1. Carl Wieman) 4 5 au 149 597 870 660±20 m M ⊕ (5.gov/cuu/Constants/index. 7 http://www. of the two cans? ii) Give a qualitative theoretical explanation for your results. The second method works best if you have two people. the size of the cans you used and the slope and length of your ramp.2 s December 10 http://physics.5 astronomical unit (mean earth-sun distance) Earth mass Newtonian gravitational constant Solar mass standard acceleration of gravity at the earth’s surface tropical year (2001) David’s Maxim of the Month “A measurement without an uncertainty6 is just a number. Hints: Measure the relative accelerations either by timing each can separately or by racing them and seeing where the second can is when the first can reaches the bottom – whatever works best for you. of the two cans? i) Measure it experimentally.673±0.974±0.

so once they are moving Page 1 of 15 . 1-f. In this case it will float on the surface with a fraction in the water ρ − ρL ρ f = 1− S = L ρ S − ρ Air ρ S which is exactly what we expect. even if we assume they are ideal point masses. we can consider the case before the log begins to sink and it is less dense than the fresh water. i.4 (400000km) 2 (b) This question is not trivial.2001-2002 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program – University of Toronto – Solution Set 2: Mechanics 1) Salty log! If the log has a density greater than the fresher surface water but less than the deeper saltier water. very. We cannot write down the exact general equations of motion for an arbitrary system of three (or more) bodies interacting by gravity. 2) Don’t leave me! (a) The ratio of the forces of the earth and the sun on the moon are GN mMoon mSun 2 FSun rSun = FEarth GN mMoon mEarth 2 rEarth mSun = mEarth 2. it certainly won’t be for a very. since the three-body problem is not exactly soluble for a inverse-square law force. f. This is because the acceleration of the moon due to the sun is the same. as the acceleration of the earth due to the sun. below the halocline.0 × 10 30 kg 2 rSun 2 rEarth = (1.5 × 1011 m) 2 6. But if they do part company. on average. very long time. it will float at the halocline such that the net sinking force on the fraction. fV ( ρ L − ρ S ) = (1 − f )V ( ρ D − ρ L ) ∴ fρ L − fρ S = ρ D − ρ L − fρ D + fρ L ∴− fρ S = ρ D − ρ L − fρ D ρ − ρL ∴f = D ρD − ρS As a quick check of our calculation.e. very. so we cannot prove that the earth and the moon will never part company.0 × 10 24 kg = 2. of the volume of the log above the halocline will be equal and opposite to the upward buoyancy force on the fraction.

but also includes a contribution due to the horizontal movement of the rain. Our total wetness is W = WT+WF = nTL/v + (n/u)FL = nL(T/v + F/u) So our minimum wetness is when we run as fast as we can. i.5 × 1011 m 3 ( ) 3 = 0. then WT=0 and our total wetness will just be W = WF = (n/u)FL So wetness is independent of our speed.0 × 10 30 kg( 400000 km) 6.0 × 10 24 kg 1. The maximum difference in acceleration between the earth and the moon towards the sun is much smaller than the acceleration of the moon due to the earth. v. v= vmax (b) If we have an umbrella.together around the sun (as they do) they will continue to move together. the amount of rain landing on our top) is WT = nTt = nTL/v and the rain we sweep out of the air onto our front is WF = ρFL = (n/u)FL where. The time it takes us to reach the shelter is t=L/v. so our “top wetness” (i. W = WF = (n/u)FL + (n tanθ)Ft = (n/u)FL + (n tanθ)FL/v = nFL (1/u + tanθ/v ) Page 2 of 15 . it would have to gain or loose angular momentum from the sun or the earth and there is no simple mechanism to do so. GN mSun GN mSun 2 − rSun aEarth − Sun − aMoon − Sun (rSun − rEarth ) 2 = GN mEarth aMoon − Earth 2 rEarth   1 1  mSun  − 2  r2 r r − ( )  Sun Sun Earth  = mEarth 2 rEarth ≈ = 3 2 mSun rEarth 3 mEarth rSun 2 × 2.e. 3) Singing in the rain! (a) We make the approximation that we are vertical rectangular cube with a top surface area T and a front (or back) surface area F. (c) If we have an umbrella. is the volume fraction of the air taken up by rain drops.013 For the moon to separate from the earth.e. ρ. and the rain is falling at an angle (along our Front/Back plane) then the amount of rain reaching our front or back is not just the amount we sweep out as we walk.

and our total wetness will be W = nFL (1/u + tanθ/vmax ) If θ < 0. our optimum speed is v= –u tanθ = |u tanθ| and our total wetness is W=0. (1/u + tanθ/v )>0.e. ˆ= force is zero. and v dx dt The frictional force always opposes the direction of motion. then the rain is blowing in our face. The block’s velocity (in the zero friction limit) is thus dx = ωx 0 cos(ωt) dt m d2x Page 3 of 15 . If θ > 0. and we have made the usual (but not always accurate) textbook assumption that sliding friction is independent of speed. it is just an harmonic oscillator 2 = kx + mg sin α dt 2 which you are expected to recognize after some rearrangement  mg sin α  d 2 x +  mg sin α   k  k = x +  2 m k  dt and know the solution to be  mg sin α  x +  = x 0 sin(ωt). an alternate forθ > 0 is just to walk away from the shelter with speed v= –u tanθ = –|u tanθ|) 4) Sproing! The total force on the block along the ramp is the sum of the spring. If our goal is just not to get wet. then the rain is blowing from behind. i.e. and frictional forces: d x F = m 2 = kx + mg sinα . so the best we can do is run as fast as we can. so we can keep dry if we just walk at the horizontal speed of the rain so that it is falling vertically in our reference frame.µ k mg cosα dt where x is the displacement of the block along the ramp from the position where the spring dx dt is the unit direction of velocity of the block along the ramp. If θ = 0 then we just recover our answer to part (b) as expected.where n tanθ is the rate at which the rain is falling horizontally. gravitational. i. as for part (a). ω = k m  k  mg sin α ∴ x = x 0 sin(ωt) − k where x0 is a (as yet unknown) constant. (Note: We want to get to the shelter so we assume v is positive. v= vmax. (1/u + tanθ/v )>0. Without the frictional damping term. i.e.

On the way down to its minimum position the frictional energy loss is xmin = −mg sin α − W = ∫ 0xmin µk mg cosαdx = µk mg cosαxmin (mg sin α ) 2 + kmv 2  k       −mg sin α − = µk mg cosα    Page 4 of 15 ..1. 2. k (a) The frictional force is small. xmin must be less than zero.e.We know the initial velocity at t=0 is v (I probably should have said v0). The kinetic energy lost is just the integrated frictional energy loss. n = 0. k k which will occur at times π 3π ωtmin = + 2 nπ . lowest) and maximum positions of the block (in the zero friction limit) are mg sin α mg sin α xmin = − x 0 − xmax = x 0 − . 1 2 1 2 mv = kxmin + mg sin α xmin 2 2  1  1  2 −mg sin α ± ( mg sin α ) − 4 k − mv 2   2  2  ∴ xmin = 1  2 k  2  = −mg sin α ± (mg sin α ) 2 + kmv 2 (mg sin α ) 2 + kmv 2 k By definition. i. i.e. ωtmin = + 2 nπ . so only one of the two solutions is possible. so the motion of the block is damped only very slowly. The ω minimum (i.… 2 2 The total kinetic (T) and potential (U) energy of the block are: 1 dx 2 T = 2 m  dt  1 U = 2 kx2 + mg sinα x where we have chosen the (arbitrary) zero for the gravitation potential energy to be the initial point x=0 so that the total potential energy is zero at the initial point.e. The initial kinetic energy is 1 T0 = 2 mv2 and we can find the maximum extension points where the block’s motion reverses itself since the velocity and hence kinetic energy at these points is zero so all the energy must in the form of potential energy. so x 0 = v .

8 -1 -1. 5) Fun before television! (a) Lets choose an x-y coordinate system in which the positive x direction points vertically down and the positive y direction points horizontally away from the hill.4 Relative x amplitude 0.2 Time (in oscillation cycles) 5 10 15 20 25 30 (d) Because of gravity. at a frequency 1 k 2ω/(2π)=ω/π= .2 -0. so the block as k it slows down will be more likely to stop below its initial position.2 0 0 -0. The springs will oscillate about a position below the initial position (i.6 -0. i. π m (c) 0. Before the first bounce has a constant horizontal velocity and constant vertical acceleration and the path of the ball as a function of time is Page 5 of 15 .e.8 0.4 -0. from our mg sin α solutions about the middle point of the oscillation is x middle = − ). so the kinetic energy will be smaller by an amount  2 2  −mg sin α − ( mg sin α ) + kmv  ∆T = 2W = 2µk mg cosα   k     (b) The block’s velocity is zero twice every oscillation cycle.6 0.e.On the way back up to the initial point the block will lose the same amount of energy since it travels the same distance. the minimum potential energy position of the block is below the initial position (which is the position where the spring force and potential energy are zero).

˙1 = gt y x To get the x component we need the time of the bounce: =2 t1 = 2 x1 2 v 2 tan 2 θ 2v tan θ = 2 = g g g g ˙1 = gt1 = 2v tan θ ∴x ˙1 y By energy conservation in an elastic collision the speed ( v1 ) of the ball must be the same ˙1 x before and after the bounce. First we need the ball’s ˙.e. x ˙1 = v1 sin φin . we can see that the ˙b x α ˙. some of them involving messy trigonometry.y=vt . component of ( x ˙b = x ˙1 sin(2θ ) + y ˙1 cos(2θ ). y ˙ b ) the bounce are related by (x θ ˙1 = v1 cos φin . y ˙ ) “bounces” separately and then adding them back together. when 2 2 1 y  1  x  x1 = g 1  = g 1  2 v 2  v tan θ  1 ∴ gx12 = x1v 2 tan 2 θ 2 v 2 tan 2 θ g The distance down the hill for the first bounce is ∴ x1 = 2 S1 = x1 + y1 = x1 + 2 2 2 x12 tan 2 θ = 1+ v 2 tan 2 θ v 2 tan 2 θ = 2 g g sin θ tan 2 θ 1 2 v 2 tan θ g cosθ (b) This is pretty much the same as part (a). φout = −θ + α y These can be solved in various ways. φin = θ + α y ˙ b = v1 cos φout . but I think the easiest is to think about how each ˙. i. so looking at the θ φin angles in the bounce. x ˙ b = v1 sin φout . x ˙b = −x ˙1 cos(2θ ) + y ˙1 sin(2θ ) y α So the path of the ball after the collision is given by 1 ˙ b t + y1. i. y ˙ ) before the bounce.e. x = gt 2 + x ˙ b t + x1 y=y 2 Page 6 of 15 . y ˙ ) and after velocity components before ( x φout ˙ yb ˙b. except a bit messier. 1 x = 2 g t2 The parameterization for the slope of the hill is x/y = tanθ and the ball will bounce when its coordinates intercept those of the hill. vector velocity ( x ˙1 = v .

6) Soup’s on! Roll over Galileo! (a) I practically choked on my breakfast cereal when I read the magazine’s explanation in 1996. both of which make sense since in the former case the ball picks up very little gravitational energy so every bounce should be the same length. since the distance bounced can only depend on the initial vector velocity . (For a virtual version of this experiment. and the angle of the slope. and in the latter case the ball picks up a lot of gravitational energy before bouncing. see Page 7 of 15 . So y ˙bt y=y ⇒ t= ˙b y 2 y 1 1  y ˙ b t = g  + x ˙b x = gt 2 + x ˙b  ˙b y 2 2 y Once again the bounce will occur when the ball’s coordinates intersect that of the hill (using our redefined coordinate system) 2 y 1  y ˙b ∴ y tan θ = g  + x ˙b  ˙b y 2 y ∴y = ˙b2  ˙  x 2y tan θ − b  ˙b  g  y 2 ˙1 sin(2θ ) + y ˙1 cos(2θ )) 2( x = g = = ˙1 cos(2θ ) + y ˙1 sin(2θ )  −x   θ − tan  ˙1 sin(2θ ) + y ˙1 cos(2θ )  x   2 2(2v tan θ sin(2θ ) + v cos(2θ ))  −2v tan θ cos(2θ ) + v sin(2θ )    tan θ −  2v tan θ sin(2θ ) + v cos(2θ )  g   2v 2 tan θ 1 + 2 sin 2 θ g So distance travelled along the slope on the second bounce is y S 2 = x 2 + y 2 = tan 2 θ + 1y = cosθ and the ratio compared to the first bounce is S2 y g g 2v 2 = = 2 y= 2 tan θ 1 + 2 sin 2 θ S1 S1cosθ 2v tan θ 2v tan θ g = 1 + 2 sin 2 θ ( ) ( ) ( ) This does not depend on v or g. One of the most famous experiment’s in all of science is Galileo dropping balls of different weights from the Leaning Tower of Pisa to show that gravitational acceleration is independent of mass. the acceleration due to gravity. it is 1 when the slope is near horizontal and goes to infinity when the slope is near vertical.We can make things easier for ourselves by choosing to redefine our coordinate system such that x1 = y1 = 0 .

not how much their is.avi.nasa.http://www. (Even a crumpled up piece of paper hits the ground at almost the same time as a rock if dropped from chest height.9±0. the cans were D=2R=101±1mm in diameter and 118±1mm in length. so I had to empty the can and measure the contents in several portions which is why the error is large.) After playing around with various cans and ramps (“playing around” is an essential part of good experimental technique – it is how you get a feel for how to do things). The difference must have to do with how the mass is distributed. and even so I have left out much of the details of what I did.g. I roughly checked the calibration of the scale using some water.pbs. similarly a small empty can rolls at about the same speed as a large empty can.1kg. but in this case he seems to have created a classic example of how “common sense” can produce spectacularly wrong but long lasting dogma.k12. a flat piece of paper and a rock do fall at very different speeds. I took some full cans and empty cans (from our recycling bin) and quickly established that full cans do roll faster than empty cans.html). made soup.us/Physics/PhyNet/AboutScience/WasAristotle. I redid my 5 year old experiment more carefully. (The kitchen scale only went to 250g. see http://www. Yes. but all you need to do is drop a small pebble and a large rock to see that acceleration isn’t even close to being proportional to mass. but we know for sure that Galileo studied acceleration of gravity using balls rolling down inclined planes. I must admit I find it hard to believe that Aristotle actually thought acceleration was proportional to mass.batesville. check out the video of David Scott dropping a hammer and a feather on the moon at http://cass. but the quoted uncertainties are based on how reproducible my measurements were. Note: The answers I give below is far longer and more detailed than we expect from you. Jumping up from the table. I decided to use a ramp made from a L=825±10mm long Ikea wooden Page 8 of 15 . A full 284ml can rolls just as fast as a full 796ml can.gov/expmoon/Apollo15/apo15g. but it has nothing to do with how heavy they are. For a more modern version.) Whether Galileo actually dropped balls from the Tower is somewhat controversial. (All length measurements with a Canadian v Tire Mastercraft 7m long tape measure.in. (b) For this problem set. From Newton’s Laws (of Gravity and Motion) I knew heavier cans should not roll faster.org/wgbh/nova/pisa/galileo. The empty L h cans weighed mempty=70±5g (on a kitchen scale) and the full cans weighed θ mfull=0. I immediately took a bookshelf (825±10 mm long) and put one end on some books.html. then removed the other end. i) In order to measure the acceleration I used 796mL cans of Campbell’s Cream of x ω Mushroom and Consommé soup.) Aristotle was not an idiot (e. except for effects such a friction and air resistance.) I removed one end from some cans.jsc.

and it was short enough so I could release the can with one hand and catch with the other. 8±3cm. a full aempty t 2 empty  =  t  full   2L t2 Page 9 of 15 . I didn’t realize my reflexes are consistent to 0. so I decided it was better for me to time the cans one at a time with the stop watch function on my \$30 Casio AQ-140 wrist-watch. I would start the watch with my thumb while raising my hand which released the can. and 182±5mm). the full Cream of Mushroom can beat the empty can by 10±2cm. I did this for 3 ramp heights (h=120±5. maybe I got tired and this affected how I measured the time). The times (in seconds) are given for 5 runs for each type of can (Empty. wide. to avoid the possibility of a correlated time bias (e. If constant forces (e. I decided to continuously look at my catching hand from release to catch.) When I raced two cans.bookshelf resting on VHS video cassettes. and 182±5mm respectively. what would happen if my reaction times changed) did runs alternating an empty can. I might sometimes give the can a little push. The data are presented in the order I took them. I would stop the watch when the can hit my hand at the bottom of the ramp. I found I could not release the cans simultaneously and see their separation accurately at the bottom (I was alone sine my kids lost interest after about 30minutes). After more playing around the best method seemed for me to hold the watch in my right hand which also blocked the can at the top of the ramp. Cream of Mushroom.g. and also that by lifting my hand up to release the can. I hoped that if I was consistent my reaction times would mostly cancel out. I rolled each can about 10 times for a given ramp height. 13±3cm for ramp heights of h = 120±5mm.g. I was actually quite pleasantly surprised by how reproducible my measurements were. a full Cream of Mushroom can.1s. I started again and did a consistent set of measurements (“Can Runs”) which are given in a table at the end of this solution set. before realizing that my timings depended on where I was looking when I released and caught the cans. then the mean acceleration of the cans is just given by a= So since L is a fixed distance. I used the cassettes instead of books since they were all the same size (each about 30mm thick).g. 60±5. and I pulled my hand away from the can and up to avoid pushing the can (although there is still the possibility of air movements “pulling” the empty can after my hand). not as slippery like laminate surfaces (so the cans always rolled instead of starting to slide). but notice that I did not just steadily increase (or decrease) the height of the ramp. and a full Consommé can so I would have the data for part (c) as well. Full Consommé). I used this ramp because it was straight. 60±5mm. (This last point saved me a lot of time since I didn’t have to get up to fetch the can after each run. gravity) on the cans are dominant. In order to have a consistent set of data (e.

00 1.02 0.06 1.17 0.13 3 90 3 1.The date for the full and empty cream of mushroom soup is summarized in the table and chart below: a full h a (in h a empty σ( full ) Correct a empty videos (in mm) σ(h) tempty σ(tempty) tfull σ(tfull) ed 0 10 2 4.17 0.04 0.02 0.22 0.33 0.07 8.04 1.33 8 243 5 1.05 1.05 1. I get a full aempty ii) = 1.67 0.32 0.03 2.05 0.03 1.03 1.57 0.04 1.25 0.05 1.05 The empty can is a hollow cylindrical (radius R) with a moment of inertia: Page 10 of 15 .32 0.28 6 184 4 1.25 5 152 4 1.26 4 120 3 1. but for steeper ramps the relative acceleration seems to flatten out approaching about 4/3.43 0.04 1.00 0 100 200 300 Height of ramp (cm) For shallow ramp heights the full can is slower than the empty can.08 1.25 2.30 0.21 0.20 0.17 0.23 ± 0.30 1 29 2 3.03 1.43 0.06 1.06 1.66 0.67 a(full)/a(empty) 1.04 0.94 0.05 1.05 3.00 0.20 0.13 0.33 1.11 0.33 0.35 1.03 1.72 0.05 1.88 0.05 0.22 0. If I average the last 5 points.87 2 60 2 2.44 11 337 5 1.03 1.04 1.03 1.83 0.31 0.04 0.

i. v2  I   m + 2  = mgx sin θ 2 R   v2 I  ∴x = m + 2  2 mg sin θ  R  ∴ dx v d2x  I  m = +   dt mg sin θ dt 2  R2  but v ≡ dx .I empty = mempty R 2 If the cream soup contents rotate uniformly with the can. i. length L. but I like to follow the energy.e. There are various ways of calculating the acceleration. then the contents of the can are a solid cylinder with a moment of inertia 1 I contents = mcontentsR 2 2 The total moment of inertial of the full cream of soup can is the sum of the moments of the metal shell and the contents. so I  1 1 v2 v2  T = mv 2 + I 2 =  m + 2  2 2 R 2 R  The can’s kinetic energy after it has rolled a distance x down the ramp must equal the gravitational potential energy it has lost. the angular velocity is ω=v/R. the can gains both translational and rotational kinetic energy. ( ) ( ) 1 1 T = mv 2 + Iω 2 2 2 Since the can rolls without slipping. 1 1 1 I full = mcontentsR 2 + mempty R 2 = mcontents + 2 mempty R 2 = m full + mempty R 2 2 2 2 where m full = mcontens + mempty . so dt a= d2x dt 2 = dv g sin θ =  I  dt 1 +   mR 2  Page 11 of 15 . angle with the floor θ).e. i.e. When the can rolls down the ramp (height h.

I investigated the vary large variations or the shallowest slope (h=10mm. which had no videos and only a thin book propping up the ramp). (c) The data at the end of the solution set also includes data for a consommé can. this is easy to understand if the mushroom chunks were resting on one side inside the can.333 3 or using my measurements for my cans a full aempty = 4 = 1.a full aempty   1 + I empty  2  m empty R   = =    I full   1 +  m R 2  1 + full      2  m 1 + empty R  2  m 4 empty R   =    1 m full + mempty R 2   3 + mempty  2 m full      2  m full R   ( ) So in the limit where we ignore the weight of the empty can compared to the full can. This can rolled slowly in jerks and almost always stopped and did not reach the bottom of the slope. so we would expect it to affect the higher ramp data more. Since mushroom soup has chunks.004  70 ± 5 g   3 + 0.) iii) Our theoretical calculation is very close to the experimentally observed value for larger slopes. Page 12 of 15 .the one with respect to the center of the can. by trying another can. a constant offset in my timings. apparently because its centre of gravity did not lie on its axis. Air resistance would have a larger affect at higher speeds. but several factors could be responsible for the difference and the odd results for small slopes: friction. A little playing around showed that this can preferred to rest in one orientation. we have a full aempty m  → empty m full →0 4 = 1. which is not what we see. The original can probably had a smaller imbalance which was enough to affect its results. This is a coincidence.23. air resistance.9 ± 0.300 ± 0.you get a fraction for the two accelerations that is really close to my experimental result: 1.1kg   (Note: If you solve the torques with respect to the point of contact and you use the wrong moment of inertia .

67 4. The plot below shows the data for the relative accelerations of the consommé compared to both the Cream of Mushroom and the empty can. If friction and viscosity were zero.33 3.00 5.00 1.00 4.35 ± 0.33 1.33 4.33 2. not rotational. 6.66 ± 0. motion so it would roll with maximum possible acceleration.67 0.09 aempty = 1.67 3. then the average measured ratios are aconsommé = 1.00 2. the can would roll down the slope but the consommé would not rotate within the can.i) The consommé was clearly the fastest.08 acream of mushroom ii) The consommé flows freely inside the can. aconsommé =   I 1 + consommé   m 2  consommé R  g sin θ = 2   1 + mempty R  2  m consommé R   aconsommé g sin θ = g sin θ  mempty  1 +   mconsommé  Page 13 of 15 .00 0.67 2.33 0.00 3.67 5. This means that almost all the gravitational potential energy gained by the can would go into translational.00 0 100 200 300 a(consommé)/a(X) X=empty X=cream Height of ramp (cm) If we again only consider the last 5 data points.33 5.67 1.

which is reasonable since the consommé undoubtedly does rotate somewhat. Page 14 of 15 ..aconsommé 2 =   → 2 mempty  mempty  aempty =0 1 +  m consommé  mconsommé  aconsommé acream  1 m full + mempty  1 + 2 m full    =  mempty  1 +   mconsommé  ( )      3 m   + empty  2 m  3 full   =   → m   empty mempty =0 2 1 +  m consommé  mconsommé  So data indicate the consommé is not quite as fast as our model.

05 0.43 1.88 3.07 1.62 1.2 0.25 1.91 0.67 1.34 3.82 0.09 3.78 4.36 1.02 2.39 1.19 1.03 1.39 3.19 2.88 3.01 1.49 8.93 0.29 0.13 2.96 8.27 1.4 7.8 4.41 1.15 1.45 1.77 3.19 1.47 1.64 1.5 2.01 1.7 3.56 1.05 2.13 0.11 1.84 0.9 1.7 1.62 1.4 1.66 4.16 1.19 1.09 1.99 6.96 1.59 1.66 Cream (s) Consommé (s) 1.15 2.98 2.01 0.4 2.3 1.39 1.37 2.93 0.31 1.68 1.31 1.92 0.95 3.63 1.79 0.97 1.18 1.99 0.21 2.99 1.19 1.76 1.97 0.08 1.99 1.37 1.13 1.09 1.17 1.03 1.95 0.91 0.1 1.03 2.78 0.28 1.69 1.27 2.95 0.26 1.15 3.45 1.67 1.12 1.04 3 3.73 0 height in mm 10 ± 2 Page 15 of 15 .21 1.36 1.85 10.68 1.94 0.23 1.32 1.11 1.33 1.71 4.57 1.84 3.4 2.9 0.05 4.18 2.45 2.Data from Can Runs for Problem 6 (19 December 2001) height (in videos) 5 height in mm 152 ± 4 3 height in mm 90 ± 3 1 height in mm 29 ± 2 6 height in mm 184 ± 4 2 height in mm 60 ± 2 4 height in mm 120 ± 3 8 height in mm 243 ± 5 11 height in mm 337 ± 5 Empty (s) 1.06 1.4 1.48 1.22 1.78 1.94 0.93 3.53 1.24 0.43 1.07 1.05 1.91 0.49 1.95 3.82 1.06 1.

but our back yard is too small to fit the pipes. (My kids sometimes think I am full of gas. and you may make the crude approximation that I am a bag of ideal gas water molecules.html http://gtalumni. an air heat pump pumps heat by absorbing some heat (Qout) from the outside air (temperature Tout) and supplying some heat (Qin) to the air inside the house (temperature Tin). It is starting to leak water so we are considering what to replace it with.html Page 1 of 5 . (a) What is the relationship between Qin.org/news/magazine/sum98/einsrefr. did you know that Einstein had over 40 patents on refrigerators?2 All experimental evidence is consistent with General Relativity’s principle that inertial and gravitational mass are equivalent. Assume I neither gain nor lose any molecules as I heat up.) [David] 1 2 http://www. Qout. Assume the heat pump has the maxiumum possible efficiency.ca/tech. (Geothermal heat pumps1 work better.) As its name implies. Estimate the fractional amount I am heavier if my temperature increases from 37°C to 39°C? Hints: In addition to writing down the most famous equation in all of science. and one possibility is an air heat pump. the heat pump would still pump heat into the house. The heatpump works cyclically and for each cycle the heat pump motor does an amount of work (W). How is this possible and where does the heat come from? [David] 2) Relatively heavy When I have a fever. but not ideal.University of Toronto 2001-2002 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program Problem Set 3: Thermodynamics Due Monday 14 January 2002 1) How much heat could a heat pump pump if a heat pump could pump heat? The heat in my house (and many other old houses in Toronto) is provided by an ancient coal boiler converted to burn oil.earthenergy. I sometimes feel lethargic and heavy. and W? (b) How much heat will be pumped into the house for every joule of work done by the motor if the inside temperature is 20°C and the outside temperature is –20°C? (c) If the outside temperature was absolute zero.

com/magneticDev/finsrud/finsrud. the released LPG is burned in a jet engine with a very satisfying 125dB roar. but I do have a 50 litre bottle of helium gas (atomic weight 4.nz/beer/ 3 http://www-groups.003) at a pressure of 170 Atmospheres and a temperature of 21°C.dcs. and deafness just to cool a drink). and the procedure would begin again. who discovered the atomic nucleus in 1911. or the wonders that may be performed by mechanical geometry” is one of the simplest.nobel. His great experimental tradition still lives on in New Zealand and manifests itself in such recent accomplishments as the jet powered beverage cooler2.se/chemistry/laureates/1908/ http://www.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Wilkins. the water is cooled very quickly.html 4 A modern “perpetual motion machine” involving rolling balls and magnets can be found at http://www. This cooler consists of a tank of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) in a container of water. To avoid accidental and explosive accidental ignition of the very flammable gas.st-andrews. how much gas (in litres measured at 170 Atmospheres and a temperature of 21°C) do I need to release in order to cool 10 litres of water from 21°C to 9°C? Hint: Assume the water and gas are brought into thermal contact and left to adiabatically reach equilibrium. 2 1 Page 2 of 5 .4 http://www.theverylastpageoftheinternet. (a) What is the average rate (in Watts) that the cooler removes heat from the water? I don’t have any LPG in my lab (and I have enough sense not to risk explosion. is often described as the greatest experimental physicist of the 20th century. When gas is released from the tank. (b) If I release gas from my bottle and allow it to expand adiabatically to atmospheric pressure. The ball would then fall and be returned to the ramp’s base.3) Jet cooled! The New Zealand physicist Ernest Rutherford1. but it appears to be able to cool about 10 litres of water from 14°C to 2°C in about 5 minutes. fire. [David] 4) Perpetual motion? Of the many fascinating perpetual machines proposed through history. that proposed Johannes Taisnierus in 1570 and discussed by Bishop John Wilkins of Chester3 in his book “Mathematical Magick.co. The magnet fixed on the top of the column was to draw the iron ball up the ramp until the ball reached the hole in the ramp. The specifications of the cooler are a bit sparse.ac. estimate how cold (in °C) will it get? (c) If I then use this cold gas to cool water.htm.asciimation.

a pleasant walk is better than moping in bed. ….us/staff/SLee/science/molecules. but not down) If you really made such a device. I think these demonstrations are great. The electric dipole (point charges ±Q. mass m) rolling up the ramp. separated by a distance d) at the upper left is aligned with the path of the ball (charge –q. describe and discuss what would happen when the ball is released (from the initial position shown in the figure) until it either stops or it finishes one complete cycle of an infinitely repeated loop. then after N steps you will find yourself on (root-meansquare) average a distance of N steps away from where you started. This is only recommended for hikers who aren’t in a hurry to get anywhere. If the probabilities for going forwards or backwards are equal. 1 2 http://www. Suggest possible explanations for the reported result (or convince me that I am wrong in saying that the result cannot be due to random walk diffusion).html Page 3 of 5 . When the ball is over the hole. and feel free to make any realistic minor design changes that might improve the performance of the device. its centre is a distance d from the +Q point charge. d -Q +Q d ? ? -q m ? L θ ? trap door (lets ball move up through hole. A one-dimensional random walk is when you walk along a line. and for each step the direction – forwards or backwards – is determined randomly. juice. but you can use ink. but only 4 minutes for a same-sized glass of hot water. Does your answer depend on the ramp angle. A classic example of a random walk process is diffusion. 3 http://hastings. or any other parameters (possibly including parameters not listed here)? Assume that the device is as well made as is humanly possible.brucetrail. pop. θ. One website3 I looked at said it took 7 minutes for dye to diffuse throughout a glass of cold water. as shown in the diagram below.Let’s consider an modern electrostatic version of this device. The length L (>>d) is the distance from the centre of the charged ball to the centre of the dipole. and random walks are particularly important in physics. but it is not obvious to me that diffusion is the dominant process distributing the dye in most such demonstrations. (a) Show that such a result cannot be due to random walk diffusion.lexington.ci. and the classic elementary school demonstration of diffusion is dye2 dropped into water. [Isamu] 5) A slow day on the Bruce Trail!1 If all else fails.org/ The “dye” is usually food colouring.ma.

Hints: Calculate the ratio of temperatures. 1 Page 4 of 5 .1 Next I tried injecting food colouring into the bottom of a container with an eyedropper2. but a dense bottom layer of sugar water was also created which seemed to affect the diffusion. and describe an improved experiment to study the diffusion of dye in room temperature water. not the top. [David] Note: A good experimenter always reports any interesting effects observed. of the water in the two glasses if it the results are due to random walk diffusion. (b) Do the experiment yourself by dropping some dye into hot and cold glasses of water. Do your results agree with the results I report from the elementary school website? (c) Design. (I discovered the top of my fridge or a south facing window are NOT good places. I also tried putting a few drops of food colouring into a tiny paper pocket which I weighted with a nickel and taped the edges shut before dropping into the container. and the mean step size is roughly given by the mean spacing between water molecules.) I waited for the water to be motionless and in thermal equilibrium before adding the dye. Chunks of leftover Hallowe’en lollipops gently dropped into the containers initially seemed to work well (and were used to bribe young children not to mess with my experiments). do. Thot/Tcold. The mean speed of the molecules depends on the molecular mass and on the temperature. even if they don’t match initial expectations. 2 Actually a plastic straw with the top taped shut since I didn’t have an eyedropper. Diffusion in 3-dimensions can be treated as 3 independent one-dimensional random walks. I tried adding the dye to the bottom. The candy dissolved in the water and released its colouring. Is the movement of the colour in your container in your new experiment consistent with random walk diffusion? Hints: Here are some of the “improvements” I tried: I found a spot where my water containers were be safe from being moved or shaken or subject to sudden temperature changes. but often the dye leaked out before I reached the bottom.

000000063)×10-19 C (1.html http://pdg.e.00000013)×10-27 kg (1.2 astronomical unit (mean earth-sun distance) atomic mass unit: (mass 12C atom)/12 Boltzmann constant elementary (i.673±0.66053873±0.0000024)×10-23 J/K (1.602176462±0.602176462±0.80665 m/s2 atm 101325 Pa σ yr (5.010)×10-11 m3/kg/s2 8.2 s 1 2 http://physics.846 ± 0.nist.000004)×10-34 J·s (3.nobel.6260755±0.POPBits™ – Possibly useful bits of information Constants and units1.html Page 5 of 5 .15K Elephants can smell water more than 5 km away.se/physics/educational/tools/quantum/energy-1.lbl.gov/cuu/Constants/index.3806503±0.gov/2000/contents_sports.html 3 http://www.670400±0.854187817×10-12 F/m (6. electron) charge electron volt Newtonian gravitational constant permittivity of free space Planck constant solar luminosity speed of light in vacuum standard acceleration of gravity at the earth’s surface standard atmospheric pressure at the earth’s surface Stephan-Boltzmann radiation constant tropical year (2001) Interesting facts about water Specific heat = 4186J/kg/K Freezing temperature at standard atmospheric pressure = 273.000000063)×10-19 J (6.000040)×10-8 W/m2/K4 31556925.008)×1026W 299 792 458 m/s 9. Great excuses for a party Birthday of the quantum3 (1900) Isaac Newton’s birthday (1642) December 14 December 25 au u k e eV GN ε0 h LÍ c g 149 597 870 660±20 m (1.

one could argue that pump does not “pump heat into the house” (especially if the motor is inside the house). The heat pumped per joule of work is  Q −1  T −1  273° − 20° −1 Qin Qin = = 1 − out  = 1 − out  = 1 −  = 7. we just add 273°. The total energy of a molecule is the sum of its rest mass and its thermal energy. my mass is just proportional to my molecules masses.2001-2002 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program – University of Toronto – Solution Set 3: Thermodynamics 1) How much heat could a heat pump pump if a heat pump could pump heat? (a) By energy conservation. as long as you remember E=mc2. so maybe “provide heat to the house” would be better wording. Rereading the question. so the fractional increase in my mass going from T1=37°C to T2=39°C is  3kT2   3kT1  3k  m0 +  −  m0 + 2  (T − T ) 2 T2 − T1 m(T2 ) − m(T1 )     2c 2 2 1 c c 2 2 = = = 3kT 3kT m(T1 ) 2 m0c 2 m0 + 21 m0 + 21 + T1 2c 2c 3k Page 1 of 8 . Some students (equally correctly) used the heat capacity of an ideal gas or water. the work must provide the difference between the heat pumped from the outside and the heat delivered to the inside. In this approximation. so the heat pump always provides at least W heat. (b) The maximum efficiency possible is for a Carnot engine. ∴ Qhot T = hot Qcold Tcold ⇒ Qin T = in Qout Tout To convert from °C to absolute temperature in °K.3  273° + 20°  W Qin − Qout  Qin  Tin   (c) The motor’s work is converted to heat. 2) Relatively heavy Another easy one. (We can define its potential energy to be zero. |W|=|Qin|-|Qout|. but this is how I did it. so its only thermal energy is its kinetic energy and the total energy is 3 E = mc 2 = m0c 2 + kT 2 3kT ∴ m = m0 + 2 2c Where m0 is the rest mass of the molecule at T=0.e. i.) An ideal gas molecule has no internal or rotational degrees of freedom.

e. For an ideal gas undergoing adiabatic expansion. you are supposed to know it) water is H2O and hence has an atomic mass of 18.html http://www. so m0=18u.As is well known (i. (1−γ ) 3  −1 γ P    170 atm  5  i   ∴ Tf = Ti   = (273° + 21°)K  = 38K = −235°C   1atm   Pf  (c) To cool 10 litres of water by 12°.) 3) Jet cooled! (a) The average cooling rate is just dQ (10 l × 1kg / l)(14° − 2°)K J = (4186J / kg / K ) = 1674 = 1.com/entry. P 3P∆T 3(170 atm × 101325Pa/atm)244 K 1 2 http://www. (b) The reason I chose helium1 for this problem is that it is a noble gas. and noble gases2 act almost like an ideal gas at normal temperatures. we must have 2∆Q .7kW dt s (5 min × 60s /min) where we have used the well known density of water (1kg/litre). Thus m( 39°C ) − m( 37°C ) 39°C − 37°C = 2 − 27 m( 37°C ) 2 18 × 1. our cold expanded helium gas has a thermal energy 3 2 Q = N kT = PV . P(1−γ)Tγ is a constant. (You get the same order of magnitude no matter which way you do it.webelements. so using the ideal gas law.661 × 10 kg (299792458 m / s) ( 3 1.3807 × 10−23 J / K ( ) ) + ( 37°C + 273°K ) = 1.-&hh=1 Page 2 of 8 . The thermal energy of an ideal gas molecule is just 3kT/2. 2 3 To provide the required ∆Q.com/webelements/elements/text/He/key.jsp?xrefid=490629&secid=. where P is the pressure. where u is the atomic mass unit. T is the absolute temperature. N= 3k∆T where ∆T =9°C-(-235°C)=244K is the temperature increase of the gas as it reaches equilibrium with the water. and γ=5/3 is a constant. Using the ideal gas law the volume of gas (at 170 Atmospheres and 21°C) required is 2(21K + 273K )(502320 J ) NkT 2T∆Q V= = = = 23 × 10−3 m 3 = 23l . we need ∆Q = (10 l × 1kg / l)(21° − 9°)K ( 4186 J / kg / K ) = 502320 J of heat removed.5 × 10−14 So the fractional mass increase is about 10-14.xrefer.

Because of the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics (e. the ball will bounce backwards with a strength proportional to the elasticity of the collision. Page 3 of 8 . it will not move unless the attractive force of the dipole can overcome gravity and static friction. assuming constant pressure probably does make more sense (since the gas is being released and expands in air at atmospheric pressure). many students used (equally correctly) the heat capacity of an ideal gas.enough helium to inflate about 300 11" balloons. this requirement becomes Qq d > mg sin θ 2πε0 L3 This is possible for appropriate charges and masses. but we accepted both answers. 4) Perpetual motion? When the ball is released. We will assume that we can make it such that the static friction is very small. the ball will not have quite enough energy to raise the flap since in the initial position the flap was down. friction.g.That corresponds to about 4 cubic metres at atmospheric temperature . Rereading how I worded the question. (If there is just an wall perpendicular to the direction of the ball. although it may not be easy. (For example. otherwise it will bounce) around the circular return path.) Since the ball can’t quite get back to its starting point. everything would have to be constructed from insulators and the experiment done in a vacuum to prevent charged particles in the air being attracted to our charges. …) the ball will not quite get back to its initial position. it will roll back down the circular return path and end up oscillating back and forth with small and smaller amplitude until it finally stops. so we must have Qq Qq − > mg sin θ 2 2 4 πε0 ( L − d 2) 4 πε0 ( L + d 2)     2 Ld Qq   > mg sin θ ∴ 2  4 πε0  2 2   d   − L   4    Since L>>d. so I added a deflector to make sure the ball goes down in the right direction. even if friction is essentially zero. Once again. inelasticity. and the flap has some mass which must be raised against gravity.) Once the ball starts to move. My answer corresponds to using the heat capacity at constant volume.) The ball will roll (if the deflector is just right. (For example. but you get 14l if you use the heat capacity at constant pressure. it will roll up the ramp until it hits the barrier where it will be deflected down.

since one can always improve the experiment in some way. the ball will stick at the top of the ramp. in many ways. this means the angle θ must be pretty small.4 (a) The density of liquid water doesn’t change very much between freezing and boiling temperatures. − 2 4 πε0  (2d) 2  d  3Qq sin θ < mg ∴ 16πε0 d 2 This requirement combined with our earlier requirement to get the ball started gives Qq d 3Qq sin 2 θ > mg sin θ > 3 2 2πε0 L 16πε0 d ∴d > Since we want L>>d.Note that the oscillations may include bouncing back down the ramp. (It will stick the first time it reaches the top of the ramp if the collision with the wall Fdipole θ is inelastic enough.html.e.edu/~hsdept/faculty/galison/how_experiments_end. see http://www. The exact path depends on the amount of friction and the inelasticity of any bounces. so the number of steps to diffuse over the whole glass is pretty much An interesting book discussing these kinds of issues is “How Experiments End”. When the ball stops on the circular path. 4 For POPTOR. it is traditional in schools and universities – and this is also the case for POPTOR – that experiments do not usually receive a weight in marking proportional to the effort required to do them well. First. one never “completes” a real experiment. but we have assumed we are doing a good job in designing this device. The equilibrium position depends on the strength of the dipole. we “correct” for this by keeping a separate record of how people do on experiments.harvard. it will stop slightly to the left of the bottom of the ramp. but because of the energy losses.) If we want the ball end up with the ball finally Fgravity stopping on the circular path. we must build the dipole such that Fdipole sin θ < Fgravity   1  Qq  1 sin θ < mg i. Second. the ball never can get back to its start. If it is strong enough to overcome gravity. 3 ( 3 sin 2 θ 8 ) 1 3 L Page 4 of 8 .3 Third. the important thing is make measurements and then to interpret them to the best of your ability.fas. 5) A slow day on the Bruce Trail! A couple of comments about experimental questions on POPTOR.

i. which is wider and darker at the bottom. 7:38pm Movement is clearly visible in the hot water. people aren’t very good at judging when the dye has completely diffused.2cm tall and 6. The maximum temperature range of liquid water is from freezing (273K) to boiling (373K). τ. (b) I reproduced the experiment using identical cylindrical glass glasses 10±0.constant independent of temperature. The hot water clearly had more swirling. One might expect convection in the hot water driven by temperature differences at the water surfaces. i. especially if they have prior expectations about what should happen.2cm in diameter (measured with a plastic ruler). The whole point of the demo was to show that diffusion is faster in hot water. The is only slow movement in the cold water. i. The cold glass is still has clearly visible strands of colour. 7:40 The dye is almost uniformly distributed in the hot glass.2. 7:35pm Food colouring added to each glass. I used water from my taps and the hot water was 50±1°C and the cold water was 15±1°C. and the dye is in thin strands. which is much less than the reported ratio of 7min/4min=1. The change in diffusion times is dominated by the change in mean molecular velocities at different temperatures. The diffusion time.e. Clearly the residual motion from adding the water to the glasses had not stopped.e. Another possibility is that the measurement errors were very large. 1 τ∝ v Using the relationship between kinetic energy and velocity. In the cold glass the dye when mostly to the bottom and then swirled slowly.e. consistent with convection. is inversely proportional to the mean velocity. but it is clearly slightly darker at the top than the bottom. One obvious possible reason for the reported results is that hot water was moving more which mixes the dye faster. and a 17% (or less) difference is not subjectively “large enough”. The mean free path that a diffusing dye molecule travels before colliding with a water molecule is about the same for both temperatures.3±0.. More clear is a dark vertical swirl along the axis of the glass. ∝ Page 5 of 8 . where the uncertainties are just my reading errors since I didn’t calibrate my rather cheap outdoor thermometer.75.17   273  τ hot   Tcold  So the maximum ratio of diffusion times in water is about 1. and temperature and kinetic energy for an ideal gas we have 1 τ∝ ⇐ E kinetic = 1 mv 2 2 E kinetic 1 3 kT ⇐ E kinetic = 2 T So the diffusion time is inversely proportional to the square-root of the absolute temperature. so the maximum ratio of diffusion times is  T  τ  373 hot  max cold  = max = = 1.

8:12 Both hot and cold are still fading and mixing. I put it in a window and I noticed a beautiful (but very slow) convection cycle starting with water on the warm (room) side moving up about 1. I let the water reach equilibrium before adding the dye. and there was clearly non-diffusive mixing at the beginning. but otherwise the same 8:31 Both hot and cold look uniform to me. but then all movement stopped until I threw it out after a week. This one had a narrow tip and very little food colouring (my preferred dye) leaked out while I gently inserted it.) 12:20am Dye layers now 2-3mm thick 12:43am 4-5mm thick. but also a dark 5-10mm thick layer at the bottom. the other a uniform red. darker at the bottom than the top. It took about an hour before both hot and cold glasses looked uniform to me.5cm after an hour. Once put in a uniform temperature position. but fading. 11:49pm Dye covers bottom of both glasses uniformly with a layer 1-2mm thick. 7:51 Page 6 of 8 . My guess (and it is only a guess) is that so the candy formed a network of molecules which stopped the diffusion. but initially not all the bottom was covered. The first time I did this. 7:15am The bulk colour is a bit darker maybe. The thing that worked best was a better eyedropper than the one I mentioned in the question. It formed a thin layer on the bottom of each glass. and strands in cold. and as mentioned in the question. The strands in the cold water are still visible. 8:00am One glass is a unifrom blue. There was no obvious difference in the diffusion.Can still see dark central region in hot glass. (The range is because it is hard to determine the top of the layer. but the dark 5-10mm thick layer at the bottom is still there. but mixing is steadily progressing. 8:00pm The liquid is uniform blue in the “blue” glass. and I could deposit a nice layer of dye at the bottom. 1:15am 5-6mm thick 2:03am 6-8mm thick 5:03am There is a light green-blue colour throughout the blue glass. with a similar darker red layer on bottom. 8:02 Dark central region in hot glass is fading. but the red still has a darker layer on the bottom. (c) I used the same glasses as in part (a). The candy dropped to the bottom was interesting in that after dissolving the dye slowly diffused up a couple of centimetres. but still just visible. I observed the following: 11:30pm Food colouring (red and blue) added to two glasses. and no sign of movement. There was a constant 2 cm layer of coloured water at the bottom. but no movement on the cold (window) side. 11:39pm Dye has almost covered the bottom of each glass. The red glass has a uniform pink colour througout.) When I swirled the glass before throwing out the water I could clearly see the sugar (because of the change in index of refraction). (Within the 2cm layer it was darker near the bottom.

to see if it follows a square-root time spread.1 × 10 5 2 L2  λ λv 3.e. 3 kT =2 ∴ v = 3kT mmolecule(dye) For water molecules diffusing at room temperature ∴ vH 2 0 = 3kT mmolecule(H 2 0 ) = 3 1.1nm The mean velocity of the water molecules is calculated from the kinetic thermal energy. but we can estimate the diffusion time to see if it is consistent.35 × 10 25 m−3 -27 mmolecule(H 2O ) 18(1. with the red taking a bit longer than the blue. The molecular weight of water is 18.35 × 10 25 m−3 3 3 ρ H 2O n 1m v2 2 molecule(dye) ( ) −1 3 = 3.1nm(637 m / s) m For our 10cm tall glass we expect m So the water molecules take well over an hour to diffuse through the glass. Nevertheless the time scale for diffusion of the food colouring throughout my 10cm tall glasses is about a day. and the heavier dye molecules should take even longer. We can’t confirm the square root time dependence.1 × 10-9 m = 3. i.66053873 × 10 kg) and the mean free path between collisions should be about λ= mmolecule(H 2O ) 1 = = 3.1m) 2 = 5 × 10 3 s Page 7 of 8 . A quick search on the web and we can find t = 5 × 10 5 s 2 (0.66053873 × 10-27 kg) ( ) = 637 m / s and the mean time between collisions is τ= λ v The mean number of steps to diffuse a distance L is about  L 2 steps =    λ and the mean time to diffuse a distance L is about ρ H 2O  L 2 L2 t =  τ = = L2 3  λ mmolecule(H 2O ) λv For water this is mmolecule(dye) 3kT  L 2 L2 L2 s t =  τ = = = 5. so the density of water molecules is ρ H 2O 1kg / m 3 n= = = 3.It is very hard to measure the progress. This is because diffusion does not have a sharp edge.3807 × 10−23 J / K (273 + 20K ) 18(1.

kiriya-chem.co.html Page 8 of 8 . but some molecules will be slower and some faster. so it will take longer than the diffusion time to get a perfectly uniform colour. (Note that the diffusion time tells us the average time for a molecule to travel the 10cm. so scaling by the square root of the molecular mass (from the above formulae) we expect their diffusion times to be about 500 tdye ≈ 5 × 10 3 s ≈ 7 hr 18 which is quite consistent with what I saw.that most common food colourings have molecular weights5 of 400-1000. with most around 500.jp/eng/syokuyou/chem-2.) 5 http://www.

but this isn’t necessary. transparent food wrap. I darkened some of the lines to make them more visible if looked at out of focus while looking through a droplet at another piece of graph paper in focus. I used either bright daylight or a flashlight. The magnification is conventionally defined as the apparent size compared to the size seen at the naked eye at a distance of 25cm from the eye.Hints: The drop should be more or less circular as seen from the top. I could put samples (e. not like the one on the right. Make sure you have good lighting. transparent CD or audio cassette cases…. I have used shiny transparent tape. I use a drinking straw to gently deposit my drops on the plastic. Your droplet lens is fairly sensitive to vibration.g.) You want the drop to be as rounded as possible.g. Overhead lights provided a convenient light source for the focal length measurement. e. not smeared out. I found pieces of linear graph paper very useful for studying magnification and distortion. so it is better to support your piece of plastic so you don’t have to hold it and you can put things underneath your lens without touching it. like the drop on the left. [David] Page 3 of 4 . With a little practice. (Plastic seems to work better than glass. salt crystals) on the bottom of an audio cassette case and consistently put the right sized drop on the top which gave the right focal length.

80665 m/s2 (5.POPBits™ – Possibly useful bits of information Constants and units1.0000024)×10-23 J/K (1.lbl.nist.98892 ± 0.html 3 http://www.010)×10-11 m3/kg/s2 (3.se/physics/laureates/1976/press.nobel.66053873±0.602176462±0. electron) charge electron volt index of refraction of water Newtonian gravitational constant solar luminosity (i.00025)×1030kg 299 792 458 m/s 9.000000063)×10-19 J 1.00000013)×10-27 kg (1.000000063)×10-19 C (1.2 s elementary (i.008)×1026W (1.html 5 http://www. light output) solar mass speed of light in vacuum standard acceleration of gravity at the earth’s surface Stephan-Boltzmann radiation constant tropical year (2001) Great excuses for a party σ yr High energy Nobel birthdays: Hideki Yukawa3 (1907) Samuel Chao Chung Ting4 (1931) Abdus Salam5 (1926) January 23 January 27 January 29 1 2 http://physics.e.nobel.html Page 4 of 4 .se/physics/laureates/1949/press.000040)×10-8 W/m2/K4 31556925.670400±0.3806503±0.2 astronomical unit (mean earth-sun distance) atomic mass unit: (mass Boltzmann constant 12C atom)/12 au u k e eV nH20 GN LÍ MÍ c g 149 597 870 660±20 m (1.gov/cuu/Constants/index.nobel.846 ± 0.gov/2000/contents_sports.673±0.se/physics/laureates/1979/salam-bio.html 4 http://www.html http://pdg.33 (6.e.602176462±0.

5 × 10 7 = 1. I’ll pull. so the pressure on a dust particle at a distance r from the sun is the total momentum of the photons per unit area per unit time. so we can just use the non-relativistic Doppler formula for frequency (f ) or wavelength (λ): f ′  v λ  v = 1 +  or = 1 +  f  c λ′  c  690 nm v ∴ −1 = 600 nm c m km v = 0.e. the police officer clearly should issue a ticket. The momentum and energy of the photons are h hc pγ = and Eγ = λ λ The number of photons produced per second by the sun are L L λ Nγ = Í = Í Eγ hc A dust particle absorbs the momentum of any photon hitting it.15c = 4. i.99 . N γ pγ LÍ hλ L PÍ = = = Í2 2 2 4 πr hc 4 πr λ 4 πcr The total light force on a spherical dust grain of radius R is 4 πcr 2 4 cr 2 The mass of a spherical dust grain of radius R and density ρ is FL = PÍ × Area = PÍπR 2 = LÍπR 2 = LÍ R 2 m= 4 πR 3ρ 3 The dust grains will be attracted to the sun when the light pressure force is weaker than the gravitational attraction of the sun. Officer! If the driver is relativistic. when Page 1 of 5 . i.2001-2002 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program – University of Toronto – Solution Set 4: Optics 1) Yes.e.6 × 10 8 ∴ s hour So the driver is clearly speeding and deserves a ticket. 2 2) You push. The exact relativistic Doppler shift differs by only a factor of 1 − (v c ) = 0.

when the rate of change of pathlength is dr 2v = dt t = 0  2 1+  d   2 x0  The wavelength of the signal is c 3 × 10 8 m / s 100 = = m f 57 × 10 6 / s 19 So the balloon is rising with a velocity of λ=  2  2 1 8λ 1 dr 1 100  25 = = 0.56 m / s m 1 + 1+  d 2x  = 1 + 50 km    (2 × 20km) 15s  19  0  2 dt t = 0 2 60 s 16 Note: Some people used differences instead of derivatives to get almost the same answer. Another nice example of the effect of radiation pressure on interstellar dust is the Trifid Nebula (http://antwrp. 3) 500 channels . v= Page 2 of 5 . This is why the clouds of gas and small dust are blown away when a star ignites.9 × 10−7 m 16πcGN ρMÍ So the dust grains must be larger than 0.gsfc. This works fine in this case since the change in distance is so small compared to the initial distance. v=dx/dt. The balloon rises with a constant velocity.html).nasa.but nothing to watch! 4 πR 3ρM Í < GN 3 2 2 r r 2 d x 2 d 2 2 The distance between me and the TV transmitter are fixed. so the interference indicates that the signal path length is increasing by 8 wavelengths per minute.gov/apod/ap990608. so 4 (vt + x 0 )v dr d 2 = 4 (vt + x 0 ) + d 2 = 2 dt dt 4 (vt + x ) + d 2 0 We are interested in the time t=0.2µm to fall into the sun. The path length of the reflected signal is r = 2 x 2 + ( d / 2) = 4 x 2 + d 2 = 4 (vt + x 0 ) + d 2 2 2 where t=0 is defined to be when the balloon has a height x 0 = 20 km .∴ FL < FG ∴ ∴ LÍ R 2 4 cr 4 cr 2 < GN mMÍ r2 LÍ R 2 r 3LÍ ∴R > = 1.

so using the hint that all the light meeting at a focus will have travelled the same optical distance. it diverges and again focuses and the focusing and diverging will be repeated in the medium. (See. so the light will form a thin beam. In this case there is positive feedback (i.) (c) The variation in n drops over a distance w. After it focuses. but the net result is a beam.2 1 0. This follows from Snell’s Law or the law of optical distance given as a hint in part (c). (b) The beam focuses down because the index of refraction is proportional to the intensity and so is higher nearer to the axis.4 0. light always bends in the direction of higher index of refraction.2 0 -4 -2 0 2 4 x/w The width is determined by the parameter w. the light bends towards the region of high index of refraction which increases the intensity there which increases the index of refraction. so we can make the approximation of triangular focusing L2 = w 2 + f 2 At the edge the index of refraction is n1. w L f Page 3 of 5 . When passing through varying indices of refraction.4) An intense experience! (a) 1. for example http://focus.org/v8/st26.6 0.aps. we have   n Ln1 ~ f  n1 + 2 I 0   2  where we use the average index of refraction between the centre and the edge.8 I/I0 0.html. while at the centre it is n1+n2I0.e. …).

(b) A 5mm drop has a magnification of 30±3. the larger diameters gave larger focal lengths.com/spectrochemical/int_papers/ip34.8 8.3 5±1 6±0.4 7.5 12. CD cases made very high (i. and smaller magnification. name tag holders.5 18±1 5±1 3±0. Shorter drops had longer focal lengths and less magnification.8±0.7±0.g.4±0. larger field of view.pdf.5 Magnification 40±5 32±4 30±3 22±3 17±2 9±1 4±1 30±3 40±3 (a) As you see from the above table. There are several different kinds of distortion.8 13.9±0.0±0. If you cannot access the IOP website. (c) In general. I found a 5 mm drop to have a focal length of 6±1mm. I assume this depended on how hydrophobic the plastic is.8 3.e.Diameter (mm) 3.iop.6 4. Page 5 of 5 . When looking at graph paper.2±0.3 Focal Length (mm) 4.6 6.5±1 29±3 54±6 6. the lines were more curved near the edges for small drops. but for large drops it was less likely all the field of view would be in focus and the drop was less likely to be circular which lead to more distortion. …). thick) drops. it is also available (although the beautiful colour photos are only in black and white) from the Applied Spectroscopy Laboratory at the University of Indonesia at http://www.3 3.5±0. I could also make the drops lower by waiting for them to evaporate or poking them with a paper clip.org/EJ/S/1/NTO803278/abstract/0031-9120/36/2/301). You can see a nice example of a water droplet microscope in the journal Physics Education 36 (March 2001) 97-101 (http://www. overhead transparencies. One thing I noticed was that difference support plastics made different height drops.0±0.1±0. while the drops were lower on other plastics (e.geocities.5±0.

i. and has an electrical resistivity of 12 µΩ cm. (You may not need all this data.5 Tesla. i.23mm in diameter.3g/m. [David] 2) Relatively electric! Near the surface of the earth there is typically a vertical electric field of about -120 V/m.gov/cdf.University of Toronto 2001-2002 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program Problem Set 5: Electricity and Magnetism Due Monday 11 March 2002 1) Purple Haze! My old friend Steve studies top quarks using the CDF1 experiment which has a very large superconducting solenoidal magnet with a uniform horizontal field of 1.) The string vibrates sinusoidally in its lowest mode. as measured by a magnetic field meter just above the surface of the earth 1 2 http://www-cdf.physics. Assume that any heat produced in the string can only escape through the ends of the string or through Steve’s fingers. thermal radiation and convection are negligible. (c) What is the typical surface magnetic field (magnitude and direction) at the equator produced by this surface electric charge density.e.edu/courses/phys398/ Page 1 of 3 . Steve also loves guitars. but we didn’t want to leave out anything potentially useful. 0.fnal. electrical conductivity relates charge flow and voltage differences. In addition to physics. a thermal conductivity of 80 W/m/K. is he likely to shock himself or burn his fingers on the E4 string if it is vibrating with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 1mm? Hints: The E4 string (330 Hz) on Steve’s guitar is 66 cm long.) (a) Why aren’t people electrocuted by the typical 200 V potential difference between the air at their feet and the air at their head? (b) What is the typical surface electric charge density on the earth’s surface? Give your answer in units of electron charges per metre squared.2 Is it safe for Steve to play his guitar inside the CDF magnet? In particular. a linear mass density of 0. (The field can reach 20 kV/m underneath a thundercloud .this is why your hair may stand on end just before you get hit by lightning .uiuc. The time scale for heat flow out of the wire is much longer than the oscillation period of the wire. and both ends of the string are connected to pins at constant temperature (21°C).but we’ll ignore this interesting but irrelevant safety tip for the rest of the problem. and a specific heat of 500 J/kg/K. thermal conductivity relates heat flow and temperature differences.e. Thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity are completely analogous and the equations have identical form.html http://webug.

or sunset. Show that the electric field in the region of overlap is uniform and calculate its magnitude and direction. but some exotic theories predict it will fall with a different acceleration. (b) If the two spheres have the same radii R and the distance between them is much smaller than the radius (d<<R). The north pole of a magnet is the one which is attracted to the north pole of the earth. For the purposes of this question.g. [David] Page 2 of 3 . you may first want to think about the net force on the free conduction electrons inside the copper. You can ignore the fact that the positron will quickly annihilate with an electron. a positron is just like an electron. V. letting the earth rotate under it? (d) Are either of your answers to the two parts of (c) consistent with the observed magnitude (typically 30µT) or observed direction of the surface magnetic field at the earth’s equator? Hints: My coordinates are such that an electric field pointing up is positive. Don’t worry about the fact that the meter sitting above the surface of the earth would be moving supersonically. What is the vertical acceleration of the positron? Hints: Assume General Relativity is correct.) [Yaser] 4) Does it (anti)matter? When I was a kid watching Star Trek (during its original run). What is the maximum surface charge density σ0? What is the electric field inside the sphere in terms of σ0? ii) What is the electric potential. pointing down is negative. The surface of the earth. [David] 3) Spheres within spheres An insulating sphere r of radius R with uniform volume charge density of r has an electric field inside r ρ r where r is the distance from the center of the sphere (r<R ). and assume it can move freely through the copper just like conduction electrons.i) if it is attached to the earth and rotates with it? ii) just above the surface of the earth. I sometimes wondered if antimatter falls up. you can consider the whole thing as one sphere with a surface charge density σ. e. cows. and people. Before thinking about positrons. but with opposite charge. assume it is in a jet flying in an eternal sunrise. Experiments trying to observe the gravitational force on antimatter usually use conductors to shield the antiparticles from external electromagnetic forces. or noon. According to General Relativity it should fall down at the same rate as ordinary matter. i) Find σ on the surface in terms of the angle that it makes with the line connecting the two centres. Imagine a positron inside a solid piece of copper on the surface of the earth. (a) Consider two overlapping spheres of radii R1 and R2 with uniform charge densities ρ and -ρ and at a distance d from each other (d<R1+R2). Note that this is a it equal to E = 3ε0 vector formula. on the surface of the sphere in terms of the angle that it makes with the line connecting the two centres? (The potential is defined to be zero at infinite distance. all have similar (non-infinite) resistivities.

670400±0.lbl. I figured it out just by playing around with two similar fridge magnets and making a measurement or two with a ruler.673±0.80665 m/s2 (5.378140×106 m (1.010)×10-11 m3/kg/s2 8.4 Boltzmann constant Earth equatorial radius elementary (i.nist. Describe what you did and what your conclusions are. flexible refrigerator magnet.854187817×10-12 F/m 4π×10-7 N/A2 299 792 458 m/s 9.5) Refrigerator Art Experimentally and quantitatively determine the arrangement of north and south poles on a flat.0000024)×10-23 J/K 6.e.902±0. electron) charge electron (or positron) inertial mass electron volt Newtonian gravitational constant permittivity of free space permeability of free space speed of light in vacuum standard acceleration of gravity at the earth’s surface Stephan-Boltzmann radiation constant Interesting (?) Integrals ( a is a constant) k R⊕ e me eV GN ε0 (1.000040)×10-8 W/m2/K4 µ0 c g σ cos( ax ) ∫ sin(ax )dx = − 1 a x 1 − sin(2 ax ) ∫ sin2 (ax )dx = 2 4a Great excuses for a party Galileo’s birthday (1564) Discovery of radioactivity (1896) 3 4 sin( ax ) ∫ cos(ax )dx = 1 a x 1 + sin(2 ax ) ∫ cos2 (ax )dx = 2 4a February 14 March 1 http://physics.602176462±0. We don’t care which poles are north and which poles are south. but there may be other methods.000000063)×10-19 J (6.602176462±0. Hints: We are talking about the flexible magnetic cards which usually have advertising on one side and a dark smooth surface on the back.3806503±0.html Page 3 of 3 . [David] POPBits™ – Possibly useful bits of information Constants and units3.gov/cuu/Constants/index.021) eV/c2 (1.000000063)×10-19 C (510998. but what is the arrangement of the poles.gov/2000/contents_sports.html http://pdg.

the induced electromotive force produced by the string sweeping out an area A in the magnetic field B is  πx  dA d L a pp ϕ=B =B ∫ sin(ωt) sin dx L dt dt 0 2 a pp dx app L L L   πx  ω cos(ωt) cos  = −2 BLa ppν cos(ωt) =B π   L 0 2 where ω=2πν is the radial frequency and ν=330Hz is the frequency of oscillation. and the net heat flow in the right half of the string (in the figure) is to the right. the power produced in a segment.001m) 330 s−1 = 0. Assuming the string is oscillating sinusoidally. the middle of the string must be the hottest point.m.f. the string will heat up. The magnitude of the peak e.7V This is not enough voltage to shock Steve. The string will heat up until it reaches a steady state where the heat flowing through each segment just matches the joule heating of the Page 1 of 8 . By symmetry. is then ϕ p = −2 BLa ppν = 2(1. of the string with voltage drop dV across its resistance dR is 2  a pp  πx   ω cos(ωt) sin dx  2 2 B AB 2 a 2  πx  L  dV ) (  2 ppω cos2 (ωt) sin 2  dx dP = = = ρ L 4ρ dR dx A where A is now the cross-sectional area of the string and ρ is it’s resistivity. dx.66 m)(0. and the flow in the left half is too the left.5T )(0. but is the string temperature safe? By Joule’s and Ohm’s Laws.2001-2002 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program – University of Toronto – Solution Set 5: Electricity and Magnetism 1) Purple Haze! y This can be done using the Lorentz force x law. but we’ll use Faraday’s Law. The average power produced over one complete oscillation of the string is dP = 2 AB 2 a 2 ppω 4ρ sin  dx cos (ωt) = L 2 2  πx  AB 2 a 2 pp (2πν ) 4ρ 2 sin 2  πx  2π cos2 (ωt) dt ∫ 0 dx   L ∫ 02 π dt 1 1 2 π t − sin 2 ω ( )  2 2 2 2 AB 2 a 2 AB 2 a 2  πx    πx  2 4ω 0 ppπ ν ppπ ν = sin 2  dx = sin 2  dx L L 2π 2ρ ρ Since heat is being produced.

5T ⋅ 2 ⋅ 330 Hz ⋅ 420 mm 2 = 0. Alternate shorter approach from Alex: The area swept out by the string is = 5100 K A= 660mm 0 πx 2 dx = 420 mm ∫ (1mm) sin  660 mm    and this area is swept out twice per cycle.f.com). but a carbon fibre or diamond string would burst into flames first. is ϕ ≅B The resistance is dA = 1. the metal with the highest melting point.m.001m)2 (330 Hz )2 (0. I think Steve should keep his guitar out of the CDF magnet. 3695K.5T )2 (0.webelements. see http://www.42V dt Page 2 of 8 .66 m)2  π2   + 1 + (21K + 273K ) =  8(12 × 10 −6 Ω ⋅ 10 −2 m )(80W / m / K )   4  This means that Steve will burn his fingers. and if he tries to keep on playing with an insulated pick the string will melt (the element with the highest melting point.e. so the average e.) 2 2 2 2 dT B a ppπ ν  L  2πx  ∴ = L − 2 x + sin  dx 8 kρ π  L   The temperature profile of the string is thus x x B 2 a 2 π 2ν 2  dT L  2πx ′  pp T ( x ) − T (0) = ∫ dx ′ = ∫ L − 2 x ′ + sin dx ′ ′   dx 8 ρ π k L  0 0 2 2 B 2 a2 L2   2πx   ppπ ν  = Lx − x 2 − 2 cos  − 1 8 kρ  2π   L     The peak temperature of the string is for x=L/2 2 2 2  B2 a 2 ppν L π  T ( x) = + 1 + T (0) 8 kρ 4     (1. 3800K. is Tungsten.part of the string whose heat must flow out through the segment (i. integrated from the midpoint to the segment): x x AB 2 a 2 π 2ν 2  πx ′  dQ dT pp = −kA = ∫ dP = ∫ sin 2  dx ′  L  dt dx L / 2 2ρ L /2 2 2 2 2 AB 2 a 2 AB 2 a 2  2πx ′  x  2πx  L L ppπ ν  x ′ ppπ ν  x L = = sin sin  −  − −   2ρ 2ρ  2 4 π  L L / 2  2 4 4 π  L  (k is the thermal conductivity of the string. is carbon.

854 × 10−12 F / m)(−120V / m) ( σ =ε E = = −6.9Ω A π (0.e.6 × 10−19 C / e Note that the surface charge density is negative. r r r r r qinsidebox r = E top ⋅ Atop + E bottom ⋅ Abottom + E sides ⋅ Asides ε0 σA = EA + 0 ⋅ A + E sides Asides cos π 2 ε0 σ ∴ =E ε0 So the surface charge density is ∴ 0 1. (c) i) In the rest frame of the earth’s surface. the charge is moving with a velocity 8.023cm ) ( ) So the total power is V2 ϕ ≅P= = 93mW R Half the power is lost through the end of the string (with most power being produced in the middle). Near the surface of the earth it looks like a plane. the magnetic field generated by the surface charge density is zero.−6 ρL 12 × 10 Ω ⋅ cm 66cm ϕ ≅ BR = = = 1. since it isn’t moving in this reference frame. The energy density of the atmospheric “battery” is so low that only an infinitesimal surface current flows through the body. (b) The earth is a conductor. ii) In this frame. so we can just use a E=0 Gaussian box with top (and bottom) area A. i. so they short out the field so their whole body is at a constant potential. Thus P σπd 2 ∆T = 2 4 L /2 LP ∴ ∆T = = 4600 K σπd 2 ∴Tmiddle = Tend + ∆T ≈ 4900 K 2) Relatively electric! (a) People are much better conductors than air. so it will have zero field inside it and a charge density on E=200V/m its surface which can be calculated from the electric field at the surface using σ Gauss’s Law.6 × 10 6 electron ch arg es / m 2 Page 3 of 8 .

e. where t(θ ) is the thickness of the uncancelled charge layer at the surface. so we can use Ampere’s Law to calculate the magnetic field: r r µ I ∫ B ⋅ ds = 1 2 0 enclosed v= loop ∴ BL = 1 µ Lσv 2 0 ∴B = 1 µ σv = 1 µ ε Ev = 2 0 2 0 0 Ev 2c 2 =1 β 2 E = c 1 2 (120V / m)(464 m / s) = 0. The maximum charge thicness is obviously at t(0 )=d. -ρ r2 R2 L1 L2 R θ + d Using the cosine rule and the fact that the centre of each sphere is ofset by ±d/2 from their combined centre. 3) Spheres within spheres (a) The electric field in the region of overlap is ρr −ρr2 ρ E = E1 + E 2 = 1 + = (r1 − r2 ) 3ε0 3ε0 3ε0 Choosing sphere 1 as the origin. then ρ E= ( x1 − x 2 . σ0=ρd.2πR⊕ 2π 6. 0. Page 4 of 8 .378 × 10 6 m m = = 464 1day 24 hours × 3600 s / hour s underneath the observer. and defining the x axis to be the direction from the centre of sphere 1 to the centre of sphere 2.3 pT (3 × 108 m / s) y +ρ R1 x r1 2 (d) So the magnetic field is the right direction. This corresponds to a current sheet with a current density σv. The v Surface charges ⊗ I direction of the magnetic up field can be determined L to be from south to north using the right hand rule. but much too weak. so the surface charge density is just σ(θ )= ρ t(θ ). By symmetry and the Biot-Savart Law. the magnetic field must run at right angles to the velocity and parallel t to B North the surface. 0) 3ε0 ρ √ ∴E = d x 3ε0 (b) i) The charges cancel where the spheres overlap. we can calculate the thickness in the limit where d<<R. i.

The electrons natural arrange themselves for this to happen. so if the net force on a conduction electron is zero. i. This force is an equal and opposite electrostatic force generated by the electrons themselves sagging under the force of gravity. the net force on a positron must be Page 5 of 8 . so there must be a force balancing gravity. They start to fall but this very quickly causes the bottom of the copper to become slightly negatively charged relative to the top. the electrostatic force is the equal and opposite to that on a electron. In a piece of copper on the surface of the earth. and the electrons will stop moving when the charge imbalance is such that it exactly balances gravity everywhere inside the conductor.e. the conduction electrons feel the force of gravity. and this is just the same explanation why the electric field inside a conductor is always zero (except they never mention that the effect of gravity is to create a tiny non-zero electrostatic field). so if they are at rest they must feel no net force.t(θ ) = L2 (θ ) − L1 (θ ) = (L2 (θ ))2 − (L1 (θ ))2  d  2 2 Rd  d  2 2 Rd cosθ − R 2 +   − cos(π − θ ) = R2 +   − 2 2 2 2  d   d  ≅ R1 + cosθ  − R1 − cosθ   R   R  = d cosθ ε when ε<<1. For a positron. this charge configuration is just an electric dipole with dipole moment p = Qsphered = 4 πR 3ρd = 4 πR 3σ 0 3 3 The electric potential outside the spheres is just the dipole potential p⋅ r p V ( r) = = cosθ 3 4 πε0 r 4 πε0 r 2 so at the surface of the sphere 4 πR 3σ Rσ 0 Rρd Rσ 0 V ( r) = 3 cos = cos = cos = θ θ θ 3ε0 3ε0 3ε0 4 πε0 R 2 4) Does it (anti)matter? Conduction electrons are free to move. but the gravitational force is equal and in the same direction (according to General Relativity). but they don’t all fall out the bottom of the copper. So the surface where we have used the approximation that 1 + ε ≅ 1 + 1 2 charge density is σ = ρ d cosθ = σ 0cosθ and the electric field strength inside the (overlapped) sphere is σ √ ∴E = 0 x 3ε0 ii) Outside the spheres.

6m/s/s straight down. i.apositron = 2g =19.) 5) Refrigerator Art Playing around with two fridge magnets. like this not when I pull them like this Page 6 of 8 . .. Studying this effect more closely it is clear that what is happening is that they start to repel each other as I pull them and then they are attracted. and then gently pull them like this. and so on. and then repelled. clack. they make a “clack. This only happens when I pull them along their long axis. (g is the standard acceleration of gravity at the earth’s surface.e. . clack” sound. I noticed that if you stick them together like this (where the white area is the printed face and the dark area is the magnetic part). and each time they are attracted together they make a nice “clack!”.

). SN SN SN SN SN SN SN S since that us equivalent to this N S Page 7 of 8 . and 17 mm.) Looking from the side. The positions where the fridge magnets were attracted together were at 5. the domains are probably arranged like this (A) or less probably like this (B) It cannot be like this (C) N N SS NN SS NN SS NN SS N NSNSNS NSNSNS NSNS SNS NSNSNS NSNSNS N . 9. although all the ones I tried seemed similar. so the width of the domains is about 4 1/2 mm.This must mean that fridge magnet must consist of many magnetic domains (essentially little dipole magnets) whose North and South poles must be arranged like N S N S N S N S N (I can’t tell which is north and which is south. 13. (Your magnets may differ. but they must be alternating.

(assuming all domains are equal strength magnets) which would not give the correct “clack. To check that arrangement (A) is correct. They either attracted or repelled.g. e. I held the ends of the fridge magnets close to each other. Page 8 of 8 . clack behaviour. they did the opposite e.g.) These observations are not consistent with arrangement (B). in which case the force should not change direction. NSNSNS NSNSNS NSNS SNS NSNSNS NSNSNS N NSNSNS NSNSNS NSN SNS NSNSNS NSNSNS When I flipped them over. NSNSNS NSNSNS NSNS SNS NSNSNS NSNSNS N (This took some care to see since the forces are weak and the main observable affect is not the repulsion but the fact that the magnets tend to push to one side to try to align North to South poles.

ch/Public/.3m long and 1. This is because there are some large capacitors inside which are charged up to high voltages – a potentially lethal combination. If you have a circuit with a current flowing through a large inductor.cern.html http://public. (a) Estimate the magnetic field at the centre of the solenoid.2m in radius. If you don’t have one.web. ask your Physics Teacher or a friend. • Please be prompt with this problem set. Large inductors can be equally lethal but in a different way. 1 2 http://pdg.University of Toronto 2001-2002 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program Problem Set 6: Circuits and (a bit of) Modern Physics Due Monday 8 April 2002 • You need a multimeter or ohmmeter for the last problem. The solenoid is wrapped uniformly with about 1200 turns of superconducting wire which carry a current of 8000A. 1) Everyone has the capacity to learn the quadratic formula! Calculate the equivalent capacitance between points A and B of the following infinite circuit. “Where the Web was born!” Page 1 of 4 . A B Hint: If you got rid of the two left-most capacitors (one horizontal and one vertical). if all the capacitors are equal and of value C.lbl. I work on the ATLAS1 experiment at the CERN2 laboratory and we have a very large inductor.gov/atlas/atlas. if you try to turn it off by opening a switch there can be spectacular sparks generated by huge voltages across the switch. It is a superconducting solenoidal magnet 5. we will be selecting students for our exciting POPTOR training weekend right after the due date. what would the capacitance be of the remaining infinite chain? [Isamu] 2) I always resist getting a shock You may have noticed warnings on television sets or computer monitors not to mess about inside even if the power is unplugged.

… whatever. (a) What would be the energy difference (in electron volts) between the ground state and the first excited state of a hydrogen atom in the imaginary universe without electromagnetism? Assume the value of Planck’s and Newton’s constants (and all the other laws of physics except for electromagnetism) are the same in the imaginary universe as in our universe. bursting into flames.7×10−8Ω·m.) When I measure the resistance of the wire with a DC ohmmeter I discover it has infinite resistance so I decide it must have a hairline crack of width d (see figure. but there are no electromagnetic forces between them. neutron and the electron exist with exactly the same masses as in our universe. how long will it take for the voltage across the open switch to drop to a safe value of 8V? [David] 3) Cracked! After buying a new TV. but I seem to be doomed to never manage to get Fraggle Rock. not to scale). blowing up. the dielectric constant of rubber is κ=7. (I switched to satellite after dealing with that pesky balloon in Problem Set 4. d? Hints: Assume the sides of the crack are parallel and straight. Page 2 of 4 . The resistivity of copper is 1. Assume all resistances and capacitances other than the wire’s are negligible. so the only long range force is gravity. The reason the low frequency channels can’t get through is that d 10m the wire has an RC time constant of about 1/(500MHz)=2×10-9s. [David] 4) Gravity isn’t Bohring Some cosmologies allow the possibility that other universes exist in which the forces and constituents differ from our universe. Assume the proton.(b) When we talk about “how big” a resistor is. and that the crack is filled with rubber. What is the width of the crack. I then discover that I have trouble picking up any channel below Channel 19 (500MHz).) How big a resistor would you need to put in series with the solenoid so that if you had to switch the magnet off suddenly. I connect it to an satellite dish with a 10m long rubber coated copper wire. the voltage across the switch would not exceed 80V? (c) With the resistor in parallel. A hydrogen atom would still consist of an electron bound to a proton. but it would only be bound by gravity. we need to specify both its resistance (in Ohms) and its power rating (in Watts). (The power rating tells us how much power the resistor can dissipate continuously without melting. Imagine a universe in which there is no long range electromagnetic force.

and you have permission from the owner of the lamp. 60W.and power rating. any typical size (15W.) (a) Measure the resistance of the light bulb when it is at room temperature.(b) Assume the current size of the imaginary universe is about the same as ours (radius ~ 1010 light years). Can gravitationally bound hydrogen atoms exist in the imaginary universe? [David] 5) Resisting the light When a light bulb heats up. make sure that the lamp is turned off. 40W. ask your physics teacher for help if you don’t have one at home. e. does its electrical resistance go up or down? [David] Page 3 of 4 . 100W) will do. does its electrical resistance go up or down? Find an unbroken 120V incandescent light bulb. 25W.) (b) Calculate the resistance of the light bulb when it is turned on and hot under normal operating conditions.g. answer our original question: When a light bulb heats up.) (c) Assuming your measurement and calculation are accurate. unplugged. (Do not try to measure the resistance while the light bulb is plugged into a circuit! Just calculate the resistance from the bulb’s voltage – 120V . 60W. the bulb has cooled down before removing it. 75W. (Just use an ohmmeter or multimeter. (If you – temporarily – take a light bulb from a lamp.

854187817×10-12 F/m 4π×10-7 N/A2 (6.010)×10-11 m3/kg/s2 8.670400 ± 0.602176462 ± 0.67262158 ± 0.2 s µ0 h σ yr 3 4 http://physics.673±0.000000063)×10-19 C (510998.lbl.602176462 ± 0.80665 m/s2 (5.000040)×10-8 W/m2/K4 31556925.10938188 ± 0.6260755 ± 0.3806503 ± 0.html Page 4 of 4 .00000013)×10-27 kg (3.021) eV/c2 (9.846 ± 0.html http://pdg.gov/cuu/Constants/index.e.gov/2000/contents_sports.000004)×10-34 J·s (4.4 astronomical unit (mean earth-sun distance) atomic mass unit: (mass 12C atom)/12 Boltzmann constant elementary (i.nist.902 ± 0.000000063)×10-19 J (6.0000024)×10-23 J/K (1.00000013)×10-27 kg (1.008)×1026W 299 792 458 m/s 9.POPBits™ – Possibly useful bits of information Constants and units3.13566727 ± 0.00000016)×10-15 eV·s me LÍ c g (938271998 ± 38) eV/c2 (1.66053873± 0.00000072)×10-31 kg (1. electron) charge electron (or positron) mass electron volt (eV) Newtonian gravitational constant permittivity of free space permeability of free space Planck constant proton mass solar luminosity speed of light in vacuum standard acceleration of gravity at the earth’s surface Stephan-Boltzmann radiation constant tropical year (2001) Great excuses for a party Most famous physics class demonstration ever (Oersted discovers that electric currents generate magnetic fields) April 1820 au u k e me eV GN ε0 149597870660±20 m (1.

but when the solenoid is switched off. (b) Since the resistance is in parallel.3m So the magnetic field will be about 2 Tesla.2001-2002 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program – University of Toronto – Solution Set 6: Electronics and Modern Physics 1) Everyone has the capacity to learn the quadratic formula! Since this is an infinite chain. no current flows in it as long as current can flow throught the superconducting (and hence zero resistance) solenoid. and the maximum voltage is just the initial voltage: Vmax = I 0 R and the required resistance is V 80V R = max = = 0.3T L A 5. The initial current is just the current originally flowing through the solenoid. removing the two leftmost capacitors still leaves the same chain with the same total capacitance CAB.01Ω I0 8000 A Page 1 of 4 . so 5 −1 C AB = C 2 ∴ C AB = 2) I always resist getting a shock (a) We can estimate the magnetic field using the formula for an infinitely long solenoid: B = µ0 nI N N 1200 ∴ B ≈ µ0 I = 4 π × 10-7 2 8000 A = 2. A C B From this we see that we must have 1 1 1 = + C AB C C + C AB C CAB ∴ C (C + C AB ) = C AB (C + C AB + C ) 2 ∴ C AB + C AB C − C 2 = 0 −C ± C 2 + 4 C 2 −1 ± 5 =C 2 2 We can’t have a negative capacitance. all the current flows through the resistor and the voltage across the resistor is the voltage across the switch.

so what we need is a 0.64 MW To be safe we should round up the size. The RC time constant is 1 http://www.01Ω)5. τ=L/R. about 6 minutes. ρ.e.2 m) C 2 (0. (c) The resistor and the solenoid form an LR circuit with an exponential time constant. Since they are part of the same wire. A. all in series. The inductance per unit length for an infinite solenoid is L = µ0 n 2 × Area l so the inductance of the solenoid is approximately L = µ0 N2 l2 ( ) πr 2 l = πµ0 N 2r2 l and the time constant is τ= L N 2r2 = πµ0 R Rl kg ⋅ m 1200 2 (1. and cross-sectional area. so to drop to one tenth of the original voltage will take τ 1 = τ ln10 = (154 s)2.ca/en/ Page 2 of 4 . The resistances of the two pieces of wire are L R1 = ρ 1 A And the total resistance is L R2 = ρ 2 A L + L2 L R = R1 + R2 = ρ 1 =ρ A A where L=10m is the total length of the wire.The peak power dissipated is P = I 0Vmax = 8000 A × 80V = 0.radioshack.01Ω.3 = 356 s 10 i. are the same. 3) Cracked! The broken wire is equivalent to two resistances and the crack is a dielectric filled parallel plate capacitor. their resistivity.3m 2 = 4 π 2 × 10−7 = 154 s The current decay is exponential. This is not something you find at your local Radio Shack1. 1MW resistor. The capacitance of the crack is C = κε 0 A d where d is the width of the crack and κ is the dielectric constant.

26 × 10−77 eV n2 The energy difference between the ground (n=1) and first excited state (n=2) is 1 1 ∆E = −2.… 2π Using a simple Bohr atomic model for our gravitational hydrogen atom.7 × 10-8 Ω ⋅ m = 5 × 10-9 m = 5nm 4) Gravity isn’t Bohring (a) The energy levels of an atom are determined by the quantization condition that orbital angular momentum is quantized in units of Planck’s constant over 2π. the attractive gravitational force must balance the centripetal force.e.2eV). 2.854 × 10-8 F / m ⋅ 1. 3. h Ln = mev n rn = n = nh n = 1. i.6 × 10−79 eV  2 − 2  = 2 × 10−78 eV 2 1  This is 79 orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding energy in our universe (10. Page 3 of 4 .L A L τ = RC = ρ κε 0 = κε 0 ρ A d d So the crack width is d = κε 0 ρ L τ 10 m 2 × 10-9 s = 7 ⋅ 8. i.e. 2 mem p mev n GN = 2 rn rn Using our quantization condition and solving this gives rn = n 2 h2 2 GN me mp The total (potential+kinetic) energy of the electron is thus mem p 2 En = 1 m v − G e n N 2 rn mem p mem p =1 G − G N N 2 rn rn =−1 G2 2 N = 3 m2 p me n 2 h2 −0.

(b) The smallest radius of a gravitationally bound hydrogen atom is that of its n=1 ground state r1 = h2 2 GN me mp = 1. the measured resistance was about 85±1 ohms. (b) The resistance of the bulb when operating should be R=V2/Power=(120V)2/W=960 ohms. so the the resistance of the filament must increase with temperature.2 × 1013 light years This is 3 orders of magnitude large than the universe. Page 4 of 4 .2 × 10 29 m = 1. (c) The operating resistance is an order of magnitude higher than the measured room temperature resistance. so a gravitationally bound hydrogen atom cannot exist in the imaginary universe. 5) Resisting the light (a) I used a 15W bulb.

They indicate that the expected answer is not exact because either the input data is not precisely known or approximations or simplifying assumptions are necessary. but you should recognize what you need to know so you can look it up.jyu. You do not have to know the syllabus by heart to do the problems. please make sure your reasoning and analysis are clear.html. Much of real physics is learning how to turn insoluble exact problems into soluble approximations. look at the Physics Olympiad syllabus at http://www. AM remains fixed at his position. • Don’t forget to look at the information given in the POPBits™ section at the end of the problem set. It sometimes has information helpful or necessary for particular problems. Two Alberts AE must throw a ball so that it reaches AM after hitting the ground one time. (b) Is there more than one way for AE to throw the ball so that it hits the ground only once before arriving at AM? AE 10 AM 5 5 5 5 Page 1 of 2 . nothing gained. • Pay attention to words like “estimate” or “about”. Your basic ideas may be right even if you make a mistake or get stuck. 1.” Whether you finish a problem or not. • If you want to know what kind of physics you might need to solve these problems. (a) What should AE do to achieve the above? Ignore air resistance. we can only give you zero.fi/ipho/syllabus. The distances shown in the diagram are in metres.2002-2003 Physics Olympiad Preparation Program – University of Toronto – Problem Set 1: General Due 28 October 2002 Here are a few comments before starting your first problem set. • “Nothing ventured. If you write down nothing.

how bright are the bulbs A. B. 4. The Stefan-Boltzmann law is J=eσΤ4.2 Stefan-Boltzmann radiation constant Mean Sun-Venus distance Temperature of the Sun Radius of the Sun σ RSV TS RS (5.96×105 km 1 2 http://physics. where A is the constant amplitude. but do not touch the can. Temperature of the planet Venus All objects emit radiation.000040)×10-8 W/m2/K4 1. ν is the frequency. The energy flux density J of this radiation is the energy emitted per unit time and per unit area. what happens to the brightness of the remaining bulbs? You can try this question experimentally and/or theoretically. and E relative to one another? The bulbs are identical. speculate on why this is the case.nist.lbl. If bulb A is removed from the circuit.2.gov/cuu/Constants/index. 3. 5.html Page 2 of 2 . C. where e=1 for a perfect radiator. what happens to the brightness of B. A battery D E B C POPBits™ – Possibly useful bits of information Constants and units1. D. D. but without hitting the can? Describe the charged object you used in this experiment. why does it do so? Can you halt the can’s motion by using the charged object. Assume that Venus and the Sun are perfect radiators.670400±0.html http://pdg. Can the can roll? Rest an empty aluminum pop can on its side and on a table. If your calculated T is different from the measured temperature of Venus of about 700 Kelvin. Bring a charged object close to the can. What is the equilibrium temperature of the planet Venus? Assume that the only radiation incident on Venus is from the Sun. Can you get the can to roll? If it does start to roll. Circuits When the following circuit is connected. σ is a constant. C. and T is the temperature of the object. and φ is a phase factor that might vary randomly in time for each instrument. and E? If bulb A is replaced by two new bulbs. Two violins How much louder are two violins compared to one violin? Suppose that each violin produces a single pitch (frequency) wave f(t)=Asin(2πνt+φ).08×108 km 5800 K 6.gov/2000/contents_sports. You will need to consider several cases.

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